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Современный кризис Российской экономики

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Nia?aiaiiue e?ecen ?inneeneie yeiiiieee

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Enoi?e/aneea ?aiee i?iaeaiu

3. E aii?ino i oai?ee

4. I?ia?aiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa A.Aaeaea?a

5. I?ia?aiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa A. *a?iiiu?aeeia

6. Auaiaeu

Aaaaeaiea

A iineaaeiea aiaeu ?inney ia?aaeeaaao iaeei ec naiuo ae?aiaoe/aneeo
ia?eiaeia naiae enoi?ee. ?ooioe oioaeeoa?eci — eiiioienoe/aneee ?aaeei.
Aaee/aeoay ec eiaaea-eeai nicaeaiiuo eiia?ee Niaaoneee Nithc — aeaaiue
i?iaeoeo yoiai ?aaeeia — ?aniaeny ia 15 iacaaeneiuo ainoaea?noa. Nioea n
enoi?e/aneie a?aiu Eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey Niaaoneiai Nithca,
iauaaeeiyaoay a naaa ana ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ai eiy iiaeaea?aeaiey
aeanoe iaaeaeaiiiai aeinaea ia?oeeiiai, oicyenoaaiiiai e
eaeaieiae/aneiai aiia?aoa ai aeaaa n ai?noeie ethaeae, iaeaaeaaoeo
ia?iiiie, ana i?iieeathuae e aaneiio?ieueiie aeanoueth iaae ia?iaeii.

En/a?iaea naay, aeieacaa naith iieioth iayooaeoeaiinoue,
eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay nioeeaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieea, iniiaaiiay ia
ia ?aaeueiie iioeaaoeee o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, a nei?aa ia
eaeaieiae/aneeo e iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo e?eoa?eyo, auaeaaaaiuo aiia?aoii
ca aaeeeoth oeaeue anae iaoeee. Caiaaeeaiea oaiiia ?inoa e e?ecen oaeie
yeiiiieee auee iaecaaaeiuie. N eiioea 70-o aiaeia ia/aeny niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa, o. a. ?aaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen.

Yoa yeiiiieea i?iecaiaeeea ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiuo,
ieceiea/anoaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia ia aeaaioneeo ii ?acia?ai i?aaei?eyoeyo e
ieaoeea anai ?aaioieeai ca?aaioioth ieaoo ia o?aaieoaeueiie iniiaa
iacaaeneii io ?acoeueoaoia o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oaeii ea/anoaa
iia ono?aeaaea ia?iiiua iannu ethaeae, ia ciaeiiuo n ?aaeueiie
eoeueoo?ie o?oaea e aai iioeaaoeeae.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi ooiae noieue iiao/eo nee ii?iaeee ia oieueei aaeooi, ii
e iiuiua, /anoi neaiua oeaio?iaaaeiua naia?aoenoneea neeu, niiniaiua
?acaaeeoue e naio ?inneth. Eiaiii a yoeo oneiaeyo a no?aia ia/aeenue
?aaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu eae aeaaiay aa?aioey oaeaeaiey io
eiiioienoe/aneiai i?ioeiai, ia?aoiaea io oioaeeoa?ecia e aeaiie?aoee, io
eaca?iaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoia e aeioiaeia e ?aaeueiie ?uii/iie
e aeaiaaeiie nenoaia.

?aaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a ?innee ia/aeenue a yiaa?a 1992 a. n
inaiaiaeaeaieai io ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey aieueoeinoaa ?icie/iuo e
iioiauo oeai, nii?iaiaeaeaeenue iaecaaaeiui iaaeaieai aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy
ianaeaiey, oneeaieai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena e aucaaee o iiiaeo iiia/aeo
aia/aoeaiea oiea. E iineieueeo yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu caiicaeaee e
i?iaiaeeeenue a oneiaeyo caiaoii i?iaeaeioaoaeny iieeoe/aneie
yiaineiaoeee e aeaiie?aoecaoeee iauanoaa, aeaniinoe e iai?eau/iiai aeey
no?aiu ieth?aeecia iiaiee, noaiiaeaiey iiauo iieeoe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee e
ia?oee, iie aucaaee ia?iiiue ?aciiain a iauanoaa.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi a oaeeo oneiaeyo iaino?aiea iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau noaei
iaecaaaeiui. E niaeaeaieth, ii ?yaeo enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuo e
iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?e/ei iia i?eiyea iaoeeaeeeciaaiiua, aeano?oeoeaiua
oi?iu. A 1992—1993 aa. ia?aciaaeinue aeaiaaeanoea, i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae aue ia?ooai, aiciee aeie eiina?aaoeaiuo, eiiioienoe/aneeo e
?aaaioenoneeo nee, eioi?ue i?eaae e e?iaaaiio ioo/o a ieoya?a 1993 a.
I?aaiecaoi?u ioo/a ono?ieee e?iaaaua iiaieua ia oeeoeao Iineau, /oi e
i?eaaei e ?anno?aeo ia?eaiaioa.

Oaia?ue oaea ynii, /oi yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a ?innee eaeoo iaiiiai
neiaeiaa e i?ioeai?a/eaaa, /ai a iino eiiioienoe/aneeo no?aiao OeAA e
Aaeoee. Ia/aei ?aoi?i niaiaei n ?acaaeii NNN? e NYA (Niaao Yeiiiie/aneie
Acaeiiiiiiue), oneeeaoeieny aeaceioaa?aoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie a naiie
?innee, eeeaeaeaoeeae noaiiaiai o?aaoa auaoae niaaoneie eiia?ee — EINN,
?aceei oooaeoaieai yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey a no?aia e eiioeo 1991 a. A
yoeo oneiaeyo ?aoi?iu a ?innee iiaee inouanoaeyoueny eeoue
?aaeeeaeueiui, a ia iinoaiaiiui iooai. Auaoay ia?oeeii-oicyenoaaiiay
iiiaieeaoo?a e neeu enoeiiuo i?eaa?aeaioeaa aioe?uii/iie
ia?enenonei-eaieineie eaeaieiaee auee aeaii?aeeciaaiu, eia/a au iie ia
iicaieeee iinoaaeoue iiae niiiaiea “oeaiiinoe” “?aaeueiiai nioeeaeecia”,
nicaeaaaaoaainy a no?aia aieaa 70 eao.

Ia?aoiae io naa?o oeaio?aeeciaaiiie eiiaiaeiie e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea a
?inneeneeo ianooaaao enoi?e/anee aani?aoeaaeaioai e e?aeia neiaeai. Ii
naiae nooe ii aeieaeai auoue iieiui, iineaaeiaaoaeueiui e ioaaouaaoue ia
oieueei iae?i- , ii e iee?i o?iaie anae yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu. Caeanue
iaiaoiaeeia ?aoeoaeueiay iieeoe/aneay aiey e ?uii/iui i?aia?aciaaieyi,
oe?ieia e oaa?aeia eiaeeeaoeaiia ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea a
eioa?anao yoeo i?aia?aciaaiee e niioaaonoaothuay iiiiuue Caiaaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /anoi aiai?yo i aioo?aiieo o?oaeiinoyo e oyaeaeii
ianeaaenoaa, oi?iicyueo oiae yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a ?innee, caauaay i
aeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ao. E eo /eneo ioiinyony: ia?iiiue ?ano?niue,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo iioaioeeae no?aiu, ia?aciaaiiia
ianaeaiea, iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu Caiaaea, a oaeaea oi, /oi a i?ioeanna
?uii/iiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey naiae yeiiiieee ?inney oaea niaieea ianeieueei
eiiaiae ?aoi?iaoi?ia, iaaethaeay eo ioeaee, e eaeao aneaae ca no?aiaie
OeAA, Aaeoeae e Eeoaai, o/anue ia eo ioeaeao oiaea.

Enoi?e/aneea ?aiee i?iaeaiu

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi n enoi?e/aneie oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a
iaoae no?aia a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae iieacii ?anniao?eaaoue eae a
oe?ieii, oae e a oceii niunea. A oe?ieii niunea yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a
auaoai Niaaoneii Nithca eiatho aeieaoth enoi?eth. Aeaaea anee inoaaeoue
a noi?iia iyi, aaaaeaiiue a 1921 a., n?aco aea iinea nia?oe Noaeeia a
no?aia caaiai?eee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeaeaiey aieueoaai aieiaiey ee/iiio
iio?aaeaieth, ia?aniio?o ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo i?iii?oeee a iieueco
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey, iiaeuaio naeueneiai oicyenoaa e
niya/aieth aeanoeinoe aee?aeoeaiiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey. A
yoii ioiioaiee oa?aeoa?iu naioya?ueneee Ieaioi OeE ia?oee (1953a.) e
?aoi?iu io?aneaaiai oi?aaeaiey (1957 a.), eiaaea auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu
ii/oe ana io?aneaaua ieienoa?noaa e nicaeaiu 104 oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aaia
oi?aaeaiey — niaia?oicu. Yoi auea iiiuoea eae-oi nei??aeoe?iaaoue ?aaioo
aeanoeiai eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai, naa?o oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie, nicaeaiiiai a 30-o aiaeao.

Ana yoi ia aeaei iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia, ii ia/aaoeany iiiuoee ?aoi?i
ii?iaeeee oe?ieea aeeneonnee ii yeiiiie/aneei aii?inai a ia?aie iieiaeia
60-o aiaeia, i?eaaaeoea e aieaa i?iaeaeiooie oicyenoaaiiie ?aoi?ia 1965
a. (iacuaaaiie einuaeineie). A niioaaonoaee n iath auee ainnicaeaiu
io?aneaaua ieienoa?noaa, nie?auaii /enei iaycaoaeueiuo ieaiiauo
iieacaoaeae, i?iecioee eciaiaiey a nenoaia oeaiiia?aciaaiey, iiyaeeanue
iaaieueoay oeiainiaay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee, aaaaeaiu
iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia.

?aoi?ia 1965 a. ieacaea aeaaii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea niaaoneie
yeiiiieee, i?eaaea e onei?aieth oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa ia ei?ioeee
n?ie. Ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, i?iecaaaeaiiue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae a
1966—1970 aa. aic?anoae a n?aaeiai ca aiae ia 7,8%; i?iaeoeoeey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe — ia 8,5; i?iaeoeoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa — ia 4,4.
(Aeey n?aaiaiey: a i?aaeuaeouai iyoeeaoee, a 1961—1965 aa.,
i?iecaaaeaiiue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae aic?anoae a n?aaeiai ia 6,5%;
i?iaeoeoeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe — ia 8,6; i?iaeoeoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa—
ia 2,3).

Yooaeo yoie ?aoi?iu aue iaaeieaei, e oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a
neaaeothuai iyoeeaoee caiaoii nieceeenue. Iie ninoaaeee a 1971—1975 aa.
ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio aeioiaeo — 5,7; i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe — 7,4;
i?iaeoeoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa — 0,8% a aiae.

A ethea 1979 a. auei i?eiyoi niaianoiia iinoaiiaeaiea OeE EINN e Niaaoa
Ieieno?ia NNN? ia oeo/oaiee ieaie?iaaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaiee
yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
ea/anoaa ?aaiou. Aai iiaeii iiieiaoue eae iiaoth iiiuoeo ?aoi?i, oioy e
iaiaa ?aoeoaeueioth e aaaeioth, /ai a 1965 a. Aeaaiua oeaee yoiai
iinoaiiaeaiey caeeth/aeenue a oneeaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe anao caaiueaa
oi?aaeaiey, iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee iooai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi aieueoae oeiainiaie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, oneeaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey aeey
auiieiaiey ieaia iin?aaenoaii aieaa oaniie oaycee iieaou n ?acoeueoaoaie
o?oaea, oaaee/aiey aeiee i?eauee, inoathuaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoee, eniieueciaaiey cia/eoaeueiie aa /anoe a ea/anoaa
iiiu?eoaeueiuo oiiaeia, caiaiu iiiaeanoaa iaycaoaeueiuo ieaiiauo
iieacaoaeae o?aiy — i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea, ea/anoaii
i?iaeoeoeee e noaiaiueth auiieiaiey ieaiiauo iinoaaie.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi, iuouay iieioth iayooaeoeaiinoue e aania?niaeoeaiinoue
ieaiiaie, eiiaiaeiie, ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie yeiiiieee, ?oeiaiaeeoaee
auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca ia noaaeee i?yii aii?in ia ioeaca io
ieaie?iaaiey, i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eaioaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia ni?in. Iie
cao?aaeaaee aii?in eeoue i /anoe/iii, aeice?iaaiiii e iiae iaonuiiui eo
eiio?ieai aaaaeaiee iaeioi?uo yeaiaioia ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a ieaiiaoth.
Eiaiii oiaaea ?acaa?ioeanue eioa?aniay aeeneonney iaaeaeo “?uii/ieeaie”
e “aioe?uii/ieeaie” a oneiaeyo nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee. Ia ioeaca io
nioeeaeecia i?aeoe/anee ieeoi e ia iiiuoeye.

A ia?aie iieiaeia 80-o aiaeia auee aaaaeaiu iiaua i?aaeea a i?aeoeeo
oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Iie aeeth/aee:

— oneeaiea aaieianeiai eiio?iey iaae oeiainaie;

— aieaa ?aaeenoe/ioth i?ioeaioioth noaaeo;

— aeoeaio ia eniieueciaaiea aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa aianoi athaeaeaoiuo
noaneaeee;

— ?anoe?aiea i?aa ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe a eniieueciaaiee caiee,
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a i?iecaiaenoaa iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, a caueoa
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a i?iaaaeaiee no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio e o. ae.

Iaeiaei ?aaeueiiai ia?aoiaea e ?uieo ia auei. Io?aneaaua ieienoa?noaa e
Ainieai i?iaeieaeaee aea?aeaoue i?aaei?eyoey a aeanoeeo ?oeao
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai iiae/eiaiey e aee?aeoeaiuo ieaiiauo caaeaiee.
Yeiiiieea ?aaioaea ia ia ?aaeueiue ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in, a ia
caaeaiiua “naa?oo” iieacaoaee, e iiyoiio aaeaaiaeii i?iecaiaeeeinue
ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iaioaeiie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay /anoe/ii
oie/oiaeaeanue.

A eiioea 70-o — ia/aea 80-o aiaeia o ?innee auea aiciiaeiinoue iieoe ii
iooe Eeoay e, ia/aa n naeueneiai oicyenoaa, aeaaea a ?aieao
nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu, i?iaiaeeoue e?oiiua e aieaa eiiieaeniua
?uii/iua ?aoi?iu. Oiaaea iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a no?aia, ii?yaeie e
aeenoeeieeia auee iaiiiai eo/oa, /ai a 90-o aiaeao. Ii i?anoa?aeua
niaaoneea ?oeiaiaeeoaee ia auee noieue aeaeueiiaeaeiuie, eae eeoaeneea,
e aua?aee iooue iaeeeo e /anoe/iuo iiiuoie ?aoi?i, eioi?ua ia niiaee
eciaieoue o?aaeeoeeiiiue yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci, oae eae ia cao?aaeaaee
aaciauo i?eioeeiia aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu. Eeoaeneea
?oeiaiaeeoaee oaeea i?eioeeiu cao?iioee, ii no?iai ioai?iaeeee
?aoi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu eiie?aoiuie ?aeiiaie e io?aneyie i?e
nio?aiaiee eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu.

E oiio aea yeiiiie/aneia niaea?aeaiea yoeo ?aoi?i a auaoai NNN? iineei
ia noieueei iieiaei/aoue, neieueei einiaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Aeaeeiinoue
i?aiaeaaeaea iaae nouiinoueth. Aieaa oiai, aanue aiia?ao
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu aue nio?aiai, a ii nii?ioeaeyeny
aeaaea neaaui iiiuoeai /oi-eeai eciaieoue a
eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie yeiiiieea.

Oai ia iaiaa, ecaanoiue niaaoneee aeeieiiao I. O?iyiianeee a naieo
ainiiieiaieyo auniei ioeaieaaao aeayoaeueiinoue A. I. Einuaeia, iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii eioi?iai i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
niaaoneie yeiiiieee a 1965 e 1979 aa. Ii ieoao: “Anee au Einuaei, a ia
A?aaeiaa noae ia?aui /aeiaaeii a ainoaea?noaa, oi no?aia iiaea au iieoe
ii iooe ?aoi?i, i?e/ai ?aoi?i i?iaeoiaiiuo e oi?ioi iainiiaaiiuo”.

Ii iaeaieaa aaaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a auaoai Niaaoneii Nithca
eiaee ianoi ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 80-o aiaeia i?e I. N. Ai?aa/aaa. Oioy iie
i?iaiaeeeenue ana a oao aea ?aieao “?uii/iiai nioeeaeecia”, e ana aea ii
n?aaiaieth ni anaie i?aaeuaeoueie iiiuoeaie auee iaeaieaa i?iaeaeioouie
e aeaeaei eaeoueie. Iaeiaei ai?aa/aaneee ia?eiae ioee/aaony, i?aaeaea
anaai, ia yeiiiie/aneeie, a iieeoe/aneeie ?aoi?iaie, eioi?ua
?anniao?eaaeenue eae aaca aeey ia?auo.

Ai?aa/aa na?ueacii iiaei?aae niaaoneoth oioaeeoa?ioth nenoaio,
anaiauaiethuoth aeanoue iaeiie ia?oee — EINN, ioeoeeaeueioth
ainoaea?noaaiioth eaeaieiaeth — ia?eneci-eaieieci, auaeaaaaoothny
ioeoeeaeueiie i?iiaaaiaeie ca iaoeo anao iaoe, naeaeae ?aoathuea oaae a
iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey aeaniinoe, iiaeeeiiie aeaiie?aoee, aeae
aiciiaeiinoue niaoeeaeenoai iieacaoue anth ii?i/iinoue e
aania?niaeoeaiinoue nio?aiaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiie
ieaiiai-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu.

*oi eanaaony yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i Ai?aa/aaa, oi caeanue iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue neaaeothuea yeaiaiou.

A oaa?aea 1986 a. XXVII nuacae EINN i?ecaae e ia?ano?ieea anae nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey a noa?a yeiiiieee.

Yeaiaioaie yoie ?aoi?iu yaeyeenue:

— nin?aaeioi/aiea Ainieaia NNN? ia no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeyo e caaea/ao
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey;

— o?ainoi?iaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e annioeeaoeee a aeaeea,
naii oeiaine?othueany i?aaiecaoeee ia aaca oae iacuaaaiiai iieiiai
oic?an/aoa;

— oii? a oi?aaeaiee ia yeiiiie/aneea ?u/aae e noeioeu;

— ia?ano?ieea nenoai niaaaeaiey, oeaiiia?aciaaiey, oeiainia e e?aaeeoa.

Nuacae iiaeaea?aeae ?acaeoea eiiia?aoeaiie e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe a
no?aia.

A iiya?a 1986 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie (/anoiie)
aeayoaeueiinoe. A iai ioia/aeenue 29 oi?i eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeiiaoe-oi iaoeinue ianoi e aeey /anoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. A ethia 1987 a. i?eiyo Caeii i ainoaea?noaaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee (annioeeaoeee). A 25-oe noaoueyo Caeiia eceiaeaiu i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Aeaaiia — eo oeiainiaay
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?iecaiaenoai, ?aaeecaoeeth
naiae i?iaeoeoeee e eniieueciaaiea iieo/aiiiai aeioiaea. Niaoeeaeueii
iiae/a?eeaaeanue ?ieue eiieo?aioeee, iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaie?ionoa
ianinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iiae/eiaiiinoue oeacaieyi
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia. Acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuie
i?aaei?eyoeyie e ieienoa?noaaie ii?aaeaeyeenue a yoii Caeiia ii
neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi: i?eaioaoeey ia iieacaoaee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ieaia (oaia?ue oaea iaiaycaoaeueiua), ainoaea?noaaiiua caeacu,
noaaeeueiua aeieain?i/iua ii?iaoeau e eeieou (eiyooeoeeaiou eaieoaei- e
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e o. ae.). Iiieii yoiai i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu auee
caeeth/aoue iaaeaeo niaie aeiaiai?u a oeaeyo eo/oaai auiieiaiey ieaiia e
iaiaia i?iecaaaeaiiie naa?o ieaia i?iaeoeoeeae.

A ethia 1988 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii i eiiia?aoeaao. Ii ii?aaeaeee
yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e i?aaiaua oneiaey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eiiia?aoeaia. Ii Caeiio eiiia?aoeau — iacaaeneiua
i?aaiecaoeee a?aaeaeai, iauaaeeieaoeany aeey inouanoaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie
e ae?oaeo aeaeia niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia aaca i?eiaaeeaaeauae ei
eee a?aiaeoaiie o ainoaea?noaa nianoaaiiinoe. A niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii
eiiia?aoeau yaeythony yeiiiie/anee iacaaeneiuie, naiioi?aaeythueieny e
naii oeiaine?othueieny i?aaiecaoeeyie. Aeey eo nicaeaiey o?aaoaony anaai
eeoue niaeanea ianoiiai i?aaia aeanoe.

A oii aea aiaeo aue i?eiyo Caeii i ainoaea?noaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui i?aaei?eyoey iieo/eee cia/eoaeueioth naiaiaeo e
i?aaa a ?anii?yaeaiee naieie aeioiaeaie, iieneao iinoaaueeia nu?uey e
iieoiaoaeae aic?inoae /anoe naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Eiioeaioeey “iieiiai”
oic?an/aoa a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai nioeeaeecia iieo/eea, iaeiiaoe, naia
iaeaieaa oe?ieia aiieiuaiea, /oi ia auei naeaeaii a 1965 e 1979 aa.

Yoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou na?ueacii iiaei?aaee oeaio?aeeciaaiioth
ieaiiaoth nenoaio, ii e ia noaee ?aaeueiui oaaii ia iooe e ?uieo. ?aaeee
ieacaeenue aeaeaeeie io iaia?aiee. I?aaei?eyoey, iieo/ea
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, ana naie aeioiaeu ia?aoeee ia i?e?ino ca?aaioiie
ieaou, a ia ia eiaanoeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea a
no?aia ia oeo/oaeinue, niaae i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeieaeaeny, eioeyoeey
iieo/eea aeiiieieoaeueiue eiioeuen, aeanoaaeeecaoeey iauanoaaiiie aeecie
e yeiiiieee oneeeeanue. Ia?oeeiay iiiaieeaoo?a ?aneieieanue ia aeaa
/anoe: iaeia o?aaiaaea aica?aoa e noa?ie aeenoeeieeia, aeanoeiio
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiio ieaie?iaaieth, ae?oaay aunooiaea ca i?iaeieaeaiea
?aoi?i ia aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiie iniiaa. A ia/aea 1990 a. auei i?eiyoi
?aoaiea i i?iaaaeaiee ?aoi?iu ia?oee e eiinoeoooeeiiiie ?aoi?iu, ii
i?aeoe/anee a yoii iai?aaeaiee ie/aai ia auei naeaeaii.

A 1989—1990 aa. auea aaaaeaia i?ia?aiia ?aaoee?oaiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee
?uaeeiaa—Aaaeeeia, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia nicaeaiea “nioeeaeenoe/aneiai”
?uiea a ?aieao “nioeeaeenoe/aneiai auai?a” i?e nio?aiaiee
eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a
yeiiiieeo a oneiaeyo oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey.

Iniiaiua /a?ou i?ia?aiiu ?aaoee?oaiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee:

— ?aciiia?acea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, eo ?aaainoai ia?aae caeiiii,
iiiu?aiea eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo ieie;

— eniieueciaaiea ?uiea eae aeaaiiai eino?oiaioa eii?aeeiaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaeae, ?acaeoea ia oieueei ?uiea oiaa?ia e
oneoa, ii e ?uieia o?oaea e eaieoaea;

— iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa iin?aaenoaii
yeiiiie/aneeo ?u/aaia e noeioeia, eiaeeeaoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey;

— iieaoa o?oaea no?iai a niioaaonoaee n ?aaeueiuie ?acoeueoaoaie.

Aoi?ie nuacae ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia NNN? i?eiye yoo i?ia?aiio a eiioea
1989 a. Aa i?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey i?aaeoniao?eaaea aeaa noaaeee: a
1990—1992 aa. eeeaeaee?iaaoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo,
ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea, i?iaanoe iaeiaiaoth
?aoi?io e ?aoi?io oeaiiia?aciaaiey; a 1993—1995 aa. nicaeaoue ?uiie a
oneiaeyo nio?aiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia, eciaieoue no?oeoo?o
nianoaaiiinoe.

Oioy i?ia?aiia ?uaeeiaa—Aaaeeeia auea aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiie, /ai
?aoi?iaoi?neea iiiuoee a 1987 e 1988 aa., oai ia iaiaa iia oiaea
enoiaeeea ec aeaeaiey oeo/oeoue, ia?ano?ieoue nioeeaeeci; a?
i?aaenoaaeoaee ia iiieiaee, /oi nioeeaeeci a i?eioeeia ia?ano?aeaaoue
aanniuneaiii, oae eae ii i?aaie/anee aianoa n eaaeauae a aai iniiaa
eaeaieiaeae ia aienuaaaony a ?aiee yooaeoeaiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Ii ioeaiea Aa?iiaeneie yeiiiie/aneie eiiennee III (AYE), ?aoi?iu
Ai?aa/aaa noaee iyoie ii n/aoo iiiuoeie a iineaaiaiiua aiaeu
?aoi?ie?iaaoue niaaoneoth yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio, e iia a i/a?aaeiie ?ac
i?iaaeeeanue. O Ai?aa/aaa oiaea auea enoi?e/aneay aiciiaeiinoue
inouanoaeoue iinoaiaiiue ia?aoiae e ?uieo: nia/aea ii-eeoaenee, o. a. ii
iooe nicaeaiey aeaoonaeoi?iie yeiiiieee n iinoaiaiiui auoaniaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a ca n/ao aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathuaainy /anoiiai, a
caoai ii iooe eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo e?aaeeoia a oeaeyo niya/aiey
nioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee ?aaeueiuo ?uii/iuo e nenoaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee
a no?aia.

Iaeiaei iaa i?aaeeiaeaiey, aeaaaaoeany ?aciuie niaoeeaeenoaie, auee
i?ieaii?e?iaaiu: Ai?aa/aa, i?iaiaey aaaeiua aeaiie?aoe/aneea
i?aia?aciaaiey e iieeoe/aneoth ia?ano?ieeo, i?aeoe/anee ia inouanoaeye
ieeaeie na?ueaciie yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu e, aieaa oiai, i?eioeeieaeueii
aunooiae i?ioea i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Naiie ?aiiae i?ia?aiiie ?aoi?i aeey I. N. Ai?aa/aaa auea i?ia?aiia,
i?aaeeiaeaiiay a 1987 a. I. I. Oiaeaaui a aai ecaanoiie ?aaioa “Aaainu e
aeieae”. Aaoi? i?aaeeiaeee ia/aoue ?aoi?iu n naeueneiai oicyenoaa, n
ianuuaiey iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea, n ?aaeueiiai ?acaeoey /anoiie
eieoeeaoeau a iaeeii e n?aaeiai aeciana, caiyoue ia Caiaaea 10—15 ie?ae.
aeiee. ia yoe oeaee. Yoi aue iyaeee, uaaeyuee aa?eaio ?aoi?iu, ii e aai
ia i?eiyee. Ia auea iiaeaea?aeaia e ciaiaieoay ?uii/iay i?ia?aiia “500
aeiae” N. Oaoaeeia e A. ssaeeineiai. E eiioeo naiaai i?aauaaiey o aeanoe
Ai?aa/aa i?aeoe/anee iieeioe noai aeaiie?aoia e noae iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
eiina?aaoi?ia, enioaaaoenue ei?aiiuo einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee
a no?aia.

I?iaiaey ia?ano?ieeo, Ai?aa/aa e ia iuneee aa eae aica?ao e eaieoaeecio.
Aai “iiaia iuoeaiea” aeoaei aie?oa niaa?oainoaiaaiey nioeeaeecia, aieaa
iieiiai eniieueciaaiey aai i?aeiouanoa, aeoeaecaoeee /aeiaa/aneiai
oaeoi?a eioi?ia ie/aai ?aaeueiiai ia aeaei. Yoi auea na?ueaciay
iieeoe/aneay e enoi?e/aneay ia?aie/aiiinoue, eioi?ay anei?a e
ii?aaeaeeea aai noaeueao.

Aieaa oiai, ai?aa/aaneay ia?ano?ieea, aeaaoay aaaeiua ieiaeu a aeaea
?anoaouaaiey oioaeeoa?iie niaaoneie nenoaiu, a i?iaaaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiuo
iieeoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, a noa?a yeiiiieee ieacaeanue naycaiiie n
a?oauie, ii?ie iai?inoeoaeueiuie i?in/aoaie, oaeeie eae:

—?aceia oaaee/aiea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, aeaiaaeiie yiennee,
i?eaaaeoea e

onei?aieth eioeyoeee;

—iai?iaeoiaiiay aioeaeeiaieueiay eaiiaiey, inouanoaeaiiay oeie/ii
aaeieieno?aoeaiuie iaoiaeaie e iaoneiaeaoay ?aceia nie?auaiea
aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa;

—eaiiaiey “onei?aiey” yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ia aaca IOI, iiaeaeoay ca
niaie oua?a iio?aaeoaeueneiio iioaioeeaeo ianaeaiey a ?acoeueoaoa
eneonnoaaiiiai iaaiaoaiey eiaanoeoeee a iaoeiino?iaiea;

—?aceia nie?auaiea cieioiai caiana no?aiu;

—/?acia?iia ia?aie/aiea eiiia?aoeaiie e eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

—iiauoaiea caeoii/iuo oeai ia naeueoici?iaeoeoeeth i?e oeene?iaaiee
?icie/iuo oeai ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea, /oi i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth aeioaoeee
e noaei iaeiie ec i?e/ei ?inoa athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa;

—?ani?ino?aiaiea oic?an/aoa ia ioaeaeueiua oa??eoi?ee, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai iineaaeiea ia?anoaee ieaoeoue iaeiae a iauaainoaea?noaaiioth eacio;

—anaiauee ia?aoiae ia aa?oa? e ia?aie/aiey ia auaic oiaa?ia n
ioaeaeueiuo oa??eoi?ee;

—?aceia oaaee/aiea caaeieaeaiiinoe no?aiu Caiaaeo.

Io?eoeaoaeueii iiaeeyee ia yeiiiieeo no?aiu a ai?aa/aaneea a?aiaia oaeea
oaeoi?u, eae iaaeaiea ie?iauo oeai ia iaooue, /a?iiaueueneay eaoano?ioa,
caieao?ynaiea a A?iaiee, caaanoiaee oaooa?ia, yoie/aneea eiioeeeou e
iaoeeiiaeueiue naia?aoeci.

Ii aeaaiia caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi nioeeaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieea e yoiio
a?aiaie naay oaea iieiinoueth ecaeeea, aeieacaa naith aaniethoioth
iayooaeoeaiinoue a ?acoeueoaoa ionoonoaey ?aaeueiie iioeaaoeee o?oaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe, ia?iiiiai ia?a?anoiaea anao aeaeia ?ano?nia a i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ia?aaeien a oii, /oi ia?eneci, n/eoay a oai?ee ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iioi?ii iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna, ia i?aeoeea
i?eaae e eo ?anoi/aieth, e?aeia iayooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth,
ia?aiaeiieaieth anao aeaeia ?ano?nia. Eaiue e eieoaoeey ?aaiou noaee
ii?iie niaaoneie o?oaeiaie “yoeee”. Caiaaeeaiea oaiiia ?inoa, ia/aaoaany
aua a eiioea 50-o aiaeia e ia?aoaaeoaa n na?aaeeiu 70-o aiaeia a niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa, o. a. a ?aaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, eioi?ue aue eeoue
oneeai ai?aa/aaneie ia?ano?ieeie, — caeiiiia?iue ?acoeueoao
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna a iaoae no?aia.

Noaeeineay iiaeaeue oicyenoaiaaiey, nicaeaiiay a auaoai Niaaoneii
Nithca, iiaea aeaaaoue /anoe/iue yooaeo eeoue ia ei?ioeea io?acee
a?aiaie, ii a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa, ia iinoiyiiie iniiaa iia auea
aaniethoii iayooaeoeaiie. Yoa iiaeaeue eciee?iaaea Niaaoneee Nithc io
ie?iaiai ?uiea, io IOI, iia naeaeaea ii/oe anth i?iecaiaeeioth ei
i?iaeoeoeeth iaea/anoaaiiie e iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiie, eco?iaeiaaea anth
no?oeoo?o “nioeeaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa”. A eiia/iii n/aoa, iia naay
en/a?iaea e i?iaaeeeanue.

Iaeiaei I. Ai?aa/aa ia iiiye oiai, /oi ?ac?ooaiea niaaoneie oioaeeoa?iie
iauanoaaiiie nenoaiu aeieaeii auoue ia?ac?uaii naycaii n
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie niaiie noaeeineie iiaeaee oicyenoaiaaiey. A ia?aua
aiaeu naiaai i?aaeaiey ii aaae ii ia?acoeo naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia,
?aoiaaaoeo ca i?aeiouanoaaiiue ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?ia?aiio “onei?aiey” ia aaca noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa
iaoeiino?iaiey. Eeoue iioii aeeciue canoaaeea aai naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua
oaae a noi?iio ?uiea. Ii aei naiuo naieo iineaaeieo aeiae a ea/anoaa
?oeiaiaeeoaey NNN? ii aue i?ioea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, i?ioea
eeeaeaeaoeee oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey, i?ioea caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu.

Eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay, aaeieieno?aoeaiay, oeaio?aeeciaaiii
ieaiiaay yeiiiieea NNN? ionoeea a no?aia aeoaieea ei?ie. Auee nicaeaiu
aeaaioneea i?iiuoeaiiua e naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey-iiiiiieenou, oaeea yeiiiie/aneea aeaaiou, eioi?ua
aienuaathony ia a ?uiie, a oieueei a iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai, a naii
iaania/eaathuaany i?iecaiaenoai. Ia auei ii?iaeueiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
eio?ano?oeoo?u, oae eae aeiaeaiey a iaa ia i?eiineee onei?aiey oaiiia,
ia nouanoaiaaei ie /anoiuo aaieia, ie e?aaeeoa. A oa/aiea iiiaeo
aeanyoeeaoee cai?auaeinue /anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, ana a?aei ia
naay ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia ia iiaei ni?aaeoueny n iaiineeueiuie aio
caaea/aie e ?aoaei eo ii-naiaio: ia yeiiiie/anee, a eaca?iaiii e
ath?ie?aoe/anee. ?oaeue ia aue eiiaa?oaaaeueiui, ii/oe any oi?aiaey
inouanoaeyeanue ii aaeieieno?aoeaiui, a ia ?uii/iui oeaiai, aeaaeaiea
oaa?aeie aaethoie cai?auaeinue.

Ana yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi ia?aoiae e ?uieo a ?innee aoaeao iaecaaaeii
aeieaei e aieaciaiiui. Iooiae io ?uiea iio?aaiaae ianeieueeeo iieieaiee,
iieiue ia?aoiae e iaio caeiao ia iaiueoa a?aiaie. Anoanoaaiii, /oi
iooiae io ieaiiaie nenoaiu iaecaaaeii aaa?aaao no?aio a ninoiyiea oaina,
aieaciaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee. Ii yoio ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae iaiaoiaeeii
i?ieoe, /oiau anoaoue ia iooue oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ?acaeoey, n eioi?iai
no?aia nioea ia aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue n?ie.

Ia?ano?ieea, iauyaeaiiay e i?aeoe/anee ia/aoay I. Ai?aa/aaui, auea
iiaeaioiaeaia iniciaieai eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie /anoueth ia?oeeiie
yeeou NNN? iayooaeoeaiinoe e a eiia/iii n/aoa enoi?e/aneie ia?a/aiiinoe
“?aaeueiiai nioeeaeecia”, nicaeaiiiai a NNN?, e aai yeiiiieee.
Iiiiceoeeiiiua iano?iaiey a e?oaao yoie yeeou noaee aeiaieueii oe?iei,
oioy e iaaeanii ?ani?ino?aiyoueny a no?aia aua ni a?aiai a?aaeiaaneiai
canoiy e aeiaieueii ii?aaeaeaiii au?aaeaoueny a aiaeu i?aaeaiey TH.
Aiae?iiiaa. Ia neo/aeii a yoi a?aiy ia naiii aa?oo iieeoe/aneie aeanoe a
no?aia ?anniao?eaaeenue aa?eaiou naiuo i?a/iuo i?iaiicia, aieioue aei
?acaaea iauanoaaiiie nenoaiu e ?aniaaea no?aiu. Ii nouanoao, i?eoiae I.
Ai?aa/aaa n aai ia?ano?ieeie a eaeie-oi ia?a aue iiaeaioiaeai TH.
Aiae?iiiaui.

A oceii niunea yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu ia/aeenue a ?innee, eeoue a 1992 a.
iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii A. Aeueoeeia e A. Aaeaea?a. Eiaiii yoe ?aoi?iu
neaaeoao n/eoaoue ?aaeueiuie, i?ecaaiiuie nicaeaoue ia ioaeaeueiua
yeaiaiou ?uiea a /oaeaeie aio n?aaea, a iiaeeeiiue ?uiie oiaa?ia e
oneoa, ?uiie eaieoaea e ?aai/ae neeu n i?enouei aio iaoaieciii
eiieo?aioeee, a oaeaea anoanoaaiioth caiaio oioaeeoa?iie iauanoaaiiie
nenoaiu oeeaeeeciaaiiie, aeaiie?aoe/aneie, ?uii/iie.

Iaeiaei e aeueoeeinei-aaeaea?ianeea yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu oaeaea auee
naycaiu n na?eae e?oiiuo ioeaie e i?in/aoia. Yoi e e?ecen ieaoaaeae, ia
eiiieaeniinoue e iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a i?iaaaeaiee ?aoi?i, neaaay
iiaeaea?aeea ca?iaeaeathuaainy i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e iiiaia ae?oaia.
Ii naiia aeaaiia, n /ai aue naycai ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae ?aoi?i, yoi,
eiia/ii, iieeoe/aneia i?ioeainoiyiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie
aaoaae aeanoe, eioi?ia ia aeaei aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeeciaaoue enoeiiua
caiuneu ?aoi?iaoi?ia, a oaeaea neaainoue oi?aaeai/aneeo einoeoooia.

E, oai ia iaiaa, anee yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu i?e Ai?aa/aaa ia
i?iaiaeeeenue, a oi/iaa, auee inaaaei?aoi?iaie, oi aeueoeeineea ?aoi?iu
noaee oaeoii, ?aaeueiinoueth. Iie eciaieee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee
no?ie a ?innee, inouanoaeee einoeoooeeiiaeueioth o?ainoi?iaoeeth anaai
iauanoaa, oioy yoio i?ioeann aua aeaeae io naiaai caaa?oaiey.

Iaeiaei ?aaeeeaeueiue ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i i?iaeieaeaeny ieiei
iieoaiaea. Caoai ii aue niaiai ia?eiaeii canoiy ?aoi?i, ia?eiaeii
oaoaiee e inoaaaeny i?aeoe/anee ia iaeiii ianoa. E oieueei a 1997 a.,
eacaeinue, i?eoei a?aiy aica?auaoueny aiiaue e ?aaeeeaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?ia, iaeiaei a aaaonoa 1998 a. i?iecioea eaoano?ioa:
?inney ia a?aiy ioeacaeanue auiea/eaaoue naie aiaoiee aeiea, ?ac?ooeea
eoae ieioi ?aiaa neiaeeaoothny oeiainiai-aaieianeoth nenoaio, i?iaaea
oaeoe/aneoth aeaaaeueaaoeeth ?oaey. Caeiiiinoue e yeiiiie/aneay
oeaeaniia?aciinoue yoie aeoeee naaiaeiy ia oieueei eco/athony, ii e
?anneaaeothony a iaoai iauanoaa.

E aii?ino i oai?ee

Yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, i?iaiaeeiua ai anao iino eiiioienoe/aneeo
no?aiao, ia eiatho e ia iiaoo eiaoue iaaeaaeioth oai?aoe/aneoth aaco.
Oai?aoe/aneay aaca eiaaeanue aeey ia?aoiaea io ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e
ia?uii/iie, io eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecio. Yoi aue oi?ioi ecaanoiue iai
ia?eneci-eaieieci — eaeaieiae/aneee noa?aeaiue oioaeeoa?iiai iauanoaa,
aaeeeee ieo, ieieaeiaaaoee cia/eoaeueioth /anoue /aeiaa/anoaa ia
i?ioyaeaiee aieaa 100 eao. Ii ii/aio-oi ieeoi ia aeiaaaeaeny ni/eieoue
oai?eth ia?aoiiai ia?aoiaea io ia?uii/iie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iie, io
nioeeaeecia e eaieoaeecio.

A eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao n ii?iaeueiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie iao
ioaeaeu a oai?aoece?iaaieyo ii iiaiaeo o?ainoi?iaoeee iayooaeoeaiiai
ia?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, a yooaeoeaiia ?uii/iia. N/eoaaony, /oi
yooaeoeaiinoue e naia ?aii eee iicaeii i?eaeao ia niaio iayooaeoeaiinoe,
aeaiie?aoey iiaaaeeo oioaeeoa?eci(Oaeae e Iecan). Oai ia iaiaa, anoue
aeaa oai?ee, ia eioi?ua iau/ii iie?athony ?aoi?iaoi?u ai anao iino
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao: eaeineainoai e iiiaoa?eci. A niioaaonoaee
eiaiii n ieie e neeaaeuaaaony i?aeoeea yaiethoeeiiiiai eee
?aaeeeaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i.

Yaiethoeeiienou (eee “iinoaiaiieee”), aunooiatho ca aeeeoaeueiue e
inoi?iaeiue iooue e ?uieo n nio?aiaieai iiiaeo noa?uo no?oeoo? e
iaoaieciia, i?enoueo oioaeeoa?iiio iauanoao, nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaia.
Iie?aynue ia eaeineaineoth eiioeaioeeth, iie o?aaotho na?ueaciiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo (a iaoeo oneiaeyo —
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai e i?yiiai), aica?aoa e io?aneaaui ieienoa?noaai, e
nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia e caeoiie, noaneaeee e eueaioiuo
e?aaeeoia aeey aiayeiiiie/aneie iiaeaea?aeee iayooaeoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee
e oeaeuo naeoi?ia a yeiiiieea, e ainoaea?noaaiiiio onoaiiaeaieth oeai e
ca?aaioiuo ieao ia oeene?iaaiiii o?iaia, any/anee oi?iicy ia/aaoeeny
i?ioeann i?eaaoecaoeee. Ionthaea enoiaeyo e i?aaeeiaeaiey i aica?aoa e
“?uii/iiio nioeeaeecio”, i nicaeaiee aeaoonaeoi?iie yeiiiieee — ?uii/iie
e ainoaea?noaaiiie, i i?ioaeoeeiiecia, ia eniieueciaaiee eeoaeneiai
iiuoa e o. ae.

?aaeeeaeu, iie?aynue ia iiiaoa?eci, ia io?eoeatho iaiaoiaeeiinoe
na?ueaciiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo. Ii iie eiatho
a aeaeo yeiiiie/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea, o. a. oaeia aiaoaoaeuenoai
ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo, eioi?ia aeieaeii i?ioiaeeoue ia iai?yioth, a
/a?ac eioa?anu yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, /a?ac yeiiiie/aneea ?u/aae e
noeioeu a oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey. A aeaaiia, yoi aiaoaoaeuenoai aeieaeii
auoue iai?aaeaii, i?aaeaea anaai, ia iiiu?aiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
/anoiiai naiiieoiaaiiai naeoi?a, iiiaioeeaaeiinoe yeiiiieee e
eiieo?aioeee.

?aaeeeaeu (iiiaoa?enou e eeaa?aeu) aunooiatho ca auno?ua e ?aoeoaeueiua
ia oieueei ?uii/iua, ii e nenoaiiua, einoeoooeeiiaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey,
eae yeiiiieee, oae e anaai iauanoaa ?innee, ca eiieo iiiaeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo? ioaeeaoae eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie
nenoaiu e caiaio eo no?oeoo?aie ?uii/iie, a oi/iaa, eaieoaeenoe/aneie
nenoaiu.

A iineaaeiea iieoi?a aeanyoeeaoey iiceoeee iiiaoa?enoia na?ueacii
oe?aieeenue a ie?a iinea ecaanoiuo i?iaaeia eaeineaineeo iaoiaeia
?aaoee?iaaiey ia i?aeoeea. Ana caiaaeiua aeaiie?aoee i?iiiaaaeotho
naiaiaeo eiieo?aioeee e ?aciuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe n oii?ii ia /anoioth e
ecaaaatho i?aaeieo i?yiuo iaoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeiiiieee. Ei?aiiie oacen eeaa?aeia-iiiaoa?enoia — inaiaiaeaeaiea,
eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai, o. a. nicaeaiea a yeiiiieea naiaai ?iaea
anoanoaaiiie neaiaeueiie nenoaiu, aeathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeth e
iio?aaeoaeth neaiaeu ia oi, /oi i?iecaiaeeoue e /oi iieoiaoue, eoaea
iai?aaeyoue ?ano?nu ii e?eoa?eth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
iio?aaeaiey. ?uiie aea iiaeao nicaeaoue oaeoth neaiaeueioth nenoaio
oieueei a oneiaeyo naiaiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Yeiiiie/aneay
noaaeeecaoeey e ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea ethaeae, ii iiaieth
?iaeiia/aeueieea yoie oeieu I. O?eaeiaia, iaaiciiaeii aac
ainiiaenoaothuae ?iee naiaiaeiuo ?uii/iuo oeai a yeiiiieea.

Iaeiiaoe, iiiaoa?enou aiai?yo i aeanoeii ?aaoee?iaaiee aeaiaaeiie iannu,
i ?aoeoaeueiii nieaeaiee, a oi e eeeaeaeaoeee athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa —
aaaeiaeoae i?e/eia eioeyoeee a no?aia. Ionthaea enoiaeyo i?aaeeiaeaiey i
ia?ae/iie ?iee oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee ii ioiioaieth e aioee?eceniie
iieeoeea. E i?e yoii — aeanoeia ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
aeaiaaeiie iannu, aeaiaaeiie yiennee, ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia e
noaneaeee.

Aeaeaiea o/aiuo e iieeoeeia ia eaeineaioeaa e iiiaoa?enoia, ia
?aaeeeaeia e yaiethoeeiienoia-iinoaiaiieeia eiaao ianoi ia oieueei a
?innee e ae?oaeo iino eiiioienoe/aneeo no?aiao, ii e a no?aiao Caiaaea,
aaea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyaeeinue iiiai niaoeeaeenoia ii o?ainoi?iaoeee
nioeeaeecia a eaieoaeeci. Iaeaieaa ?aaeeeaeueioth iiceoeeth ia Caiaaea
caieiatho IAO, aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno Ae. Naen e oaaaeneee yeiiiieno A.
Ineoiae. Yoi noi?iiieee oieiaie oa?aiee, eioi?ay caeiaeaia e a
“noaiaea?oiue iaoiae” IAO, i?eiaiaiiue ia i?aeoeea ai iiiaeo
?acaeaathueony no?aiao, iiiaaoeo a e?eoe/aneea neooaoeee. Nooue yoiai
iiaeoiaea: eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai, eeeaeaeaoeey oae iacuaaaiiai aeaiaaeiiai
iaaana e ia?aoiae e no?oeoo?a oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea; eeaa?aeecaoeey
aiaoiae oi?aiaee, iaania/aiea oioy au /anoe/iie eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe
aaethou; aea?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee; ioiaia noaneaeee, ?aceia nie?auaiea
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa; aeanoeay e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea;
auno?ay i?eaaoecaoeey.

Naaiaeiy caiaaeiua yaiethoeeiienou-iinoaiaiieee oaeaea i?aaenoaaeaiu
eiaieouie o/aiuie. Yoi E. Eanee (Aano?ey), A. Iioa (Aaeeeia?eoaiey), Ae.
Aa?eeia? (NOA) e iiiaea ae?oaea, e?eoeeothuea eiioeaioeee e i?aeoeeo
IAO. Iie aunooiatho i?ioea eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai e auno?ie i?eaaoecaoeee.
Iie n/eoatho, /oi nicaeaiiua i?e eiiioienoe/aneii oioaeeoa?iii ?aaeeia
einoeooou eiatho cia/eoaeueioth oeaiiinoue e iiaoo ia oieueei
ninouanoaiaaoue n iiauie ?uii/iuie einoeoooaie, ii e iinoaiaiii
a?anoaoue a ieo. Iie iieaaatho, /oi ioaeii eiaoue a?aiy ia oieueei aeey
?iaeaeaiey iiaiai, ii e aeey o?ainoi?iaoeee noa?iai. E oaeie oi/ea
c?aiey neeiiythony iiiaea caiaaeiua eaeineaioeu e nioeeae-aeaiie?aou,
noi?iiieee “?uii/iiai nioeeaeecia”, einoeoooeeiiaeenou e
yaiethoeeiienou.

Iaeiaei yoi ana aieueoa a oai?ee. *oi aea eanaaony i?aeoeee, oi caeanue
aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?aao aeeaie iiuo ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai e Eeoay,
?aiueoa ian ia/aaoeo ia?aoiae e ?uieo. Auai? iiaeaee ?aoi?iu ?aaeueii
caaeneo io yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia, io noaiaie
aa aioiaiinoe e ia?aoiaeo e ?uii/iie nenoaia.

Iau/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee IAO neeiiiu i?eiyoue oa no?aiu, aaea oaea
nouanoaoao aunieay eioeyoeey, a?iceo aieueoie yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen eee
aeaaea ?acaae yeiiiieee. Anee no?aia aieaa eee iaiaa aeaaiiieo/ia, oi
iia auae?aao a?aaeoaeenoneee iooue ?aoi?iaoeee. Ii e a oii e a ae?oaii
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeia oaa?aeay iieeoe/aneay aiey, /aoeay e neeueiay
iieeoeea, oe?ieay iauanoaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea i?iaiaeeiuo ?aoi?i. Anee
yoiai iao, oi ethaay iiaeaeue ?aoi?i ia?a/aia ia i?iaae.

Niaa?oaiii /aoei ii aeaoi ?aciui iiaeaeyi ?aoi?ie?iaaiey naiae yeiiiieee
e iauanoaa iioee Iieueoa e Aaia?ey. Iaa no?aiu aeiaeeenue ?aaeueiuo
iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia, oae eae i?aaeeueii o/ee naith niaoeeoeeo.
*oi eanaaony Eeoay, oi ii, a ioee/ea io Iieueoe, Aaia?ee e *aoineiaaeee,
nio?aiee i?aaeiee oioaeeoa?iue eiiioienoe/aneee ?aaeei,
Eiiioienoe/aneoth ia?oeth e ana no?oeoo?u eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie
nenoaiu, ii a ?aieao “?uii/iiai nioeeaeecia” na?ueacii ?anoe?ee ?uii/iua
ioiioaiey e noeioeu, aeaa i?inoi? yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo ia aaca
aiaea/aiey ia?iiiiai aa?a?iiai naeoi?a a oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey e
?acaeoey iieooi?a aeanyoeia naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii n oe?ieei
o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.

Ianiio?y ia iinoaiaiioth o?ainoi?iaoeeth naiae yeiiiieee, Eeoae
ne?oioeacii neaaeoao ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi IAO, i?iaiaey iieeoeeo
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee, naaeaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoa e
iaaeiiouaiey eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

A 1978 a., eiaaea a Eeoaa ia/aeenue yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, iniiaiay
/anoue ianaeaiey ?aaioaea a eiiioiao, o. a. a eieeaeoeaiii e ia
iieo/aaoai aeioaoeee naeueneii oicyenoaa, a ia aini?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaioaei
iaiaa 20% ianaeaiey. E?iia oiai, yeiiiieea Eeoay ia auea noieue
naa?ooeaio?aeeciaaia e iiiiiieece?iaaia, eae yeiiiieea auaoaai NNN?, oai
ia auei e oaeiai eiee/anoaa e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iiyoiio
eeoaeneea iiuo e iiaeaeue ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aeey ?innee a?yae ee
iiaeoiaeyo.

Eae ioeaieoue yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a ?innee, e eaeay iiaeaeue yoeo
?aoi?i eo/oa niioaaonoaoao aa yeiiiie/aneie, iieeoe/aneie e nioeeaeueiie
nooe?

Ia i?aeoeea ?inney i?iaiaeeo naie yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu ia no?iai a
niioaaonoaee n eaeie-eeai iaeiie oi/eie c?aiey eee oeieie, a ii-?aciiio,
ni/aoay ?aaeeeaeeci e yaiethoeeiieci e ieaoy i?e yoii ia?iiioth oeaio.

Oiae ?inneeneeo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i ia oiauaaony a oceea ?aiee oie eee
eiie oai?ee. Ii iauyniyaony ia iaeiie, a iiiaeie oai?eyie, aea e oi
eeoue /anoe/ii. Iiyoiio ca?aiaa, enoiaeeoue ec eaeie-eeai iaeiie oai?ee,
eae yoi aeaeaee ?aiueoa i?e iiaeoiaea e oie eee eiie ?aoi?ia, yoi
iaieiaeioai?iue iiaeoiae. Oai?ey— yoi iaiauaiea i?aeoeee, a i?aeoeea
aeieaeia auoue i?aaiaoe/iie e i?eaioe?iaaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii ia
cae?aaue niune, yeiiiie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue eioa?an. Oaeei ia?acii
oai?ey a naith i/a?aaeue, aeieaeia i?aoa?iaaaoue eciaiaiey iiae
aicaeaenoaeai iineaaeothuae i?aeoeee. E anee oai?ey ia iaiyaony, iia
io?uaaaony io aeecie e enoi?e/anee ioaa?aaaony eae ianinoiyoaeueiay aeey
eciaieaoeony oneiaee. I?eia?ia oiio iiiai, e ia?eneci-eaieieci yaeyaony
iaeiei ec ieo.

Eiie?aoiue auai? ieii/aoaeueiiai aa?eaioa ?aoi?iu a ?aoathuae noaiaie
caaeneo io nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey no?aiu, enoi?e/aneeo e
iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaeiinueie. A ?innee e oiio aea yoio auai? i?ienoiaeee
ia oiia ?aniaaea Niaaoneiai Nithca, ?acaaea NYA, ?anoouae
aeaceioaa?aoeee naiie ?innee, iaaeaiey EINN. Ia aoaeue ioo/a a aaaonoa
1991 a., aeaaoaai oie/ie e ?acaaeo NNN? e EINN, a?yae ee aaeaea?ianeee
aa?eaio aue au aiciiaeai. I?ioeann ?aoi?i ?acei eioaineoeoee?iaaeny
eiaiii iiae aeeyieai iaoaeaaoaainy ioo/a e ooiaea ni noeaiu
eiina?aaoeaiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa A. Iaaeiaa i?e i?aceaeaionoaa I.
Ai?aa/aaa. Iaeiaei ?aaeeeaeeci yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu A. Aaeaea?a
i?inouanoaiaae iaaeieai, iaiaa /ai /a?ac iieaiaea ii niaieeny
yaiethoeeiieciii iiae aeeyieai iiuiuo eiina?aaoeaiuo nee e iano?iaiee a
iauanoaa.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, oai?ey ia iiaeao e ia aeieaeia auoue enoiaeiui
ioieoii yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu, oie eee eiie aa iiaeaee. Ii yoi ia
cia/eo, /oi o ?aoi?i aiiaua iao ie/aai enoiaeiiai, iaeia eeoue oaeouay
i?aaiaoeea e o?acaue ?an/ao. A oneiaeyo ?innee oae aiiaua ia auaaao.
Ia?eneci-eaieieci, o?aaeeoeey aieueoaaenoneeo iiaeoiaeia iac?eii
i?enoonoaotho a aieiaao aeaaea naiuo iieiaeuo ?aoi?iaoi?ia.

I?e iiaeoiaea e yeiiiie/aneei ?aoi?iai, auai?o oie eee eiie eo iiaeaee
aaaeii ioaaoeoue ia neaaeothuea 3 aii?ina:

1). Eaeiai ioiioaiea e “?aaeueiiio nioeeaeecio”, oaea i?iyaeaoaio naay
ia i?ioyaeaiee ia noieue iaeiai a?aiaie a auaoai NNN? e no?aiao
Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu?

2). Eaeiai ioiioaiea e iianiinoe ?aaaioa, aica?auaiey, aeaaea
/anoe/iiai, a nioeeaeenoe/aneia i?ioeia?

3). Eiaaea auei eo/oa a iaoae no?aia?

Ia?aoiae io eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iie a iaoae no?aia ieacaeny
aeaeii i/aiue o?oaeiui. E ia iioiio, /oi aieueoeinoai ?inneyi n/eoatho
“?aaeueiue nioeeaeeci” aa?oii niaa?oainoaa, a iioiio, /oi aieaa /ai ca
70-eaoiee ia?eiae a no?aia neiaeeeanue ia?iiiay eia?oeey iuoeaiey,
iiaaaeaiey, ia?aciaaeny ii?aaeaeaiiue oei /aeiaaea n ii?aaeaeaiiui
oa?aeoa?ii e ia?acii iuoeaiey (eaeaeeaai/anoai, aacuieoeeaoeaiinoue,
iinoiyiiia iaeeaeaiea oeacaiee “naa?oo”, ianaiinoiyoaeueiinoue, neaiie
iao?eioeci, caeaeaieiaece?iaaiiinoue). Yoa eia?oeey e ionoonoaea
?acaaoaeaiiie ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u, a oaeaea ninoiyiea iaono?iaiiinoe
e iiaeaaeaiiinoe iauanoaa i?e ?aceii niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa e aeeciaiiiai
o?iaiy ianaeaiey a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae neeueii iaoatho ia?aoiaeo e
?uieo.

I?ia?aiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa A.
Aaeaea?a

Aeueoeeinei-aaeaea?ianeea ?aoi?iu, i?iaiaeeiua n ia/aea 1992 a., aia?aua
noaee ?aaeueiuie ?uii/iuie ?aoi?iaie ia i?aeoeea. Acyoiio eo?no ia
?aaeeeaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu i?ioeai?a/eea any i?aaeuaeouay
enoi?ey aaconiaoiuo iiiuoie aaaaeaiey eaeeo-eeai yeaiaioia ?uiea, o/aoa
?aaeueiiai ni?ina a ?aieao “?aaeueiiai nioeeaeecia”, nenoaiu
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey.

Aeaaiay caaea/a, iinoaaeaiiay ia?aae i?aaeoaeuenoaii Aaeaea?a,
caeeth/aeanue a neiia noa?ie eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, nicaeaiee iniia
?uii/iie yeiiiieee e ?aaeueiii aoiaeaeaiee no?aiu a ?uiie aei
iaecaaaeiie ionoaaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Eiiaiaea Aaeaea?a aia/aea auea
ae?oaeiie e iaeii?iaeiie, ninoiyea ec aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia. Yoi auea
eiiaiaea, eioi?ay n?aco aea i?aaeoi?aaeeea iauanoaaiiinoue, /oi
i?iaiaeeiua eie ?aoi?iu aoaeoo o?oaeiuie e aieaciaiiuie, iiyoiio eo
iaaei i?iaiaeeoue ?aoeoaeueii e auno?i.

Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen a no?aia iinea aaaonoianeiai ioo/a 1991 a. iaae?ae
oaiiu, iinea ?aniaaea NNN? aua aieueoa oneeeeny. E ia/aeo 1992 a.
neiaeeeanue e?eoe/aneay neooaoeey, eiaaea, ii nouanoao, aue ?ac?ooai
iio?aaeoaeueneee ?uiie, aicieeea oa?ica oeiainiaiai e?aoa, iaieaoaaeae a
ainathaeaeao, a noa?ay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeai iieiinoueth naay
ecaeeea. A ?acoeueoaoa eioeyoeee ieeoi ia oioae i?iaeaaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth
ii eneonnoaaiii ieceei ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiai, niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuie e ?uii/iuie oeaiaie onoaiiaeeinue ia o?iaia 1:40—1:50.
Aeaiueae noaee oa?youe niune, ia/aeny ia?aoiae e iaoo?aeueiiio iaiaio
iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie. ?aaeiiu i?eieiaee cai?aoeoaeueiua ia?u ii auaico
i?iaeoeoeee ni naieo oa??eoi?ee, aicieeee oaiiaeie. Ethaee iianaianoii
noaee eniieueciaaoue aa?oa?. A yoeo oneiaeyo iaaei auei eeai aaiaeeoue
ea?oi/ioth nenoaio, nenoaio aeanoeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai o?aaieoaeueiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee a iaoo?aeueiii aeaea, eeai eaeoe ia
?aaeeeaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth ?aoi?io, naycaiioth a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n
eeaa?aeecaoeeae oeiainiaie e aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu.

I?aceaeaio e aai eiiaiaea eca?aee iooue ?aaeeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
?aoi?i, o/eouaay eia?oeeiiiinoue iaoaai i?ioeiai. Eiia/ii, iiaeii auei
iieoe aieaa oia?aiiui iooai, oeacaiiui a ?aiaa i?eiyoie ?inneae
i?ia?aiia “500 aeiae”, ii aue eca?ai aieaa oaa?aeue e aeanoeee eo?n,
i?aaeeiaeaiiue A. Aaeaea?ii.

A i?ia?aiia “500 aeiae”, iiaeaioiaeaiiie a 1990 a. a?oiiie niaaoneeo
yeiiiienoia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii N. Oaoaeeia e A. ssaeeineiai,
aiai?eeinue, /oi aeaaiie oeaeueth yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu yaeyaony
“yeiiiie/aneay naiaiaea a?aaeaeai e nicaeaiea ia yoie iniiaa yooaeoeaiie
oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu”.

Aaoi?u i?ia?aiiu “500 aeiae” ioia/aee neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue
nicaeaia:

—iaeneiaeueiay naiaiaea yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa (i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaei?eieiaoaey);

—iieiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa ca ?acoeueoaou
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iie?athuayny ia th?eaee/aneia ?aaiii?aaea
anao aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe, aeeth/ay /anoioth;

—eiieo?aioeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae eae aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? noeioee?iaaiey
oicyenoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe;

—naiaiaeiia oeaiiia?aciaaiea, aaeaine?othuaa ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea;

—aeiiieiaiea oiaa?iiai ?uiea ?uieii ?aai/ae neeu e oeiainiaui ?uieii;

—ioe?uoinoue yeiiiieee, aa iineaaeiaaoaeueiay eioaa?aoeey a ie?iaia
oicyenoai;

—iaania/aiea aunieie noaiaie nioeeaeueiie caueuaiiinoe a?aaeaeai;

—ioeac anao i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe io i?yiiai o/anoey a
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A niioaaonoaee n i?ia?aiiie “500 aeiae” a oa/aiea ia?auo 100 aeiae
(i?ia?aiia /?acau/aeiuo ia?) aeieaeai auoue i?eiyo iaeao caeiiia,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee; ia/eiaaony
i?eaaoecaoeey e aeoeeiie?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe;
i?iaiaeeony aeanoeay oeiainiai-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea, aaaeouay e ?aceiio
nie?auaieth athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e i?ae?auaieth ?inoa aeaiaaeiie
iannu; ia/eiaaony caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia; i?iaiaeeony nie?auaiea aiaiiuo
?anoiaeia e eiaanoeoeee ca n/ao athaeaeaoa; i?ae?auaaony auieaoa anao
aeioaoeee e noaneaeee i?aaei?eyoeyi; ia/eiaaony iiyoaiiay eeaa?aeecaoeey
?icie/iuo oeai. A oa/aiea neaaeothueo 150 aeiae (101—250-e) iaia/aeinue
niyoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ca oeaiaie oaea aeey oe?ieie oiaa?iie
iannu, iieiay eeeaeaeaoeey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, oe?ieia ?acaeoea
i?eaaoecaoeee, aeaiiiiiieecaoeey e eeeaeaeaoeey onoa?aaoeo
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo no?oeoo?, eiaeaenaoeey aeioiaeia n o/aoii aeeiaieee
oeai.

A oa/aiea iineaaeothueo 150 aeiae (251—400-e) ia aaca ?acaeoey ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee e ana aieaa iieiiai ianuuaiey ?uiea iaia/aeinue aeinoe/ue aai
noaaeeecaoeee, aua aeaeueoa i?iaeaeiooue i?eaaoecaoeeth e
eeaa?aeecaoeeth oeai, aaanoe eiiaa?oaaaeueiinoue ?oaey. Iaeiiaoe, a
inoaaoeany 100 aeiae (401—500-e) iaeeaeaeinue ia/aei iiaeuaia a
yeiiiieea, ?acaa?ouaaiey ianooaaiie no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee.

Ec yoiai e?aoeiai iaiiieiaiey i i?ia?aiia “500 aeiae” ynii, /oi iia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia aieaa /ai noaio iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeaenoaee a
?aieao ia?aoiaea e ?uieo. Nai ia?aoiae e ?uieo ca 500 aeiae inouanoaeoue
ia?aaeueii. A eo/oai neo/aa yoo i?ia?aiio neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a
ea/anoaa noa?oa?a caionea ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee, ii ia aieaa oiai.

Aianoa n oai ynii, /oi i?ia?aiia “500 aeiae”, eae e
aeueoeeinei-aaeaea?ianeay i?ia?aiia, iaoiaeeeanue a ?onea ?aaeeeaeueiuo
nenoaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee yeiiiieee e iauanoaa. Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io
iineaaeiae a iae aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeyeinue nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeea
ianaeaiey e iaiueoa aieiaiey — ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae, a eeaa?aeecaoeey
oeai ioianaia ei aoi?iio yoaio aneaae ca ia/aaoaeny i?eaaoecaoeeae e
aeanoeie oeiainiai-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeeie, i?iaiaeeiuo a /?acau/aeiii
ii?yaeea. Ca yoe ioee/ey iiiiceoeey iioii aoaeao io/ayiii ?oaaoue
aeueoeeinei-aaeaea?ianeoth i?ia?aiio, a oeaeii aieaa oaoiieiae/ioth, ii
e aeanoeoth.

Yoi auei naycaii, i?aaeaea anaai, n oai, /oi a no?aia e ia/aeo 1992 a.
neiaeeeanue ino?aeoay e?eoe/aneay neooaoeey, eiaaea oeaiu aaneiio?ieueii
?acei aciaoioeenue aaa?o, ?uiie ?aniaeny, e iieee iaaaceiia ieacaeenue
ionouie a aoeaaeueiii niunea. A 1991 a. no?aia, ii nouanoao,
iaoiaeeeanue a ninoiyiee yeiiiie/aneiai eieeaina. I?iecaiaenoai
nie?auaeinue, athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo ninoaaeye 27% io AII, ne?uoay
aac?aaioeoea aeinoeaea 35% io /eneaiiinoe ?aai/ae neeu, ni?in iaiiiai
i?aauoae i?aaeeiaeaiea, ia?aciaaeny ia?iiiue “aeaiaaeiue iaaan”,
aeinoeaaaoee nioai ieeeea?aeia ?oaeae. Iaeiia?aiaiii auno?i oaaee/eaaeny
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea (a 1985 a. — 20 ie?ae. aeiee., a 1991 a. — 80
ie?ae.) e nieaeaeny cieioie caian no?aiu (1500 o a 1985 a. e eeoue 80 o
a 1991 a.). Ieeoi ca yoe eoiae ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia naay ia acye. A
iiya?a—aeaeaa?a 1991 a. i/a?aaee auee ca anai: ca oeaaii, iynii,
eieaaniuie ecaeaeeyie, aiaeeie, iaiuaie… Oaea aaiaeeeenue ea?oi/ee ii
?aaeiiai, a iineianeeo iaaaceiao aeey iieoiaoaeae o?aaiaaeanue aeceoea n
oioia?aoeae.

A yoeo oneiaeyo, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, iaiaoiaeeii auei eeai aaiaeeoue
ea?oi/ee, eeai ioioneaoue oeaiu. Aue i?eiyo aoi?ie aa?eaio. Iaeiaei ii
i?inueaa Oe?aeiu eeaa?aeecaoeeth oeai ioeiaeeee ia 1,5 ianyoea e i?iaaee
eeoue 2 yiaa?y 1992 a.

Ii ?an/aoai iiaiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa A. Aaeaea?a, ?ino ?icie/iuo oeai
iaeeaeaeny a 2—3 ?aca. Ia aeaea aea iie oaaee/eeenue a oa/aiea ia?aiai
eaa?oaea 1992 a. aieaa /ai a 6 ?ac, a ii n?aaiaieth n ia/aeii 1991 a. —
a 13—15 ?ac. Iauanoai iuooeei neeueiue oieiaue oaea?. Ii aac iaai
iaeuecy auei, e aiai?eoue i ?uiea. A ioee/ea io Iieueoe a ?innee auee
ioiouaiu ia oieueei oeaiu, ii e ca?aaioiay ieaoa, aieaa ?aoeoaeueii
ia/aoa i?eaaoecaoeey. Eeaa?aeecaoeey einioeanue 90% ?icie/iuo e 80%
iioiauo oeai. Noa?ua oeaiu nio?aiyeenue, a /anoiinoe, ii 15
iaeiaiiaaieyi iio?aaeoaeueneeo aeaa, ia/eiay n oeaaa e eii/ay ieaoie ca
aeeeuea e eiiioiaeueiua oneoae.

Iaeiaei iinea ?aceiai aceaoa oeai aeeiaieea eo ?inoa caiaaeeeeanue, e a
ai?aea 1992 a. ?icie/iua oeaiu au?inee anaai eeoue ia 22%, e?aaeeoiay e
aeaiaaeiay yiennee auee acyou iiae eiio?ieue, athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo
cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeeny. Noaea oeo/oaoueny neooaoeey ia ?uiea, i?aaeaea
anaai ca n/ao noa?uo caiania. Oai ia iaiaa, i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?iie iannu
auei neaaui, niaae i?iecaiaenoaa oneeeeny. Ii nouanoao, aee?aeoi?a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ?aoi?io ia iiaeaea?aeaee; aianoi
ia?aueaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia yoie iniiaa oiaa?ia ia
?uiea iie noaee caeacaoue ai acaeiiua aeieae, onoaiaaeeaaoue
iiiiiieueiua oeaiu, iuoaynue nio?aieoue o?iaaiue caiyoinoe e ca?aaioiie
ieaou.

Iaiiioey?iua ?aaeeeaeueiua ia?u, a oaeaea ?aaeoeey cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
aee?aeoi?neiai ei?iona oe?aieee iiiiceoeeth, ?acaeaaeaiioth iinea ioo/a
1991 a. E iae i?eniaaeeieeanue /anoue aeaiie?aoia ai aeaaa n auaoei
I?aaenaaeaoaeai Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O ?. Oanaoeaoiaui. Neeoeii aue aaeee
niaeaci ia?aoaaoa aeanoe o iieiaeuo, oioy e i?ioanneiiaeueii a?aiioiuo,
ii iieeoe/anee ia eneooaiiuo ?aoi?iaoi?ia. Oaea a yiaa?a 1992 a. ?.
Oanaoeaoia iaaeiee oieueei /oi nicaeaiiia iieiaeia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee
a iaeiiiaoaioiinoe.

Caoai iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii auea ninoaaeaia aeueoa?iaoeaiay
“aioee?eceniay i?ia?aiia” a ?an/aoa ia iiaeaea?aeeo aee?aeoi?neiai
ei?iona. Nooue yoie i?ia?aiiu caeeth/aeanue a niya/aiee oiea,
oi?iiaeaiee ia/aaoeony ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i, oneeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eiio?iey iaae yeiiiieeie, o. a. a /anoe/iii aica?aoa e eiiaiaeiie
yeiiiieea. ?. Oanaoeaoia ioe?uoi i?eciae oiaaea, /oi ii aicaeaaeyao a
iaeioi?ii niunea iiiiceoeeth oiaeo yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu a no?aia.

Aunooiay a ai?aea 1992 a. ia VI Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia ?innee, ?.
Oanaoeaoia cayaee, /oi i?iaiaeeiua i?aaeoaeuenoaii ?aoi?iu eeoue aiaoia
auaeyaeyo ?aaeeeaeueii. A ia aeaea, aoaeo/e ioi?aaiiuie io ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iie ia aeatho ioaeiiai yooaeoa. Noaei ynii, /oi
nieea? ia?eaiaioa oaea oiaaea ia/ae aeiaeaaoueny niaiu Eaaeiaoa. E ii
aue ia iaeeiie. Aieueoeinoai aunooiaaoeo ii yoiio aii?ino ia nuacaea
aeaiooaoia e?eoeeiaaee i?aaeoaeuenoai a aanueia ?aceie oi?ia.

Aieaa oiai, ia ninoiyaoaeny a iineaaeiee aeaiue yoiai nuacaea
i?ann-eiioa?aioeee ?oeiaiaeeoaee aeiea “?inneeneia aaeeinoai” N.
Ai?y/aaa, A. Enaeia, I. Anoaoueaa, A. Aenth/eoe e ?yae ae?oaeo
aeaiooaoia cayaeee i naiae aioiaiinoe iaiaaeeaiii acyoue aeanoue a
no?aia a naie ?oee. (A iaoe aeie eiiioienoe/aneay o?aeoeey a
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia i?aaeeaaaao i?aeoe/anee oi aea naiia).

I?aaenoaaeoaee oanaoeaoianeiai ia?eaiaioa, “A?aaeaeaineiai nithca” e
ae?. auaeaeaaee neaaeothuea i?aaeeiaeaiey:

— aaanoe ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e oeai
(i?aaeaea anaai ia nu?uea e iniiaiua i?iaeoeou ieoaiey);

— auaeaaaoue i?aaei?eyoeyi niaoeeaeueiua e?aaeeou ia iiiieiaiea
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e eo eiaeaenaoeeth;

— aeioe?iaaoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai;

— oaaee/eoue oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe e ?acaeoey
iauaeoia nioeeaeueiie noa?u;

— aaanoe eueaioiia e?aaeeoiaaiea eiaanoeoeee a no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo
i?iecaiaenoaa aaaeiaeoeo iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?iaeoeoia e naeueneiai
oicyenoaa;

— eiaeaene?iaaoue naa?aaeaiey ianaeaiey;

—ioeacaoueny io oi?ne?iaaiiie i?eaaoecaoeee.

Ii/oe ana ia?a/eneaiiua ioieou iinyo eeai aioe?uii/iue,
i?ieioeyoeeiiiue, eeai iiioeenoneee oa?aeoa?, e anoanoaaiii, eiiaiaea
Aaeaea?a ia iiaea n ieie niaeaneoueny, oae eae a oi a?aiy iie icia/aee
oaa iacaae — e ?uaeeianei-aaaeeeineiio “?uii/iiio nioeeaeecio”. I?e yoii
?. Oanaoeaoia ia onoaaae iiaoi?youe, /oi ii e aicaeaaeyaiay ei
iiiiceoeey aunooiatho ca ?aaeueiua ?aoi?iu, a i?aaeoaeuenoai A. Aaeaea?a
i?iaiaeeo inaaaei?aoi?iu, ia aeaea ?acaaeeaay yeiiiieeo no?aiu. I?e yoii
auei iiiai ianoiyuae aeaiaaiaee e iaei eiino?oeoeaecia.

I?aceaeaio A. Aeueoeei ?aoeoaeueii iiaeaea?aeae i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue eo?n
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. Ii aiai?ee i i?iaaea iiiuoee eiina?aaoeaiiai
?aaaioa, i aeinoeaiooii cuaeii eiii?iienna iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaii e
aeaiooaoneei ei?ionii, i?ecaae e ?aaiii?aaiiio e iinoiyiiiio aeeaeiao
iaaeaeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoyie. “Aac neeueiie
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, — ienae I?aceaeaio, — ia aoaeao ie ?aoi?i, ie
ii?yaeea, ie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, aeinoieiie ?innee, aa enoi?ee e
o?aaeeoeee. Anee nio?aiei a?aaeaeaineee ie?, anee oaea?aeeiny io
eiio?iioaoeee, anoue ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue iaania/eoue yeiiiie/aneoth
noaaeeecaoeeth oaea e eiioeo oaeouaai aiaea. ?inney ?acaoaeaia. Iia
aeaeioeanue e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, e ii?iaeueiie, iieiioeaiiie aeecie. E
eae au ie auei o?oaeii, eaeea au i?aiyonoaey ie noiyee ia yoii iooe,
oiae enoi?ee oaea ia inoaiiaeoue”*.

Iaeiaei niauoey ?acaeaaeenue ii-ae?oaiio: iiiiceoeey eiinieeaee?iaaeanue
e e?aiea. Iiae aeaaeaieai ia?eaiaioa e /anoe aee?aeoi?neiai ei?iona e
eaoo 1992 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai A. Aaeaea?a auei auioaeaeaii ineaaeoue naith
iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo. Aic?inee e?aaeeoiua aeeaaiey a yeiiiieeo a
oeaeyo i?aaeioa?auaiey niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acei oaaee/eeanue
eioeyoeey. Ana oneeey ii oe?aieaieth oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu
?acoeueoaoia ia aeaee. Eiio?ieue iaae yeiiiieeie aue oo?a/ai. A aeaeaa?a
1992 a. ia VII Nuacaea ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia i?iecioea neeueiaeoay
eiio?iioaoeey iaaeaeo eniieieoaeueiie e i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoyie.
I?aceaeaio ineaaee naie iiceoeee, A. Aaeaea? aue auioaeaeai oeoe a
ionoaaeo, iaeiaei iauee eo?n ?aaeeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i
nio?aieeny. Noaei ynii: iaecaaaeia iiaay, aua aieaa ino?ay
eiio?iioaoeey. A iiceoeee ?. Oanaoeaoiaa ana a?aiy i?ienoiaeee ae?aeo io
aeaiie?aoia e iao?iaui eiina?aaoi?ai, /anoue aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey
I?aceaeaioa, aeeth/ay Aeoea-i?aceaeaioa, oaeaea noaea ionooiaoue io
iaai, naeeaeaoueny n eiina?aaoeaiie iiiiceoeeae.

Ianoi i?aiuea?a iinea A. Aaeaea?a caiye A. *a?iiiu?aeei. Ii ia ionooiee
io i?eiyoie ?aiaa no?aoaaee ?aoi?i e ia/ae aaaeiue i?ioeann oe?aieaiey
iieeoe/aneie eiinieeaeaoeee, i?aaeaea anaai eniieieoaeueiie e
i?aceaeaioneie aeanoae, oioy a naiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaiaoeeenue
?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo ?aaeeeaeaie (A. Oaaei?ia A. *oaaen) e
yaiethoeeiienoaie (I. Eiaia, A. Oeunooi). Iaeiaei eiio?iioaoeey iaaeaeo
eniieieoaeueiie e i?aceaeaioneie aeanoyie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoueth (Aa?oiaiue Niaao) — n ae?oaie, ia?anoaea e
aeinoeaea naiaai aiiaay a eiioea naioya?y — ia/aea ieoya?y 1993 a.,
eiaaea I?aceaeaio ?anionoee Aa?oiaiue Niaao, a oio, a naith i/a?aaeue,
iacia/ee iiaiai I?aceaeaioa e iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Ana yoi
caaa?oeeinue, eae ecaanoii, e?iaaaui ioo/ai e iineaaeiaaaoei ca iei
?aca?iiii oanaoeaoianeiai Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa. A eiia/iii eoiaa iinea
auai?ia 12 aeaeaa?y 1993 a. aue noi?ie?iaai iiaue ia?eaiaio e, ianiio?y
ia nio?aieaoaany i?ioeainoiyiea ?aciuo nee, iauay iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey
a no?aia noaea yaii oeo/oaoueny.

Ia?aue i?iaeo aaeaea?ianeie i?ia?aiiu yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i aue
iioaeeeiaai aua a iiya?a 1991 a., a iai aiai?eeinue, /oi iniiaiay oeaeue
o?ainoi?iaoeee caeeth/aaony a aeinoeaeaiee oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee e
onoaiiaeaiee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Caoai yoa i?ia?aiia aei?aaaouaaeanue a
nio?oaeie/anoaa n yenia?oaie IAO e iacaaeneiuie caiaaeiuie
o/aiuie-iiiaoa?enoaie. Aieaa i?iaeaeiooay aa?ney i?ia?aiiu iioaeeeiaaia
a ecaanoiii Iaii?aiaeoia ia yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. Eiaiii yoio oaeno noae aacie aeey ia?aaiai?ia n IAO e
“naia?eie” i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ?innee caiaaeiie iiiiue. A ethea 1992 a.
aue iioaeeeiaai ieii/aoaeueiue oaeno i?ia?aiiu yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i,
?ann/eoaiiue oaia?ue ia n?aaeian?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao.

Iaa aeieoiaioa eiaee oeaeueth ii?aaeaeeoue iooe ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea e aeeth/aiey aa a ie?iaia oicyenoai, a niiauanoai
oeeaeeeciaaiiuo no?ai. Ii nouanoao, ?a/ue oea i ?aaeueiie o?ainoi?iaoeee
ia oieueei yeiiiieee, ii e anae iauanoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Aeaaiua ioieou aaeaea?ianeie i?ia?aiiu yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i
caeeth/aeenue a:

— aea?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee, niyoea aaeieieno?aoeaiiai eiio?iey iaae
oeaiaie e oicyenoaaiiuie naycyie (aeeth/ay aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue), ?acaeoea oi?aiaee acaiai i?aaeiaai
eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa;

— noaaeeecaoeey oeiainia e aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu, oe?aieaiea ?oaey;

— i?eaaoecaoeey, ?acaeoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, nicaeaiea
einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo i?aaeiinueie yooaeoeaiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa e
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa;

— aeoeaiay nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea a oeaeyo i?eniiniaeaiey
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey e iiaui oneiaeyi, caueoa iaeaieaa oycaeiuo
neiaa ianaeaiey;

— no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee, aa aeaieeeoa?ecaoeey,
i?eniiniaeaiea e no?oeoo?a ?aaeueiiai ni?ina, iiauoaiea
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, eioaa?aoeey a ie?iaia oicyenoai;

— nicaeaiea eiieo?aioiie ?uii/iie n?aaeu aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe e
ea/anoaa, oaaee/aiey ?aciiia?acey i?iaeoeoeee, nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae e
oeai.

Eiaeea aaoi?ia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i
enoiaeeea ec eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea e ?aoi?ie?iaaieth naa?o
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee. Oae, aea?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee
e eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai, ii eo iunee, ioe?uaatho aei?iao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, ?acaeoeth oi?aiaee, oi?ie?iaaieth iaoaieciia
?uii/iiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Noaaeeecaoeey oeiainia e aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu
oneeeaaao yeiiiie/aneea noeioeu, aeaao a ?oee ainoaea?noaa yooaeoeaiua
?u/aae aicaeaenoaey ia iiaaaeaiea noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey, aeaeaao
iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo, iicaieyao
ioaeaeeoue aaie?ioia. Neaaeothuee oaa a ?aieao yoiai caiunea —
i?eaaoecaoeey. Iia iaiaoiaeeia aeey oiai, /oiau i?eaanoe a aeaenoaea
?uii/iue iaoaieci, aeoeaece?iaaoue oicyenoaaiiua e o?oaeiaua iioeaaoeee,
noi?ie?iaaoue iieiioeaiiuo ?uii/iuo aaaioia e eeann nianoaaiieeia —
nioeeaeueioth aaco iiaeeeiiie aeaiie?aoee. No?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea
yeiiiieee aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeia aeey i?aiaeieaiey aeinoaaoeony a
ianeaaenoai io “?aaeueiiai nioeeaeecia” a?oaaeoeo aeaoi?iaoeee a
no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa a noi?iio naa?o ieeeoa?ecaoeee e /?acia?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii ia ana iieo/eeinue oae, eae caaeoiuaaeinue.

Ai-ia?auo, ia auee iaania/aiu iieeoe/aneay noaaeeueiinoue e iieeoe/aneay
aiey e i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee i?ia?aiiu
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. Iaiai?io, ?ac?aceeinue aaeeeia i?ioeainoiyiea
iaaeaeo eniieieoaeueiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aaoayie aeanoe. A iauanoaa
aicieeei oaeia iieeoe/aneia e nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea, eae oanaoeaoiaueia:
no?aieaiea ia?aoaaoeoue eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue, aa?iooue no?aio
/anoe/ii a i?ioeia ca n/ao ainnoaiiaeaiey i?aaeieo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
no?oeoo?; aeaoaaue iiioeeci a ni/aoaiee n aeiee?iaaieai ?yaea aaaeiuo
?aoi?iaoi?neeo iieeoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee (i?eaaoecaoeey,
aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea, a /anoiinoe iooai nie?auaiey athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa); eeiey ia auaeaeaiea e?aaeeoia e noaneaeee iai?eaueueiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi e io?aneyi (a yoi a oi a?aiy ia iaiaa 20% anae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe; oaia?ue ia oaeea i?aaei?eyoey i?eoiaeeony aei 50%
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee). I?ioeainoiyiea aeanoae a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie iiaei?aaei iioaioeeae yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia oaeaeinue aeinoe/ue iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee.

A-o?aoueeo, oeaia yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i ieacaeanue iaiiia?ii aaeeea:
i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey, oneeeeny
niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acei aic?inea eioeyoeey (1992—1993 aa.), aeoeaii
?ac?ooaeny iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae no?aiu, oooaeoaeanue no?oeoo?a
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaaeaea aai yooaeoeaiinoue e o. ae. A ?acoeueoaoa anaai
yoiai c?aei e oe?aieyeinue nii?ioeaeaiea ?aaeeeaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei
?aoi?iai, aicieeea ii/aa aeey iauaaeeiaiey e eiinieeaeaoeee nee
iiiiceoeee.

A-/aoaa?ouo, no?aiynue auaanoe ainoaea?noai ec noa?u aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo, /oiau aeaoue ae naiaiaeo e eiioeuen e
naii?acaeoeth, ?aaeeeaeueiua aeaiie?aou aeiionoeee iaoi?aaeyaiinoue a
oicyenoaa, ia noiaee iai?aaeoue ?aoi?io a iineaaeiaaoaeueiia ?onei
nenoaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. Iie ia?aoiaeeee io i?ieioeyoeeiiiie e
aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeea, eaoaee aeu?u, a naiie eo n?aaea c?aee
i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ua iioii ieacaeenue aeey ieo ?ieiauie.

Ia?aoiae ia yeiiiie/aneea ?u/aae oi?aaeaiey ia aeae yooaeoa e a
noeioee?iaaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. AEanoeay iaeiaiaay iieeoeea
na?ueacii ineaaeea noeioeu e ?acaeoeth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ia
i?iaiaeeeanue oaeaea e yooaeoeaiay i?iiuoeaiiay iieeoeea a eioa?anao
ai?ueau ni niaaeii e noeioee?iaaiey i?ia?anneaiuo no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a
i?iecaiaenoaa, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?aciaaeanue iianiay oaiaeaioeey e
auaico ?inneeneiai eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo e naea?aeeaaieth eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee a oicyenoai no?aiu.

A-iyouo, iieiaeua ?aoi?iaoi?u niaa?oaee yeaiaioa?iua ioeaee. Iai?eia?,
aia?aiy ia iaia/aoaee aeaiueae ia?aae eeaa?aeecaoeeae oeai, aeiionoeee
e?ecen iaieaoaaeae e o. ae. E?ecen iaieaoaaeae aiineaaenoaee ia?anoae
eae niaaeiue eii e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aa?aoeeny aaeaa ee ia a aeaaiue
ii?ie ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

A-oanouo, i?aaeoaeuenoai ia aeinoeaei oniaoa a ai?ueaa n i?anooiiinoueth
a no?aia, aeiionoea ?acaoe ei??oioeee, nicaeaiea oeaeuo eeaiia iaoeiciuo
a?oii, i?aaieciaaiiie i?anooiiinoe. Yoi ii?iaeeei ?aceia iaaeiaieuenoai
a iauanoaa.

A-naaeueiuo, auei iaaeiioeaiaii ?acaeoea iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana. Aai
iiyaeaieth ia naao niioonoaiaaee iaii?aaaeaiiua ath?ie?aoe/aneea,
iaeiaiaua e eiua ia?aie/aiey.

Ii anai yoei i?e/eiai niaia i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?aaeeeaeia-?aoi?iaoi?ia noaea
iaecaaaeiie. Iii a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oo?aoeei aeiaa?ea iauanoaa, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e I?aceaeaioa, /oi e iieacaee ?acoeueoaou ia?eaiaioneeo
auai?ia 12 aeaeaa?y 1993 a. Auea oe?iei i?eciaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ei??aeoe?iaee i?eiyoiai eo?na ?aoi?i.

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii, eae ia auea aeinoeaiooa oeiainiaay
noaaeeecaoeey a 1992 a.

I?aeoeea i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i oiaaea eiaea 3 yoaia.

1. A yiaa?a—ia?oa iinea ?aceiai aceaoa oeai (auei inaiaiaeaeaii io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey 90% ?icie/iuo e 80% iioiauo oeai, eiio?ieue
nio?aieeny iaae oeaiaie ia oiieeai, yeaeo?iyia?aeth, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua
oiaa?u, aeeth/ay oeaa, iieiei, nieue, o?ainii?o, aeeeuea),
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaiaeeei aeanoeoth aioeeioeyoeeiiioth iieeoeeo,
aea?aeaei iiae no?iaei eiio?ieai aeaiaaeioth ianno, nie?auaei
ain?anoiaeu e eiio?iee?iaaei e?aaeeoioth yienneth. A ?acoeueoaoa e
eiioeo ia?aiai eaa?oaea athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo aeinoea 3,5% AAI. A
ii?iaeueiuo ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo oaeay iieeoeea iaecaaaeii aucuaaao ?ino
aaie?ionoa e aac?aaioeoeu. Ii ?inney ia iioea ii yoiio iooe. Ia auee
i?eiyou caeiiu i aaie?ionoaa, i eiio?aeoiie caiyoinoe, neeoeii neeueiu
ieacaeenue eiiioienoe/aneea i?eau/ee, y?inoue iieeoe/aneie iiiiceoeee.
I?iaeaaay i?iaeoeoeeth ii aunieei ?uii/iui oeaiai, aee?aeoi?a
i?aaei?eyoee noaee ia?aueaaoue iaieaoaaee, o?aaiaaoue, eae e a i?ioeii,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaneaeee e eueaioiuo e?aaeeoia. Eo ?aaeoeey auea
oeie/ii iiiiiieenoe/aneie, ii ia ?uii/iie.

2. A ethia—naioya?a iiae aeaaeaieai ia?anoathuae iiiiceoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoai ionooieei io ?aaeeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, ineaaeei
iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, iioei ia auaea/o e?oiiuo noaneaeee e
e?aaeeoia ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aeaiaaeiie
yiennee. Oieueei a ethia yienney oaaee/eeanue ia 30%, athaeaeaoiue
aeaoeoeeo aeinoea 7,5% AAI, ii oaea a o?aoueai eaa?oaea ii aic?in aei
13,2%.

3. A naioya?a—aeaeaa?a i?aaeoaeuenoai aiiaue iiiuoaeinue aa?iooueny e
aeanoeie aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeea, ii i?aeoe/anee oaea ie/aai ia iiaei
naeaeaoue. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneee eiio?ieue aue oo?a/ai.

Aianoa n oai aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaeeeaeia-?aoi?iaoi?ia eiaea e
iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu. Iie ninoiyo a neaaeothuai.

Eiiaiaea iieiaeuo ?aoi?iaoi?ia ia/aea ana aea ia inaaaei?aoi?iu, a
?aaeueiua ?uii/iua ?aoi?iu: iia caionoeea eo iioi?, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaao
?aaioaoue. A. Aaeaea? a eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo eiioea 1991 a. iinea ?acaaea
NNN? aue auioaeaeai i?aaei?eiyoue auno?ua e ?aoeoaeueiua aeaenoaey,
/oiau aeaoue eiioeuen ?aaeueiui ?aoi?iai, i?aiaeieaoue ia?iiiia
iieeoe/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea e eia?oeeth noa?ie
ieaiiai-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie nenoaiu.

Iinea eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai a yiaa?a—ia?oa 1992 a. aue e?aoeia?aiaiiue
oie, aneaae ca eioi?ui ?uiie ia/ae aeiaieueii auno?i ianuuaoueny
oiaa?iie iannie. E naaiaeiy, oioy eciaeeey iao, oiaa?iue aeaoeoeeo anee
ia en/ac, oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, ia?anoae auoue aaaeouei oaeoi?ii ?uiea.
Aieaa oiai, iiyaeeenue ?aaeueiua i?eciaee oi?ie?iaaiey ?uiea iio?aaeoaey
(a ia i?iecaiaeeoaey, eae ?aiueoa), o. a. ii?iaeueiiai ?uiea.

Ii naiia aeaaiia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iaeiiaoe-oi ca?aaioae ?oaeue,
ia/aea iiauoaoueny ?ieue aeaiaa, eioi?ua i?e aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie
nenoaia auiieiyee anaai eeoue oi?iaeueioth ?an/aoioth ooieoeeth,
iiyaeeinue aieueoia no?aieaiea eo ca?aaaouaaoue, aicieeee ia?aua
i?eciaee yeiiiie/aneie iioeaaoeee e o?oaeo (i?aaaea, a naiiieoiaaiie, a
ia a athaeaeaoiie noa?a), noae iaiyoueny iaioaeeoao ianaeaiey a noi?iio
i?eiyoey ?uii/iuo oeaiiinoae, i?aaei?eyoey e ianaeaiea ia/aee iaiyoue
naia iiaaaeaiea e i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e ?uii/iui oneiaeyi, noieeioaoenue
n iiauie iauaeoeaiuie ?aaeeyie. I?e yoii ?acei nie?aoeeinue e
ea/anoaaiii eciaieeinue ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a yeiiiieeo.
I?aaeiaa eiiaiaeiia oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia ana aieueoa caiauaaony ?uieii, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaie,
eiieo?aioeeae ca ?ano?nu e iieoiaoaey. I?aaeoaeuenoai oaia?ue
?ani?aaeaeyao ia iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, a aeaiueae, eueaioiua e?aaeeou e
noaneaeee. Ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o yoi aiaoaoaeuenoai noaei aieaa
eiaeeeaoeaiui, ia i?yiui, a einaaiiui, i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia eioa?anu,
yeiiiie/aneee i?aaiaoeci.

Iniai neaaeoao neacaoue i i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe,
aaea oaeaea aeinoeaioou aaaeiua oniaoe.

Aieueoa anaai i?iaeaeioeanue “iaeay i?eaaoecaoeey” — ia?aoiae a /anoioth
nianoaaiiinoue iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee. Oaea e ia?oo 1994 a. auei
i?eaaoece?iaaii 70% iauaeoia oi?aiaee, iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e auoiaiai
ianeoaeeaaiey n /eneii caiyouo aei 200 /ae. Eae i?aaeei, a yoie noa?a
oaea iiyaeeny oicyei, /anoiue nianoaaiiee, aa?ouee ia naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nianoaaiiue aecian.

Neiaeiaa aeaei ianoiyei n “aieueoie i?eaaoecaoeeae” — ia?aoiaeii a
/anoioth nianoaaiiinoue e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoee e iniaaiii eo
iauaaeeiaiee ii oaoiieiae/aneiio i?eciaeo. Caeanue eaeao i?ioeann
ia?ae/iie i?eaaoecaoeee, ?acainoaea?noaeaiey e aeoeeiie?iaaiey. A
ioee/ea io “iaeie i?eaaoecaoeee” a “aieueoie” iao /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiiai e
ioaaonoaaiiiai nianoaaiieea, ninoiyuaai ec iaeiiai eee a?oiiu
aeaaeaeueoeaa. Caeanue aua iio?aaoaony iiiainoaaeeeiue e aeeeoaeueiue
ia?aoiae e aeaenoaeoaeueiie /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Oai ia iaiaa, ii
aeaiiui ia eiiaoe 1997 a., aieaa 3/4 i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aai/eo oaea o?oaeyony
a iaainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a. Ii i?iecaiaeeo aieaa 1/2 AII. Ia
i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo niaae i?iaeoeoeee a n?aaeiai ia 10%
iaiueoa, /ai ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo. Caeanue aieaa noaaeeueia /eneaiiinoue
?aaioathueo, auoa ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

A /enea iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i iaeuecy ia
neacaoue e i oii, /oi iinea iaeaieaa o?oaeiiai 1992 a. neooaoeey ai
iiiaeo ioiioaieyo noaea oeo/oaoueny. Oiaiueoeeenue oaiiu eioeyoeee,
oaeaeinue ecaaaeoueny io eiii?oa ca?ia, /oi ?aiueoa aiiaua eacaeinue
iainouanoaeiie ia/oie. A 1993—1997 aa. aeinoeaiooi e?oiiia
iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina, a aaethoiua caianu no?aiu
caiaoii aic?inee. Ia?yaeo n ia?aaioathueie eee ieioi ?aaioathueie
i?aaei?eyoeyie i?aeoe/anee a eaaeaeie io?anee eiathony aunieiyooaeoeaiua
i?aaei?eyoey, i?iecaiaenoai o eioi?uo a oneiaeyo iauaai niaaea iinoiyiii
?anoao. Aeaaea oa?aeoa? naiiai niaaea a 1995—1997 aa. i?eia?ae a
ecaanoiii niunea iieiaeeoaeueiue iooaiie. Ii noae ii?aaeaeyoueny ia
?aniaaeii i?aaeieo iaae?anioaeeeaineeo e aioo?enyaianeeo naycae, a
ni?inii. Ni?in ia iiiaea oiaa?u oaea ianuuai, e aeey oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa o?aaoaony aai niaa?oainoaiaaiea ia iniiaa ?acaeoey
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, IOI, iiaea?iecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneie aacu e
o. ae. Yoi ii?iaeueiay neooaoeey a ii?iaeueiuo ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo. Iinea
niaaea, eae ecaanoii, neaaeoao iaeeaeaiea e iiaeuai, — ii?iaeueiua oacu
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea.

Niaae i?iecaiaenoaa aucuaaaony a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ia?anoaieai
iaieaoaaeae. A 1992 a. anieane iaieaoaaeae oaeaeinue iiaaneoue ca n/ao
o/aoa acaeiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe. Ii n 1993 a. ii noae ?anoe aiiaue e a,
1997 a. ninoaaee ii/oe 770 o?ei. ?oa., a oii /enea nauoa 50 o?ei. ?oa.
eeoue aeey athaeaeaoiie noa?u.

A 1993 a. ?icie/iue oiaa?iiai?io a ?aaeueiuo oeaiao aic?in ia 2%,
?aaeueiua aeioiaeu ianaeaiey — ia 16%. A 1994 a. yoa oaiaeaioeey
i?iaeieaeeeanue: eo ?ino ninoaaee niioaaonoaaiii 0,1 e 12%. Oeo/oeeanue
iauay neooaoeey ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea. A 1995 e 1996 aa. niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeieaeaeny, ii oaiiu eioeyoeee oiaiueoeeenue. A 1997 a.
i?iecioae ia?aeii: niaae i?iecaiaenoaa i?ae?aoeeny, iiyaeeenue ?aaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey eiaanoeoeee. Iioiaea, /oi yeiiiieea aeaoeoeeoa,
yeiiiieea iaaeinoa/, ii?iaeaeaiiay “?aaeueiui nioeeaeeciii” n aai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ieaie?iaaieai e i?aiaa?aaeaieai e ieaoaaeaniiniaiiio
ni?ino, inoaeanue iicaaee. Aia?aaee, eacaeinue, ii?iaeueiue ?uiie, aaea
ana ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ioeoaea eaeoo
neaiaeu i?iecaiaeeoaeth, /oi i?iecaiaeeoue e ii eaeie oeaia i?iaeaaaoue.
Iaeiaei 1998 a. i?eaae e eiui ?acoeueoaoai. Auea aeiiouaia na?ueaciay
no?aoaae/aneay ioeaea a eo?na ?aoi?i, naycaiiay n ioeacii no?aiu io
acyouo ia naay aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e aeaaaeueaaoeeae ?oaey. I?e/eiu
yoie ioeaee aua aei eiioea ia auyniaiu.

Ii naiia aeaaiia: iai oaeaeinue ecaaaeaoue inouanoaeaiey no?aoiuo
i?aaeneacaiee, eioi?ua nuiaeenue e aua nuiyony ec ono i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iiiiceoeee, a eiaiii i?aaeneacaiee iaecaaaeiiai ?aniaaea ?innee,
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu, aieiaea, no?aoiiai iao?iaeay, aeaaioneie
aac?aaioeoeu, nioeeaeueiiai ac?uaa e o. ae.

A oeaeii iiaeii auaeaeeoue 3 yoaia a ?acaeoee ?inneeneeo yeiiiie/aneeo
?aoi?i iinea 1992 a.

Ia?aue yoai: 1992—1994 aa. Yoi yoai e?eceniiai ?acaeoey, ioee/aaoeeny
aieueoei niaaeii i?iecaiaenoaa, iniaaiii eiaanoeoeee. Ninoaaeythuea
niaaea: auno?ay aeaieeeoa?ecaoeey yeiiiieee e ?aceia nie?auaiea aiaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?ae?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia a?aaeaeaineiai
iacia/aiey, ia iieueciaaaoeony aioo?aiiei ni?inii, ?acaae NNN? e NYAa
(Niaao Yeiiiie/aneie Acaeiiiiiiue), i?eaaaeoee e ?ac?ooaieth aaaeiuo
aiaoieo aeey ?innee ?uieia, e, iaeiiaoe, ia?anoathuea o?oaeiinoe,
naycaiiua n ?aaeueiie nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeeae no?aiu.

Ii ?aaeueiiio e aieueoiio n/aoo ieeaeie “oieiaie oa?aiee” aeey yeiiiieee
ia auei (anee ia n/eoaoue iaaae aeaiaaeiuo naa?aaeaiee ianaeaiey,
eioi?ua e ?aiueoa ia iaoiaeeee oiaa?iiai iie?uoey). Nioeeaeueiue ie? a
iauanoaa ia?ooai ia aue, oioy ca iaai i?eoeinue caieaoeoue onooieaie
iiiiceoeee. A oeaiu ia oieueei au?inee, ii e noaea iaiyoueny eo
no?oeoo?a, i?eaeeaeaynue e iauaie?iaie. Oai ia iaiaa, a 1993 a.
eioeyoeey inoaaaeanue ia aunieii o?iaia, /oi iaaoaii aeeyei ia aeeiaieeo
eiaanoeoeee, iiyoiio a 1994 a. i?iecaiaenoai aiiaue ?acei nie?aoeeinue.

Aoi?ie yoai: 1994—1996 aa. Noaea aeaoi?ie?iaaoueny ii?iaeueiay ?uii/iay
eio?ano?oeoo?a, ia/aeinue e?aaeeoiaaiea yeiiiieee ii iieiaeeoaeueiie
i?ioeaioiie noaaea (?aiueoa iia /anoi auea io?eoeaoaeueiie). A 1995 e
1996 aa. oaeaeinue na?ueacii ineaaeoue eioeyoeeth. Iaeiaei niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aiaeieaoue i?aaeoaeuenoai ia niiaei. Ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea
no?aiu, oai ia iaiaa, ia?aciaaeinue onoie/eaia iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei.

O?aoee yoai: 1996—1998 aa. Aeaaiui aii?inii noae aii?in i aiciaiiaeaiee
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Auea caiaoii nieaeaia, a caoai i?aeoe/anee
iiaaaeaeaia eioeyoeey. Oiaiueoaia noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey Oeaio?iaaiea,
iiyaeeenue ia?aua i?eciaee ia/eiathuaainy yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, ia
iae?iyeiiiie/aneii o?iaia aeinoeaiooa noaaeeecaoeey. Ia ia?aaeiee ieai
auoee i?iaeaiu ?aoi?i ia iee?io?iaia, i?aaeaea anaai ia o?iaia
i?aaei?eyoee. Ii a aaaonoa 1998 a. ianooiee naie, ciaiaiiaaaoee ia?aoiae
e neaaeothuaio yoaio ?aoi?i.

Iiiiceoeey i?iaeieaeaao naia ianooieaiea e o?aaoao ?aaeeeaeueiie niaiu
eo?na ?aoi?i. *ai iauynieoue iai?eie?eiinoue iiiiceoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiio eo?no yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, ?acaoe e?eoeee n aa
noi?iiu?

Ai-ia?auo, iinoaeueaeae ii noa?ui niaaoneei a?aiaiai, eiaaea aue aaeeeee
Niaaoneee Nithc, e aeeee iu eo/oa, /ai nae/an, e i?iecaiaenoai a?iaea au
ia iaaeaei. “ss aiaeece?oth oi, /oi anoue e /oi auei, — aiai?eo
oeeinio-yiea?aio, auaoee niaaoneee aeenneaeaio A. Ceiiaueaa, — e
i?eoiaeo e auaiaeo: oa nenoaia aeanoe e oio nioeeaeueiue no?ie, /oi
nouanoaiaaee aei 1985 aiaea, auee aa?oeiie ?onneie enoi?ee. Yoi
iioeiaeueii. Anee au iiaeii auei e oiio aa?iooueny nae/an, yoi auei au
aaee/aeoaa aeaai”.*

I?eia?ii oo aea oaeeaeoaeueioth iuneue auneacuaaao e ?inneeneee
yeiiiieno N. Aoaaiia: “N oi/ee c?aiey e?eoa?eaa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
iioaioeeae niaaoneie iiaeaee iaeaieaa aunie, anee n?aaieaaoue aa n
ainoaea?noaaiii-eaieoaeenoe/aneie nooiaiueth. Iia aiieia iicaieyao
niaaeeieoue a iaeii oeaeia i?ioeann oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia,
nie?auaiey ecaea?aeae e iiauoaiey ea/anoaa… A aeaiiii ioiioaiee
niaaoneay iiaeaeue iaiiiai iia?aaeaea ethaoth ae?oaoth. Aoaeouaa
i?eiaaeeaaeeo iiaeaee, aiaeiae/iie niaaoneie”.**

Ae?oaie yeiiiieno, Y. Aaneeueaa, n/eoaao, /oi “a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e
naiaio aeaaiiio aeinoeaeaieth a noa?a oicyenoaiaaiey /aeiaa/anoai i?eoei
eeoue iaaeaaii. Yoi aeinoeaeaiea — oeaio?aeeciaaiiay ieaiiaay yeiiiieea,
naiaiaeiay io ?anoi/eoaeueiie noeoee ?uiea, aa iauanoaaiii a?aaeiuo
e?eoa?eaa eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau i?iecaiaeeoaeae, io aa?uea?ia /anoiiai
eioa?ana. Yoi aeinoeaeaiea auei aeinoiyieai NNN? e ae?oaeo
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai…”.***

I?eaaaeaiiua oeeoaou iieacuaatho, /oi ?aaaioenoneea iano?iaiey a iaoai
iauanoaa ia oieueei ioe?uoi auneacuaathony, ii e iieuecothony
iiaeaea?aeeie cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ianaeaiey. Aieaa oiai, iiiaea
aunieiiinoaaeaiiua eeoea a aunoai ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu aua ia oae aeaaii
oiaea ia ne?uaaee naie aioe?uii/iua acaeyaeu e ioe?uoi aiai?eee i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aica?aoa e oeaio?aeeciaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth yeiiiieeie,
aic?iaeaeaiey ieaiiauo ia/ae, i?yiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo (I. Eiaia, iai?eia?). E
naaiaeiy yoa i?iaeaia oiaea nouanoaoao.

Aeoaeiiay i?e/eia noieue na?ueaciiai e iianiiai iieiaeaiey a oii, /oi a
no?aia ia noi?ie?iaaeny iiuiue n?aaeiee nioeeaeueiue eeann, e?iaii
caeioa?aniaaiiue a nio?aiaiee ?aaeueiiai ?aoi?iaoi?neiai eo?na, a
aunieie iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeaa e oeaee, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiie aieueoeinoaii
niciaoaeueiiai ianaeaiey no?aiu. A oaeie aoiinoa?a eaaei iiaoo
i?ioeaaoaoue iiaa?oiinoiua iiioeenoneea e iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea eicoiae.
I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aaaeiaeoae iaoeeiiaeueiie oeaeueth aeieaeii noaoue
nicaeaiea nia?aiaiiiai i?aaiaiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa ni niaoaiiie
nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiie ?uii/iie, yooaeoeaiie e eiieo?aioiniiniaiie
yeiiiieeie.

Ai-aoi?uo, nii?ioeaeaiea ?aaeueiiio ?aoi?iaoi?neiio eo?no iauyniyaony
?acaoeii iauaaoaeueneeo iano?iaiee a iauanoaa, oneeaieai iieeoe/aneie
?iee e?eieiaeueiuo no?oeoo?, ia neeiiiuo e ?aaeenoe/aneiio iiieiaieth
yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia. E niaeaeaieth, iauaaoaeueneea iano?iaiey ia
aaca?aaeiu: iie i?yii naycaiu n oo?aoie i?ioanneiiaeecia.

A-o?aoueeo, aea?ienoneee neiae?ii, eioi?ui ioaa/aii iauanoai,
iniiauaaaony ia oieueei ia iinoaeueaee ii i?ioeiio, ii e ia
ianiaa?oainoaa ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeee. Iu aeeaai eo/oa, a
i?iecaiaenoai iaaeaao iaiueoa, /ai iieacuaaao yoa noaoenoeea. Eoi
o/eouaaao iieiinoueth i?iaeoeoeeth a /anoiii naeoi?a, eiii?o aeaoaauo
oiaa?ia “/aeiieaie”, caiaoii oaaee/eaoaany /enei aeaeiauo e oo?enoneeo
iiacaeie ca ?oaaae, ianniaia /anoiia aeeeeuiia e aea/iia no?ieoaeuenoai?
Aei eiioea 1998 a. aani?aoeaaeaioiia ?acaeoea ia oiia iauaai niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa iieo/eee oi?aiaey e aaieianeia aeaei — ?aaeueiua aieeaau
ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea. I/aaeaeii, ianoaiao oi a?aiy,
eiaaea yoe eaieoaeu iieaeoo a i?iecaiaenoai. Iaeiaei iiiiceoeey
eniieuecoao ioeoeeaeueiua noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa
oiai, /oi ?aoi?iu aaciaaeaaeii i?iaaeeeenue.

A-/aoaa?ouo, nio?aiaiea ia aunieeo iinoao a ainoaea?noaa e a iaoea
iiiaeo ?aaaioenonee iano?iaiiuo ia/aeueieeia ec i?aaeiae niaaoneie
iiiaieeaoo?u, eioi?ui e oiio aea a i?eioeeia ia naienoaaiii ?uii/iia
iuoeaiea.

Iiiaea e?eoeee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i iiyoue i?aaeeaaatho ia i?inoi
iaaeeeoaeueiinoue e iinoaiaiiinoue eo ?aaeecaoeee, a /anoe/iue aica?ao
iacaae. I?e yoii, aeaeea?e?oy “iiaua iiaeoiaeu”, iie, ii nouanoao,
i?aaeeaaatho eaeae iieeoe/anee iaaie?ioeaoaeny oanaoeaoianeie eee
ayea/aienoneie i?ia?aiiu. A ioee/ea io iineaaeieo, aaea, ia iao acaeyae,
i?inoi io?eoeaeny ?uii/iue oa?aeoa? ?aoi?i, i?ia?aiia aeaaeaieeia N.
Oaoaeeia, E. Aaaeeeia e ae?. i?ecuaaea e iieo?uii/iinoe, /anoe/iiio,
ainnoaiiaeaieth ieaiiai-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo no?oeoo?. Oa, eoi ?aiueoa
noiye o enoieia ?uii/iie i?ia?aiiu “500 aeiae”, noaee i?ecuaaoue e
onoaiiaeaieth ainoaea?noaii oeene?iaaiiuo oeai e aeioiaeia, oneeaieth
i?yiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo aieioue aei
aic?iaeaeaiey eaeiai-oi iiaeiaey Ainieaia, ainoaea?noaaiiie ieaiiaie
iiaeaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, a cia/eo, e e aica?aoo aeaoeoeeoiie
yeiiiieee. Eiaiii yoa iieo?uii/iay yeiiiieea “?uii/iiai nioeeaeecia”
auea ?ac?ooaia a aiaeu i?aaeaiey I. Ai?aa/aaa, aa ?ac?ooaiea e ii?iaeeei
?uii/ioth i?ia?aiio “500 aeiae”, iie?aynue ia eioi?oth
aeueoeeinei-aaeaea?ianeay i?ia?aiia iioea aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiui iooai e
iaa?aea iiiai i/eia.

Aaoi?u aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?ia?aii naea?aeeaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i,
ii-aeaeeiiio, caauee, /oi a neeo ecaanoiuo o?aaeeoeee oaeanoi/aiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee a ?innee ooo aea i?aa?auaaony
a oneeaiea aaeieieno?e?iaaiey, eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai eiioeuena.
E /oi au ie aiai?eee i “ieaie?iaaiee” a ssiiiee e ai O?aioeee, oai
i?e?iaea aai a i?eioeeia eiay: eiaeeeaoeaiay, einaaiiay, e e oiio aea a
?uii/iie e oeeaeeeciaaiiie n?aaea, a ia a eaca?ia e ia neeie.

I?ia?aiiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa A.
*a?iiiu?aeeia

N i?eoiaeii e ?oeiaiaenoao ?inneeneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii A. *a?iiiu?aeeia a
aeaeaa?a 1992 a. ai anai ie?a auee naycaiu iianaiey iieiiai i?ae?auaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a ?innee. E yoiio iiaoaeaeaee aai cayaeaiey i
aioiaiinoe ai?ioueny n eioeyoeeae “iaiiiaoa?iuie iaoiaeaie”, i
iaaeiiouaiee ai?aaeue “oieiaie oa?aiee” e auaeaeaiee ieceii?ioeaioiiai
e?aaeeoa oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiio eiiieaeno a ?acia?a 200 ie?ae. ?oa. Ii
aeaaea iiaeienae iinoaiiaeaiea i i?yiii eiio?iea iaae oeaiaie ia ?yae
oiaa?ia, eioi?ia /a?ac aeaa iaaeaee ioiaiee. Iaeiaei e 1993, e 1994, e
iineaaeothuea aiaeu, iieacaee, /oi *a?iiiu?aeei ia ioioae io
yaiethoeeiienoneie i?aeoeee oia?aiii ?aoi?iaoi?neiai eo?na aoi?ie
iieiaeiu 1992 a. e, ii nouanoao, aaae no?aio a ninoiyiea canoiy ?aoi?i,
ia ionooiay iacaae. A 1997 a. n i?eoiaeii a i?aaeoaeuenoai iieiaeuo
?aoi?iaoi?ia ?aoi?iu noaee i?iaiaeeoueny aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii e
aeoeaii. Ii a ia?oa 1998 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai *a?iiiu?aeeia ooei a ionoaaeo
ec-ca ianiiniaiinoe e ?aaeeeaeueiui ?aoi?iai, a a aaaonoa neo/eeny
aeaoieo ec-ca neaainoe e iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe naieo ?aoi?iaoi?ia.

A ia?aua ianyoeu i?aauaaiey o aeanoe (ii e?aeiae ia?a, aei ai?aey 1993
a.) i?aaeoaeuenoai A. *a?iiiu?aeeia aiiaue aa?ioeinue e i?ieioeyoeeiiiie
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaie iieeoeea. Ianiio?y ia iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa,
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay yienney i?iaeieaeaeanue. Iinea aea ai?aeueneiai
?aoa?aiaeoia i aeiaa?ee I?aceaeaioo iiceoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa oe?aieeenue,
e iii iaeanoi/eei naith e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo, oaiiu eioeyoeee
noaee nieaeaoueny. Ii yoio aioeeioeyoeeiiiue eo?n aiiaue iiaeaa?any
e?eoeea iiiiceoeee iinea ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ia a aeaeaa?a 1993 a., e
i?aaeoaeuenoai iiyoue niya/eei naith yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, onooiea
o?aaiaaieyi aee?aeoi?ia e?oiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeaea
anaai aiaiiiai e aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena.

I?iaeo athaeaeaoa ia 1994 a. aucaae ao?th a Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia.
Iineaaeiyy o?aaiaaea oaaee/aiey e?aaeeoia e noaneaeee i?iecaiaenoao,
nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey. I?aaeoaeuenoai aiiaue ionooieei, caionoea
ia/aoiue noaiie. Oeaiu e athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo iiyoue iiiiecee aaa?o.
Iiaeiaiia iayoieeiaia aeaeaeaiea, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaa i
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e ia?aoeoaeueiinoe eo?na, i?iaeieaeaeinue aieioue
aei 1997 a. Aieaa oiai, ec-ca aunieie eioeyoeee iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa a
1994 a. ieacaeinue aieaa aeoaieei, /ai a 1993 a.

Oae aea eae e i?aaeoaeuenoai A. Aaeaea?a, i?aaeoaeuenoai A.
*a?iiiu?aeeia i?eiyei ?yae i?ia?aii yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. A 1993 a. iii
?ac?aaioaei e i?eiyei i?ia?aiio “?acaeoea ?aoi?i e noaaeeecaoeey
?inneeneie yeiiiieee” ia 1993—1995 aa. Eaoii 1994 a. iiyaeeanue iiaay
i?ia?aiia. A iae niaea?aeaeny oacen ia oaea ia/aaoaeny noaaeeecaoeee
?inneeneie yeiiiieee. I?iaicaeaoaeenue oeaee aiciaiiaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, nieaeaiea o?iaiy eioeyoeee aei 3—5% a ianyoe e
eiioeo 1995 a., nie?auaiea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa aei 5—6% AII e o.
ae. Eiia/ii, yoe oeaee a oeacaiiua n?iee aeinoeaioou ia auee. Eeoue a
1997—1998 aa. neooaoeey noaea oeo/oaoueny. A 1998 a. iiyaeeanue iiaay
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia, eacaeinue, n aieaa ?aaeenoe/iuie oeaeyie.

Ii iiaieth ?ac?aaio/eeia yoeo i?ia?aii, aeey eo ?aaeecaoeee iaiaoiaeeii
auei i?iaeieaeaoue oia?aiii-ia?aie/eoaeueioth oeiainiai-e?aaeeoioth
iieeoeeo. Iniiaiuie aa yeaiaioaie yaeythony: nie?auaiea aeioaoeee e
eueaio, aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia; iaeiaiaay ?aoi?ia; ia?aeeth/aiea ?anoiaeia
ainoaea?noaa n iiaeaea?aeee noa?uo e aania?niaeoeaiuo i?iecaiaenoa ia
noeioee?iaaiea ?inoa /anoiiai naeoi?a.

Ia neiaao ana i?aaeeueii. Iaeiaei ia aeaea a 1993—1997 aa. yeiiiie/aneay
iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa *a?iiiu?aeeia ia ioee/aeanue
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth e ia i?eianea iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia. I?aaeaea
anaai, ia auea aeinoeaiooa iae?iyeiiiie/aneay noaaeeecaoeey, /oi noaei
iniaaiii i/aaeaeii, eiaaea i?iecioae ecaanoiue e?ao ia aaethoiie ae?aea
11 ieoya?y 1994 a.

A yoio aeaiue Ieienoa?noai oeiainia i?iaeaei Oeaio?aeueiiio aaieo ieiei
450 iei. aeiee. ii eo?no ieiei 4000 ?oa. ca aeieea?, au?o/ea oai naiui
ieiei 2 o?ei. ?oa. Ana yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai auei aeaaea
caeioa?aniaaii a aeanoaaeeecaoeee aaethoiiai e oeiainiaiai ?uieia. Ai
anyeii neo/aa, iii yaii noeioee?iaaei oeiainiaue e?ao iiiaeo
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia aeey oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e
iiaaoaiey naiae caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoeyi. Ana yoi iaianei
na?ueaciue oua?a ia oieueei eiiia?/aneei aaieai, ii e cia/eoaeueiie
/anoe ianaeaiey no?aiu.

Ia ii?aaaeaeenue e ae?oaea i?ia?aiiiua oeaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
*a?iiiu?aeeia. ?ac?aaioaiiua i?ia?aiiu iaia/aee i?ae?auaiea niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa oaea a 1993 a. I?e yoii eieiiioeaii yeiiiie/aneiai
iaeeaeaiey i?eciaaaeanue eiaanoeoeeiiiay noa?a, aaea oaiiu ?inoa
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a 1993 e 1994 aa. iaeeaeaeenue ia o?iaia 10%
aaeaaiaeii. Ia aeaea aea iie ana a?aiy nieaeaeenue. Ia ii?aaaeaeenue
i?iaiicu e a ioiioaiee o?iaiae eioeyoeee e ?acia?ia athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa.

Aieaa oiai, i?aaeoaeuenoai *a?iiiu?aeeia aianoi oiai, /oiau any/anee
niaeaenoaiaaoue ?uii/iui i?aia?aciaaieyi a no?aia, i?eiyei ?yae
aioe?uii/iuo ia?. Oae, iii oaeanoi/eei i?aaeea yenii?oa e eiii?oa ?yaea
oiaa?ia, ia?ooea o?aaiaaiey naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee, i?eiyei
aioeeeaa?aeueiua aeieoiaiou ii ?aaoee?iaaieth ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Ianiio?y ia i?iaaaeaiioth eeaa?aeecaoeeth oeai e aea?aaoee?iaaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee (aua i?e Aaeaea?a), ?yae aaaeiuo io?aneae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa nio?aiytho i?aaeiee noaoon, ia ia?aoiaeyo ia
?uii/iua ?aeuenu, /oi yaii ia niioaaonoaoao i?ia?aiiai e eioa?anai
?uii/iie o?ainoi?iaoeee. Oae, ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoaaony, /oi naiie aiaaoie
e i?eaueueiie noa?ie yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?innee yaeyaony
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen. Ii eiaiii yoa “cieioay aeeea” ia
eeaa?aeeciaaia e ia ?acoe?oiiaia aei neo ii?. Aieaa oiai, yoio eiiieaen
iieo/aao ia?iiiua noaneaeee e eueaiou ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa e
iaoiaeeony iiae aai i?yiui ath?ie?aoe/aneei oi?aaeaieai. Aecian ia
ioaeaeai io ainoaea?noaa, /oi iaaeiionoeii aeey c?aeie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee.

E, oai ia iaiaa, ianiio?y ia ana yoe iaaaoeaiua yaeaiey,
ia?aoeoaeueiinoue e i?ioeai?a/eainoue yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa A. *a?iiiu?aeeia, ?inney nio?aiyao iioaioeeae aeey
ia?aoiaea e iiaiio yoaio yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, eiaaea ii?a ?aaeeciaaoue
ia i?aeoeea oa i?ia?aiiiua o?aaiaaiey ii aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, eioi?ua naii aea i?aaeoaeuenoai iaiaeiie?aoii
auaeaeaaei e iinoiyiii ia auiieiyei.

Eaeea oneiaey iaaei niaethnoe, e eaeea oaeoe/aneea ei??aeoe?iaee,
i?iaeieaeathuea e oaeoaeythuea eo?n yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, iaaei
naeaeaoue, /oiau aeiaeoueny oniaoa?

Aeaaiui oneiaeai oniaoa yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea iieeoe/aneiai i?eie?aiey,
i?ae?auaiey iieeoe/aneeo aaoaeee e aiaeoeeiciuo auiaaeia ai eiy
aeinoeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie oeaee, eioi?oth neaaeoao naeaeaoue ciaiaiai
iaoaai ?acaeoey. Ia yoii iooe aeinoeaioou ioaeiua ?acoeueoaou.
Eniieieoaeueiay (I?aaeoaeuenoai) e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay (Ainoaea?noaaiiay
Aeoia) aeanoe, iioiaea, ia/aee nio?oaeie/aoue, e oaea iao oie
iai?eie?eiinoe e a?aaeaeaaiinoe a eo ioiioaieyo, eioi?ua iaaethaeaeenue
aua nianai iaaeaaii. Aeoineea eiiioienou yaii ae?aeootho a noi?iio
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoecia, e I?aceaeaio e i?aiuea?-ieieno?, A. I?eiaeia,
o/eouaatho a naieo aeaenoaeyo ia?eiaoee iieeoe/aneiai ?aneeaaea a
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia.

Aoi?ia oneiaea ninoieo a i?eiyoee nenoaiu caeiiia, nicaeathueo
?aaeueioth i?aaiaoth iniiao aeey caueou /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eeeaeaeaoeee i?anooiiinoe a no?aia, ?acaeoey
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, i?iaeieaeaiey aeaiie?aoecaoeee no?aiu. Yoio aeie
caeiiia aeieaeai noaoue ooiaeaiaioii i?aaiaiai a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa,
?aaee eioi?iai, ii nouanoao, e noieo i?iaiaeeoue yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu.

O?aouea oneiaea — i?eiyoea aeaaiiai i?ei?eoaoa a iieeoeea, eaeiaui
yaeyaony yeiiiieea, yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu. Iiae/eieoue iieeoeeo
eioa?anai yeiiiieee, aeecie ethaeae.

*aoaa?oia oneiaea caeeth/aaony a i?eaeaiee i?aaenoiyuei ?aoi?iai
iaaeeaaeauae ii?aeueii-i?aanoaaiiie iniiau, au?aaeathuaeny, i?aaeaea
anaai a niaethaeaiee aaaeiaeoeo i?aa /aeiaaea, a /anoiinoe i?aaa ia
aeeciue, ia o?oae, ia aacaaaeiia nouanoaiaaiea, ia ea/anoaaiiia
ia?aciaaiea e ?ane?uoea iioaioeee ee/iinoe, i?aaa auoue naiaiaeiui io
e?eieiaeueiiai aeeeoaoa, iaeiiaoe, a icaei?iaeaiee ii?aeueiiai eeeiaoa a
ioiioaieyo ainoaea?noaaiiuo /eiiaieeia e aeciana.

I?e nio?aiaiee oaea i?eiyoie iauae no?aoaaee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i,
i?eaioe?iaaiiie i?aaeaea anaai ia ai?ueao n eioeyoeeae e iaania/aiea
oeiainiaie noaaeeueiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii aianoe a iaa neaaeothuea
ei??aeoeau oaeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeii oneeeoue eiino?oeoeaioth ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a
iaania/aiee i?iaeieaeaiey e oaeoaeaiey ?aoi?i, /oi ia icia/aao,
anoanoaaiii, aica?aoa e aee?aeoeaiiio eiiaiaeiaaieth e ieaie?iaaieth,
i?yiui iaoiaeai oicyenoaiaaiey. Iniaaiii aaaeii naaiaeiy ia/aoue
noeioee?iaaoue eiaanoeoeeiiiue i?ioeann.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaaei ?aoeoue, iaeiiaoe, i?iaeaio iaieaoaaeae, noaaooth
aaicaeai nioeeaeueiiai iaaeiaieuenoaa a no?aia. E oioy iaieaoaeueueeii
/anoi yaeyaony ia i?aaeoaeuenoai, a i?aaei?eieiaoaee e ianoiua i?aaiu
aeanoe, ?ieue oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ?aoaiee yoie i?iaeaiu ana
?aaii aanueia cia/eoaeueia.

A-o?aoueeo, aeaaii i?eoei a?aiy aeaoue ia?iaeo ?aaeueii ii/oanoaiaaoue
oeo/oaiea aai aeecie. Yoi aaaeii eae n oi/ee c?aiey oneeaiey
nioeeaeueiie i?eaioe?iaaiiinoe ?aoi?i aiiaua, oae e a eioa?anao
oaaee/aiey oiiaea iio?aaeaiey a /anoiinoe. Iineaaeiaa iaiaoiaeeii
iaania/eoue ia aeaeueiaeoei nie?auaieai eiaanoeoeee, a eiaiii
oaaee/aieai ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia e
oneoa, iiauoaieai eo ea/anoaa. Caeanue aac na?ueaciiai naeaeaa a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ia iaieoenue.

I?iaeieaeaiea ?aoi?i aeieaeii iie?aoueny ia oe?ieoth iauanoaaiioth
iiaeaea?aeeo, ia aa?o a eo iiceoeaiue ?acoeueoao. Eia/a oaeoth
iiaeaea?aeeo iieo/ao iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea, naia?aoenoneea aeueoa?iaoeau.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ii?a i?iaiaeeoue ?acaa?ioooth i?iiuoeaiioth iieeoeeo,
iai?aaeaiioth ia noeioee?iaaiea IOI, iiaeaea?aeeo aunieioaoiieiae/iiai
naeoi?a a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?ac?aaioaoue nenoaio oaa?aeuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aa?aioee aeey /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee (a oii /enea eiino?aiiuo), ia?aeoe io
?ac?aoeoaeueiiai e ?aaeno?aoeeiiiiio i?eioeeio i?e nicaeaiee iiaiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

A-iyouo, i?e iiaeaea?aeea i?iecaiaenoaa aaaeii iie?aoueny ia neeueiua,
yooaeoeaiua i?aaei?eyoey e iinoaiaiii ecaaaeyoueny io neaauo e
iayooaeoeaiuo. Iaaei ia/aoue i?iaaaeaiea aaie?ionoa ia?aioaaaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, iinoaiaiii e oaa?aei ?anoe?yy yoio i?ioeann, aaanoe a
aeaenoaea iaoaieci naiaoeee e any/anee noeioee?iaaoue caei?iaoth
eiieo?aioeeth iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie. Eia/a ?aoi?iu aoaeoo eaeoe
ii-i?aaeiaio iaaeeaiii e i?ioeai?a/eai, ia aeaaay iaiaoiaeeiiai yooaeoa.
?aaeueiue i?ia?ann iaiuneei aac eeeaeaeaoeee ia?aioaaaeueiuo
i?iecaiaenoa e iiaeaea?aeaiey aac?aaioeoeu ia iioeiaeueiii o?iaia. Oai
ia iaiaa, ca ia?eiae n 1994 ii 1996 a. Oaaea?aeueiia oi?aaeaiea ii
aeaeai i ianinoiyoaeueiinoe aicaoaeeei 1280 noaeaaiuo aeae ii i?eciaieth

i?aaei?eyoee aaie?ioaie. Ii eeoue 1,5% yoeo aeae caaa?oeeinue
iacia/aieai naiaoeee.

A-oanouo, iac?aea e ia?ac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey ?aaeeeaeueiie
iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu. Oaea ynii, /oi neiaeeaoayny iaeiaiaay nenoaia noaea
oi?iicii a i?iaaaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i.

Nieaeaiea noaaie iaeiaia ia i?eaueue, ?acia?ia IAeN, oi?iuaiea naiie
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu e ia?aoiae e iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth ii iio?aaeoaeueneiio, a
ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio i?eioeeio aeieaeiu noaoue i?eaioe?aie yoie
?aoi?iu.*

A-naaeueiuo, iaiaoiaeeii aianoe ei??aeoeau a oiae i?eaaoecaoeee. Iia
aeieaeia nicaeaaaoue e ?anoe?youe ?uiie, eaoaeece?iaaoue eiieo?aioeeth,
iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyoue ia no?oeoo?iua naeaeae a i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaaaoue
aeiiieieoaeueiua ?ano?nu aeey /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee. Ia aeaea aea
i?eaaoecaoeey nieioue e ?yaeii “aoenoao”, inoaaeyy eeoue iaaeaaeaeo ia
iineaaeothuea yoaiu a ia?aoiaea nianoaaiiinoe e ?aaeueiiio nianoaaiieeo.
Oieueei oneeaiea aeaeaeaiey nieco iiaeao iiauneoue yooaeo io
i?eaaoecaoeee.

Ia?aaeeaaaiue iaie a?aiaiiie ia?eiae — yoi ia?eiae ia oieueei
o?ainoi?iaoeee, ii e ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey. Anaaaea e aacaea ii
aue aeiaieueii a?yciui e a?aaeoaeueneei. Ii /a?ac iaai iaaei i?ieoe e
aeaeiooueny aia?aae — e c?aeiio ?uieo e a?aaeaeaineiio iauanoao. Oioei
iu oiai eee ia oioei, ii iu oaea aeeaai a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. E aa iaaei
niaa?oainoaiaaoue.

Aii?inu aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a no?aia, ia?aoiaea
yeiiiieee ia ?aeuenu, aaaeouea e c?aeiio e oeeaeeeciaaiiiio ?uieo,
yaeythony i?aaeiaoii ino?aeoae aioo?eiieeoe/aneie ai?ueau e a iaoe aeie.
Iiiiceoeeiiiia aieueoeinoai Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu, aicaeaaeyaiia
o?aeoeeae EI?O, no?aieony caaeiee?iaaoue ?aaeueiua ?uii/iua
i?aia?aciaaiey e iiaa?iooue ?acaeoea aniyoue. Aeey yoiai auiaoeaathony
caeiiu i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oaea i?eaaoece?iaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e
aica?aoa e ieaie?iaaieth.

A ia/aea 1998 a. ai o?aeoeee EI?O aue iiaeaioiaeai e ?acineai a eiieoaou
Aeoiu i?iaeo caeiia “I ainoaea?noaaiiii ieaia ainnoaiiaeaiey yeiiiieee e
oeo/oaiey iieiaeaiey ianaeaiey (aei 2000 a.) e i?ia?aiia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee (aei 2005 a.)”. A iai
niaea?aeeony iiyoaiiay noaia aeaeaeaiey no?aiu iacaae, — a /anoiinoe,
?a/ue eaeao i nicaeaiee iniaiai naeoi?a a yeiiiieea, aace?othuaainy ia
nio?aiaiee oauoi/iuo e iuia /anoi i?inoaeaathueo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua
iinooiyo ia niaea?aeaiea ainoaea?noaa. Aoaeoo nicaeaiu “ino?iaee
nioeeaeecia” a ?uii/iie n?aaea. ssnii, /oi ana yoi ia ioaa/aao aeaaiui
oaiaeaioeeyi e ia?niaeoeaai ie?iaiai ?acaeoey.

Neeu iiiiceoeee ?aaeueiui ?uii/iui ?aoi?iai naaiaeiy, iaeiaei, ia noieue
neeueiu e niei/aiiu, eae ?aiueoa.

EI?O eniuouaaao ?aneie ai aioo?aiieo ?yaeao e ino?oth e?eoeeo ni noi?iiu
aua aieaa eiina?aaoeaiuo iieeoe/aneeo oa/aiee, yaii ae?aeooao a noi?iio
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoecia. A ia?oee iuouathony oai?aoe/aneay e
eaeaieiae/aneay aii?oiinoue e ?uoeinoue. Iao y?eeo e aeeyoaeueiuo
oa?eciaoe/aneeo eeaea?ia. Ec iai?eie?eiie iiiiceoeee EI?O, iiaeaeoe,
oaea i?aa?aoeeanue a i?eie?eioth, eaeouoth ia i?aaiaoe/iua eiii?iiennu,
iiiiceoeeth, eioi?oth aiieia ono?aeaatho aeaenoaothuea i?aaeea
iieeoe/aneie ea?u. Ae aaaeiaa iieo/eoue iinou a i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /ai
auaiaeeoue “iannu” ia oeeoeu e iyoaaee. Ai anyeii neo/aa, ?oeiaiaeeoaee
EI?O ia ?ac i?iaiaa?eaaeenue ia naieo ia?oeeiuo ano?a/ao i oii, /oi eo
nie?iaaiiia aeaeaiea — aiaae?eoueny a ?inneeneea no?oeoo?u aeanoe e,
eiaaea eo aeeyiea noaiao aeinoaoi/iui, iiaa?iooue no?aio iacaae a noieue
ieeua eo na?aeoeo a?aiaia a?aaeiaaneiai canoiy e anaiauaai aeaaieaiey.

Auaiaeu

1. ?aaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a ?innee ia/aeenue eeoue n ?acaaeii
NNN?, iinea cai?aoa EINN e ioeaca io niaaoneie yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee.
?aoi?iu yoe eaeoo o?oaeii

e i?ioeai?a/eai. Iie aoaeoo i?iaeieaeaoueny aua aeieaia a?aiy.

2. ?aaeueiui ?uii/iui ?aoi?iai a ?innee i?aaeoanoaiaaei iyoue iiiuoie
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a NNN? a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae. Ana iie ia i?eaaee e
?uieo, ii ii?yaeeii ?anoaoaee noa?oth niaaoneoth ia?uii/ioth yeiiiieeo.

3. Ia?eiae ai?aa/aaneie ia?ano?ieee yaeeny iaeaieaa cia/eiui a
iiaeaioiaea ?aaeueiuo ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i. Ii aue naycai n ?ac?aaioeie
aaaeiie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu aeey ieo e iiyaeaieai ia?aie ?uii/iie
i?ia?aiiu (“500 aeiae”).

4. Ionoonoaea iniaie oai?ee o?ainoi?iaoeee io ia?uii/iie e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea eiiiaine?oaony iaee/eai eaeineaineie e iiiaoa?enoneie
eiioeaioeee, ia aaca eioi?uo e inouanoaeythony ia i?aeoeea ?uii/iua
?aoi?iu a ?aciuo no?aiao. ?inney eniieuecoao iaa eiioeaioeee.

5. Yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu Aaeaea?a, i?iaaaeaiiua a no?aia a 1992 a.,
eiaee eae iaaaoeaiua, oae e iiceoeaiua iineaaenoaey. A ethaii neo/aa iie
i?eianee a yeiiiieeo no?aiu iiaia ea/anoai a aeaea nicaeaiey ?uii/iie
eio?ano?oeoo?u, ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iiyaeaiey yeaiaioia
?uii/iiai iaoaiecia.

6. Yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu 1993—1998 aa. iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii A.
*a?iiiu?aeeia caiaaeeeeenue, ii ia nioee n caaeaiiiai ?onea. Aicieeee
iiaua o?oaeiinoe e i?ioeai?a/ey. Iaeiaei no?aia n i?eoiaeii iiaiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa anooieea a iiaue yoai yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

Ie?iaay yeiiiieea – A. I. Eoae?ia

No?.14 *?inneeneay aacaoa. 1992. 23 ai?.

No?.19 *I?aaaea. 1994. 22 ia?oa.

**Yeiiiieno. 1992. ? 6. N. 68,
70.

***Ia?aoiae e ?uieo: ai?ueaa
iiaiee. I., 1993. N. 29.

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