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Современная инфляция и ее особенности в России

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Ieai

Nouiinoue eioeyoeee e oi?iu aa
i?iyaeaiey……………………………………. 3

Aeaeu nia?aiaiiie eioeyoeee e oaeoi?u,

aa
ii?aaeaeythuea………………………………………………….
…………………………

Iniaaiiinoe eioeyoeee a
?innee…………………………………………………….

I. NOUIINOUe EIOEssOeEE E OI?IU AA I?IssAEAIEss

Eae yeiiiie/aneia yaeaiea eioeyoeey nouanoaoao oaea aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy.
N/eoaaony, /oi iia iiyaeeanue /ooue ee ia n aicieeiiaaieai aeaiaa, n
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai eioi?uo ia?ac?uaii naycaia.

Oa?iei eioeyoeey (io eaoeineiai inflatio – acaeooea) aia?aua noae
oiio?aaeyoueny a Naaa?iie Aia?eea a ia?eiae a?aaeaeaineie aieiu
1861-1865 aa. e iaicia/ee i?ioeann ?acaooaiey aoiaaeii-aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey. A XIX a. yoio oa?iei oiio?aaeyeny oaeaea a Aiaeee e O?aioeee.
Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iiiyoea eioeyoeee
iieo/eei a XX aaea iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, a a niaaoneie
yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a – n na?aaeeiu 20-o aiaeia.

Iaeaieaa iauaa, o?aaeeoeeiiiia ii?aaeaeaiea eioeyoeee – ia?aiieiaiea
eaiaeia ia?auaiey aeaiaaeiie iannie naa?o iio?aaiinoae oiaa?iiai?ioa,
/oi aucuaaao iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu e niioaaonoaaiii ?ino
oiaa?iuo oeai.

Iaeiaei ii?aaeaeaiea eioeyoeee eae ia?aiieiaiea eaiaeia aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey iaanoeaieaathueieny aoiaaeiuie aeaiueaaie iaeuecy n/eoaoue
iieiui. Eioeyoeey, oioy iia e i?iyaeyaony a ?inoa oiaa?iuo oeai, ia
iiaeao auoue naaaeaia eeoue e /enoi aeaiaaeiiio oaiiiaio.

Yoi neiaeiia nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea, ii?iaeaeaaiia aeeni?iii?oeeyie
aini?iecaiaenoaa a ?acee/iuo noa?ao ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. Eioeyoeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio ec iaeaieaa ino?uo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiiai
?acaeoey yeiiiieee ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a.

Eioeyoeey – yoi iiauoaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai a no?aia, eioi?ia aicieeei
a nayce n aeeeoaeueiui ia?aaiiaaneai ia aieueoeinoaa ?uieia a iieueco
ni?ina. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, eioeyoeey – yoi aeenaaeain iaaeaeo niaieoiiui
ni?inii e niaieoiiui i?aaeienaieai. Iacaaeneii io ninoiyiey aeaiaaeiie
noa?u oiaa?iua oeaiu iiaoo aic?anoe aneaaenoaea eciaiaiee a aeeiaieea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, oeeeee/aneeo e naciiiu eieaaaiee,
no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a nenoaia aini?iecaiaenoaa, iiiiiieecaoeee ?uiea,
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee, aaaaeaiey iiauo noaaie
iaeiaia, aeaaaeueaaoeee e ?aaaeueaaoeee aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu, eciaiaiey
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea, aicaeaenoaey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae, noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaee e o.i. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?ino oeai, aucuaaaony ?acee/iuie
i?e/eiaie. Ii ia anyeee ?ino oeai – eioeyoeey, e n?aaee iacaaiiuo auoa
i?e/ei ?inoa oeai aaaeii auaeaeeoue aeaenoaeoaeueii eioeyoeeiiiua.

*oi aea iiaeii ioianoe e aeaenoaeoaeueii eioeyoeeiiiui i?e/eiai ?inoa
oeai?

Ai-ia?auo, yoi aeeni?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue, eee ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia, au?aaeathuayny a aeaoeoeeoa
ainathaeaeaoa.

Ai-aoi?uo, eioeyoeeiiiue ?ino oeai iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue, anee
oeiaine?iaaiea eiaanoeoeee inouanoaeyaony aiaeiae/iuie iaoiaeaie,.
Iniaaiii eioeyoeeiiii iianiuie yaeythony eiaanoeoeee, naycaiiua n
ieeeoa?ecaoeeae yeiiiieee.

A-o?aoueeo, iauaa iiauoaiea o?iaiy oeai naycuaaaony ?acee/iuie oeieaie a
nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee n eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u ?uiea a XX aaea.
Yoa no?oeoo?a ana iaiueoa iaiiieiaao oneiaey niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee,
eiaaea ia ?uiea aeaenoaoao aieueoia /enei i?iecaiaeeoaeae, i?iaeoeoeey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeii?iaeiinoueth, ia?aeea eaieoaea ia cao?oaeiai.
Nia?aiaiiue ?uiie – yoi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ieeaiiieenoe/aneee
?uiie.

A ieeaiiieeno (ianiaa?oaiiue eiieo?aio) iaeaaeaao ecaanoiie noaiaiueth
aeanoe iaae oeaiie. E anee aeaaea ieeaiiieee ia ia?auie ia/eiatho “aiieo
oeai”, iie caeioa?aniaaiu a aa iiaeaea?aeaiee e oneeaiee.

A-/aoaa?ouo, n ?inoii “ioe?uoinoe” yeiiiieee oie eee eiie no?aiu
oaaee/eaaaony iianiinoue eiii?oe?oaiie eioeyoeee. A oneiaeyo iaeciaiiiai
eo?na aaethou no?aia eaaeaeue ?ac eniuouaaao aicaeaenoaea aiaoiaai
iiauoaiey oeai ia aaiceiua oiaa?u. Aiciiaeiinoe ai?ioueny n
eiii?oe?oaiie eioeyoeeae aeinoaoi/ii ia?aie/aiu.

A-iyouo, eioeyoeey i?eia?aoaao naiinaea?aeeaathuee oa?aeoa? a
?acoeueoaoa oae iacuaaaiuo eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee.

Iiiaea o/aiua a no?aiao Caiaaea e a iaoae no?aia iniai auaeaeytho yoio
oaeoi?, iiae/a?eeaay, /oi i?aiaeieaiea eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee
ianaeaiey e i?iecaiaeeoaeae – aaaeiaeoay (anee aiiaua ia aeaaiay)
caaea/a aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee.

II. AEAeU NIA?AIAIIIE EIOEssOeEE

E OAEOI?U, AA II?AAeAEssTHUEA

Nia?aiaiiie eioeyoeee i?enou ?yae ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae: anee
?aiueoa eioeyoeey iineea eieaeueiue oa?aeoa?, oi nae/an – iianaianoiue,
anaioaaouaathuee; anee ?aiueoa iia ioaaouaaea aieueoee e iaiueoee
ia?eiae, o.a. eiaea ia?eiaee/aneee oa?aeoa?, oi nae/an – o?iie/aneee,
nia?aiaiiay eioeyoeey iaoiaeeony iiae aicaeaenoaeai ia oieueei
aeaiaaeiuo, ii e iaaeaiaaeiuo oaeoi?ia. Aeaiaaeiua oaeoi?u aucuaatho
i?aauoaiea aeaiaaeiiai ni?ina iaae oiaa?iuie i?aaeeiaeaieai, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ienoiaeeo ia?ooaiea o?aaiaaiee caeiia aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey. Iaaeaiaaeiua oaeoi?u aaaeoo e ia?aiia/aeueiiio ?inoo
ecaea?aeae e oeai oiaa?ia, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiiio iineaaeothuei
iiaeoyaeaaieai aeaiaaeiie iannu e eo aic?inoaio o?iaith. Iaa a?oiiu
oaeoi?ia ia?aieaoathony e acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii, aucuaay
?ino oeai ia oiaa?u e oneoae, eee eioeyoeeth.

A caaeneiinoe io i?aiaeaaeaiey oaeoi?ia oie eee eiie a?oiiu ?acee/atho
aeaa oeia eioeyoeee: eioeyoeeth ni?ina e eioeyoeeth ecaea?aeae.

Eioeyoeey ni?ina aucuaaaony neaaeothueie aeaiaaeiuie oaeoi?aie:

1. Ieeeoa?ecaoeey yeiiiieee e ?ino aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Aiaiiay oaoieea
noaiiaeony ana iaiaa i?eniiniaiie aeey eniieueciaaiey a a?aaeaeaineeo
io?aneyo, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aeaiaaeiue yeaeaaeaio, i?ioeainoiyuee
aiaiiie oaoieea, i?aa?auaaony a oaeoi?, eceeoiee aeey ia?auaiey.

2. Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e ?ino aioo?aiiaai aeieaa.
Iie?uoea aeaoeoeeoa i?ienoiaeeo iooai ?aciauaiey caeiia ainoaea?noaa ia
aeaiaaeiii ?uiea eee i?e iiiiue yiennee ia?aciaiiuo aaieiio
oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea. N iay 1993 aiaea ?O ia?aoea io aoi?iai niiniaa e
ia?aiio. e ia/aeinue iie?uoea aeaoeoeeoa ainathaeaeaoa ?O ca n/ao
?aciauaiey ia ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa (AEAe).

3. E?aaeeoiay yeniainey aaieia. Oae, ii ninoiyieth ia 1 ethey 1994 aiaea
iauai e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo Aaieii ?innee i?aaeoaeuenoao, ninoaaee
27665 ie?ae.?oa. eee 38,9% aai naiaeiiai aaeaina.

4. Eiii?oe?oaiay eioeyoeey. Yoi yienney iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou naa?o
iio?aaiinoae oiaa?iiai?ioa i?e iieoiea eiino?aiiie aaethou no?aiaie n
aeoeaiui ieaoaaeiui aaeainii.

5. *?acia?iua eiaanoeoeee a oyaeaeoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue. I?e yoii n ?uiea
iinoiyiii ecaeaeathony yeaiaiou i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eaieoaea, acaiai
eioi?uo a iai?io iinooiaao aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiaaeiue yeaeaaeaio.

Eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae oa?aeoa?ecoaony aicaeaenoaea neaaeothueo
iaaeaiaaeiuo oaeoi?ia ia i?ioeannu oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

1. Eeaea?noai a oeaiao. Iii iaaethaeaeinue n na?aaeeiu 60-o aiaeia aei
1973 aiaea, eiaaea e?oiiua eiiiaiee io?aneae i?e oi?ie?iaaiee e
eciaiaiee oeai i?eaioe?iaaeenue ia oeaiu, onoaiiaeaiiua e?oiiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie a io?anee eee a ?aieao eieaeueii-oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
?uiea.

2.Nieaeaiea ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa.
Oaeia yaeaiea i?ienoiaeeei ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 70-o aiaeia. Iai?eia?,
anee a yeiiiieea NOA n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a
1961-1973 a.a. ninoaaeye 2,3%, oi a 1974-1980 a.a.- 0,2%, a a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe niioaaonoaaiii 3,5 e 0,1%. Aiaeiae/iua i?ioeannu auee e
aeey ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai. ?aoathuoth ?ieue a caiaaeeaiee
?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea nua?aei oooaeoaiea iaueo oneiaee
aini?iecaiaenoaa, aucaaiiia eae oeeeee/aneeie, oae e no?oeoo?iuie
e?ecenaie.

3.Aic?inoaa cia/aiea noa?u oneoa. Iii oa?aeoa?ecoaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
aieaa iaaeeaiiui ?inoii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ii n?aaiaieth n
io?aneyie iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a n ae?oaie – aieueoei
oaeaeueiui aanii ca?aaioiie ieaou a iaueo ecaea?aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa.
?aceia oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth noa?u oneoa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
60-o – ia/aea 70-o aiaeia noeioee?iaaei caiaoiia oaei?iaeaiea: a
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao ?ino oeai ia oneoae a 1,5-2 ?aca i?aauoay
?ino oeai ia inoaeueiua oiaa?u.

4. Onei?aiea i?e?inoa ecaea?aeae e iniaaiii ca?aaioiie ieaou ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee Yeiiiie/aneay iiuue ?aai/aai eeanna, aeoeaiinoue
i?ionithciuo i?aaiecaoeee ia iicaieytho e?oiiui eiiiaieyi nieceoue ?ino
ca?aaioiie ieaou aei o?iaiy caiaaeeaiiiai ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea. A oi aea a?aiy a ?acoeueoaoa iiiiiieenoe/aneie i?aeoeee
oeaiiia?aciaaiey e?oiiui eiiiaieyi auee eiiiaine?iaaiu iioa?e ca n/ao
onei?aiiiai ?inoa oeai, o.a. auea ?acaa?iooa nie?aeue “ca?aaioiay ieaoa
– oeaiu”.

5. Yia?aaoe/aneee e?ecen. Ii aucaae a 70-o aiaeao ia?iiiia acaei?iaeaiea
iaooe e ae?oaeo yia?ai?ano?nia. A ?acoeueoaoa, anee a 60- aiaeu
n?aaeiaaiaeiaie ?ino ie?iauo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo
no?ai ninoaaeye anaai 1,5%, oi a 70=a aiaeu – aieaa 12%.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea a caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu ?inoa oeai i?eiyoi
aeaeaiea eioeyoeee ia o?e aeaea:

1. iieco/oth – anee n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaii i?e?inoa oeai ia auoa 5-10%.
2.Aaeiie?othuoth – i?e n?aaeiaaiaeiaii oaiia i?e?inoa oeai io 10 aei 50%
(eiiaaea aei 100%) 3. Aeia?eioeyoeeth – eiaaea ?ino oeai i?aauoaao 100%
(IAO ca aeia?eioeyoeeth nae/an i?eieiaao 50% ?ino oeai a ianyoe). Aeey
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai oa?aeoa?iie yaeyaony iieco/ay eioeyoeey, o.a.
iaaieueoia, oia?aiiia iaanoeaiaiea ec aiaea a aiae. A ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao i?aiaeaaeaao aaeiie?othuay e aeia?eioeyoeey. I?e/ai, oaeoi?u,
oi?iu e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee, a oaeaea
iiaeoiaeu e au?aaioea e inouanoaeaieth aioeeioeyoeeiiiuo ia? a ?aciuo
no?aiao iaoneiaeeaathony iniaaiiinoyie eo yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

?acaeaathueany noaiu ii yeiiiie/aneei oneiaeyi e oaeoi?ai eioeyoeee
iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii.

E ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony ?acaeaathueany no?aiu Eaoeineie Aia?eee –
A?aaioeia, A?aceeey,, aaea io ioia/athony ionoonoaea yeiiiie/aneiai
?aaiiaaney, o?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa,
eniieueciaaiea ai aioo?aiiae iieeoeea iaoaiecia ia/aoiiai noaiea e
iinoiyiii eiaeaenaoeee anao oiiaeia, a ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie noa?a –
nenoaiaoe/aneia iiieaeaiea eo?nia iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho. Aeey yoeo no?ai
oa?aeoa?ia aeia?eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay aeaaiui ia?acii oeiaine?iaaieai
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e naycaiiie n iei ecauoi/iie yienneae aeaiaa, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ienoiaeeo aaeaaiaeiia iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa a
ianeieueei ouny/ i?ioeaioia a aiae.

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia ioiinyony Eieoiaey, Yeaaaei?, Aaianoyea, Ae?ia, E?ai,
Aaeiao, Ne?ey, *eee. A ieo oaeaea iaaethaeaaony ionoonoaea
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney, a oeiainiaie iieeoeea io/aoeeai
i?ineaaeeaaaony oii? ia aeaoeoeeoiia oeiaine?iaaiea e e?aaeeoioth
yeniaineth. Eioeyoeey a yoeo no?aiao aea?aeeony a “aaeiie?othueo
i?aaeaeao” (n?aaeiaaiaeiaie i?e?ino oeai – 20-40%); i?iaiaeeony
eiaeaenaoeey, eioi?ay ia?aaeei iineo /anoe/iue oa?aeoa?. Ioia/aaony
aunieee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu.

No?aiu o?aoueae a?oiiu – Eiaeey, Eiaeiiacey, Iaeenoai, Ieaa?ey,
Oeeeiieiu, Oaeeaiae – oa?aeoa?ecothony ia?aie/aiiui yeiiiie/aneei
?aaiiaaneai e cia/eoaeueiuie iinooieaieai eiino?aiiie aaethou io
yenii?oa. Eioeyoeey aea?aeeony a i?aaeaeao 5-20%, i?eiaiyaony /anoe/iay
eiaeaenaoeey aeioiaeia. Aaeeea aac?aaioeoea, a o./. e ne?uoay.

No?aiu /aoaa?oie a?oiiu – Neiaaio?, Iaeaecey, THaeiay Ei?ay, IAY, Eaoa?,
Naoaeianeay A?aaey, Aao?aei – eiatho aeinoaoi/ioth noaiaiue yeiiiie/iiai
?aaiiaaney. Eioeyoeey caeanue aea?aeeony a “iieco/eo oi?iao” (1-5%),
aaaaeai no?iaee eiio?ieue ca ?inoii oeai. Yeiiiieea ooieoeeiie?oao a
oneiaeyo ?acaeoiai ?uiea. Aaaeioth ?ieue a ea/anoaa aioeeioeyoeeiiiiai
yooaeoa ea?atho yenii?o e i?eoie eiino?aiiie aaethou. Aac?aaioeoea
nio?aiyaony ia oia?aiiii o?iaia.

E iyoie a?oiia ioiinyony auaoea nioeeaeenoe/aneea no?aiu, i?e?aaiaiiua e
?acaeaathuaiony ie?o (Eeoae, Iieueoa, Aueaoiai e ae?.) Neooaoeey a yoeo
no?aiao, aeeth/ay e iieiaeaiea n eioeyoeeae, i?aaie/ii naycaia n
ia?aoiaeii io eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

N?aaee oaeoi?ia aeia?eioeyoeee a yoeo no?aiao, eae e a no?aiao ia?aie
a?oiiu, auaeaeaathony, ai-ia?auo, i?iaeaia oeiaine?iaaiey ia aaca
o?iie/aneiai aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, /a?ac eioi?ue
i?iyaeyaony aieueoeinoai aeaiaaeiuo e iaaeaiaaeiuo oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee;
ai-aoi?uo, no?oeoo?iua oaeoi?u (iai?eia?, aaaeiie i?e/eiie
aeia?eioeyoeee a A?aceeee e A?aaioeia aue /?acau/aeiue ?ino eiaanoeoeee
a oyaeaeoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ia i?eiinyuee auno?ie ioaea/e); a-o?aoueeo,
aeeni?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue iaaeaeo aieaa onei?aiiui ?inoii oeai ia
i?iiuoeaiioth ii n?aaiaieth n oeaiaie ia naeueneioicyenoaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth.

No?oeoo?iua oaeoi?u eioeyoeee ia oieueei iaoneiaeeaatho onei?aiea ?inoa
oeai, o.a. nicaeatho neooaoeeth “eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae”, ii e ieacuaatho
aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea “eioeyoeee ni?ina”. I?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa e oceei aioo?aiiei ?uieii noa?athony a yoeo
no?aiao ono?aieoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iooai aeaoeoeeoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey
(i?e iiiiue ia/aoiiai noaiea), a n ae?oaie – i?eaea/aieai a ?anooueo
iauaiao eiino?aiiuo caeiia. A ?acoeueoaoa a oaeeo e?oiiaeoeo
eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo no?aiao, eae A?aceeey e A?aaioeia, aicieeee ia?iiiua
aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea aeieae.

A oi aea a?aiy oaaee/aiea aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe aucuaaao iiyaeaiea
oaeoi?a oneeaiey eioeyoeee – oae iacuaaaiie aeieea?ecaoeee. Aeaiiue
i?ioeann naycai e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui iieiaeaieai aeieea?a eee ae?oaie
neeueiie aaethou ia?aae iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie, a yoi ia oieueei ia
noeioee?oao i?eoie eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, ii e i?eaiaeeo e aaanoao
eaieoaeia ec no?aiu.

Iaaieueoay (oia?aiiay) eioeyoeey aei 10% a aiae a caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a
ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae nioeeaeueiia cei. Iaiai?io, n/eoaaony, /oi iia a
eaeie-oi ia?a iiaeoeanouaaao yeiiiieeo, i?eaeaao ae iaiaoiaeeiue
aeeiaieci.

A naiii aeaea, i?e ?inoa oeai ianaeaiea aieueoa iieoiaao, eai a
aeaeueiaeoai iieoiee iaieaeoony aua aei?iaea. Yoi noeioee?oao
i?iecaiaeeoaeae oaaee/eoue i?aaeeiaeaiea e ?uiie auno?aa ianuuaaony.
Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi i?e eioeyoeee oeaiu ?anooo ii io?aneyi ?aciuie
oaiiaie. Ninoiyiea ?aciiauaiaeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa nio?aiyaony. Iiyoiio
iaoaieci ia?aeeaaiey eaieoaeia e ?aai/ae neeu oaeaea nio?aiyaony, /oi
iicaieyao au?aaieaaoue yeiiiie/aneea aeeni?iii?oeee e icaei?iaeyoue
?uii/iia oicyenoai.

Iaeiaei, i?e o?iaia auoa 10% eioeyoeey aeaeaaony i/aiue iianiie.
Iniaaiii aa?anneaii ?ac?ooaaony yeiiiieea i?e aeia?eioeyoeee, eiaaea
oeaiu oaaee/eaathony ia ia ianeieueei i?ioeaioia, a ianeieueei ?ac. A
yoii neo/aa ?acei iaanoeaieaathony aeaiueae. Ianaeaiea ia/eiaaony
oa?youe naa?aaeaiey, iaanoeaieaaaony aeiaeaiiue eaieoae. Iiyoiio
i?iiaaeaao noeioe aeeaaeuaaoue eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai, aaaeue iie
aeaaeoo aeioiae ianei?i, a ca yoio n?ie iioa?yaony eo oeaiiinoue. A
oaeea ia?eiaeu ?anoao eeoue niaeoeyoeaiue aecian, iai?aaeaiiue ia
ia?ai?iaeaaeo, a ii ia oaaee/eaaao niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea. Anee
i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?anoao aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, no?aia noaeeeaaaony n
oa?icie noaaiaoeee. Noaaiaoeey, nii?iaiaeaeathuayny eioeyoeeae,
?ac?ooaao yeiiiieeo e ia nicaeaao iaoaiecia auoiaea ia iooue
yooaeoeaiiai ?inoa, o.E. ia i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo i?aaeeiaeaiey.

A e?aeieo neo/ayo aeia?eioeyoeee aeaiueae oa?ytho ooieoeeth anaiauaai
iieoiaoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa. Ianaeaiea e i?iecaiaeeoaee ia?aoiaeyo ia
aa?oa?iua naeaeee. Iieoiaoaeueiui n?aaenoai noaiiaeony eaeie-oi eiie
oiaa?, aeiionoei, aooueea aiaeee. I?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae io aeaiaaeiie e
iaoo?aeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaoa. Aiciiaeii i?iyaeaiea eoiiiia e ea?oi/ae.

Ioeac io aeaiaa eae iieoiaoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa cao?oaeiyao yeiiiie/aneia
?acaeoea, ia?aie/eaaao e?oa oicyenoaaiiuo naycae. Aaaeue ia anaaaea o
i?iecaiaeeoaey a iaee/ee eiaiii oio oiaa?, eioi?ue ono?aeaaao ia?oia?a
ii naeaeea. Iiyoiio naeaeea iiaeao ia ninoiyoueny. Oicyenoaaiiua nayce
eciaiythony, /oi aucuaaao niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, oiaiueoaaony
i?aaeeiaeaiea, a cia/eo e iiaeoeanouaaaony eioeyoeey. I?e oia?aiiie
eioeyoeee oeaiu ?anooo auno?aa ca?aaioiie ieaou. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
oe?aieyao noeioeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eioeyoeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iianiinoue aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iia
ia/eiaao naia naay iiaeoeanouaaoue, oaaee/eaay eioeyoeeiiioth aieio. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo ii iiiaei i?e/eiai. Iaciaai aeaa ec ieo:

– aaeaioeaiia eioeyoeeiiiia iaeeaeaiea;

– ia?aiin iiauoaiiuo ecaea?aeae ia oeaio i?iaeaaaaiiai oiaa?a.

Ianaeaiea iaeeaeaao aeaeueiaeoaai iiauoaiey oeai e iiyoiio oaaee/eaaao
naie iieoiee, ia aeaeay aeaiaaeiuo naa?aaeaiee. Yoi aaaeao e ?inoo
niaieoiiiai ni?ina, a oio, niioaaonoaaiii – e ?inoo oeai. Eioeyoeey
aic?anoaao, /oi aaaeao e oaeoaeaieth eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee (noaia 1).

Noaia 1.

Eioeyoeey, aicieeioa, auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana io?anee. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi iie naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie acaeiiuie iinoaaeaie.
Iiyoiio oaei?iaeaiea eaeie-eeai iinoaaee aaaeao e oaaee/aieth oeaiu
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Eioeyoeey n/eoaaony iianiie aieaciueth ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ia oieueei
iioiio, /oi iia auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyao iiea naiae ?ac?ooeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e naiioaeoaeyaony. Aa i/aiue o?oaeii ono?aieoue, aeaaea
anee en/acatho aucaaaoea aa i?e/eiu. Yoi naycaii n eia?oiinoueth
ineoieiae/aneiai iano?iy, eioi?ue noi?ie?iaaeny ?aiaa. Ia?aaeeaoea
eioeyoeeth iieoiaoaee aua aeieai niaa?oatho iieoiee “ia anyeee neo/ae”.
Aaeaioeaiua eioeyoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey naea?aeeaatho auoiae no?aiu ec
eioeyoeeiiiuo oeneia, o.e. iie aucuaatho aaeeioaaeiue ni?in, a ii
iiaeieiaao ieaieo oiaa?iuo oeai.

III. INIAAIIINOE EIOEssOeEE A ?INNEE

Iiiaeanoai i?e/ei eioeyoeee ioia/aaony i?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao.
Iaeiaei eiiaeiaoeey ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia yoiai i?ioeanna caaeneo io
eiie?aoiuo yeiiiie/aneee oneiaee. Oae, n?aco iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu
a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia eioeyoeey auea naycaia n ino?aeoei aeaoeoeeoii iiiaeo
oiaa?ia.

A iineaaeothuea aiaeu aeaaioth ?ieue a ?ane?o/eaaiee eioeyoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna noaee ea?aoue ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu, niioiioaiea “oeaia –
ca?aaioiay ieaoa”, ia?aiin eioeyoeee ec ae?oaeo no?ai e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea oaeoi?u.

Aeey ?innee, ia?yaeo n iaueie caeiiiia?iinoyie, aaaeiaeoae i?e/eiie
eioeyoeee a iineaaeiea aiaeu iiaeii n/eoaoue oieeaeueioth
aeeni?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue a yeiiiieea, aicieeooth eae neaaenoaea
eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu. Niaaoneie yeiiiieea auee i?enoue
aeeeoaeueiia ?acaeoea a ?aaeeia aiaiiiai a?aiaie (ii?ia iaeiieaiey, ii
iaeioi?ui ioeaieai, aeinoeaea 1/2 iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea i?ioea 15-20%
a no?aiao Caiaaea), /?acia?iay aeiey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia a AII, auniea
noaiaiue iiiiiieecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu, ieceee oaeaeueiue aan ca?aaioiie ieaou a
iaoeeiiaeueiii aeioiaea e ae?oaea iniaaiiinoe.

Oeaiu a ?innee a oa/aiea iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoey iiauoaeenue. Iauee ec
o?iaaiue a ainoaea?noaaiiie e eiiia?aoeaiie oi?aiaea n 1928 a. ii 1940
a. au?in a 6,5 ?aca. E 1947 aiaea, iiiaioo ?aoi?iu oeai e ca?ieaou,
nenoaia i?eoea e o?iae?aoiiio oaei?iaeaieth i?ioea aeiaiaiiiai. A
ca?ieaoa oaaee/eeanue ia 45,8% A oi aea a?aiy 25 ie?ae. ?oa. o ianaeaiey
ecuiaee i?aeoe/anee iaycaoaeueiua oiaaea aincaeiu. Yoi auei aacie aeey
iaeioi?iai iineaaeothuaai iiieaeaiey oeai.

Eiiaiaeiay nenoaia, onoaiaaeeaay oaa?aeua noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou,
aeieaeia eiaoue e oeene?iaaiiua oeaiu ia iniiaiua iio?aaeoaeueneea
oiaa?u. Oeaia iiaeiaiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee – iiaeaaeaiiay eioeyoeey,
eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony a aeaea ieceiai ea/anoaa oiaa?ia, aa/iii aeaoeoeeoa
e a aeaea i/a?aaeae.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa a eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieea iiaeii
a?aoe/anee i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ia ?en. 1.

?aaiiaaniay oeaia, ii?aaeaeyaiay niioiioaieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey a
oi/ea N, ?aaia o?iaith PC. Ainoaea?noai onoaiaaeeaaao iinoiyiiua oeaiu
(PKL), i?e eioi?uo iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?iie iannu OQK, a iauai
ni?ina OQL.

?en.1.

A ?acoeueoaoa QKQL=KL – yoi o?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo oiaa?iie iannu,
cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiue ieceeie noaaeeueiuie oeaiaie. Aeaoeoeeo –
iaecaaaeiia neaaenoaea oae iacuaaaiuo noaaeeueiuo oeai.

Eoae, aiaoia aeaaiiieo/iia, naaeaine?iaaiiia e noaaeeueiia
nioeeaeenoe/aneia oicyenoai (ieceea oeaiu, ionoonoaea aac?aaioiuo,
aa?aioe?iaaiiua ca?aaioee) ne?uaatho ca naiei oanaaeii iiaeaaeaiioth
eioeyoeeth e iiaeaaeaiioth aac?aaioeoeo. ?aii eee iicaeii, ii yoe
i?ioeannu aeieaeiu auee aueoe ia?oaeo e i?eiyoue ioe?uooth oi?io.

1990 aiae ieacaeny ?oaaaeiui, iineaaeiei aiaeii oia?aiiuo oaiiia
eioeyoeee. A ?innee, eae e a aieueoeinoaa auaoeo nithciuo ?anioaeee
aiaeiaua oaiiu i?e?inoa oeai ninoaaeee io 3 aei 5% (ni. oaae. 1). N 1991
aiaea oaiiu eioeyoeee noaee ecia?youeny aeanyoeaie, nioiyie e ouny/aie
aeaaea aeanyoeaie ouny/ i?ioeaioia a aiae. Oaaee/aiea oeai a ?innee e
1996 aiaeo ninoaaeo 4658 ?ac (ni.oaae.1).

A 1992 aiaeo yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia a ?innee noaea aeaeaoue ia?aua oaae.
I?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee ia/aei i?iaiaeeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueioth oeiainiaoth
iieeoeeo, iniiaaiioth ia eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aioo?aiiae eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe e noaaeeecaoeee iaiaiiiai
eo?na ?oaey ca n/ao aaethoiuo ?aca?aia. Iaeiaei iiae oa?icie ia?anoaiey
ieaoaaeiiai e?ecena aeanoeay oeiainiaay iieeoeea niaieeanue
eioeyoeeiiiui e?aaeeoiaaieai i?aaei?eyoee. Ni?in ia aaethoo iiauneeny,
aaethoiua ?aca?au auee en/a?iaiu ca ei?ioeee n?ie e eo?n ?oaey
no?aieoaeueii oiae ni 119 ?oa. ca 1 aeieea? a na?aaeeia eaoa aei 450
?oaeae ca 1 aeieea? a iiya?a.

A 1993 aiaeo nio?aiyeny aunieee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee (a n?aaeiai 22% a
ianyoe) ec-ca ia?eiaee/aneie aeaiaaeiie e e?aaeeoiie yiennee. ?ino eo?na
aeieea?a oi onei?yeny aei 15-20% a ianyoe, oi nieaeaeny ii/oe aei ioey.

Iaeiie ec naiuo aeioiaeiuo oeiainiauo iia?aoeee noaea niaeoeyoeey ia
aaethoiii ?uiea. E inaie iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue aeieea?a nieceeanue
aei i?aaeaea (aai eo?n ?in iaaeeaiiaa, /ai oeaiu), ?aioaaaeueiinoue
yenii?oa noaaea e?eoe/anee ieceie, oneeeeinue auoaniaiea ioa/anoaaiiuo
oiaa?ia eiii?oiuie.

Aaniie 1994 aiaea eioeyoeey nieceeanue aei 8-10% a ianyoe, a o/aoiay
noaaea inoaeanue iaeciaiiie – a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeueiay noaaea
(ioiineoaeueii o?iaiy eioeyoeee) iiaeiyeanue iae 90% aiaeiauo.
Eiiia?/aneea aaiee noaee oiaiueoaoue naie noaaee a ioaao ia nieaeaiea
eioeyoeee oieueei nionoy aeaa-o?e ianyoea, a auioaeee eo ia yoe
aeaenoaey ?ino iaaica?auaiiuo e?aaeeoia.

?ino oeai ieacaeny ieaea caieaie?iaaiiiai a 1994 aiaeo (4-5% a ianyoe
eaoii i?e caieaie?iaaiiii 15%-iii n?aaeiaiany/iii ?inoa oeai), /oi
i?eaaei e nieaeaieth iinooieaiey a athaeaeao, oiaiueoaieth athaeaeaoiiai
oeiaine?iaaiey, o?iie/aneie caaea?aeea auieaou ca?ieaou.

Eioeyoeeiiiay aieia, iiaeiyoay eaoiae e?aaeeoiie yienneae (17 o?ei.
?oa.), iaanoeaieea iaaica?auaiiua e?aaeeou, a iiauneaoayny aeioiaeiinoue
niaeoeyoeaiuo iia?aoeee iiiiaea eiiiaine?iaaoue oauoee.

A 1995 aiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoai naeaeaei aua ianeieueei oaaia aia?aae a
oi?aaeaiee oeiainaie. Iiauoaiea ii?i iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia aeey aaieia
nieceei iauai aeaiaa a yeiiiieea. O?aaiaaiea iaania/aiey ?oaeaauo
?aca?aia aeey aaethoiuo aeoeaia i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth i?iaeaaee aaethou,
/oi noaaeeece?iaaei ?oaeue e iiauneei i?aaeeiaeaiea ?oaeaauo n?aaenoa.

Aaaaeaiea aaethoiiai ei?eaei?a nieceei eioeyoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey. ?acei
nie?aoeeny ?ino aiaae?aeaauo iioiauo oeai. Nio?aieeny ioiineoaeueii
aunieee ?ino iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai – 4-5% a ianyoe, ii ii eiiiaine?iaae
aieaa aunieee ?ino iioiauo oeai ii n?aaiaieth n ?icie/iuie a ia?aii
iieoaiaeee. Aiaeiaie ?ino iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai nieceeny n 840% a 1993
aiaeo aei 220 – 1994 e 130% – a 1995 aiaeo.

Eiia/iie oeaeueth noaaeeecaoeeiiiie iieeoeee a 1996 aiaeo auei
caiaaeeaiea oaiiia eioeyoeee aei 1,9% a n?aaeiai ca ianyoe, eee ieiei
25% a oeaeii ca aiae. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aeaayoe ianyoeaa 1996 aiaea a
aeeiaieea oeai a iniiaiuo naeoi?ao ?inneeneie yeiiiieee nio?aiyeanue
iauay oaiaeaioeey iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai nieaeaiey eo oaiiia ?inoa. Oae,
iany/iue naiaeiue eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai nieceeny ni 104,1% a
yiaa?a aei 100,3% a naioya?a. Eiaeaen iioiauo oeai i?aaei?eyoee
nie?aoeeny n 103,2% a yiaa?a aei 101,8% a naioya?a.

Eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai a yiaa?a 1992 aiaea nicaeaea oneiaey aeey
?aaae?iaaiey ia iaee/iue ni?in iiauoaieai oeai. Iiaeaaeaiiay eioeyoeey
(eioi?ay nii?iaiaeaeaeanue ?inoii oeai, oaaee/aieai oiaa?iiai
aeaoeoeeoa, nieaeaieai ea/anoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa) i?aa?aoeeanue a
ioe?uooth.

Ia?aaiae eioeyoeee ec iiaeaaeaiiie oi?io a ioe?uooth iooai
inaiaiaeaeaiey oeai eiae naiei eoiaii ?ino oeai ia oiaa?u e oneoae a
aeanyoee e nioie ?ac. Iauee eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai aeaeaa?y 1992
aiaea e aeaeaa?th 1991 aiaea iiae aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa ?O ninoaaee 2600%,
a eiaeaen aeioiaeia ianaeaiey ca oio aea ia?eiae – 1200%. Oaiiu
eioeyoeee ia o?iaia 27%, a yiaa?a 1993 aiaea – oaea aieaa 50 %, oi anoue
yeiiiiee no?aiu aioea a ninoiyiea aeia?eioeyoeee. A 1992, 1993, 1994
a.a. oeaiu ?inee oaeeie oaiiaie, /oi ca o?e aiaea iie oaaee/eeenue aieaa
/ai a 1000 ?ac. Ca yoi aea a?aiy i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa a
?aaeueiii au?aaeaiee nie?aoeeinue aieaa /ai iaiieiaeio. Aaeiaie
aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo ?innee nieceeny a 1992 aiaeo ia 19%, a 1993 aiaeo –
ia 12% e a 1994 aiaeo – ia 15%.

Aua aieueoeie oaiiaie iaaeaee eiaanoeoeee: a 1992 aiaeo ia 40%, a 1993
a. – ia 12% e a 1994 aiaeo – ia 26%. Iaaeaiea oece/aneiai iauaia
?aaeeciaaiiie oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee auei nouanoaaiii ia?ae?uoi ?inoii
oeai ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth e oneoae, o.a. aeaiaaeiui oaeoi?ii, /oi iaoei
io?aaeaiea a ?inoa AAI e i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a oaeoueo oeaiao (ni.
oaae.2).

Ianiio?y ia caiaaeeaiea ?inoa oeai a 1994 aiaeo ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeoanoaothueie aiaeaie, eioeyoeey aan ?aaii iaoiaeeeanue ia
aeia?eioeyoeeiiiii o?iaia. Aunieay eioeyoeey yaeyaony iaaaoeaiie
ninoaaeythuae anaai i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea io i?aaeiae
eiiaiaeii-aee?aeoeaiie e iiaie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Eaeiaa aea i?e?iaea
?inneeneie eioeyoeee?

Eae ooaa?aeaeaao aee?aeoi? Einoeoooa yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca Eeea?eiiia
A.I.: “I?e?iaea ?inneeneie eioeyoeee, ?aaii eae e niaea?aeaieai
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee, niiniaiie iaania/eoue aa iiaeaaeaiea, oaea iiiai
eao yaeyaony ino?aeoae iao/iie e iieeoe/aneie aeeneonneae. Ana
iiiaiia?acea oi/ae c?aiey iiaeii naanoe e aeaoi: ii iaeiie – eioeyoeey
eiaao iaiiiaoa?ioth (iaaeaiaaeioth) eee ia oieueei iiiaoa?ioth i?e?iaeo,
ii ae?oaie – yoi /enoi iiiaoa?iia yaeaiea”.

A niioaaonoaee n iiiaoa?iui iiaeoiaeii eioeyoeey – yoi aeaiaaeiue
oaiiiai6 a aa aeeiaieea ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoai aeaiaa a yeiiiieea.
Oaiiu eioeyoeee i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu oaiiai i?e?inoa aeaiaaeiie
iannu, oaiiai oaaee/aiey nei?inoe aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu oaiiai i?e?inoa ?aaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. I?e noaaeeueiuo
cia/aieyo nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa e i?e?inoa ?aaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa
eioeyoeey ii?aaeaeyaony oaiiaie ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu. Nieaeaieai
?aaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa i?e noaaeeueiii o?iaia aeaiaaeiie iannu i?eaiaeeo e
iiauoaieth oaiiia eioeyoeee, iineieueeo iaiueoaio iauaio i?iaeoeoa
i?ioeainoieo i?aaeiaa eiee/anoai aeaiaa. Aic?anoaiea aea iauaiia
?aaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa i?e i?aaeiai iauaia aeaiaaeiie iannu niinianoaoao
aeaoeyoeee – nieaeaieth o?iaiy oeai.

Yoa eiioeaioeey auea iieiaeaia a iniiao yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O n 1992 aiaea e n iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie nio?aiyaony
aei iaoeo aeiae.

Aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei oaiiu eioeyoeee, aunooiaao nei?inoue
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Aeeiaieea yoiai iieacaoaey ca iineaaeiea aiaeu
ianeieueei ?ac iaiyeanue (ni. oaae.3). A yiaa?a 1992 aiaea i?iecioae
?aceee ?ino nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa – n 1,4 aei 5,7 ?aca a aiae. Caoai
a ia?aie iieiaeia 1992 aiaea iia ?inea, a a aaaonoa-iiya?a oiai aea
aiaea – iaaeaea. N aeaeaa?y 1992 a. ii ai?aeue 1993 a. nei?inoue
ia?auaiey aeaiaa noaaeeueii aic?anoaea, oaaee/eaaynue n 5,4 aei 11,4
?aca. Caoai n ai?aey ii aaaono 1994 a. nei?inoue aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey
?acei nieceeanue ia 25%.

Eae i?e ia?aoiaea io ieceie eioeyoeee e aunieie nei?inoue aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey ?anoao, aeaiiino?e?oy ieceee ni?in ia iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo,
oae eae i?e ia?aoiaea io aunieie eioeyoeee e ieceie ni?in ia
iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo aic?anoaao e nei?inoue aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey
iaaeaao.

Eioaineaiay aeaiaaeiay yienney ai?aey-aaaonoa 1994 aiaea i?eaaea e
iiauoaieth oaiiia eioeyoeee a ieoya?a 1994 a. – yiaa?a aei 14-18%.
Nie?auaiea oaiiia i?e?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu inaiueth-ceiie 1994-1995
a.a. iaania/eei nieaeaiea oaiiia eioeyoeee aei 8-11% a oaa?aea-iaa 1995
a. e eaoii aei 5% (ni. oaae.3)

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo enoi/ieeia, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo aunieea oaiiu i?e?inoa
aeaiaaeiie iannu yaeyaony oeiaine?iaaiea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa ca
n/ao yiennee aeaiaaeiuo eino?oiaioia.

Ia i?eia?a auaoeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai aeaeii, /oi ?acia?u
aeaoeoeeoa, athaeaeaoa a i?ioeaioao e aaeiaiio aioo?aiiaio i?iaeoeoo
(ni. oaae.4), a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi ni/aoathony n
ianooaaaie aeaiaaeiie yiennee e oaiiaie eioeyoeee (ni. ?en. 1,2).

Ionoonoaea aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa a no?aiao aaeoee iicaieeei ei a oa/aiea
iineaaeieo eao iaania/eoue naiua ieceea oaiiu i?e?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu.
A no?aiao n iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuie athaeaeaoiuie aeaoeoeeoaie –
A?iaiee, A?ocee, Aca?aaeaeaeaia, Oe?aeia – iaaethaeaeenue e naiua
aunieea oaiiu eioeyoeee. Ii caeanue anoue e eneeth/aiey. Oae, a
iaeioi?uo no?aiao – Aaei?onnee, Eacaonoaia – iacia/eoaeueiua ?acia?u
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa ia auee i?aiyonoaeai aeey aanueia aunieeo
oaiiia eioeyoeee. Aeaei a oii, /oi aunieea oaiiu eioeyoeee a yoeo
no?aiao auee aucaaiu aeaiaaeiie yienneae. A ?innee e Iieaeaaee iaee/ea
athaeaeaoiuo aeaoeoeeoia a e?oiiuo ?acia?ao (7-12% AAI) i?eaiaeeei
i?eia?ii e aaeaia aieaa ieceei oaiiai i?e?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu e
eioeyoeee.

I?e/eia caeanue a oii, /oi ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu e eioeyoeee aucuaathony
ia iaee/eai athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, a ?acia?aie oie /anoe, eioi?ay
iie?uaaaony ca n/ao yienneiiiuo enoi/ieeia.

A 1995 aiaeo a ?innee i?iaiaeeeanue i/aiue aeanoeay athaeaeaoiay
iieeoeea. Niaeanii caeiio i Oaaea?aeueiii athaeaeaoa oaaea?aeueiua
?anoiaeu a 1995 aiaeo ieaie?iaaeenue ia o?iaia 26,7% AAI. Oaeoe/anee aea
a ia?aie iieiaeia aiaea yoio iieacaoaeue aue ?aaai 17,3% AAI.

Athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo a ia?aie iieiaeia 1995 aiaea nieceeny aei 3,2%
AAI. E?aaeeou OeA? aeey aai iie?uoey iaiiiai oiaiueoeeenue. Anee a
oaa?aea-ethia 1994 a. caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa Oeaio?iaaieo
au?inea ia 11%, oi ca aiaeiae/iue ia?eiae 1995 aiaea – eeoue ia 11%
(ni. oaae.5).

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey iaiiiaoa?enoneiai iiaeoiaea ioaa?aatho /enoi
aeaiaaeioth o?aeoiaeo eioeyoeee. Iia ni/aoaao a naaa aeaenoaea e
oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee ni?ina e eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae, i?e/ai aeeyiea
oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee ni?ina ia ea?aao aeiieie?othuae ?iee. Yoi io/aoeeai
i?iyaeyaony a ionoaaaiee oaaee/aiey aeaiaaeiie iannu io ?inoa oeai
(ni.oaae.6,7).

A ia?aii iieoaiaeee 1995 aiaea ianiio?y ia ia?u ii ia?aie/aieth iauaiia
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie yiennee, oaiiu eioeyoeee nio?aiyeenue aeinoaoi/ii
aunieeie e i?aauoaee o?iaaiue niiinoaaeiiai ia?eiaea 1994 aiaea (ni.
oaae.7).

Iiaeaiaey eoia ?anniio?aieth iaeioi?uo aniaeoia yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee
ca iineaaeiea aiaeu, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a oeaeii niaieoiiia
aeeyiea i?e/ei, ii?iaeaeathueo eioeyoeeth, ieacaeinue eiiiaine?iaaii
oaeoi?aie, naea?aeeaathueie oeaiiaoth aeeiaieeo. oi naycaii i?aaeaea
anaai n oai, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee ?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea a iaueo /a?oao
neiaeeeny aioeeioeyoeeiiiue iaoaieci, iniiao eioi?iai ninoaaeee
neaaeothuea yeaiaiou yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee:

– niaethaeaiea aeanoeeo aeaiaaeiuo ia?aie/aiee;

– ia?u ii noaaeeecaoeee aaethoiiai eo?na;

– ioeac io iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa i?yiuie
e?aaeeoaie Aaiea ?innee e ia?aoiae e ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeinoaiaaieyi ia
?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa;

– i?eiyoea I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ?yaea ?aoaiee,

ia?aie/eaathueo ?ino oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae e
naeoi?ii yeiiiieee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io?aneae – anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieenoia.

Ana iie, aoaeo/e iai?aaeaiiuie ia naeaoea niaieoiiiai ni?ina e
i?eaaaeaiea aai a niioaaonoaea n niaieoiiui i?aaeeiaeaieai, noi?ie?iaaee
ea/anoaaiii iiaoth oeaiiaoth neooaoeeth eae a iio?aaeoaeueneie noa?a,
oae e a ?aaeueiii naeoi?a ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

Ii ianiio?y ia iiceoeaiue oa?aeoa? yoeo i?ioeannia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea aua nouanoaoao oa?ica eioeyoeeiiiuo anieaneia
ec-ca i?iaeieaeathuaainy yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea, iaieaoaaeae, eneaaeaiiie
no?oeoo?u iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aai ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe,
nouanoaiaaiey naeoi?ia yeiiiieee n ?acee/iuie o?iaiai aeioiaeiinoe,
ia?aoaiiinoe aii?inia oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa e
iaeiieaiey nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai a iauanoaa.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCOAIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1.Aeaeyiei A.E., AEo?aaeaaa A.I. Iauay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. – I., 1995.

2.AEoeia A.O. Iauay oai?ey aeaiaa e e?aaeeoa. – I., 1995.

3.Eeaoeoe A.ss., Ieeoeeia E.I. Aaaaeaiea a ?uii/ioth yeiiiieeo.- I.,
1995.

4.*aeo?ei I.I., Eenaeaaa A.A. Eo?n yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. – Ee?ia, 1994.

5.Iaaeaaaeaa A.A. Iooe oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee. //Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo.
– 1996. – N 7. – N.50.

6.Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aaeeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie
iieeoeee ia 1997 aiae. //Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo. – 1996. – N 12. – N.3.

7.AEo?iae “Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo”. – 1996. – N 2.

8.AEo?iae “Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo”. – 1995. – N 8.

9.AEo?iae “Aii?inu yeiiiieee”. – 1996. – N 2.

10.AEo?iae “Aii?inu yeiiiieee”. – 1995. – N 6,9.

11.AEo?iae “Yeiiiieno”. – 1996. – N 9. – N.8.

AEo?iae “Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo”. – 1995. – N 2. – N.22.

AEo?iae “YEI”. – 1995. – N 10. – N.2.

1 AEo?iae “YEI”. – 1995. – N 10. – N.17.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea ?innee yiaa?ue-ethiue 1995 a.

E?aoein?i/iua yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee. ?O. Iineaa, etheue 1995 a.

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