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Социальная политика государства

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12

Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea.

I. I?ioeai?a/eainoue yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe e nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

II. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee nia?aiaiiiai
ainoaea?noaa:

1) ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea caiyoinoe e aa yooaeoeaiinoue.

2) iaania/aiea caiyoinoe ia ia/aeueiii yoaia noaiiaeaiey ?uiea.

3) nioeeaeueiay caueoa ianaeaiey – nooue e iooe aeinoeaeaiey.

III. I?e/eiu iaaeinoaoi/iie caueou ianaeaiey a aiaeu ia?ano?ieee.

Caeeth/aiea.

Aaaaeaiea.

Iaeaieaa ianooaaiie caaea/ae nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiie yeiiiieee
ainoaea?noaa a oi?ie?othuainy ?uii/iii oicyenoaa ?innee yaeyaony
aeayoaeueiinoue ii nioeeaeueiie caueoa anao neiaa iauanoaa e ii
au?aaioea no?aoaaee yooaeoeaiie nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee. Oi?iie aa
?aaeecaoeee aunooiaao oaeoe/aneee ia?ac aeaenoaee ainoaea?noaa,
aiieiuaiiue a nioeeaeueioth iieeoeeo, eioi?ay ioaaouaaao ana noa?u
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a no?aia.

Nouanoaotho iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n ?aaoee?iaaieai caiyoinoe e
iaania/aiey nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey. A aeaiiie ?aaioa ?anniio?aiu
oaeea iaiaeiaaaeiua i?iaeaiu , eae ianoaaeeueiinoue ia ?uiea o?oaea e
iaaiciiaeiinoue ioaaoeoue nioeeaeueiie caueoie ana neie ianaeaiey,
iaoneiaeaiiua ionoonoaeai i?eaieaiie ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu,
iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth oeiaine?iaaiey e i?i/eie o?oaeiinoyie, eioi?ua
ceaeaeyony ia neiaeeaoaeny iieeoeei-nioeeaeueiie aoiinoa?a iaoaai
oi?ie?othuaainy a ca?iaeaeathueony ?uii/iuo ioiioaieyo e iaeaeeaoaeny
e?eieiiaaiiie neooaoeee iauanoaa, eioi?ay onoaoaeeanue e?ecenii
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

I. I?ioeai?a/eainoue yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe e nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Iaeiei ec i?eciaeia nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee yaeyaony i?eciaiea ca
ethaui /aeiaaeii i?aaa ia aeinoieioth aeeciue. ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia
a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ia aa?aioe?oao eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo i?eaieaiue
o?iaaiue aeioiaea iacaaeneii io iaee/ey o iaai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa e
eoiaia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A yoii ninoieo iaeay “nioeeaeueiay
iani?aaaaeeeainoue” ?uiea. Ainoaea?noai, i?eieiay ia naay cia/eoaeueioth
aeieth ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca niaethaeaiea iaiouaieaiiai i?aaa /aeiaaea ia
aeinoieioth aeeciue, i?aaiecoao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia. Aii?in i
oii, eae iaaei ?ani?aaeaeyoue aeioiae, eiaao aeeeiioth e i?ioeai?a/eaoth
enoi?eth, eae a yeiiiie/aneie iaoea, oae e a oeeinioee. Noi?iiieee
iaeiie ec e?aeieo iiceoeee aeieacuaatho, /oi aieueoaa ?aaainoai yaeyaony
iniiaiie i?aaeiinueeie auaeeaaiey eaieoaeecia. I?eaa?aeaioeu
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oi/ee c?aiey i?aaeoi?aaeaeatho, /oi “no?aieaiea e
?aaainoao” iiaei?a?o nenoaio e i?eaaae?o a? e aeaaee.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neaaeoao iniuneeoue, ii/aio aea a nia?aiaiiii
ie?a nouanoaoao oaeay noaiaiue ia?aaainoaa aeioiaeia, i eioi?ie
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaiiua, i?eaaae?iiua ia ?en.1(a) e ?en.1(a).

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iaaeaeo iyoueth ?aaii/eneaiiuie a?oiiaie naiae.)

“?uii/iay nenoaia – aanno?anoiue iaoaieci. Iia ia eiaao
niaanoe, ia i?eniinaaeeaaaony e ii?aeueiui ii?iai, ii?aaeaeythuei, /oi
anoue “aani?eno?anoiia” eee “ni?aaaaeeeaia” ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea”.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eneeth/eoaeueii eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee aiieia aeiioneaao aunieoth noaiaiue
ia?aaainoaa aeioiaeia. Ii anoue e ae?oaea oaeoi?u:

· ?acee/ey a niiniaiinoyo ethaeae;

· ?acee/ey a ia?aciaaiee e eaaeeoeeaoeee;

· i?ioanneiiaeueiua aeonu e ?ene;

· aeaaeaiea nianoaaiiinoueth;

· ainiiaenoai ia ?uiea;

· oaea/a, ian/anouey e ae?.;

· nayce.

A ?innee a aiaeu ia?ano?ieee ia ia?aue ieai auoae eiaiii iineaaeiee
ioieo, noaaoee ?aoathuei a ?ani?aaeaeaiee auaoae ainnianoaaiiinoe n?aaee
oceie a?oiiu ethaeae.

?en.2

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??†?????‰?????uoy??????a) I?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue aeioiaea
aeey IA?AIAI a) I?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue aeioiaea aeey AOI?IAI
/aeiaaea. /aeiaaea.

Eaeiaa iioeiaeueiay noaiaiue ia?aaainoaa? Iauai?eiyoiai ioaaoa
ia yoio aii?in ia nouanoaoao. Iniiaiui a?aoiaioii a iieueco ?aaiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaea yaeyaony: ?aaainoai aeioiaea iaiaoiaeeii aeey
iaeneiecaoeee oaeiaeaoai?aiey ioaeae iio?aaeoaey, eee i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe.

A ethaie ia?eiae a?aiaie iieo/aoaee aeioiaeia o?aoyo ia?aua
aeaiueae ia oiaa?u n aunieie i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoueth. Eiaaea iie
oaeiaeaoai?yo naiua ianouiua iio?aaiinoe, iie noaioo o?aoeoue
inoaaoothny /anoue naiaai aeioiaea ia iaiaa aaaeiua oiaa?u, oiaa?u n
iaiueoae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoueth. Ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaeaeueiay
iieaciinoue aeioiaea IA?AIAI /aeiaaea (2500) auniea, a AOI?IAI (7500)
iecea. Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea a iieueco IA?AIAI (n 2500 aei 5000, n
niioaaonoaaiiui iiieaeaieai aeioiaea AOI?IAI aei 5000), ianiiiaiii,
oaaee/eo noiia?ioth i?aaeaeueioth iieaciinoue aeey aeaoo iio?aaeoaeae.

Au? iaeei iaiaeiaaaeiue oaeoi? “ca” – oa?ica nioeeaeueiuo
eiioeeeoia, a?icyueo ia?a?anoe a iaoeeiiaeueioth eaoano?ioo. A ?acaeouo
aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao ?ac?ua aeioiaeia iaaeaeo aiaaouie e aaaeiuie
eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao io 1:6 aei 1:9. I?aauoaiea o?iaiy 1:10 aea/?o ca
niaie anooieaiea iauanoaa a ciio nioeeaeueiie ianoaaeeueiinoe. A yoii
?aeo?na oa?iaeathua auaeyaeyo neaaeothuea aeaiiua:

Oaae.1

Aiae?ac?ua aeioiaeia?inney19911:5?inney19951:14,6Iineaa19951:60

Iniiaie e?eoeee nioeeaeueiiai ?aaainoaa yaeyaony iieiaeaiea,
niaeanii eioi?iio niinia ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei iau?i i?iecaiaeeiiai e ?ani?aaeaeyaiiai
aeioiaea. A iaoai i?eia?a ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea
aunieiiiea/eaaaiiai AOI?IAI a iieueco ieceiiiea/eaaaiiai IA?AIAI
i?eaaae?o e oiaiueoaieth no?aieaiey iaieo ca?aaaouaaoue. Iaiaoiaeeii
nio?aieoue noeioeu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e aeioiaea. A?aoiaioii
i?ioea ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia yaeyaony oi, /oi ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
aeioiaea io aiaaoiai e aaaeiiio nii?iaiaeaeaaony iioa?ae yooaeoeaiinoe
yeiiiieee, ninoaaeythuae ii iaeioi?ui ioeaieai aei 70% ia?aaeaaaaiie
noiiu. “Anee aeaeaiea ie?iaa aeioiaea ia aieaa ?aaiua eoni/ee i?eaiaeeo
e oiaiueoaieth naiiai ie?iaa, oi n eaeei oiaiueoaieai iauanoai aoaeao
ie?eoueny?” – yoi iniiaiiieaaathuee aii?in, eioi?ue aoaeao noiyoue a
oeaio?a iieeoe/aneeo aeaaaoia ii iiaiaeo aeaeueiaeoaai ?anoe?aiey eee
nie?auaiey i?ia?aii ii noaaeeecaoeee aeioiaeia.

“Eaieoaeeci e aeaiie?aoey, aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia?acotho naiia iaaa?iyoiia
ni/aoaiea. Iiaeao auoue, iiyoiio iie ioaeaeathony ae?oa a ae?oaa, /oiau
aianoe iaeia ?aoeeiiaeueiia ca?ii a iiiyoea ?aaainoaa e iaeoth
/aeiaa/iinoue a iiiyoea yooaeoeaiinoe”

II. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee.

1) Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea caiyoinoe e aa yooaeoeaiinoue.

Iaieeanneee ?anniao?eaaee ?uiie o?oaea eae ?aaiioeaiiue, aaea iiuo e
i?aaeeiaeaiea o?aaieaathony i?e iiiiue eieaaaiee o?iaiy ca?aaioiie
ieaou, a aac?aaioeoea aunooiaao eae niya/athuaa ianoiyoaeuenoai,
aucaaiiia i?e?iaeiui no?aieaieai ?aaioieeia iaeoe eo/oaa ?aai/aa ianoi.
A aeaaaeoeaoii noieaoee ieacaeinue, /oi iaaiciiaeii ioaeaaaoue ?uiie
o?oaea ia “ioeoi” noeoeeiui ?uii/iui neeai. Iaeaaaeiaeoeie i?e/eiaie
?acaeoey e aeoeaecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa a noa?a, eioi?ay
?anniao?eaaaony, auee:

1) ?acaeoea IO? e iiauoaiea ?iee /aeiaaea a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa;

2) iaania/aiea iaueo oneiaee aini?iecaiaenoaa, a oii /enea
aini?iecaiaenoai ?aai/ae neeu;

3) iaania/aiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeiuie eaae?aie;

4) iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiii?iienniinoe e niya/aiey nioeeaeueiuo eiioeeeoia;

5) niinianoaiaaiea ?acaeoeth e niaa?oainoaiaaieth eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
iioaioeeaea iauanoaa;

6) iaiaoiaeeiinoue naea?aeeaaiey iiiiiieecaoeee ?uiea;

7) aeeyiea eaeae e eiie?aoiuo nioeeaeueiuo aeinoeaeaiee (ionoonoaea
yaiie aac?aaioeoeu – i?aaeaea anaai) eaieoaeecia.

?aaeueiua e iioaioeeaeueiua ianooaau aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee a ?aciuo aa
oi?iao ia?iiiu. Niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi oieueei ne?uoay oi?ia
aac?aaioeoeu (eiaaea o?ia auiieiytho ?aaioo iaeiiai) aeinoeaaao a
a?aieoeao auaoaai NNN? 37 iei. /aeiaae. Anee o?iaaiue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a iaoai iauanoaa iiaeiyoue aei iauaie?iauo
iieacaoaeae (a ia/aea 90 aa. ia iaeiiai oaooa?a i?eoiaeeeinue 320 o.
aeiau/e ia-ai?a oaey a aiae, a NOA – 7,143 o. Iaeei caiyoue a
naeueneii oicyenoaa a NNN? iia naiei o?oaeii i?iei?ieoue oieueei 15
/ae., oiaaea eae a NOA – ieiei 90 /ae., e o.ae.), oi aac?aaioiuie noaei
au aieaa 30 iei. /ae. A 1988 a., ii ?an/aoai niaoeeaeenoia, ec 131
iei. /ae., caiyouo a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, 16 iei. /ae. auee eeoieie ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. Eie iie?uaaeanue iauay iio?aaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee a
?aai/ae neea, eiaaea io ieo o?aaiaaeenue ethaee aeey naeueoic?aaio,
oai?ee oa??eoi?ee e ae?oaeo iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aaio. *eneaiiinoue
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey ?innee e eiioeo 1995 aiaea ninoaaeea 73
iei. /aeiaae, eee 49% io iauae /eneaiiinoe no?aiu. A eo /enea 67
iei./aeiaae (91,8%) auee caiyou a yeiiiieea e 6 iei. /aeiaae (8,2%) ia
eiaee caiyoey, ii aeoeaii aai eneaee. Ioeoeeaeueii ca?aaano?e?iaaii a
i?aaiao neoaeau caiyoinoe a ea/anoaa aac?aaioiuo 2,3 iei./aeiaae eee
3,2% yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. I?iaeieaeaaony ?ino iaiieiie
caiyoinoe (a 1993 aiaeo – 5,3%; a 1994 aiaeo – 6,4% io /enea
?aaioathueo).

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 80-o aiaeia a NNN? auea ii?aaeaeaia e iieo/eea
ioeoeeaeueiia iaeia?aiea eiioeaioeey yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe. Yoi ia
iiaieiaiay, a nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiay caiyoinoue, iniiaiuie
eiiiiiaioaie eioi?ie yaeythony: nie?auaiea (eeeaeaeaoeey a aoaeouai)
oyaeaeiai, i?eieoeaiiai, iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai o?oaea; noeioee?iaaiea
aeaeeo oi?i caiyoinoe, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iaania/eoue ?aaioie anao
aeaeathueo ?aaioaoue ianoieueei, ianeieueei iie yoiai aeaeatho;
oi?ie?iaaiea nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ?aaioathueo ii iaeio n
aaeieieno?aoeeae, /oi i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoue aaaeaiey
ia?aaiai?ia ii oneiaeyi e iieaoa o?oaea; naiaiaea auai?a ianoa ?aaiou n
oi/ee c?aiey oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe (ain. i?aaei?eyoea, /anoiia,
eiiia?aoeaiia e o.i.); oneeaiea nayce iieaou o?oaea n eiia/iui
?acoeueoaoii, eeeaeaeaoeey i?eioeeia iieaou ca auoiae, ca ?aai/aa ianoi;
i?eciaiea iauanoaaiii iieiioeaiiie ?aaiou a naiuea; aaaaeaiea ieieioia e
eeeaeaeaoeey iaeneioia ca?aaioiie ieaou.

Yooaeoeaiay caiyoinoue – yoi iiaeaeue ?acaeoey e eniieueciaaiey
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie, aei?iaie e iiaeeueiie ?aai/ae neeu, i?eaioe?iaaii ia
ia?aioeaieo aa aic?anoathueo iaoa?eaeueii-auoiauo iio?aaiinoae.
Aieueooth ?ieue a ?aaeecaoeee eiioeaioeee yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe aeieaeiu
ea?aoue ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa o?oaeiono?ienoaa, o/?aaeae?iiue
ainoaea?noaii Oiiae niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe. Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue
oaeaea neoaeao i?iaiice?iaaiey i?ioeannia, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a noa?a
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea, ?ac?aaaouaaoue i?ia?aiiu i?aia?aciaaiey
anao oi?i o?iaiae ia?aciaaiey e iao/aiey, iiaeaioiaee e ia?aiiaeaioiaee
?aai/eo eaae?ia. Iieeoeea yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe yaeyaony aieaa
?aoeeiiaeueiie, nioeeaeueii iai?aaeaiiie, /oi ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea
?aai/ae neeu, eioi?ue oi?ie?oaony.

Aeayoaeueiinoue ?oeiaiaenoaa ?innee ca aiaeu ?aoi?i a iai?aaeaiee
yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe anaaaea eiaea iieiaei/aoue, a /anoi eeoue
aeaeea?aoeaiue oa?aeoa?. A /anoiinoe yoi au?aceeinue oaeoe/anee a
iiaeaea?aeea ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu, eiaaoae oeaeueth n iaeiie noi?iiu
i?aaeioa?auaiea iaaaeueiuo oaieueiaiee e iiaeaea?aeaiea oioy au
ieieiaeueiiai aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ethaeae, n ae?oaie noi?iiu auaiae yoeo
ethaeae ca ?aiee nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie iiiiue a oneiaeyo o?iie/aneiai
aeaoeoeeoa oeiaine?iaaiey.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aeaaiie ooieoeeae ONC yaeyaony
?aaeno?aoeey e o/?o aac?aaioiuo, eioi?oth ieeae iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue a
ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa aeoeaiie iieeoeee ia ?uiea o?oaea. ONC ?ac?aaioae
?yae ia?, niaea?aeaueeny a aaeaaiaeiuo i?ia?aiiao niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey. Iaeiaei, eae iaai? yoeo ia?, oae e yooaeo io ieo ia?aie/aiu.
Iai?eia?, eaeay iiaeaea?aeaiey e nicaeaiey ?aai/eo iano – ia aieaa /ai
aeaeea?aoeey, anee iia i?ioeai?a/eo i?iaiaeeiie no?oeoo?iie iieeoeea.
ONC ia niiniaai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue Iaeue e N?aaeiee aecian, anee aeey
yoiai iao iaiaoiaeeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee.

Oaeoi?ii oaaee/aiey aac?aaioeoeu a iaoai iauanoaa yaeyaony iieeoeea,
iai?aaeaiiay ia oeiainiai-e?aaeeoioth noaaeeecaoeeth yeiiiieee,
oaea?aeaiea ?inoa eioeyoeee. Ai anai ie?a oaeia iai?aaeaiea aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa niinianoaoao iiieaeaieth ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo e
oaaee/eaaao a?ieth aac?aaioiuo.

2)Iaania/aiea caiyoinoe ia ia/aeueiii yoaia noaiiaeaiey ?uiea.

Naiua ia?aua oaae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea oaea?eee, e?iia i?i/eo, aua ii
iaeiie noa?a ioiineoaeueiiai nioeeaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey a i?aaeiae
nenoaia oicyenoaiaaiey – ii iieiie caiyoinoe. I?iaeaia yoa
eneeth/eoaeueii neiaeia oaea oai, /oi cao?aaeaaao onoie i?aaeiae
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, eneeth/aaoae aac?aaioeoeo, ai anyeii neo/aa, ia
ne?uooth i?eaea/aieai ecauoi/iuo ?aaioieeia. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
aac?aaioeoea, n eioi?ie iu nae/an noaeeeaaainy, naycaia ia n oaoie/aneei
i?ia?annii eee e?ecenii ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo
oeeeee/anee a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, a n oaeoi?aie, iaoneiaeaiiuie
aeoaieeie aeaoi?iaoeeyie a ?acaeoee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Anee ia
Caiaaea aac?aaioeoea aicieeaao a oneiaeyo ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e
ioiineoaeueiie ocinoe ?uiea, ?acoeueoaoii /aai e yaeyaony iaaeaiea
ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo, oi a iaoeo oneiaeyo neooaoeey eiay. Nie?auaiea
caiyoinoe a nia?aiaiiie ?innee naycaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n
eaoano?ioe/aneei iaaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaa ca aiaeu ?aoi?i (ni. oaaeeoeo
2).

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nie?auaiea AAI (ia $380 ie?ae. n 1987 ii 1996
aiae) ia iiaei ia iiaea/ue ca niaie nie?auaiey anneaiiaaiee ia
nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu e ?aceiai iaaeaiey aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey.

Oaeia iieiaeaiea ia?acoao aaco aeey no?oeoo?iie aac?aaioeoeu,
oa?aeoa?iie aeey iaoae i?aia?acothuaeny yeiiiieee. E ?a/ue caeanue,
i/aaeaeii, eaeao i i?ioeanna ia oieueei o?oaeiii e aieaciaiiii, ii e
aanueia caoyaeiii, iineieueeo ono?aiaiea aeoaieeo no?oeoo?iuo
ia?aeinia a ei?ioeea n?iee ia?aaeueii. Ai?i/ai, e yoi ono?aiaiea ia
nieiao i?iaeaio aac?aaioeoeu iieiinoueth. Iineaaeiyy eeoue ia?aoao
oi?iu, oa?aeoa?iua aeey c?aeie ?uii/iie n?aaeu, a eioi?ie
aunaiaiaeaeaiea ?aaioieeia i?ienoiaeeo i?aaeaea anaai iiae aicaeaenoaeai
?aaeecoaiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e
eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaae.2 Iieiaeaiea ?innee a ie?a ii i?iecaiaenoao AAI.

19871988198919901991199219931994199519961NOA2ssiiieyEeoae3Eeoaessiiiey4A
a?iaiey5?inneyEiaeey6O?aioeeyO?aioeey7Aaeeeia?eoaieyAaeeeia?eoaiey8Eoaee
yEoaeey9A?aceeeyA?aceeey10EiaeeyEiaeiiacey11EaiaaeaIaeneea12IaeneeaEaiaa
ea13Eiaeiiacey?inney

Ono?aiaiea aeaoi?iaoeee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa o?aaoao oi?ne?iaaiiiai
?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, iiyaeaiey iiauo i?aaei?eyoee, oe?i, a oii
/enea i?aaei?eyoee Iaeiai e N?aaeiaai aeciana. Ii aeaiiui III a ie?a a
yoii naeoi?a yeiiiieee caiyoi aieaa 50% ianaeaiey, nicaeaaay i?e yoii
aei 60% AAI. Iaeiaei yoei i?aaei?eyoeyi iaiaoiaeeia ainoaea?noaaiiay
iiaeaea?aeea – eueaioiua e?aaeeou e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea, eiaanoeoeee,
i?aaiaay aaca, /oi aeano auno?oth ioaea/o ii oeaii/eai aeaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue: a i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieiaoa?eaeia, a
aeeeeuiii no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?aiiioa, a ia?a?aaioea naeueoici?iaeoeoeee, a
eiiaa?nee, a noa?a oneoa e o.ae.

Ioeac io onoaiiaee ia iieioth caiyoinoue icia/aao iioa?th aaaeiie
nioeeaeueiie aa?aioee ni anaie auoaeathueie ionthaea iineaaenoaeyie.
Caeanue o?aaoaony anee ia iieiia i?aaeioa?auaiea oaeie iioa?e (yoi
iaaiciiaeii), oi, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ineaaeaiea ii?iaeaeaaiuo ath yaeaiee.

Iaiaoiaeei eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, oii?yaei/eaathueo i?ioeann, ia aeathueo
aac?aaioeoea noaoue ianniaie, iicaieythueo yooaeoeaii aanoe
ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeeth ?aaioieeia, iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eo a ia?eiae iienea
?aaiou, aeoeaii nicaeaaaoue iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa e o.ae., naycaiiue a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n ianoiyuae yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeeae (aica?aoo e
aei?aoi?iaiiiio o?iaith i?iecaiaenoaa), a ia noaaeeecaoeeae ia aeia
yeiiiie/aneie i?iianoe.

Nieaeaiea eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a ainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa (a iii
iaecaaaeii i?e ?aoaiee i?iaeai oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee e eeeaeaeaoeee
aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa) iiaeao auoue ianeieueei eiiiaine?iaaii yia?ae/iie
eiaanoeoeeiiiie iieeoeeie ianoiuo, ?aaeiiaeueiuo aeanoae.

Nae/an a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?aaeiieaaaaony iaania/eoue eiiiainaoeeth
iioa?ue a iieaoa o?oaea. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i iiniaeyo ii
aac?aaioeoea, auieaoa iiaeuaiiuo ia iiaii ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa, auoiaeiuo
iiniaee o.i. Aii?in oie?aaony a enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey, a oeo/oaiea
?aaiou neoaea caiyoinoe, nicaeaiea nenoaiu ia?aiiaeaioiaee eaae?ia,
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oeaio?ia, nin?aaeioi/eaathueo aeaiiua ia eceeoeao
?aai/ae neeu e iio?aaiinoe a iae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaei?eyoey auiea/eaatho /anoue naieo aeioiaeia aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey oiiaea caiyoinoe. Yoe io/eneaiey, i?aaeiieaaaaony, aoaeoo
?anoiaeiaaoueny i?aeiouanoaaiii ia iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea, ia
ia?aiao/aiea eaae?ia e niaea?aeaiea neoaea caiyoinoe.

Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiie e yooaeoeaiie i?aaenoaaeyaony nenoaia
yeiiiie/aneeo eueaio i?aaei?eyoeyi, eioi?ua naie nicaeatho o naay
aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aai/ea ianoa e o?oaeiono?aeaatho aunaiaiaeaeathueo
?aaioieeia, ia?aiao/atho eo. A iaa?aaeo oaeea i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu
inaiaiaeaeaoueny io /anoe iaeiaia, iieo/aoue eueaioiua eiaanoeoeee iiae
i?e?ino ?aai/eo iano e ae?oaea i?aaeii/oaiey. Anee aea i?aaei?eyoea
(ethaie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe) auoaeeeaaao eceeoithth ?aai/oth neeo, oi
noiia aa oanoe – aeaaiaaeoeaoeiany/iioi niaea?aeaiey aeieaeia aiineoueny
a ioieoeeiaeueiua i?aaiu, eioi?ua ia?a?ani?aaeaeytho e
ia?aiiaeaioaaeeaatho aunaiaiaeaeaiiuo ethaeae. ?aaioiaeaoaey iieacii
noaaeoue ia?aae aeueoa?iaoeaie: nicaeaaaoue iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa ia
nianoaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee eee iiea/eaaoue niaea?aeaiea naieo auaoeo
?aai/eo. Eiaiii oaeie iaoaieci, enoaoe, nouanoaoao a Oaaoeee, aaea,
eae e a ssiiiee, aac?aaioeoea caiaoii iaiueoa, /ai a ae?oaeo
ainoaea?noaao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie.

A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeioi?uo ?anioaeee NIA i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi noiiu
n?aaenoa, cao?a/aiiua ia i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo e
ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeeth ?aaioieeia, au/eoathony ec iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee.
Anoue iaaeaaeaeu, /oi yoa ia?a neaaeaony ia i?ioeannao i?aiaeieaiey
ianniaie aac?aaioeoeu.

Iaaa?ii n/eoaoue aac?aaioeoeo iai?aiaiiui ao?eaooii ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.
Iai?ioea, oaeie yeiiiieea, anee enoiaeeoue ec naieo i?eioeeiia aa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, aac?aaioiua ia o?aaothony, iineieueeo iie ia
yaeythony aaniiuie iieoiaoaeyie. Eiay ianeieueei ea?oeia noaiiaeaiey
?uiea, ii ia iii naii ii naaa aucuaaao iacaiyoinoue. Iineaaeiyy ana
aea, i?eiaieoaeueii e iaoei eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi, ei?aieony a oao
niiniaao ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, eioi?ua ia i?eaietho
oeeaeeeciaaiiua oi?iu ?uiea e aeaoi?ie?otho yeiiiieeo i?iecaieii,
i?ioeainoiyuei iauaeoeaiui yeiiiie/aneei caeiiai.

3)Nioeeaeueiay caueoa ianaeaiey – nooue e iooe aeinoeaeaiey.

N ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aoaeao cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaoue a?iey
aac?aaioiuo, oooaeoaoueny oaa?aiiinoue a caao?aoiai aeia e o.ae. Yoi
o?aaoao io ?oeiaiaenoaa i?iaaaeaiey aeoeaiie nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee ia
o?iaia ainoaea?noaa, i?aaei?eyoee.

Nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea – yoi eiiieaen nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ia?
ainoaea?noaa i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee, ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia caueoo ianaeaiey io aac?aaioeoeu, ?inoa oeai e o.ae.

Iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie i?iaaaeaiey nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee yaeythony:

1) caueoa o?iaiy aeecie iooai aaaaeaiey ?aciuo oi?i eiiiainaoeee i?e
iiauoaiee oeai e i?iaaaeaiea eiaeaenaoeee;

2) iaania/aiea iiiiue naiui aaaeiui naiueyi;

3) auaea/a iiiiue ia neo/ae aac?aaioeoeu;

4) iaania/aiea iieeoeee nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey, onoaiiaeaiea
ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou aeey ?aaioathueo;

5) ?acaeoea ia?aciaaiey, io?aia caei?iauey, ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a
iniiaiii ca n/ao ainoaea?noaa;

6) i?iaaaeaiea aeoeaiie iieeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia iaania/aiea
eaaeeoeeaoeee.

I?iaeaia nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey ii ?aciiio ?aoaaony a ?aieao oie
eee eiie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee, eiie?aoiie no?aiu. I?e
ia?aoiaea ?innee e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iniiaiay oyaeanoue nioeeaeueiie
caueou eiaeeony ia ainoaea?noai, ii iaeiia?aiaiii oaaee/eaaaony ?ieue
?uii/iiai iaoaiecia a i?iaaaeaiee oaeie iieeoeee. Neaaeoy noaouea 25
Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea, nia?aiaiiia i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
aa?aioe?iaaoue i?aai ia oaeie o?iaaiue aeecie, eioi?ue o/eouaaao
iaania/aiea ethaeae aaeie, iaeaaeaeie, aeeeeuai, iaaeeoeeineei
ianeoaeeaaieai, eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey caei?iauey, e
i?aaa ia nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea ia neo/ae aac?aaioeoeu, aieacie,
eiaaeeaeiinoe, aaeianoaa, noa?inoe eee ae?oaeo niiniaia e nouanoaiaaieth
i?e iacaaenyueo io /aeiaaea ianoiyoaeuenoaao.

Aeey iaania/aiey oaeie caueou ainoaea?noai aeieaeii i?aaeaea anaai a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea onoaiiaeoue iniiaiua nioeeaeueiua aa?aioee,
iaoaieci eo ?aaeecaoeee, e ooieoeee i?aaeinoaaeaiey nioeeaeueiie
iiaeaea?aeee.

?yaeii n ainoaea?noaii, nioeeaeueioth caueoo iaania/eaatho i?aaei?eyoey
(eee i?aaei?eieiaoaee) e naie iaaiiua ?aaioieee – eo i?ionithciua
i?aaiecaoeee.

A nenoaia nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey naiui aaaeiui yeaiaioii
aunooiaao nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, a eioi?ia aoiaeeo iaineiiiia,
iaaeeoeeineia, no?aoiaaiea io aac?aaioeoeu e io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaea iaaeeoeeineia e iaineiiiia
no?aoiaaiea inouanoaeyaony iooai oaea?aeaiee ec ca?aaioiie ieaou e
i?eauee a iaeeiaeiaii ?acia?a. A NOA, iai?eia?, n yoie oeaeueth ec
ca?aaioiie ieaou iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia oaea?aeeaaaony 7,5%. A Oaaoeee
nioeeaeueiua oiiaeu oi?ie?othony iieiinoueth ca n/ao ainoaea?noaa. A
ssiiiee ieaoaaee ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea ninoaaeytho 7% n?aaeiae
ca?ieaou ?aaioieea. N?aaenoaa ec yoeo oiiaeia iai?aaeythony
niaoeeaeueiuie niaaoaie, a eioi?ua aoiaeyo i?aaenoaaeoaee o?oaeyueony e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea i?aaeinoaaeyaony ec niaoeeaeueiuo no?aoiauo
oiiaeia. ?acia? auieao caaeneo, ai-ia?auo, io aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea
aac?aaioeoeu, ai-aoi?uo, io niaoeeoe/aneeo oneiaee oie eee eiie no?aiu.
A ia?aii neo/aa iaeneiaeueiua noiiu auieao (io 50 aei 70% n?aaeiae
ca?ieaou) auiea/eaathony a ia?aua ianyoeu aac?aaioeoeu a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea. Aeaeaa noiiu auieao oiaiueoathony.

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa aa?aony ai aieiaiea ia?eiae caiyoinoe, o?oaeiaie noaae,
oece/aneay i?eaiaeiinoue e o?oaeo, a?aiy i?aaeinoaaeaiey iiiiue e ae?.
Oae, a Aa?iaiee o?oaeiaie noaae aeieaeai ninoaaeyoue ia iaiaa 6 ianyoeaa
caiyoinoe a oa/aiea 3-o eao e ia iaiaa 10 iaaeaeue a oa/aiea iineaaeiaai
aiaea ia?aae iioa?ae ?aaiou. Ai O?aioeee oaeei oneiaeai yaeyaony ?aaioa
a oa/aiea 150 aeiae ca aiae e 91 aeaiue no?aoiaaiey. A Aaeeeia?eoaiee
aa?aony ai aieiaiea oieueei auieaoa aciinia a no?aoiaie oiiae: a oa/aiea
aiaea eo aeieaeii auoue 26.

A ?innee, ianiio?y ia nouanoaiaaiea aeiaieueii i?ia?anneaiiai Caeiia i
caiyoinoe (ieieiaeueiue ia?eiae o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe – 12 iaaeaeue,
iiniaea ia ieaea ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou e o.ae.), auiieiaiea
nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii iinoiyiii iaoueaaony ia o?iie/aneia
iaaeioeiaine?iaaiea – a /anoiinoe, caaea?aeee auieaou iiniaee ii
aac?aaioeoea aeinoeaatho a iaeioi?uo ?aaeiiao ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa e
aeaaea eao.

Aaaeiui caaiii nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey yaeythony i?ia?aiiu
o?oaeiono?ienoaa e ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeee. I?e aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea yoeo
i?ia?aii o/anoaotho ainoaea?noai e i?aaei?eieiaoaee. Aaeaaiaeii
aia?eeaineea oe?iu o?aoyo ia yoe ia?u ieiei 30 ie?ae. aeieea?ia, ii
iniiaiua n?aaenoaa iinooiatho io ainoaea?noaa.

E eiioeo 90-o aiaeia a NOA i?ieaeoo ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeeth eee aoaeoo
iao/aoueny ieiei 50 iei. /ae. N oeaeueth nicaeaiey iiauo ?aai/eo iano
ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay oaeaea auiieiaiea oaeeo iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio,
eae no?ieoaeuenoai aei?ia, eaiaeecaoeee e o.ae. A a?aiy yeiiiie/aneiai
e?ecena ainoaea?noai oaaee/eaaao eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey. I?ia?aiiu o?oaeiono?ienoaa inouanoaeythony oaeaea iooai
eueaioiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eiiiaiee, eioi?ua nicaeatho ?aai/ea ianoa.

A ?innee a 1994 aiaeo oneoae ii i?ioi?eaioaoeee e eiinoeueoaoeee ii
o?oaeiono?ienoao iieo/eee aieaa 2 iei./aeiaae. Ca n/?o oeiaine?iaaiey ec
n?aaenoa ONC i?aaeioa?auaii oaieueiaiea 500 oun. ?aaioathueo.

A iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii ianooaaa nia?aiaiiia ainoaea?noai n oeaeueth
oiaiueoaiey a?iee aac?aaioiuo iuoaaony ?aaoee?iaaoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo
ia oaeii o?iaia, /oiau oaiiu aa ?inoa auee ieaea io ?inoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Aeey yoiai inouanoaeyaony “iieeoeea
aeioiaeia”, aeoeaiay e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea e o.ae. Oaeoth
oaeoeeo i?eiaiytho /anoiua oe?iu, iuoaynue naeaeaoue oae, /oiau o?iaaiue
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe o?oaea iia?aaeae ?ino iieaou ?aai/ae neeu. Iaeaieueoeo
oniaoia a yoii aeaea aeinoeaee NOA. N 1974 a. aei na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia
auei ia?aciaaii 23 iei. aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo iano e i?eiyoi ia
?aaioo 12 iei. yiea?aioia. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ca yoi a?aiy 500 naiuo
iiaouanoaaiiuo ei?ii?aoeee Aia?eee nie?aoeee 3 iei. ?aai/eo iano, a
iaeeea oe?iu ia?aciaaee 7 iei. oaeeo iano.

Eiie?aoiua ?acoeueoaou a inouanoaeaiee iieeoeee o?oaeiono?ienoaa iiaeao
aeaoue nie?auaiea ?aai/aai aeiy. Ca iineaaeiea 100 eao a aieueoeinoaa
?acaeouo no?ai Caiaaea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy nie?aoeeanue
aaeaia. Eneeth/aieai ec yoiai i?aaeea noaea oieueei ssiiiey. ssiiiaoe
naaiaeiy ?aaioaao a n?aaeiai 2150 /ania a aiae, /oi ia 230 /ania
aieueoa, /ai a NOA, ia 450 /ania aieueoa, /ai a Aa?iaiee, ia 400 /ania
aieueoa, /ai ai O?aioeee. Nie?auaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/aai aeiy
n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey caiyoinoe i?ienoiaeeei a Oaaoeee a 70-o aiaeao, ai
O?aioeee – a 1982-1983 aa. e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo no?aiao.

A ?innee caeiiiaeaoaeueiay iniiaa i?ia?aii caueou ianaeaiey i?e
ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea caeiaeaia a Caeiia i caiyoinoe. A yoii
caeiia i?aaeoniio?ai eiiieaen ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia nio?aiaiea aunieiai
o?iaiy caiyoinoe, oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aai no?oeoo?u e iiaeaea?aeee ?uiea
(n yoie oeaeueth aoaeao iinoaiaiii oi?ie?iaaoueny aeeeeuiue ?uiie,
oniaa?oainoaiaaoueny eio?ano?oeoo?a ?uiea o?oaea, aoaeao oneeeaaoueny
iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu e ae?.), niaia no?oeoo?u ?aai/eo iano ca n/ao
aunaiaiaeaeaiey /anoe ?aaioieeia ec iaia?niaeoeaiuo a ia?niaeoeaiua
io?anee e oaaee/aiea caiyoinoe a noa?a iaiaoa?eaeueiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa, iiauoaiea iauaia?aciaaoaeueiiai, eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai
o?iaiy ?aai/ae neeu.

Iaeiei ec yeaiaioia nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee yaeyaony i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea iaaiiiai o?oaea, eioi?ia
inouanoaeyaony iooai caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai onoaiiaeaiey ieieiaeueiiai
o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou, iainee, ii?yaeea niaa?oaiey eieeaeoeaiuo
aeiaiai?ia ii ioiioaieth e oneiaeyi o?oaea, iieaoa ?aai/ae neeu,
nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey, ioioneia e o.ae.

I?e onoaiiaeaiee ieieiaeueiiai o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou a aeieoiaioao
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie I?aaiecaoeee I?iaeiaieuenoaey (III) ?aeiiaiaeoaony
o/eouaaoue iio?aaiinoe ?aaioieeia e eo naiae, noieiinoue aeeeuey,
nioeeaeueiua eueaiou, o?iaaiue eioeyoeee, a oaeaea iieacaoaee, eioi?ua
aeeytho ia o?iaaiue caiyoinoe.

Ca aaco ieieiaeueiiai o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou i?eieiatho iaai? iniiaiuo
oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ytho iniiaiua oeceieiae/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea eee oeiiauo naiae ?aciiai
oeia (n iaeiei ?aaaieii, aeaoiy e ae?.). E yoiio iaai?o a ?aciuo no?aiao
aeeth/atho iaiaeeiaeiaua eiiiiiaiou. A NOA, iai?eia?, a iaai aoiaeeo
iieaoa iaaiiiai aeeeuey, ieiei 20 aeaeia iynii?iaeoeoia, iieoiee 1 ?ac a
iyoue eao iiaea?aeaiiiai aaoiiiaeey e ae?.

?acia? ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou a ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaea
ninoaaeyao io 30 aei 50% ?acia?a n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou. A NOA yoio
iieacaoaeue naaiaeiy ninoaaeyao 4.5 aeie. a /an. Ioaeaeueiue ieieioi
onoaiaaeeaaaony aeey iieiaeaaee.

A ?innee ieieiaeueiue ?acia? ca?aaioiie ieaou ninoaaeao 83,4 ?oa. Ii
anee a NOA ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou onoaiiaeai ec ?an/aoa,
/oiau iio?aaeaiea iyna a aiae ia aeooo ianaeaiey ninoaaeyei 80 ea, oi a
?innee ia ieieiaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo iiaeii i?eia?anoe oieueei
ieiei 60 ea iyna a aiae, ii aeaiaa ia ae?oaea oiaa?u e oneoae oaea ia
inoaiaony. III ?aeiiaiaeoao 33 ea iyna a aiae, ii oaeia eiee/anoai yoiai
i?iaeoeoa iio?aaeyaony oieueei a neaai?acaeouo no?aiao.

Iaeaieaa iaueie e?eoa?eyie aaaeiinoe yaeythony aac?aaioeoea e eioeyoeey,
o?iaaiue eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ecotho noaiaiue aaaeiinoe. Noiia?iay aaee/eia
yoeo iieacaoaeae a NOA iacuaaaony “eiaeaenii oaiainoe”. Oae, anee
eiaeaen aac?aaioeoeu ninoaaeyao 2%, a eiaeaen eioeyoeee – 1000%, oi
“eiaeaen oaiainoe”- 1002%.

Iniiaiui e?eoa?eai aaaeiinoe yaeyaony o?iaaiue aeioiaeia, eioi?ue
i?eoiaeeony ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea. Iauei e?eoa?eai aaaeiinoe yaeyaony
no?oeoo?a iio?aaeaiey naiae, iai?eia?, aeiey cao?ao ia aaeo. A NOA,
iai?eia?, e /eneo aaaeiuo a eiioea 80-o aiaeia ioiineeenue oa naiuee,
eioi?ua o?aoeee ia iio?aaeaiea o?aoueth /anoue naiaeiiai athaeaeaoa. A
?innee oaea a 1992 aiaeo cao?aou ia aaeo a aeioiaeao aieueoeinoaa naiae
ninoaaeyee ieiei 75%.

Iauee o?iaaiue aaaeiinoe a oie eee eiie noaia ii?aaeaeyaony iieacaoaeai
aeiee /enea aaaeiuo ethaeae a iauae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey io 15 eao e
noa?oa. Naia aaaeiinoue ecia?yaony n iiiiuueth i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia,
eioi?ue nouanoaoao a aeaea aeeciaiiiai (eee oeceieiae/aneiai) ieieioia e
nioeeaeueiiai ieieioia. Ia?aue iieacuaaao oaeiaeaoai?aiea oieueei
aeaaiuo oeceieiae/aneeo iio?aaiinoae e iniiaiuo oneoa. Ae?oaie, e?iia
yoiai, aeeth/aao ieieiaeueiua aeooiaiua e nioeeaeueiua cai?inu.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaniethoiiai o?iaiy i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia iaeaieaa
oi/iui yaeyaony iaoiae iio?aaeoaeueneie ei?ceiu. Oae, a Aieaa?ee a
ninoaa oaeie ei?ceiu ia naiueth ec aeaoo /aeiaae aeeth/aeenue 552
iiceoeee, ec o?ao – 639, a ec /aou?ao – 652. iio?aaeoaeueneay ei?ceia
ninoaaeyaony ec 149 iiceoeee ii i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui oiaa?ai (eee 23-27%
iauaai eiee/anoaa iiceoeee iacaaiiuo o?ao oeiia naiae) n oaeei ?an/aoii,
/oiau no?oeoo?a aaeu iaania/eaaea nooi/ioth eaei?eeiinoue aeey
?aaioathueo a eiee/anoaa 2822 eae, aeey iaineiia?ia – 2026 e aeey aeaoae
– 2123. A 1988 a. o?iaaiue i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia ii ioiioaieth e
n?aaeiaaeooaaiio aeioiaeo a yoie no?aia ninoaaee 69%.

A Aaia?ee a 1991 a. n?aaeiaiany/iue i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi ai?iaeneie
naiuee ec /aou?ao /aeiaae ninoaaee 32.6 oun oi?eioia (eee
i?eaeeceoaeueii 400 aeie.).

A Aaei?onnee e ?anioaeeeao I?eaaeoeee aeey ?an/aoa i?iaeeoi/iiai
ieieioia aa?aony iieacaoaeue nioeeaeueiiai i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia, a
?innee, Eacaonoaia – oeceieiae/aneiai. N 1 ai?aey 1992 a. a Aaei?onnee
aaaaeai iieacaoaeue n?aaeiaaeooaauo ieieiaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeueneeo
athaeaeaoia, eioi?ua iaania/eaaee au ii?io eaei?eeiinoe aeey
o?oaeiniiniaiuo ioae/ei a noia 3050 eeae. e 2525 eeae. aeey
o?oaeiniiniaiuo aeaiuei.

N ieieiaeueiui o?iaiai ca?aaioiie ieaou oanii naycai e?eoa?ee aaaeiinoe.

Aaaeiui yeaiaioii i?ia?aiiu nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey yaeyaony
?aaoee?iaaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou iacaaeneii io noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe e
i?ioannee, oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe. Oae, a ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaea
inouanoaeyaony i?yiia ?aaoee?iaaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou a ainnaeoi?a.
Niaoeeaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii onoaiaaeeaathony i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
caiyouo a ainaiia?aoa, aiaiiineoaeaueo, auai?iuo eeoe. Eae i?aaeei, a
NOA e ae?. no?aiao Caiaaea ca?aaioiay ieaoa a ainnaeoi?a ieaea, /ai a
/anoiii, ii aeey ?aaioieeia e neoaeaueo ia?aiai nouanoaoao cia/eoaeueii
aieueoay aa?aioey caiyoinoe, aieaa aunieea nioeeaeueiua auieaou e o.ae..

Ca?ieaoa aeey iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia ?aaoee?oaony n iiiiuueth eieeaeoeaiuo
aeiaiai?ia e oa?eoiuo niaeaoaiee. Aieaa oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia
?aaoee?oaony eieeaeoeaiuie aeiaiai?aie. O ieo, e?iia iieaou ?aai/ae
neeu, oeene?othony i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy e ioioneia,
eiie?aoiua aa?aioee ii ioiioaieth e oneiaeyi o?oaea, aeiieaou ca
naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou, ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai ieoaiey e ae?.
A oa?eoiii niaeaoaiee onoaiaaeeaathony ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie
ieaou a oao eee eiuo io?aneyo e ieieiaeueiua aa?aioee o?iaiy ca?ieaou
aeey ?aaioieeia ?aciie eaaeeoeeaoeee. Oa?eoiia niaeaoaiea i?e o/anoee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?aaei?eyoey e ?aaioieeia ninoaaeyaony i?e
iin?aaeie/anoaa ainoaea?noaa. Yoi aunooiaao aa?aioii aai auiieiaiey.
Iaeiaei, ia aeaea oaeay i?aeoeea i?inouanoaiaaea nianai ia aeieai,
?acaeaoenue ia aiaeoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee e i?ionithcia. A
ianoiyuee iiiaio ?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee ?aaioiee – ?aaioiaeaoaeue
inouanoaeyaony i?e iiiiue eiio?aeoia, o?oaeiauo niaeaoaiee, /oi aea?o
oe?ieia iiea aeey i?iecaiea aaeieieno?aoeee a oneiaeyo naiiono?aiaiey
i?ionithcia io caueou i?aa o?oaeyueony.

*?acau/aeii aaaeiui caaiii nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey
yaeyaony eiaeaenaoeey aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia niioaaonoaaiii e o?iaith
oeai. Iia i?eiaiyaony ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao. A ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao
iaeioi?ua i?ionithcu aeiaeaaeenue iieiie eiiiainaoeee ?inoa oeai. A
?innee i?iaaaeaia eeoue iacia/eoaeueiay eiiiainaoeey ?inoa oeai (ni.
oaae.3), inoa?ony eeoue ia aoiaaa Oeac i eiiiainaoeee aeeaaeia
ianaeaiey, oo?a/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai a 1992 aiaeo.

Oaae.3 Eciaiaiea n?aaeiae ia/eneaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeia e
eiaeaenia iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai.

AiaeN?aaeiyy c/i a ?acao e 1991 aiaeoOeaiu a ?acao e 1991
aiaeo199213,426,11994296,4772,71995615,51787,3

Ai anyeie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea nouanoaoao nenoaia eiiiainaoeeiiiuo
auieao, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie aaaeioth /anoue aeioiaeia ianaeaiey.
Oaeay nenoaia iaiaoiaeeia oaea iioiio, /oi eioeyoeey n oie eee eiie
nei?inoueth “nuaaeaao” i?e?ino aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey a ethaie
no?aia. O ian aea yoio i?ioeann oae a iineaaeiea aiaeu n ia?anoathuae
nei?inoueth, a eiiiainaoeeiiiia aiciauaiea iaaeaeo oai i?aeoe/anee
ionoonoaiaaei.

A NNN? a 1971-1975 e. iiauoaiea oeai iiaeiuaei ieiei CI% i?e?inoa
n?aaeiaaeooaauo aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, a 1976-1980 aa. – oaea
50, a 1981-1985 aa. – 60, a a 1986.a.- 52%. Iniaaiii aeoeaiui yoio
i?ioeann noae e ia?eiae i?aaeinoaaeaiey naiinoiyoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoeyi, aaaaeaiey aeiaiai?iuo oeai e, oai aieaa, i?e eo
eeaa?aeecaoeee.

Aeey oiai, /oiau i?iaanoe oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth eiaeaenaoeeth,
iaiaoiaeeii e eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeii eiaoue iainiiaaiioth “oi/eo
ion/aoa” – eiaeaen ?inoa iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai. Ii ?ann/eouaaaony
aaeaeaa?oaeueii, ia?anoathuei eoiaii n ia/aea aiaea ia iniiaa
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo a oiaea iaaethaeaiee ca eciaiaieyie
?icie/iuo oeai a ainoaea?noaaiiie, eiiia?aoeaiie e /anoiie oi?aiaea e
noa?a oneoa ii oeene?iaaiiiio iaai?o iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa
(eneeth/ay, ?acoiaaony, oi, /oi a iio?aaeaiee iaiaycaoaeueii), iau/ii
iacuaaaiiio “iio?aaeoaeueneie ei?ceiie”. Aa no?oeoo?a e aaee/eia
iaiaeeiaeiau ia oieueei aeey ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa (a oii /enea
aoiaeyueo a NIA), ii e aeey ?aciuo ?aaeiiia, aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
ia?aciaaiee.

Iainee, nioeeaeueiua iiniaey, iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea aoaeoo
eiaeaene?iaaoueny ec n?aaenoa Iaineiiiiai Oiiaea, Oiiaea nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey e Oiiaea niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe; eiaeaenaoeey noeiaiaeee
aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ca n/ao niioaaonoaothueo athaeaeaoia, a naa?aaeaiee
o?oaeyueony e ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa – ec aeioiaeia
Naa?aaaoaeueiiai aaiea e Ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?innee. Yoi
aeieaeii i?eaanoe e aieaa aeeiaie/iie iieeoeea naa?aaaoaeueiuo aaieia e
no?aoiauo o/?aaeaeaiee, eioi?ui iaiaoiaeeii iaeneiaeueii yooaeoeaii
?aciauaoue naie ?ano?nu, /oiau ca n/ao i?ioeaioiuo noaaie
eiaeaene?iaaoue naa?aaeaiey a?aaeaeai e no?aoiaua aciinu. Anee ia
eiaeaene?iaaoue naa?aaeaiey, aeeaae/eee aoaeoo aeoeaii nieiaoue aeaiueae
ni naieo n/aoia e o?aieoue eo, iai?eia?, a aeieea?ao, eiaanoe?oy oai
naiui yeiiiieeo NOA.

Iaoaieci eiaeaenaoeee oaea ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee eniieuecoaony a NOA,
ssiiiee, Eaiaaea e aieaa /ai a aeanyoe caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao; a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy – e a auaoeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noaao Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu. Auiieiyy ii ioiioaieth e cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ianaeaiey caueoiua
ooieoeee, ii iaiaoiaeei aua e aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey nioeeaeueiuo ac?uaia,
e n iineaaeiei ianoiyoaeuenoaii auei au ii?iiao/eai ia n/eoaoueny.

Niaeanii ioeaieai Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie I?aaiecaoeee O?oaea (IIO), a ?innee
yooaeoeaiinoue i?ia?aii nioeeaeueiie iiiiue, ?ann/eoaiiay, eae
oaeaeueiue aan n?aaenoa, iinooiathueo naiueyi, aeeaouei ca /a?oie
aaaeiinoe, a noiia?iuo nioeeaeueiuo o?ainoa?oao ninoaaeyao 19%(a
aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai – 30 – 40%). I?e yoii iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi
aeiey ianaeaiey ca /a?oie aaaeiinoe o ian cia/eoaeueii auoa.

A noa?a nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey i?eia?ii iayooaeoeaiuo ?anoiaeia
yaeyaony aeioe?iaaiea i?aaei?eyoeyi ia naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiia ianeoaeeaaiea
?aaioieeia. Ii naiae yeiiiie/aneie i?e?iaea yoe ?anoiaeu yaeythony
ne?uoie oi?iie noaneaee?iaaiey iaeiieo?aioiiniiniaiie naoe iaineiiaoia,
aeiiia ioaeuoa e naiaoi?eaa. Aaaeiaeoea ?aaioieee an? ?aaii ia a
ninoiyiee i?eia?anoe ioo?aeo aeaaea ni neeaeeie, e iiniaea aeinoa?ony
oaeoe/anee ?aaioieeai n aeinoaoi/ii aunieei o?iaiai iieaou o?oaea.

A noa?a nioeeaeueiuo iiniaee aeaaiie i?iaeaiie inoa?ony aacaae?aniinoue
auieao. Eo iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou: iiniaey e eiiiainaoeeiiiua auieaou ia
aeaoae. Yoe auieaou n 1992 ii 1994 aiae aic?inee a 30 ?ac e aeinoeaee
0,7% io AAI. Caaea?aeee yoeo ieaoaaeae i?aeoe/anee iianaianoii
ninoaaeytho io 2 aei 8 ianyoeaa. Aeey iaania/aiey aae?aniinoe iiniaee
aiciiaeiu ?aciua iiaeoiaeu, a oii /enea niaiauathuea i?iaa?eo
ioaeaeaaiinoe n ?ani?aaeaeaieai aaee/eiu ii eaoaai?eyi.

A noa?a aeioe?iaaiey aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa i?aaeeaaaaony
ia?aeiaeeoue an? a?aiy ?anoiaeia n ainoaea?noaa ia aeiiioicyenoaa, n
eiiiainaoeeae iaeieiouei yoeo ?anoiaeia. A naaoa iinoiyiiuo caaea?aeae
auieao ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa auiieiaiea yoeo i?iaeoia i?aaenoaaeyaony
o?oaeiiinouanoaeiui e a?icyuei nioeeaeueiie ianoaaeeueiinoueth.

A iaeanoe cae?aaiio?aiaiey i?aaeeaaaaony:

· noaeaiea noa?u i?yiiai athaeaeaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey a iieueco
oeiaine?iaaiey ec no?aoiauo enoi/ieeia;

· i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaoeeaioai ?aaeueiiai auai?a n?aaee i?aaiecaoeee
iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey;

· aiaae?aiea yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey e iaaeci?a ca ieie.

A noa?a ia?aciaaiey i?aaeeaaaaony ?acaeoea iaoaieciia
iiaeooaaiai oeiaine?iaaiey, a oaeaea aaaaeaiea aaeeiie
iauaainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu anooieoaeueiuo yecaiaiia a AOCu.

?aoi?ia nenoaiu iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey n oeiainiaie oi/ee c?aiey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniaue neo/ae. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi i?e caaeaiiuo
ii?iao nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey iaycaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a
ia?niaeoeaa aoaeoo ia?anoaoue ii ia?a noa?aiey ianaeaiey. Iineaaeiee
oaeoi? iniaaiii na?ue?ciua oeiainiaua iineaaenoaey aoaeao eiaoue aeey
iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey e cae?aaiio?aiaiey.

Iaineiiiay nenoaia ?innee i?aaieciaaia ii ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiio
i?eioeeio. A niioaaonoaea n iae iainee auiea/eaathony ec oaeoueo
iaineiiiuo aciinia ?aaioathueo. Niioiioaiea ?aaioathuea – iaineiia?u
nae/an 2:1 , e noaaea aciinia a iaineiiiue oiiae ?aaia 29% io oiiaea
ca?aaioiie ieaou. Iaeiaei, niaeanii aeieain?i/iiio aeaiia?aoe/aneiio
i?iaiico e 2050 aiaeo iii ninoaaeo 1:1,1 – o.a. auieaou aeieaeiu aoaeoo
aic?anoe aei 60%. A naaoa yoeo aeaiiuo ia nianai iiiyoia iiceoeey iiaiai
Caeiia i iaineyo, yeiiiie/anee noeioee?othuay nie?auaiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe.
N oi/ee c?aiey i?aaeioa?auaiey e?ecena iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai ia?aoiae
e iaineiiiie nenoaia, iniiaaiiie ia iaeiieoaeueiuo i?eioeeiao. Eiaiii
iaineiiiua naa?aaeaiey neoaeao ai iiiaeo no?aiao enoi/ieeii
aeieain?i/iuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee. E?iia oiai yaiuie
i?aeiouanoaaie oaeie nenoaiu yaeyaony

· oeiainiaay ia/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e /eneaiiinoe iaineiia?ia a no?aia,

· n?aaieoaeueii ieceea noaaee iaycaoaeueiuo iaineiiiuo aciinia,

· oaaee/aiea ii?iu naa?aaeaiee a no?aia, nicaeathuae i?aaeiinueee
aeey onoaiiaeaiey onoie/eauo oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

III. I?e/eiu iaaeinoaoi/iie caueou ianaeaiey a aiaeu ia?ano?ieee.

A eiioea 1991 – ia/aea 1992 aiaea ia?aae ?inneeneei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, i?enooieaoei e i?iaaaeaieth ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i,
noiyea i?iaeaia auai?a ia?aaeeaiu aeeth/aiey nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee a
yeiiiie/aneoth no?aoaaeth. Eiioeaioeey ?aoi?iu ecia/aeueii enoiaeeea ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oicyenoaaiiie
nenoaiu. I?e yoii nioeeaeueiay noa?a ?anniao?eaaeanue a ea/anoaa
yeaiaioa iauae yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee. Noaiaiue naiaiaeu yeiiiie/aneiai
iai?a?a ii nouanoao auea ia?aie/aia eeoue iianiinoueth nioeeaeueiuo
e?ecenia, iaieoe eioi?ua no?aieeenue, ai?i/ai, ia n iiiiuueth ?aoaiey
nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai, a ioo?i ia?aueaaiey ea?aoaeueiiai aiia?aoa
ainoaea?noaa. ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie noa?u iinea i?eoiaea ?aoi?iaoi?ia e
aeanoe aeaaea ia iacuaaeinue a ea/anoaa yaiie oeaee ?aoi?iu, ianiio?y ia
iiiai/eneaiiua aeaeea?aoeee i “nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie yeiiiieea”.

Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue, a oi/iaa, i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaea nioeeaeueiie caueou
ianaeaiey a aiaeu ia?ano?ieee iauyniyaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
iaaeaeueiiaeaeiinoueth iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoa-?aoi?iaoi?ia.

Iaeiei ec a? “aeinoeaeaiee” noae e?oiiiianooaaiue nea/ie eioeyoeee.
Neaaenoaeai oae iacuaaaiie iieeoeee “onei?aiey”, i?iaiaeeaoaeny n
i?eoiaeii I.N.Ai?aa/?aa e aeanoe, yaeeinue aa?anuaaiea a yeiiiieeo ia
iaania/aiiuo i?iaeoeoeeae aeaiaa a aeaea ca?ieaou ca nouanoaothuaa eeoue
ia aoiaaa oaaee/aiea iau?iia i?iecaiaenoaa. Ieaie?iaaiea oiiaea
ca?aaioiie ieaou a i?ioeaioao e iau?io i?iecaiaenoaa a ?oaeyo i?eaaei e
?aceiio iia?aaeaieth ni?ina iaae i?aaeeiaeaieai. Ionthaea: “iieoionoua
i?eeaaee e iieiua oieiaeeeueieee”.

?acoeueoaoii i?eiyoey a 1988 aiaeo Caeiia i Aini?aaei?eyoee noaei ia/aei
e?eieiaeueiiai ?anoaneeaaiey ainnianoaaiiinoe, a oae aea aa?anuaaiea aei
oiai aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa aeey ?an/?oia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie ia ?uiie
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, ieii/aoaeueii iionoioea iieee iaaaceiia e
iaiieiea ?uiee “/??iua”. Nea/ie eioeyoeee aue iiaeaioiaeai, e a 1991
aiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoai Aaeaea?a, eeaa?aeeciaaa oeaiu, iinoaaeei eo ia
iooue iaaeaeaiiuo oaiiia ?inoa. Auoa oaea auei iieacaii (ni.oaae.3), /oi
?ino ca?aaioiie ieaou, nioeeaeueiuo auieao cia/eoaeueii ionoaaae io yoeo
oaiiia.

Ia iaiueoei “aeinoeaeaieai” ?aoi?i auei iaaeaeaiiuo ianooaaia iaaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa (ni.oaae.3),

Oaae.3 AAI a Ie?ae. aeieea?ia NOA.

1987198819891990199119921993199419951996EoiaiAAI965100710229919418057356
41615585-380

iiaeaeoaa ca niaie a nioeeaeueiii ieaia:

· aac?aaioeoeo, a oii /enea ne?uooth;

· nieaeaiea ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey;

· cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea ainathaeaeaoa e, eae neaaenoaea, oiaiueoaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa a nioeeaeueiie noa?a (ni.oaae.4).

Oaae.4 ?anoiaeu Ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?innee.

199019931995Anaai, ie?ae. ?oa.151,057674,0487400,0Ia
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua ia?ii?eyoey, ie?ae.
?oa.65,214336,6126900(Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue nie?auaiea aeiee nioeeaeueiuo
?anoiaeia a athaeaeaoa n 43% a 1990 aiaeo aei 26% a 1995 aiaeo.
Oaeoe/anee aea a 1995 aiaeo yoa noaouey ?anoiaeia eniieiaia eeoue ia
59,2% io ooaa?aeae?iiiai (yoi naiue ieceee i?ioeaio eniieiaiey ca yoio
aiae)).

Iaeuecy ia oeacaoue ia ?ieue a nieaeaiee nioeeaeueiie caueu?iiinoe
ianaeaiey ii?aaeae?iiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa, i?eaaaeoae
e nie?auaieth aeiee ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/aai a i?iecaaae?iiii ei
i?iaeoeoa. Anee aeiey ca?ieaou ?aai/aai a eaaeaeii i?iecaaae?iiii ei
?oaea ai a?aiaia nioeeaeecia ninoaaeyea 10 – 13% (aiaeiae/iay aeiey
?aai/aai a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao – aei 40%), oi n i?eoiaeii
?uiea aio inoaeinue eeoue ieiei 11%, i?e/?i oaia?ue ii, eae e aai
caiaaeiue eieeaaa aeieaeai iiea/eaaoue e i?eia?aoaiea aeeeuey, e
ia?aciaaiea e ainieoaiea aeaoae, e iiiaia ae?oaia. A ?acoeueoaoa
?an/?oia iieo/aaony, /oi ieii/aoaeueiay aeiey ?inneeneiai ?aai/aai a
i?iecaaae?iiii ei ?oaea ninoaaeyao eeoue ieiei 5,5% (aai caiaaeiue
eieeaaa eiaao i?e aiaeiae/iuo ?an/?oao ieiei 16%).

Aiiaua, ianaeaieth a oneiaeyo eeaa?aeecaoeee i?aaeeaaaeinue ia aeaeaoue
iiiiue io ainoaea?noaa, a eniieueciaaoue naie aiciiaeiinoe aeey
iieo/aiey aeioiaea a einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaiiie no?oeoo?a aai enoi/ieeia
(ni.oaae.5).

Oaae.5 No?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, %

19911995Iieaoa o?oaea59,738,8Nioe. o?ainoa?ou15,016,3Aeioiaeu io
nianoaaiiinoe, i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e i?.24,844,9 A iaiai ia ionoonoaea
nioeeaeueiie caueou i?aaeinoaaeyeanue aiciiaeiinoue “aue?o/eaaoueny” –
ainoaea?noai cae?uaaei aeaca ia /anoi iacaeiiiua enoi/ieee aeioiaeia,
/oi i?eaaei e e?eieiaeecaoeee yeiiiieee, ei??oioeee ai aeanoiuo
no?oeoo?ao anao o?iaiae, ?aceie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ianaeaiey ii aeioiaeai
(ni. oaae.6).

Oaae.6 ?ani?aaeaeaiea iauaai aeioiaea ii ?aaii/eneaiiui a?oiiai
ianaeaiey ?innee, % io iauaai iau?ia.

A?oiiu ii o?iaith aeioiaea198019901995Ia?aay
(aaaeiaeoay)10,19,85,5Aoi?ay14,814,910,2O?aouey18,618,815,0*aoa??oay23,1
23,822,4Iyoay (aiaaoaeoay)33,432,746,9

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee 1991 – 1995 aiaeia yaeeinue
no?aieaiea ainoaea?noaa iiauoaieai aeiee ?ano?nia, iai?aaeyaiuo ia
nioeeaeueiua oeaee, eiiiaine?iaaoue ionoonoaea eee iaaeinoaoi/iia
i?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?i ii ?ai?aaiecaoeee nioeeaeueiie caueou, aeinoaaoaeny a
ianeaaenoai io nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu e niaa?oaiii ia i?eniiniaeaiiie
e oneiaeyi ?uiea. Oai ia iaiaa o?iaaiue ?anoiaeia ia nioeeaeueiua
ioaeaeu a iaoae no?aia yaii ia aeioyaeaaao aei niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy
no?ai “nai??ee” (ni. oaae.7). O/eouaay ?ac?ua a aaee/eia AAI n yoeie
no?aiaie a iieueco iineaaeieo (a 1996 aiaeo AAI NOA ?aaiyeny 6785 ie?ae.
aeieea?ia, ?innee – 585 ie?ae. aeiee.), iiaeii iieo/eoue ioithaeue ia
?aaeoaeioth ea?oeio oeiaine?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie noa?u. E?iia oiai,
i?ienoiaeeo i?aeoe/aneia ?acaaca?eaaiea e oae-oi neoaeiuo n?aaenoa,
auaeaeyaiuo ec ainathaeaeaoa ii inoaoi/iiio i?eioeeio.

Oaae.7 Nioeeaeueiua ?anoiaeu a % e AAI

19831994?inney12,717,9No?aiu “nai??ee”27,1

Iaiaaeoiaiiay iaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa i?eaaea iiiaeo
ethaeae e nioeeaeueiui iio?ynaieyi (ni. oaae.8). Aaaeaioeu,
auioaeaeaiiua ia?anaeaioeu – ?acoeueoao ni?iaioee?iaaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaii
no?aiu ?aniaaea NNN? – i?aeoe/anee ei ia caueuathony.

Oaae.8 *enei a ?innee naiae aaaeaioeaa, oun.

199419951996172274384 ?ac?ooaiea aaeeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa, oo?aou o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?uieia nauoa – iaiaeiaaaeiue oaeoi?
nouanoaothuae iuia aaaenoaaiiie neooaoeee a nioeeaeueiie noa?a. Noieue
aea aacaeoiai iiaeoiae e eiiaa?nee AIE, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaeny
aeia?iaieueiui ooiaeii n ?uiea aii?oaeaiee a iieueco caiaaeiuo eiiiaiee
e, niioaaonoaaiii, iaania/aiea aeinoieiiai aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy caiaaeiuo,
a ia iaoeo ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo.

Ioeaieoue aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaa a nioeeaeueiie noa?a iiiiaoo
neaaeothuea oaaeeoeu:

Oaae.9 N?aaeiaiany/iay ia/eneaiiay c/i ?aaioieeia a oeaiao
niioaaonoaothuaai ia?eiaea e auieaou nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a.

AiaeN?aaeiyy c/i, ?oa.Auieaou nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a a ?an/?oa ia
iaeiiai ?aaioieea, ?oa.I?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi, ?oa.Niioiioaiea n?aaeiae
iieaou o?oaea e i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia,
%19921607116784832367199435423647908163550246199573548399300368237227

Oaae.10 Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo n?aaeiei ?acia?ii iacia/aiiie iany/iie
iainee e aaee/eiie i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia.

AiaeN?aaeiee ?acia? iainee a % e i?iaeeoi/iiio
ieieioio.19902371994124199599 Oaae.11 ?acia?u nioeeaeueiuo
aa?aioee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ainoaea?noaii ianaeaieth, a niioiioaiee n
aaee/eiie i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia.

1993199419951996Ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea39281016Ieieiaeueiue
?acia? iainee ii noa?inoe63442726 Iiaeiaiua oaiaeaioeee e
oooaeoaieth iieiaeaiey neiaeeeenue ai anao iaeanoyo nioeeaeueiie noa?u:

· a noa?a eoeueoo?u;

· a cae?aaiio?aiaiee, eae a eiee/anoaaiiii, oae e a ea/anoaaiiii
ioiioaiee;

· a iaoea, ia?aciaaiee e ae?.

I?e/eiu iaaeinoaoi/iie nioeeaeueiie caueu?iiinoe ianaeaiey ?innee a
aiaeu ia?ano?ieee e?ithony a i?aeoe/aneii ionoonoaee i?iaaaeaiey
neieue-ieaoaeue iineaaeiaaoaeueiie nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, i?eianaiee a?
a aea?oao i?ec?a/iie yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe, i?eeiaeaiee ia
?inneeneoth ii/ao onoa?aaoeo e aeaaii ii?iaa?aioouo yeiiiie/aneeo
o/aiee. Anoanoaaiiie ?aaeoeeae a yoii ?aeo?na auaeyaeeo eioi?iaoeey,
i?eaaae?iiay a oaae.12 e ?en.3:

Oaae.12 Caaanoiaee a ?innee.

Aiae*enei i?aaei?eyoee, i?eiyaoeo o/anoea a caaanoiaeao, aae.*enei
?aaioieeia, i?eiyaoeo o/anoea a caaanoiaeao, oun.
/ae.199026099,51994514155,31995 8856489,4 ?en.3 Oaiaeaioeee
aeaiiioeyoeee ianaeaiey ?innee.

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Caeeth/aiea.

A 1992 – 1994 aiaeao oaeoaeaiea aeeooa?aioeeaoeee a aeioiaeao ianaeaiey
iineei yaii aiiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. A iniiaiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo a?oiiao
n?aaeiaaeioiaeiiai neiy ianaeaiey – eiaeaia?u, ?aaioieee iaoee,
eoeueoo?u, o/eoaey e o.ae. – ea?athuaai a ii?iaeueiuo iauanoaao ?ieue
nioeeaeueiiai noaaeeecaoi?a, i?iecio?e ?aceee iiai?io e iaieuaieth e
aeaeaaeeoeeaoeee. Eiaiii ii ioiioaieth ainoaea?noaa e aeaiiui io?aneyi,
oi?ie?othuei ee/iinoue, eioaeeaeooaeueiue e oece/aneee iioaioeeae
iauanoaa, iiaeii noaeeoue i iaee/ee eee ionoonoaee no?aoaae/aneiai
iuoeaiey o eeaea?ia e aeaenoaothuae eiiaiaeu eniieieoaeae. Eeoeaia?ea
ainoaea?noaa ii ioiioaieth e naiei a?aaeaeaiai ia iiaeao auoue
aaciaeacaiiui. A enoi?ee ?innee yoi oaea auei…

NIENIE ENIIEUeCOAIIE EEOA?AOO?U:

1. Iaeeiiiae E., A?th N. “Yeiiiieen”

?anioaeeea, 1992 a.

2. Aooiee A. “E ioaeeeaoeee aeaa ?aaiou Aaeueoa?a

Ieeaia “Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee””

?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?2, 1993 a.

3. Ei?iae ss. “Iooue e naiaiaeiie yeiiiieea”,

I., Yeiiiieea, 1993 a., n.64

4. Einia?neee A., Ianeiaa O. “Nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea a ?innee a
?inneeneii eiioaenoa iae?iyeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu”

Aii?inu yeiiiieee, ? 9, 1995 a.

5. sseieea E. “Ea?uea?a iaiaaeaea?a”

I., “I?ia?ann”,1991 a.

6. Aaeiaie Ae. “?uiie: iyoue eao nionoy”

I?aaaea, ? 2, 1996 a.

7. *a/o?ei N. “Ca /oi ai?ieenue?”

N?, ? 136, 1996 a.

8. I?eia A. “Oa?icu a nioeeaeueiie noa?a, eo aeeaaiinoeea e
aiciiaeiinoe eo oi?aaeaeaiey”

Aii?inu yeiiiieee, ? 1, 1995 a.

9. Aeieo?eaa I. “Iieeoeea nioeeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia a nia?aiaiiie ?innee”

Aii?inu yeiiiieee, ? 10, 1996 a.

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