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Рынок труда и региона (Западная Сибирь)

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ANA?INNEENEAss IAO*II-NIOeEAEUeIAss I?IA?AIIA

IIEIAe?AEE E OEIEUeIEEIA

«OAA A AOAeOUAA»

?UIIE O?OAeA ?AAEIIA.

Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa ia eiieo?n

iieiae?aee e oeieueieeia

«Oaa a aoaeouaa»

AAOI?:

Iaiei Ieaa Na?aaaae/

?inney a. No?aoo, i. Nieia/iue

N?aaeiyy oeiea ?1

11A eeann

IAO*IUE ?OEIAIAeEOAEUe:

e. y. i., i?ioanni?

Aeaeai yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

caa. eao. Yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Aaaeaaa Eaiieae Aeaenaiae?iae/

No?aooneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

No?aoo 1998

?UIIE O?OAeA ?AAEIIA.

Iaiei I. N.

Iao/iue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue: i?io. Aaaeaaa E. A.

N?aaeiyy
oeiea ?1 11A ee., iin. Nieia/iue

Eaai?aoi?ey
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee No?AO

Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uiea o?oaea ?aaeiia – na?ue?ciay yeiiiie/aneay e
nioeeaeueiay i?iaeaia. I?ioeannu yeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe i?eaiaeyo
e aicieeiiaaieth aac?aaioeoeu. A ianoiyuai niiauaiee ianoaeaeaaony
nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ?uiea o?oaea a No?aooa e No?aooneii ?aeiia,
?anniao?eaaaony ?aaioa aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia ?aaeiia ii iaania/aieth
a?aaeaeai ?aai/eie ianoaie e aiciiaeiinoe eo ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeee a
niioaaonoaee n i?iaeaiaie ?aaeiia.

Niaea?aeaiea.

AAAAeAIEA.

Oiaa? eioi?ui iaeaaeaao eaaeaeue.

Eae iaaeatho e caueuathony ia ?uiea o?oaea.

Aaea ia/eiaaony ieuaoa?

Anoue ee i?aaeae o ca?ieaou?

Eaaeaeiio o?oaeo naiy oeaia.

Aac?aaioiua – eeoiea ethaee?

Oe?iu. *oi iiaoo oe?iu?

?uiie o?oaea a No?aooa e No?aooneii ?aeiia.

Iiieoi?eia ?uiea o?oaea.

AUAIAeU.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

A eaaeaeie no?aia, a oiaea yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i nicaea?ony iaoaieci
?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee – iaee/ea a
no?oeoo?a niaoeeoe/aneiai ?uiea – ?uiea o?oaea.

Ia?aoeiny e enoi?e/aneei enoieai e nia?aiaiiui oaeoai e enneaaeiaaieyi.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aeaenoaoao i?eioeei naiaiaeiie caiyoinoe,
o?oaeiaia i?eioaeaeaiea ionoonoaoao. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ieaie?otho
naie oe?iu, i?aaei?eieiaoaee, a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie neeaaeuaathony ia
iniiaa aeiaiai?a, eiio?aeoa, ?uii/iuo naycae. Iaeia ec na?ue?ciuo
i?iaeai ?uii/iie yeiiiieee – aac?aaioeoea – nioeeaeueii iianiia
iaaeaaii?eyoiia yaeaiea. Ii i?e o?iaia aac?aaioeoeu ia i?aauoathuai
i?eia?ii 5%, iia ia i?eaiaeeo e nioeeaeueiui eaoaeeeciai. *oiau
ecaaaeaoue iaaeiionoeiiai ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu i?eoiaeeony niaoeeaeueii
nicaeaaaoue ?aai/ea ianoa; nie?auaoue a?aiy iienea ?aaiou e
i?aaeinoaaeyoue aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue aeaeaaioth ?aaioo euouei. E au?
iaeia ec oi?i ai?ueau n aac?aaioeoeae – yoi ia?aiao/aiea aac?aaioiuo.

I?iaeaia caiyoinoe a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ino?i noieo ia?aae No?aooneei
?aeiiii ii aeaiiui Oeaio?a caiyoinoe No?aooneiai ?aeiia. I /?i
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho neaaeothuea aeaiiua.

Ca?aaeno?e?iaaii aac?aaioiuo a 1995a. – 479 /ae., a 1996a. – 1667/., a
1997a. – ia?aoeeinue a Oeaio? caiyoinoe a iienea ?aaiou 2467 /ae.,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii aac?aaioiuo 1568 /ae. *oiau noaoue ia o/ao ii
aac?aaioeoea, ia?aaioathuaio /aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii auoue a
o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa, ia eiaoue ie eaeie ca?aaioiie ieaou, eiaoue
?inneeneia a?aaeaeainoai, iinoiyiioth i?iieneo, aeieoiaiou ia
ia?aciaaiee e o?oaeiaoth eieaeeo (aeey oao, eoi oaea ?aaioae). A aeaaiia
– iaaei eiaoue aeaeaiea o?oaeiono?ieoueny.

I?aaeeiaeaii ?aai/eo iano a 1995a. – 144, a 1996a. – 226, a 1997a. –
255. Ia?aee ?aaioo aeaaiaea?y Oeaio?o caiyoinoe a 1995a. – 314 /ae., a
1996a. – 554 /ae., a 1997a. – 809 /ae. ec /enea aac?aaioiuo. Eae aeaeei,
/oi aac?aaioeoea a 1996a. aic?inea a 3,5 ?aca. I?e/eia yoiio cae?uoea
iiiaeo ianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee: a Eieiniai cae?uo ee?ie/iue caaiae,
eeeaeaee?iaaii ioaeaeaiea niaoica: i?aaei?eyoea «Eaniia» iinaeea
Ian/aiue, i?einoaiiaeee caaioiaeo ae?aaaneiu, a i. Nieia/iii cae?uou 2
aeaoneeo naaea, eeeaeaee?iaaiu: ?aiiioii-no?ieoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea ?4,
no?ieoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea ?27, oi?aaeaiea iaoaiecaoeee ?3, – yoi au?
aeaeaei ia iieiue nienie.

A ca 1997a. ii n?aaiaieth n 1995a. aac?aaioeoea aic?inea a 5,2 ?aca.
Aac?aaioiui a 1996a. auei i?aaeeiaeaii 226 iano, /oi ninoaaeei 14% io
euoueo ?aaioo. A 1997a. auei i?aaeeiaeaii 255 ?aai/eo iano, /oi
ninoaaeei 10% io euoueo ?aaioo.

Oai i?aaei?eyoeyi, eioi?ua ooieoeeiie?otho, oiiae caiyoinoe
ia?eiaee/anee auaeaeyao iaoa?eaeueioth iiaeieoeo iiae nio?aiaiea ?aai/eo
iano e eo i?aaiecaoeeth, i?aaeeaaaao aac?aaioiui ia?ao/eoueny e ia?anoe
iiaoth i?ioanneth a aeaiiie ianoiinoe ?aaeiia. E aeaaiaea?y Oeaio?o
caiyoinoe a 1996a. ia?aee ?aaioo 554 /ae., /oi ninoaaeyao 33% io euoueo
?aaioo; a ca 9 ianyoeaa 1997a. ia?aee ?aaioo 628 /ae., /oi ninoaaeyao
31% io euoueo ?aaioo.

Ia 1 ieoya?y 1997a. a neoaeaa caiyoinoe a. No?aooa eiaeinue 2332
aaeainee – a iniiaiii aeey ioae/ei. A oi aea a?aiy
aaooiai-yeniaaeeoeeiiiui niiniaii a ai?iae ec no?ai NIA aaiceony 14 oun.
/aeiaae. Iaeiaei cae?uoue ai?iae aeey aaoo iiea ia oeaeaniia?acii,
iineieueeo aieueoeinoai aac?aaioiuo – aeaiueiu e ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea. A
n?aaea aac?aaioiuo aeaiueiu ninoaaeytho 94%. Anaai ia?aoeeinue a iienea
?aaiou a ai?iaeneoth neoaeao caiyoinoe ca 9 ianyoeaa 1997a. 7281 /ae.
?ino /enea aac?aaioiuo naycai n oai, /oi a yoii aiaeo /enei
aunaiaiaeaeaaiuo n i?aaei?eyoee ai?iaea ?aaioieeia oaaee/eeinue a 1,7
?aca.

Ethaee, eioi?ua ia?auathony a neoaeao caiyoinoe, iieo/atho iaiaoiaeeiua
eiinoeueoaoeee. Iiiaea iinea yoiai ia i?eoiaeyo, iineieueeo a i?eioeeia
o?oaeiinoae a ono?ienoaa ia ?aaioo ia eniuouaatho, ii euoo aieaa
iiaeoiaeyuaa ?aai/aa ianoi.

Aeaaiaea?y i?iaaaeaiiie aeoeaiie iieeoeee a o?oaeiono?ienoaa ianaeaiey
o?iie/aneay aac?aaioeoea a No?aooa a n?aaiaiee n 1996 a. nieceeanue n
9,7% aei 5,9%. N?aaee ia?ii?eyoee, i?iaiaeeaoeony neoaeaie caiyoinoe,
nicaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo iano, noaneaee?iaaiea ca?aaioiie
ieaou iieiaeui niaoeeaeenoai, i?aaiecaoeey iauanoaaiiuo e a?aiaiiuo
?aaio. A 1996-1997 aiaeao cao?aou ia aeoeaioth iieeoeeo ii ai?ueaa n
aac?aaioeoeae ninoaaeee 46,6 ie?ae. ?oaeae. Auea ieacaia oeiainiaay
iiiiuue i?aaei?eyoeyi aeey nicaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo iano a
/enea oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee «AEeeeiioic», ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiue oeaio? «Aeia?ue
aieoaaiee», aaea i?aaieciaai eaaeiao o?oaeiaiai iao/aiey, II «Iaoa
a?aiy», II «Neae?ue», «Eanoi?a», i?aaei?eyoea «Aaeiai?uea». Ia
nio?aiaiea ?aai/eo iano auaeaeeee n?aaenoaa oeaaicaaiaeo, ai?iiecaaiaeo,
iynieiiaeiaoo, ?uaieiiaeiaoo, oaaeiie oaa?eea. Ia ia?aia ianoi nae/an
auoea i?iaeaia o?oaeiono?ienoaa iieiae?aee. Iineieueeo niaeanii caeiio i
caiyoinoe ia ?aaioo i?eieiathony oieueei aeinoeaoea 16 eao, a
iaycaoaeueiua 9 eeannia oeieueieee caeai/eaatho a 15 eao, neoaeaa
caiyoinoe ?aoeea a?aiaiii o?oaeiono?aeaaoue iiae?inoeia. I?aaei?eyoeth
«Iaoa a?aiy» auee auaeaeaiu n?aaenoaa aeey nicaeaiey iiae?inoeiaie
ae?aee o?oaea. Ianoa aeey iiae?inoeia nicaeaiu CAI «Ae?iiieue», OIO
«Neacea»; «Iaoa a?aiy» a iiiauaieyo aeai?iauo eeoaia nicaeatho oaaeioth
ianoa?neoth, ?aaeeiianoa?neoth e eaoa.

Iiiai aieiaiey oaeaeytho ia?aiao/aieth e i?ioi?eaioaoeee iacaiyouo
no?aooyi. Oieueei a ia?aii iieoaiaeee caeii/eee iao/aiea 313 /aeiaae. A
i?ioeii aiaeo auee caeeth/aiu aeiaiai?u n i?ioanneiiaeueiui eeoeaai ?56
e i?ioanneiiaeueiui o/eeeuai ?19, niaeanii eioi?ui a iaa – ethia auei
iiaeaioiaeaii 127 ?aayo.

Ca 1997a. Neoaeaie caiyoinoe ianaeaiey No?aooneiai ?aeiia auei
iai?aaeaii 174/. ia i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea. 184/. ec iao/aaoeony
caeii/eee i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea e 62/. ec ieo – o?oaeiono?iaiu.

*aua anaai o?aaothony iecei eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eaae?u: noi?iae, aaoo??,
iiaeniaiua ?aai/ea, naieoa?ee. Anoue ni?in e ia eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia, aaea iaeiaei, o?aaothony noaae, iiuo, ciaiea
eiiiuethoa?a, eiino?aiiiai ycuea.

Iniiaiua i?aaei?eyoey iaoaai ?aaeiia – yoi i?aaei?eyoey iaooaaaciaie e
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiiaea aiaeu ec-ca cia/eoaeueiie
oaeaeaiiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo iauaeoia io ianaeaiiuo ioieoia oe?iei
i?eiaiyaony aaooiaue iaoiae n i?eaea/aieai ?aaioieeia n ae?oaeo
?aaeiiia. Nae/an ianooaau e oa?aeoa? i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiie ?aai/ae
neeu ai an? aieueoae ia?a ?aaoee?othony ?uieii o?oaea.

Iineieueeo ?uiie o?oaea iaoiaeeony a noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey,
iaia?oaeeaathony iiiaea i?ioeai?a/ey: i?e nouanoaothuai aeaoeoeeoa
?aai/eo iano oaaee/eeinue eiee/anoai oaieeaoeony ii nianoaaiiiio
aeaeaieth. Iiea ia nicaeaiu yooaeoeaiua iaoaieciu eniieueciaaiey
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. Ianoiyuaa ninoiyiea ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?uiea o?oaea
naycaii n o?ainoi?iaoeeae yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu no?aiu e niaaeii
i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeiaiiaeaaaaiii naeoi?a yeiiiieee, /oi aaae?o e
nie?auaieth ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo.

Ii, o/eouaay i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue oa??eoi?ee No?aooneiai ?aeiia (iaooue,
aac) aeey aiaoieo eiaanoi?ia, a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai e?eoe/aneie
neooaoeee ia ?uiea o?oaea ?aaeiia ia aoaeao.

?inney iiaeao e aeieaeia a iieiie ia?a o/anoue e eniieueciaaoue iiuo
iiiaeo ainoaea?noa a nicaeaiee iaoaieciia ?aaeecaoeee aeoeaiie iieeoeee
caiyoinoe, oi?ie?iaaiea iieiioeaiiiai ?uiea o?oaea.

AAAAeAIEA.

A aiaeu nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu caeii o?aaiaae io anao
o?oaeiniiniaiuo o/anoaiaaoue a ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiie o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Nae/an eniieuecoaony iiiai yieoaoia oa?aeoa?ecothueo
ooiaeyuoth a i?ioeia yeiiiieeo niaaoneiai oeia: «eiiaiaeiay»,
«ieaiiaay», «i?eioaeeoaeueiay» – iaeiei neiaii: «oeaio?aeeciaaiiay». A
oeaio?aeueiie yeiiiieea ainiiaenoaoao ainoaea?noaaiiay oi?ia
nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoai i?iecaiaenoaa, /anoiay i?aeoe/anee cai?auaia,
yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue iai?aaeyaony, a iniiaiii, ainoaea?noaaiiui
oeaio?aeueiui ieaiii, oeacaieyie ec oeaio?a.

Ii i?e yoie yeiiiieea oaeaeinue ?aoeoue ?yae caaea/, iauaeoeaii aaaeiuo
aeey iaoae no?aiu: nicaeaoue e?oiioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iaeaaeeoue
iaieiooth nenoaio anaiauaai n?aaeiaai ia?aciaaiey, iaania/eoue oioy au
ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue iaaeeoeeineeo oneoa aeey anao a?aaeaeai no?aiu,
nicaeaoue ianniaia aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai, i?aaieciaaoue a?ieth,
niiniaioth caueoeoue oeaeinoiinoue no?aiu. Ii aeinoeaioou yoe oeaee auee
oeaiie aeanoi/aeoae yenieoaoaoeeae naiaiaeiiai ia?iaea.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aeaenoaoao i?eioeei naiaiaeiie caiyoinoe.
O?oaeiaia i?eioaeaeaiea ionoonoaoao, nai /aeiaae ?aoaao ?aaioaoue aio
eee ia ?aaioaoue. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ieaie?otho naie oe?iu,
i?aaei?eieiaoaee, a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie neeaaeuaathony ia iniiaa
aeiaiai?a, eiio?aeoa, ?uii/iuo naycae. Iaeia ec na?ueaciuo i?iaeai
?uii/iie yeiiiieee aac?aaioeoea – nioeeaeueii iianiia, iaaeaaii?eyoiia
yaeaiea. Ii i?e o?iaia aac?aaioeoeu, ia i?aauoathuai i?eia?ii 5 %, iia
ia i?eaiaeeo e nioeeaeueiui eaoaeeeciai. A oi aea a?aiy aac?aaioeoea
iiaenoaaeaaao ?aaioieeia, iiaoaeaeaao eo oaaaeaoue o?oae. *oi au
ecaaaeaoue iaaeiionoeiiai ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu i?eoiaeeony niaoeeaeueii
nicaeaaaoue ?aai/ea ianoa, nie?auaoue a?aiy iienea ?aaiou euouei. Ana
yoe iia?aoeee i?ienoiaeyo ia ?uiea o?oaea. N ia?aoiaeii io
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, ?anniao?eaaaiay
i?iaeaia ia?aea naith aeooaeueiinoue.

Oiaa?, eioi?ui iaeaaeaao eaaeaeue.

Oi?aiaaoue naiae ?aai/ae neeie iaaiiua ?aaioieee i?eoiaeyo ia iniaue
?uiie – ?uiie o?oaea.

?uiie o?oaea – niiniau, iauanoaaiiua iaoaieciu e i?aaiecaoeee,
iicaieythuea ethaeyi iaeoe ?aaioo ii naiei niiniaiinoyi e iaaueai, a
?aaioiaeaoaeyi iaiyoue ?aaioieeia, eioi?ua ei iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
i?aaiecaoeee eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eee eiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoio ?uiie iioiae e ia iioiae ia inoaeueiua oiaa?iua ?uiee. *oi aea ia
yoii ?uiea iauaai n ae?oaeie ?uieaie ?ano?nia i?iecaiaenoaa?

I?aaeaea anaai caeanue oiaea caeiiu ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e
oi?ie?othony ?aaiiaaniua oeaiu caeaoiaai oiaa?a – ?aai/ae neeu. Yoe
oeaiu iacuaathony ca?aaioiie ieaoie.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa – aaee/eia aeaiaaeiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, auiea/eaaaiiai
iaaiiiio ?aaioieeo ca auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai caaeaiey, iauai ?aaio
eee auiieiaiea naieo neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae a oa/aiee iaeioi?iai
a?aiaie.

*ai auoa ieaoa, eioi?oth ?aaioieee o?aaotho ca naie o?oae, oai iaiueoa
eo /enei niiaoo iaiyoue ?aaioiaeaoaee. E niioaaonoaaiii: /ai ieaea
ieaoa, eioi?oth ?aaioiaeaoaee aioiau ieaoeoue ca auiieiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea ?aaio, oai iaiueoa /enei ethaeae aioiau caieiaoueny
oaeie ?aaioie. Ia ia?ana/aiee yoeo eioa?ania e ?iaeaeaaony ?aaiiaaniay
oeaia ?aai/ae neeu – oa ca?aaioiay ieaoa, i?e eioi?ie niaiaaeaao /enei
ethaeae, aioiauo caieiaoueny ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaioie, e /enei ?aai/eo
iano, eioi?ia aioiau i?aaeinoaaeoue ?aaioiaeaoaee.

A iiaoo ee aiiaua ia ia?ana/ueny e?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea
o?oaea, oi anoue aiciiaeia ee neooaoeey, eiaaea ethaee aoaeoo
niaeaoaoueny ?aaioaoue eeoue ca ieaoo, eioi?oth ?aaioiaeaoaee auieaoeoue
ioeaaeoony?

A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo oaeay neooaoeey aiciiaeia. Ii a oeaeii ia ?uiea
o?oaea iia eneeth/aia, iineieueeo ie ?aaioiaeaoaee, ie iaaiiua ?aaioieee
ia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue ae?oa aac ae?oaa. Iie, anee iiaeii oae neacaoue,
ae?ocuey – a?aae, neiaaiiua iaeiie oeaiueth.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, eioa?anu iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia e ?aaioiaeaoaeae
i?ioeaiiieiaeiu. Iaaiiua ?aaioieee no?aiyony iieo/eoue eae iiaeii
aieueooth ca?ieaoo. ?aaioiaeaoaee

aea i?yii caeioa?aniaaiu a oii, /oiau ieaoeoue eae iiaeii iaiueoa e ca
n/ao yoiai aei iaeneioia oaaee/eaaoue i?eaueue.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie aei e?aeiinoe ioaeaeathony ae?oa a ae?oaa. Aac
iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia ?aaioiaeaoaee i?inoi ia iiaoo i?aaieciaaoue naith
aeayoaeueiinoue, a cia/eo, eeoathony aeioiaeia. Ii e iaaiiua ?aaioieee
aac ?aaioiaeaoaeae ieacuaathony ia?aae oa?icie ieuaou e aieiaeiie
nia?oe.

Any enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa iieia i?eia?ia iaeanoi/aiiie ai?ueau aeaoo
yeiiiie/aneeo nee iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia e ?aaioiaeaoaeae. Yoa a?aaeaea
i?eianea ethaeyi aieueoa aaae, /ai noeoeeiua aaaenoaey e aeaaea aieiu,
eioi?ua aeeyony ianeieueei eao, iaeneioi aeanyoeeaoee. Oieueei a XX aaea
noaee au?eniauaaoueny eiioo?u iiaiai iauanoaa nioeeaeueiie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee.

Nioeeaeueiay ?uii/iay yeiiiieea – iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai, i?e eioi?ii
ainoaea?noai aeoeaii iiaeaea?aeeaaao ?acaeoea naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee,
niinianoaoao ineaaeaieth eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo iaaiiuie ?aaioieeaie e
?aaioiaeaoaeyie, a oaeaea ?aaeecoao iaoe?iua i?ia?aiiu iiaeaea?aeee
nioeeaeueii iacaueuaiiuo a?oii a?aaeaeai.

Eae iaaeatho e caueuathony ia ?uiea o?oaea.

Iinea ioiaiu ?aanoaa ?aaioiaeaoaee nii?ioeaeyeenue yoiio oaao eci anao
nee, i?aaei?eieiaoaee eneaee iiaua niiniau iaania/aiey iiei?iinoe
iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. Iaeaieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a XIX – ia/aea XX
aaea iieo/eee oaeea niiniau,

1) ninoaaeaiea «/a?iuo nieneia», eiaaea iaeaieaa aeoeaiuo ai?oeia ca
iiauoaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou e oeo/oaiea oneiaee o?oaea ia i?inoi
oaieueiyee, ii caiineee a iniaua nienee e ia iaeei i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia
niaeaoaeny eo a?aoue ia ?aaioo. A ?innee yoi iacuaaeinue «iieo/eoue
aie/ee aeeao»,

2) eieaoo, eiaaea ?aaioiaeaoaee a ioaao ia iiauoaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou
i?inoi cae?uaaee i?aaei?eyoey ia ianeieueei iaaeaeue. Eiia/ii, iie
eeoaeenue aeioiaeia, ii e noaaeee «aoioiaueeia» ia a?aiue aieiaeiie
nia?oe,

iaai oo?aeea?aoa?ia, oi anoue iaai a?aiaiiuo ?aaioieeia, niaeaneaoeony
?aaioaoue ia oneiaeyo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae;

4) eiio?aeou «aeaeoie niaaee»», caeeth/aaoeany a oii, /oi /aeiaaea a?aee
ia ?aaioo eeoue i?e iiaeienaiee ei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai o?oaeiaiai
aeiaiai?a. I?e yoii ?aaioiee ia eiae i?aaa ie n eai iauaaeeiyoueny aeey
niaianoiie ai?ueau ca aieaa aunieoth ieaoo. Anee /aeiaae ia?ooae
eiio?aeo «aeaeoie niaaee», ii iiaeeaaeae iaiaaeeaiiiio oaieueiaieth e ie
iaeei noae ia iia ainnoaiiaeoue aai ia ?aaioa.

Ana yoe e iiiaea ae?oaea ia?u, a oii /enea eniieueciaaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?eiaiaiea iieeoeee e aeaaea a?iee i?ioea ?aai/eo,
auee iai?aaeaiu ia oi, /oiau canoaaeoue iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia nie?eoueny n
iaauaiaeiuie aeey ieo oneiaeyie eoiee- i?iaeaaee ?aai/ae neeu e «naeoue»
oeaio ia ?aai/oth neeo.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi iaaiiua ?aaioieee e ia aeoiaee niaeaoaoueny n oaeie
iieeoeeie ?aaioiaeaoaeae. Iie ia?aaaouaaee e niaa?oainoaiaaee naie
a?naiae iaoiaeia ai?ueau ca iiauoaiea oeaiu ia naie o?oae. Iniiao yoiai
a?naiaea ninoaaeee:

1) caaanoiaee, oi anoue i?ae?auaiea ?aaiou aei oao ii?, iiea
?aaioiaeaoaee ia niaeaoathony oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaiey aanoothueo i
iiauoaiee iieaou o?oaea eee oeo/oaiee aai oneiaee,

2) ?aaioa ii i?aaeeai, eiaaea iaaiiua ?aaioieee oi?iaeueii ia i?a?uaatho
?aaioo, ii ia/eiatho ?aaioaoue ni no?iaeaeoei niaethaeaieai
anaaiciiaeiuo eino?oeoeee e a caiaaeeaiiii oaiia, /oi ?acei nieaeaao
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea e i?eauee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,

3) nicaeaiea iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, aeiaeaathueony ia?eaiaioa?neei iooai
i?eiyoea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aoaiee a iieueco iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia,

4) i?aaiecaoeey i?ionithcia, i?aaenoaaeythueo eioa?anu iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia a

ia?aaiai?ao n i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie.

I?ioanneiiaeueiue nithc – iauaaeeiaiea iaeiie i?ioannee, io?anee
i?iecaiaenoaa eee i?aaei?eyoey, nicaeaiiia aeey caueou eioa?ania yoeo
?aaioieeia i?e niaeaniaaiee n ?aaioiaeaoaeyie aaeeiuo oneiaee o?oaea e
aai iieaou aeey anao /eaiia i?ionithca.

N eniieueciaaieai yoeo iaoiaeia ai?ueau e eaeao oi?a ia ?uiea ?aai/ae
neeu oaea ianeieueei aaeia. ?aai/ea iauyaeytho caaanoiaeo, o?aaoy
aieueoie ca?ieaou, i?aaei?eieiaoaee ioaa/atho eieaooii. ?aai/ea
nicaeatho i?ionithcu, ca?aiaa ioeeaaeuaay aeaiueae ia aeeciue ai a?aiy
caaanoiaie eieaooia, i?aaei?eieiaoaee aeiaeaathony noaeaaiiai cai?aoa
aeayoaeueiinoe i?ionithcia. ?aai/ea nicaeatho ia?oee, /oiau aeiaeoueny
ioiaiu caeiiia i?ioea i?ionithcia e ia?oee iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia a ieuaoa e
canoia iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee…

Ii?ie e naaiaeiy aeaaea a naiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo no?aiao caaanoiaee
cai?auathony caeiiii.

AEeciue iieacuaaao : /ai aiaa/a no?aiu, /ai auoa a iae o?iaaiue
aeaaininoiyiey, oai niieieiaa no?iyony ioiioaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea, oai
?aaea e ei?i/a caaanoiaee.

Naaiaeiy a aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a i?eiaiythony aeaa iniiaiuo iaoaiecia
eoiee – i?iaeaaee ?aai/ae neeu: o?oaeiaua eiio?aeou e eieeaeoeaiua
aeiaiai?u.

O?oaeiaie eiio?aeo – niaeaoaiea i niaea?aeaiee oneiaee o?oaea, a oae aea
i ?acia?a aai iieaou e eiuo acaeiiuo iaycaoaeuenoaao ?aaioiaeaoaey e
iaaiiiai ?aaioieea , aeinoeaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
ia?aaiai?ia.

Eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai? – aeieoiaio, niaeaniauaaaiue ?aaioiaeaoaeyie n
i?aaiecaoeeae, i?aaenoaaeythuae eioa?anu anao iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia
aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, e ii?aaeaeythuee aaeeiua i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeeae
e iieaou o?oaea ia yoii i?aaei?eyoee.

Niaeaoaiea – eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai?, ?ani?ino?aiythueeny ia ia iaeii
i?aaei?eyoea, a ia oeaeoth io?aneue, oa??eoi?eth eee anao ?aaioieeia
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ioannee.

*oi ?aaoee?oao eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai?, /oi a iai iaiaa?eaaaony? Naiue
oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia, io eioi?uo caaenyo oneiaey o?oaea aeecie iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia, e naiiai nouanoaiaaiey i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?ie iie
o?oaeyony. Aunoay oi?ia ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea – aaia?aeueiua
niaeaoaiey.

Aaia?aeueiia niaeaoaiea – aeieoiaio, ii?aaeaeythuee iauea iai?aaeaiey
eciaiaiey oneiaee eoiee – i?iaeaaee ?aai/ae neeu a oeaeii ii no?aia e
iiaeienuaaaiue ii eoiaai ia?aaiai?ia iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaii,
iauaaeeiaieyie ?aaioiaeaoaeae e i?ionithcia.

A ?innee aia?aua oaeia Aaia?aeueiia niaeaoaiea auei iiaeienaii ia 1992a.
e aeeth/aei 52 ioieoa, iauaaeeiaiiuo a neaaeothuea ?acaeaeu:

1. Ia?u a iaeanoe yeiiiieee e i?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?i.

2. Niaeaenoaea caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, ?acaeoeth ?uiea o?oaea.

3. ?aaoee?iaaiea o?iaiy aeecie e iaania/aiea nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee.

4. Oneiaey e io?aia o?oaea, iaania/aiea yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe.

5. I?aaiaia iaania/aiea o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee e nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.

Iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee Aaia?aeueiiai niaeaoaiey.

A ?innee ?uiie ?aai/ae neeu ?aaoee?oaony Caeiiii «I caiyoinoe ianaeaiey
a ?NON?», i?eiyoui a ai?aea 1991a. Yoio caeii onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi:
eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei ai?aaa aaniethoii naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny naieie
niiniaiinoyie e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio e oai?/aneiio o?oaeo, a iioii ieeoi
e ie a eaeie oi?ia ia iiaeao i?eioaeaeaoue aai e o?oaeo eee iaeacuaaoue
ca iacaiyoinoue;

aac?aaioiui n/eoaaony a?aaeaeaiei, eioi?ue ia eiaao ?aaiou e ca?aaioea,
ca?aaeno?e?iaai a neoaeaa caiyoinoe a oeaeyo iienea iiaeoiaeyuae ?aaiou
e aioia i?enooieoue e iae, anee iia o?aaoao ia?aiaiu ianoa aai
aeeoaeuenoaa aac aai niaeaney, a i?aaeeaaaaiue ca?aaioie ieaea n?aaeiaai
ca?aaioea ia i?aaeiai ianoa aai ?aaiou;

a?aaeaeaia ?innee eiatho i?aai ?aaioaoue ca ?oaaaeii e eneaoue oai
?aaioo;

aeey iiiiue aac?aaioiui nicaeaaony Ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey, a eioi?ue ana ?aaioiaeaoaee iaycaiu aaeaiany/ii io/eneyoue
n?aaenoaa a ?acia?a, ninoaaeythuei 1 % iauae noiiu n?aaenoaa
?anoiaeoaiuo ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo a yoii ianyoea;

aac?aaioiua eiatho i?aai ia iieo/aiey iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea
ii?aaeaeyaiiai eae /anoue iieaou eo o?oaea ia iineaaeiai ianoa ?aaiou,
ii ia ieaea ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, iiniaea onoaiaaeeaaaony e
aeey iieiaeaaee, aia?aua euouae ?aaioo;

iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea auiea/eaaaony ia aieaa 12 ianyoeaa n iiiaioa
iioa?e ?aaiou, iiiiuue a iienea ?aaiou ieacuaatho neoaeau
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiieoaoa ii caiyoinoe.

Aaea ia/eiaaony ieuaoa?

I?e iaeioi?uo iaueo /a?oao n ae?oaeie ?uieaie ?ano?nia i?iecaiaenoai
?uiea o?oaea ana aea yaeaiea iniaia. A /ai yoi i?iyaeyaony?

Ai-ia?auo – yoio ?uiie aeanoiei ?aaoee?oaony caeiiaie e eieeaeoeaiuie
aeiaiai?aie. Yoi ia?aie/eaaao naiaiaeo iiyaeaiea caeiiia ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a cia/eo, aeeyao e ia o?iaaiue ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu o?oaea,
oi anoue ?acia? ca?aaioiie ieaou.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia yoii ?uiea anoue i?aaeae iaaeaiey oeai. E yoi nouanoaaiiia
ioee/ea ?uiea o?oaea. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee ethaie eiie oiaa? ia
?ani?iaeaaony, oi aeaaeaeaoe aoaeao nieaeaoue oeaio aei oao ii?, iiea
oiaa? ia aoaeao eoieai. Yoi iicaieeo anee e ia iieo/eoue i?eaueue, oi
oioy au aicianoeoue /anoue cao?ao ia ecaioiaeaiea yoiai oiaa?a.

N oiaa?ii aea ?aai/ae neeu aeaei ianoieo eia/a – o iaai anoue
ieieiaeueiay oeaia, ieaea eioi?ie ii noieoue i?inoi ia iiaeao. Yoa oeaia
ii?aaeaeyaony i?iaeeoi/iui ieieioiii.

I?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi – o?iaaiue aeioiaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
i?eia?aoaiey /aeiaaeii eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey ia ieaea
oeceieiae/aneeo ii?i, a oae aea oaeiaeaoai?aiey, oioy au ia naiii ieceii
o?iaia, aai iio?aaiinoae a iaeaaeaea, iaoae, iieaoa aeeeuey,
o?ainii?oiuo oneoaao, a i?aaeiaoao naieoa?ee e aeaeaiu.

Ia nia?aiaiiii ?uiea o?oaea i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi, nio?aiea naia
cia/aiea, ?aaeueii neoaeeo eeoue ieaeiae a?aieoeae ca?aaioiie ieaou. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai naaiaeiy /aoei iaiaa?eaaaony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iiiaeo
no?ai, i?yii ii?aaeaeythuei ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea e aai
iaycaoaeueiinoue aeey anao ?aaioiaeaoaeae. Anee aea i?aaei?eyoeth ia ii
neeai ieaoeoue ieieiaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo, iii iauyaeyaony
aaie?ioii e aai neaaeoao eeeaeaee?iaaoue.

Caeii i ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaoa cao?aaeaaao i?aaeaea anaai
iieiaeaiea iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. N?aaee ieo cia/eoaeueioth
aeieth ninoaaeytho iieiaeua ?aai/ea e iiae?inoee, eioi?ua aieaa
/oanoaeoaeueii ?aaae?otho ia onoaiiaeaiey ieieioia ca?ieaou, /ai
ac?ineia ianaeaiea. Niaeanii i?aaenoaaeaieyi iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee,
caeiiu i ieieioia ca?ieaou yaeythony aeaeaei ia iineaaeiae i?e/eiie
oiai, /oi aac?aaioeoea n?aaee iieiaeaaee a 3 ?aca auoa, /ai n?aaee
ethaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa. Aicieeaao anoanoaaiiue aii?in: ii/aio,
ianiio?y ia oa?ico oaaee/aiey aac?aaioeoeu, i?ionithcu iiaeaea?aeeaatho
o?aaiaaiey i iiauoaiee ieieioia ca?aaioiie ieaou? Aeaei a oii, /oi
iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey neacuaathony i?aaeaea anaai ia ?uiea ia
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai o?oaea e ia iieiaeaiee oao, eoi ia eiaao ?aaiou. A
oeaeii aea caiyoua ?aai/ea auea?uaatho io ?inoa ieieioia ca?ieaou.

Iinea ia?aiai nea/ea oeai a yiaa?a 1992a. i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi
ieacaeny i?eia?ii a 4 ?aca auoa ieieiaeueiie ca?ieaou e eeoue ia 10 % –
15 % ieaea n?aaeiae ca?ieaou a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I?e yoii iieo/aoaee
ieieiaeueiie ca?ieaou iiiaee a «eiaooeo caeiia». Eo iieaoa auea aeanoei
caoeene?iaaia caeiiii e ia oniaaaea ?anoe ca oeaiaie noieue aea
no?aieoaeueii, eae ?inea ia eeieoe?iaaiiay ia?eaiaioii n?aaeiyy
ca?ieaoa. A ?acoeueoaoa n?aaeiyy ca?ieaoa ieacaeanue a ?innee a yiaa?a
1992a. a 4,7 ?aca auoa ieieiaeueiie, /oi, eiia/ii, niaa?oaiii
iaii?iaeueii,

Oaeay neooaoeey ia ?uiea o?oaea aaaeao e ?inoo /enea caaanoiaie n
o?aaiaaieyie iiauoaiey iieaou o?oaea e aeaaea iiaeao ii?iaeeoue iianiua
iieeoe/aneea iineaaenoaey.

Iaeiaei ?ino ca?ieaou ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue nai ii naaa. Ii aeieaeai
auoue no?aiie «ca?aaioai» .

Anoue ee i?aaeae o ca?ieaou?

Ia ia?aue acaeyae iiauoaiea ca?ieaou auaiaeii no?aia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
/ai aieueoa ethaee iieo/atho aeaiaa, oai aieueoa oiaa?ia iie caoioyo e
niiaoo eoieoue. Cia/eo, aieueoa aoaeao ni?in ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao, e
i?aaei?eieiaoaee niiaoo ia?aueaaoue i?iecaiaenoai ecaeaeee, ia iianaynue
caoiaa?eaaiey. Auno?ae aoaeao ?anoe i?iecaiaenoai – aieueoei aoaeao e
ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo. Cia/eo, aoaeao ?anoe e ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

Oau, oaeay iieeoeea ca?aaioiie ieaou iiaeao iieacaoueny eiae/iie oieueei
/aeiaaeo, iaei ciaeiiiio n aeanoeeie caeiiaie yeiiiieee. Yeiiiie/anee
a?aiioiue /aeiaae n?aco aaaaeao a aiaeec iiaeiaiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee aua
aeaa aaaeiua eaoaai?ee: i?eaueue e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue aa?aony ca ecaioiaeaiea oiaa?a eeoue a oii neo/aa,
anee aio yoi auaiaeii, a i?iua aiai?y noeeo i?eaueue. I?eaueue yoi oi,
/oi inoaaony io oeaiu i?iaeaaee oiaa?a, eiaaea ec iaa au/eoatho ana
cao?aou ia aai ainnoaiiaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?a. Cao?aou
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia auieaoo ca?aaioiie ieaou anaaaea ninoaaeytho
aaaeioth /anoue iauae aaee/eiu naaanoieiinoe.

?ino ca?aaioiie ieaou e ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea – aeaa
ia?ac?uaii naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie i?ioeanna. Anee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea ?anoao iaaeeaiiae, /ai ca?aaioiay ieaoa, naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee oaaee/eaaaony, a auaiaeiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa nieaeaaony. E
iaiai?io, anee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea iaaiiyao a naiai ?inoa
ca?aaioioth ieaoo, oi naaanoieiinoue nieaeaaony, i?eaueueiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa aic?anoaao.

Iiyoiio e aeey ioaeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey e aeey no?aiu a oeaeii oaiiu
?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ii?aaeaeytho aa?oithth a?aieoeo
aeiionoeiuo oaiiia ?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou. Oaia?ue iiaeii
noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuee ?aoeaio yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeaaoaiey:

*oiau no?aia aiaaoaea e o iaa ia auei i?iaeai ni nauoii oiaa?ia ie ia
aioo?aiiai, ie ia aiaoiai ?uiea, ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia aeieaeia ?anoe
auno?aa, /ai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

Yoio niaao a iieiie ia?a aeooaeai e aeey ethaie ioaeaeueii acyoie oe?iu.

Eaaeaeiio o?oaeo – naiy oeaia.

O ?uiea anoue aeaa oieeaeueiua iniaaiiinoe, eioi?ua iaeeaaeuaatho naie
ioia/aoie ia aeaenoaea iau/iuo ?uii/iuo iaoaieciia – oieaa?naeueiinoue
i?iaeaaaaiiai oai oiaa?a e no?aieaiea i?iaeaaoeia e nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Oieaa?naeueiinoue oiaa?a ?aai/ae neeu naycaia n oai, /oi /aeiaae
i?eniiniaeai iaeaaeaoue ?aciuie i?ioanneyie e ia?ao/eoueny a oa/aiee
aeecie, anee aio yoi auaiaeii e ii?aaaeuaaao cao?aou a?aiaie, nee e
n?aaenoa. A i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao ia ?aaeeinoue, eiaaea iaiytho
i?ioannee aeaaea ethaee n aunoei ia?aciaaieai.

E?iia oiai, oieaa?naeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu eae oiaa?a i?iyaeythony a
oii, /oi niaoeeaeenou iaeiie i?ioannee iiaoo ?aaioaoue a naiuo ?acee/iuo
oe?iao, ?aaeiiao iaeiie no?aiu e aeaaea iaiyoue no?aiu, aaea ei
i?eoiaeeony o?oaeeoueny.

Ethaee iinoiyiii euoo aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaoue naie o?oae ii aei?iaea.
Yoi yaeaiea i?enouaa ethaeyi ai anai ie?a e iieo/eei iacaaiea
iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu, i/aiue neeueii aeeyao ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iaoaieciia iieaou o?oaea.

Iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu – niiniaiinoue ?aaioieeia iaiyoue ianoi,
?aeii e aeaaea no?aio, aaea iie o?oaeyony, a iieneao aieaa auaiaeiuo
oneiaee i?iaeaaee naieo ciaiee, iaaueia e niiniaiinoae.

Oioy, eiia/ii, a ethaie no?aia anoue ethaee, «oyaeaeua ia iiaeuai»» e ia
no?aiyueany niaieoue ianoi ?aaiou, aeaaea ciay i aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aoue
oai aieueoa. Aeey ieo a neeo eaeeo-oi iniaaiiinoae oa?aeoa?ia oeaia
auai?a, naycaiiiai n ia?aaiaeii ia iiaia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa, ieacuaaaony
neeoeii aunieie. Ii?ie ia?aiaia ianoa ?aaiou ieacuaaaony iaaiciiaeiie
ec-ca aiaoieo oaeoi?ia. Oae ianoieo aeaei a ?innee, aaea iao ?acaeoiai
?uiea aeeeuey. *aeiaae i?i?aaioaaoee iiiai aeanyoeeaoee ?aaee iieo/aiey
aanieaoiie ainoaea?noaaiiie eaa?oe?u, i?aeoe/anee ia iiaeao aac i?iaeai
ie i?iaeaoue aa, ie eoieoue iiaoth a oii ianoa, eoaea aio auei au
auaiaeii ia?aaoaoue ec-ca aieaa aunieie ca?ieaou.

E ana aea aieueoeinoai iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia iinoiyiii iaeyaeuaathony ii
noi?iiai a iieneao ianoa, aaea ca oaeoth aea ?aaioo ieaoyo iieo/oa.
Iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu aiineo nianai iiaue aniaeo a oi?a iaaeaeo
?aaioiaeaoaeyie e iaaiiuie ?aaioieeaie.

Anee iineaaeiea ia iiaoo aeiaeoueny ia naiai ?aai/ai ianoa oaeeo aea
auaiaeiuo oneiaee o?oaea, eaeea i?aaeeaaaao ei ae?oaie ?aaioiaeaoaeue,
iie i?inoi oaieueiythony e i?iaeatho naith ?aai/oth neeo aieaa uaae?iio
iieoiaoaeth. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ia ?uiea o?oaea nouanoaoao iinoiyiiay
eiieo?aioeey n?aaee iieoiaoaeae – ?aaioiaeaoaeae, no?aiyueony
ia?aiaieoue ae?oa o ae?oaa iaeaieaa oeaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. E /ai oeaiiaa
niaoeeaeeno, oai ino?aa eiieo?aioeey ca iaai e oai aieueooth ca?ieaoo ii
iiaeao naaa auoi?aiaaoue.

Ia o?oaeii iiiyoue, /oi eiieo?aioeey ca iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, aac eioi?uo
ia aiciiaeii nicaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee, aaaeao e ia?aoieo ?aaioieeia ec
iaeieo io?aneae yeiiiieee a ae?oaea. Aeueoa?iaoeaie yoiio yaeythony
caaanoiaee n o?aaiaaieyie iiauneo ca?ieaoo aei o?iaiy iieaou
aiaeiae/iiai o?oaea a ae?oaeo io?aneyo.

Ia ?uiea o?oaea iinoiyiii ai?thony aeaa oaiaeaioeee. Ia?aay ec ieo
io?aaeaao no?aieaiea nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe ninoieo a oii, /oi
i?ionithcu iuoathony aeiaeaaoueny au?aaieaaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou. Yoi
icia/aao onoaiiaeaiea iaeeiaeiauo ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea aeey anao
?aaioieeia, auiieiythueo iaeie e oa aea o?oaeiaua iaycaiiinoe ia iaeiii
e oii aea i?aaei?eyoee eee a iaeiie e oie aea io?anee. Oae ianoieo aeaei
a ?innee, aaea a eiioea 1992a. auea ia/aoa ?aaioa ii aiaae?aieth aaeeiie
noaiu iieaou o?oaea aeey anao, /ae o?oae iiea/eaaao naii i?aaeoaeuenoai.

Aoi?ay oaiaeaioeey ninoieo a oii, /oi ?acaeaathueany i?aaei?eyoey eee
aeaaea oeaeua io?anee iiiuoathony ethauie iooyie iaieoe ia?aie/aiey e
iiauoaiea iieaou o?oaea, ia?aiaieaatho e naaa ethaeae n i?aaei?eyoee,
aeaea eioi?uo ianoiyo ia aeaaiiieo/ii.

Iiiuoaainy iiiyoue, eae ?uii/iay yeiiiieea ?aoaao o?e aeaaiuo aii?ina:
*oi i?iecaiaeeoue? Eae i?iecaiaeeoue? Aeey eiai i?iecaiaeeoue? Oio
i?iecaiaeeoaeue, /ae oiaa? aucaae iaeaieueoee ni?in ia ?uiea, niiniaai
ca n/ao iiauoaiey aeioiaeia caieaoeoue naiei ?aaioieeai aieueoa e
iaiyoue eo a aieueoai eiee/anoaa, /oi au ?anoe?youe i?iecaiaenoai aei
a?aieoe ni?ina.

Ii aaaeue eiee/anoai ?aaioieeia ioaeiuo niaoeeaeueiinoae anaaaea
ia?aie/aiii. A yoi icia/aao, /oi ia?aoiae ?aaioieeia a i?aoniaaathuea
oe?iu e io?anee nie?auaao caiyoinoue a io?aneyo e oe?iao, oiaa?u eioi?uo
ia iieuecothony ni?inii ia ?uiea.

Oae ?aai/ea ?oee ia?aoaeatho ec io?anee a io?aneue e n i?aaei?eyoey ia
i?aaei?eyoea a niioaaonoaee n neooaoeeae ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao. Aac yoiai
i?inoi iaaiciiaeiu ainnoaiiaeaiey ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney e aeaenoaea
caeiia i?aaeeiaeaiey. A naiii aeaea, eaeea au oeaiu ie noeeee iiauoaiiue
ni?in, aio iaeuecy aoaeao i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue aic?inoaa i?aaeeiaeaiea
oiaa?ia, anee ecaioiaeoaeyi aeaoeoeeoiie i?iaeoeoeee ia oaeaaony
ia?aiaieoue e naaa aeiiieieoaeueiia /enei ?aaioieeia.

Iiyoiio ?acee/ey a o?iaiyo iieaou e oneiaeyo o?oaea iaaeaeo
i?aoniaaathueie e ia?aaeeaathueie o?oaeiinoe eiiia?/aneeie oe?iaie
yaeythony iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii ?uiea o?oaea.

Ia yoe e?aoeia?aiaiiua ?acee/ey iaeeaaeuaathony aieaa onoie/eaua
?acee/ey a iieaoa o?oaea ii io?aneyi e aeaeai i?ioannee. *ai aea
ii?aaeaeyaony yoa ?acieoea? I?aaeaea anaai eioaineaiinoueth o?oaea, a
oae aea iieiaeaieai io?anee ia ?uiea, oi anoue niioiioaiea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii aa i?iaeoeoeee. Eiaiii iiyoiio ai anai ie?a noieue
auniee ca?aaioee auaeathueony nii?oniaiia, ?ie iocueaioia, iia?iuo
iaaoeia e eeiicaacae. Eaaeaeue ec oaeeo ethaeae aunooiaao ia ?uiea
o?oaea eae «oieeaeueiue oiaa?», eioi?ue oioyo «i?eia?anoe» ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai c?eoaeae. Eiuie neiaaie, i?aaeeiaeaiea oaeiai «oiaa?a»»
e?aeia ia?aie/aiii a neeo anoanoaaiiie ?aaeeinoe oaeaioia, a ni?in
ia?iiai. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oeaia yoiai oaeaioa, oi anoue iieaoa aai
o?oaea, aciuaaao aei iaaan.

Aua iaeei oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee ?acieoeo a ca?aaioeao, – noaiaiue
?enea, n eioi?ie naycaia oa eee eiay ?aaioa. *ai auoa ?ene ioaeiie
iauanoao ?aaiou, oai aieaa aunieoth ca?ieaoo cai?inyo ethaee, niaeaniua
caiyoueny yoie ?aaioie. Yoi /aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony, iai?eia?, a iieaoa
o?oaea ?aaioieeia oaeeo niaoeeaeueiinoae, eae oaooa?u, eao/eee-
eniuoaoaee, einiiiaaou, i?aaei?eieiaoaee e niaoeeaeenou ii iia?aoeeyi n
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

A yeiiiieea, eeoaiiie ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia, a oii /enea e ?uieia o?oaea e aeeeuey, cia/eoaeueiay ?acieoea
a o?iaiyo ca?aaioiie ieaou noaiiayony ?ac?ooeoaeueiui oaeoi?ii. Oa, o
eiai iieaoa ieaea, ia/eiatho aanoiaaoue n o?aaiaaieyie iiauneoue
ca?ieaoo. Ii eo o?aaiaaiey /anoi ia eiatho iiae niaie yeiiiie/aneie
iniiau – iiauoaiiiai ni?ina ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth e
aic?inoae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eo nianoaaiiiai o?oaea. A oaeie
neooaoeee, iiauoaiea ca?ieaou a «ionoaaoeo» io?aneyo noaiiayony eeoue
oie/eii aeey eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae, ii ia aaaeao e noaaeeecaoeee
neooaoeee ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao.

Aac?aaioiua – eeoiea ethaee?

Aac?aaioeoea, iieiaeaiea a yeiiiieea, eiaaea /anoue niiniaiuo e
aeaeathueo o?oaeeoueny ii iaeio ethaeae ia iiaeao iaeoe ?aaioo ii naiae
niaoeeaeueiinoe eee o?oaeiono?ieoueny aiiaua.

Iaiieiay caiyoinoue o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey i?ioeai?a/eo aeaaiie
caaea/a yeiiiieee – iaania/aieth ?inoa o?iaiy aeaaininoiyiey
/aeiaa/anoaa. Eaeie oae ooo ?ino, eiaaea /anoue oeaiiaeoaai ?ano?na –
?aai/ae neeu – i?inoi ia eniieuecoaony. Caeanue yaii ia?anoaao
aeaenoaiaaoue e aua iaeei aaaeiaeoee yeiiiie/aneee i?eioeei –
ia?aie/aiiinoue anao ?ano?nia i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao
no?aia. *oiau iiiyoue ni?aaaaeeeau iaa yoe ooaa?aeaeaiey eee iao, iaaei
?acia?aoueny a i?e/eiao iiyaeaiey aac?aaioeoeu e iaoiaeao ai?ueau n
iath.

Naaiaeiy yeiiiienou i?aaeii/eoatho aiai?eoue ia i aac?aaioeoea, a
auaeaeyoue aa niaoeeoe/aneea aeaeu e i?aaeaea anaai:

no?oeoo?ioth aac?aaioeoeo: iaaiciiaeiinoue o?oaeiono?ienoaa ec-ca
?acee/ee a no?oeoo?a ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu ?acee/iie
eaaeeoeeaoeee;

o?eeoeeiiioth aac?aaioeoeo: aac?aaioeoeo ec-ca iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeey
oaieaiiiai ?aaioieea iaeoe naiaiaeiia ianoi ii naiae niaoeeaeueiinoe.
Aeaaea anee oaeea ianoa anoue ia ?uiea o?oaea, eo iiene e ia?aoiae a
iiaoth i?aaiecaoeeth o?aaoao a?aiaie;

canoieioth aac?aaioeoeo: iaaiciiaeiinoue iaeoe ?aaioo a ?aaeiiao e
no?aiao, ii?aaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneei niaaeii, eiaaea aeaaea iauaa /enei
naiaiaeiuo ?aai/eo iano ieacuaaaony iaiueoa /enea aac?aaioiuo eee eiaaea
ethaee ii ?aciui i?e/eiai eeoaiu aiciiaeiinoe i?eia?anoe iiaoth
niaoeeaeueiinoue eeai ia?aa?aoueny ia aeeoaeuenoai a ?aeiiu, aaea oainu
ia o?oaeiono?ienoai auoa;

ne?uooth aac?aaioeoeo: iaaiciiaeiinoue o?oaeiono?ienoaa ii iniiaiie
niaoeeaeueiinoe canoaaeyao /aeiaaea niaeaoaoueny ia iaiieiue ?aai/ee
aeaiue eee iaiieioth ?aai/oth iaaeaeth, /oi iicaieyao aio aeaeaoue, iiea
ia ?uiea o?oaea iiyaeony ianoi e aeey iaai.

Iaeia ec oi?i ai?ueau n aac?aaioeoeae – yoi ia?aiao/aiea aac?aaioiuo.
Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oi?ia iiiiue aac?aaioiui – iiniaea ii
aac?aaioeoea. Oaeia iiniaea auiea/eaaaony ia ai anao no?aiao, a oai,
aaea ?aaeaiaioe?oaony niioaaonoaothueie caeiiaie no?aiu.

Ii iiaeii ee aiiaua eeeaeaee?iaaoue aac?aaioeoeo, oi anoue aeiaeoueny
100 % caiyoinoe? A naia a?aiy yoa caaea/a auea iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
iieeoe/aneeo eicoiaia i?ionithcia e nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ia?oee.

Iaeiaei ia naiii aeaea yeiiiieea, a eioi?ie iaeiia?aiaiii caiyou ana 100
% o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey, aieueoa i?iea?uaaao, /ai auea?uaaao.

Ai-ia?auo, aeiaeoueny oaeiai iieiaeaiey aeae iiaeii eeoue n iiiiuueth
aiayeiiiie/aneiai i?eioaeaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e a?aaeaeaiai. A
ia?aie/aiea yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu, iiae?uaaao naio iniiao ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoaieciia ?uiea e aaaeao e ooaeoaio eniieueciaaieth
?ano?nia no?aiu e caiaaeeaiey oaiiia ?inoa aeaaininoiyiey aa a?aaeaeai.

Ai-aoi?uo, a oaeie yeiiiieea ?acei caiaaeeyaony ia?ano?ieea no?oeoo?u
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoneiaeaiiay eciaiaieyie ni?ina e aiaae?aiey
aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee a i?iecaiaenoai . Iiyoiio nia?aiaiiay
yeiiiie/aneay iaoea i?eoea e auaiaeo i oii, /oi iieiay caiyoinoue aiana
ia icia/aao ionoonoaea aac?aaioiuo. Aeey aeaaa no?aiu iieacii iaee/ea a
iae iaaieueoie aac?aaioeoeu, ianooaau eioi?ie iacuaathony anoanoaaiiui
o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu.

Anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu – neiaeeaoeeny a aeaiiie no?aia eae
n?aaeiee ca iiiaea aiaeu noiia?iue o?iaaiue o?eeoeeiiiie e no?oeoo?iie
aac?aaioeoeu.

Eiuie neiaaie ninoiyiea aeae ia ?uiea o?oaea ia aeieaeii aucuaaoue
aaniieienoaa, anee iaeioi?ay /anoue o?oaeiniiniaiuo ethaeae a?aiaiii ia
?aaioaao iioiio, /oi ia?aoiaeyo n iaeiiai ianoa ia ae?oaia aac eciaiaiey
i?ioannee e io?anee. E?iia oiai, aiieia ii?iaeueii, anee /anoue ethaeae
ia ?aaioaao ec-ca oiai, /oi ei ioaeii iiiaiyoue i?ioanneth eee ianoi
aeeoaeuenoaa e ?aaioo, iineieueeo eo «?iaeiua» io?anee «iioa?yee ?uiie»,
e nai?a/eaatho i?iecaiaenoai, a a ?anooueo io?aneyo ioaeiu ?aaioieee n
ae?oaeie iaaueaie e i?ioanneyie.

Ii i?iaiico niaoeeaeenoia, a 1998 – 1999 aa. naiue aieueoie i?ioeaio
aac?aaioiuo aoaeao n?aaee neaaeothueo eaoaai?ee:

Iao/iua ?aaioieee io?aneaauo IEE – 50 %;

Oea/eoe – 50 %;

Oaae – 40 – 50 %,

Eiaeaaieee, iaoaueee – 40 – 50 %;

?aai/ea iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo caaiaeia – 30 %;

Aiaiiineoaeauea – 20 %;

Niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe ia?a?aaioee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee –
20 %.

Eaa/a anaai aoaeao iaeoe ?aaioo i?aaenoaaeoaeyi oao i?ioannee, eioi?uo
aac?aaioeoea cao?iiao iaiueoa anaai:

Neoaeauea iioa?eaeueiuo eiioi? – iaiaa 1 %;

Ioeoea?u iaeiaiaie neoaeau – iaiaa 1 %;

Aoaeeoi?ia – ieiei 1 %;

TH?enoia, niaoeeaeece?othueony a iaeiaiaii i?aaa, – 1,5 %;

AEo?iaeenoia – 1 – 2 %;

Aooaaeoa?ia aooanoiaaiiuo ia ciaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
i?aaee aooaaeoa?neiai

o/aoa, – 2 %,

Aaieianeeo neoaeaueo – 2 – 3 %.

Anoue ?yae aeieaeiinoae ii eioi?ui aaeainee aieueoa, /ai i?aoaiaeaioia.
Iiyaeeenue niaoeeaeueiinoe ianoieueei iiaua, /oi a yoie iaeanoe aua ia
oniae aicieeiooue ia?aecauoie iiaeaioiaeaiiuo eaae?ia. Oae, iai?eia?,
aua iaaeaaii iauai oi?aiauo iia?aoeee n Caiaaeii aue iacia/eoaeueiue.
Iiyoiio niaoeeaeenoia ii ?anoaiaaeeaaieth, eiio?ieth ca a?ociiai?ioii
auei iaei. Iieeoe/aneea, iineaaeiaaaoea ca ieie yeiiiie/aneea ia?aiaiu
aianee naith ei??aeoe?iaeo a nioeeaeueiue caeac. Noaee ioaeiu eiaenoeee
(niaoeeaeenou, oi?aaeythuea eioi?iaoeeiiiuie e ?aaeueiuie iioieaie
a?ociauo oiaa?ia). Neiai «aaaio» iinoiyiii ano?a/aaony a iauyaeaieyo
«I?aaeeaaath ?aaioo». Yoi iaeia ec naiuo ioaeiuo i?ioannee a auno?i
?anoe?ythueony noa?ao oi?aiaee e ?aeeaiu.

Iiiai aaeainee a aa/iuo noa?ao ianeoaeeaaiey, oeiainia, oi?aaeaiey.
I?e/eia yoiio a oii, /oi ?acei eciaieeenue o?aaiaaiey ii niaea?aeaieth
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee e oiaiee aeey oi?ioi ciaeiiuo aeieaeiinoae.
Iio?aaiaaeenue nae?aoa?oe ni ciaieai aiaeeeneiai, oeuaathueany
i?iaeaaueoeu, aee?aeoi?a, eioi?ua oiatho oi?aaeyoue a nenoaia ia
ieaie?oaiie yeiiiieee e eiieo?aioeee. Yoi nicaeaei neooaoeeth, eiaaea
iiiaea noa?ua eaae?u n caienueth a o?oaeiaie eieaeea «nae?aoa?ue,
i?iaeaaueoea, aee?aeoi?» ia iiaeoiaeyo ia iiaua aeieaeiinoe n oaeeie aea
iacaaieyie. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo eo i?aaeiee iiuo cia/eoaeueii
iaanoeaieeny.

Ia?a/ai aooaaeoa?, iaia?oai aoeaieaoeeny a aea?aayiiua n/aou eee aeaaea
yeaeo?iiiui eaeueeoeyoi?ii. A aio aai eieeaaa, caeii/eaoee aoaeeoi?neea
eo?nu, aeaaiaeainoaoao. Anee aeey aooaaeoa?a ?aiueoa aaaeia auea oi?ioay
iaiyoue, oi oaia?ue iaiaoiaeeiuie noaee aeaeinoue iuoeaiey e
niiniaiinoue auno?i aini?eieiaoue iiaoth eioi?iaoeeth.

Ii aeaiiui AI «AAAIONOAI EIIOAEO», o?iaaiue ni?ina ia niaoeeaeenoia ia
ia/aei 1997 aiaea auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

oi?aiaua ?aaioieee – 3 1 %;

aooaaeoa?u, aoaeeoi?u, oeiainenou – 22 %;

nae?aoa?e – 13 %;

i?ia?aiienou, oaoie/aneea niaoeeaeenou – 5 %;

oi?aaeaioeu e eaae?iaeee – 6 %;

niaoeeaeenou ii ia?eaoeiao e ?aeeaia – 5 %;

aaieianeea niaoeeaeenou – 3 %;

?aaioieee noa?u auoiauo oneoa – 3 %;

eiaenoeee – 3 %;

th?enou – 1 %.

Ii iiiaea auioneieee aocia, iieo/eaoea ioaeiua niaoeeaeueiinoe, ia iiaoo
ono?ieoueny ia ?aaioo. I?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea, ?acoiiay
caiyoinoue iieiaeaaee – aaaeiaeoay i?iaeaia aeey ethaiai ainoaea?noaa,
aia caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy aai iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa. Iaaeinoaoi/iua
eiaanoeoeee a nioeeaeueioth noa?o, a /aeiaaea neacuaathony i?aaeaea
anaai ia iieiaeuo ethaeyo. Ia neo/aeii ii ?aeoeiao eiaeaena ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea, ?ac?aaioaiiiio III, ?inney iaoiaeeony eeoue
ia 57-i ianoa, aaea-oi iaaeaeo Iieueoae e A?aceeeae.

Ii aeaiiui Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau caiyoinoe, a i?ioeii aiaeo a iauai
/enea ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo aieaa 20 % – iieiaeua ethaee, ia
aeinoeaoea aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoiaai aic?anoa. Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
ia i?aeoeea e yoa oeeo?a neeueii caieaeaia, oae eae aeaeaei ia eaaeaeue
thiioa eee aeaaooea, ia eiathuea ?aaiou, ia?auathony a neoaeao
caiyoinoe.

A ?aciuo ?aaeiiao ?uiie o?oaea neeaaeuaaaony ii-?aciiio. A Iineaa
i?iaeaia aac?aaioeoeu noieo ia oae ino?i, eae a oeaeii ii ?innee. A
noieeoea anoue iiiaeanoai ae?ae o?oaea, eae ainoaea?noaaiiuo, oae e
/anoiuo. Ooieoeeiie?otho aieaa 200 eiiia?/aneeo

iauanoa o?oaea e caiyoinoe, eioi?ua ca ieaoo iiaeae?atho aeey
?aaioiaeaoaeae ioaeiuo ei niaoeeaeenoia. A ?aaeiiao, aaea o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu cia/eoaeueii auoa, a oeaio? caiyoinoe iaeneioi iaeei ia
?aeii, ia eaaeaeoth ioe?uaoothny aaeaineth i?aoaiaeotho ianeieueei
/aeiaae. E iieiaeua a yoie i/a?aaee ca/anooth ieacuaathony ia a ia?auo
?yaeao.

Iiyoiio eiaiii a ?aaeiiao Oaaea?aeueiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe i?iaiaeeea
yenia?eiaio, eioi?ue oneiaii iacaaee «Iieiaeaaeiie i?aeoeeie». Aeey
thiioae e aeaaooae i?aaieciaaee eo?nu ii 62 niaoeeaeueiinoyi. Aioiaeee
aooaaeoa?ia, neana?ae ii ?aiiioo aaoiiiaeeae, iaaenanoa?, ii?oiuo,
eiiaeeoa?ia. Aaaeii, /oi iao/aiea /a?aaeiaaeinue n i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
i?aeoeeie ia aieaa eee iaiaa noaaeeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Eiaiii i?aeoeea
iicaieeea 65 % caieiaaoeony cae?aieoueny ia ?aaioa.

Anoue e ae?oaea oi?ioi ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaoea naay oi?iu. A E?aniiy?neii
e?aa, No?aooa e No?aooneii ?aeiia nicaeaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua
iaaeoeieueiua o/aaii- i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiiaeiaou. Oai iiiiaatho
iieo/eoue i?ioanneth noa?oaeeannieeai oeie. A Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa aei 8
ouny/ ?aai/eo iano a?iie?otho niaoeeaeueii aeey iieiaeaaee. A Ooeueneie,
Aeaaeeie?neie, Oaa?neie, ?ycaineie e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo iaeanoyo ioe?uou
«Eeoau euoueo ?aaioo»». Oai o/ao iieueciaaoueny a iieneao aaeainee
?acee/iuie enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee, auaiaeii «iiaeaoue» naay
?aaioiaeaoaeth, /oiau ia iieo/eoue ioeaca a i?eaia ia ?aaioo.

Oau – ana yoe oi?iu, iiaeieiathuea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue iieiaeaaee ia
?uiea o?oaea, ia iieo/eee iiea oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey, oioy ia
o?aaotho aieueoeo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a ioaea/o iiaoo i?eianoe a
aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iuooeioth. Aa?iyoii, iiaeii iaeoe e ae?oaea
eioa?aniua niiniau, iiiiaathuea iieiaeui a iieneao ?aaiou. Aaaeii
oieueei iiieiaoue: «iieiaeia eeoei» aac?aaioeoeu iianii aeey aoaeouaai,
iioiio /oi aeueoa?iaoeaie o?oaeo iiaeao auoue oieueei ia?eiiaiey,
aeeiaieue e i?anooiiinoue. Ii iiiaea ?aaioiaeaoaee i?aaeii/eoatho ia
a?aoue caeaiiai niaoeeaeenoa, ?acae?athuaainy eeoue a oai?ee. Naaiaeiy
?oeiaiaeeoaee oe?i, ?aaioathuea ia nia?aiaiiii oaoiieiae/aneii o?iaia e
n i?eiaiaieai iiauo oi?i oi?aaeaiey, o?aoyo a n?aaeiai io ianeieueei
ianyoeaa aei iieoaiaea ia iiene iiaeoiaeyuaai nio?oaeieea, ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi iiiaea ethaee euoo ?aaioo.

Oe?iu. *oi iiaoo
oe?iu?

Nouanoaotho o?e oeia oe?i: aaeeiiee/iua aeaaeaiey, ia?oia?noaa e
ei?ii?aoeee. Cia/eiua oe?iu yaeythony ei?ii?aoeeyie. Aeaaininoiyiea
aeaaeaeueoeaa anao o?ao oeiia oe?i ?anoao ii ia?a oaaee/aiey i?eauee
oe?i.

Aaeeiiee/iua aeaaeaiey – yoi i?aaei?eyoey, iaoiaeyueany a nianoaaiiinoe
iaeiiai eeoea, eiathuaai iieiia i?aai ia iieo/aiioth a ?acoeueoaoa
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaueue e iieiinoueth ioaaonoaaiiiai ca
ethaua oauoee, eioi?ua oa?ieo i?aaei?eyoea.

I?aaeiieiaeei au ?aoeee ioe?uoue ia oaeo iaaacei caei?iaie ieue. Anee
aao iaaacei caei?iaie ieue i?ioeaaoaao, aiciiaeii au caoioeoa
?anoe?eoueny. Aaea acyoue ia yoi n?aaenoaa? Anee ee/ii o aan aeaiaa
iaaeinoaoi/ii, au iiiuoaaoanue aeinoaoue iaiaoiaeeiua oeiainiaua
n?aaenoaa o ae?oaa eee ?iaenoaaiieea, eioi?ue a yoii neo/aa noaiao aaoei
ia?oia?ii eee eiiiaiueiiii.

Ia?oia?noai – yoi i?aaei?eyoea, iaoiaeyuaany a niaianoiie nianoaaiiinoe
aeaoo eee aieaa eeoe, eiathueo naith aeieth a i?eauee. Eaaeaeue ec
aeaaeaeueoeaa, eee ia?oia?ia, ianao niaianoioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ana
oauoee, eioi?ua oa?ieo i?aaei?eyoea.

Eiiaaea aeaei aaaeao oieueei iaeei ec ia?oia?ia, a ae?oaie oieueei aeaao
aeaiueae, eiiaaea iaa anee ana aeaaeaeueoeu yaeythony aeoeaiuie
o/anoieeaie i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaeiaei oi?ia ia?oia?noaa eiaao aeaa nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoea.
Ai-ia?auo, ia?oia?noaa yaeythony i?aaei?eyoeyie n iaia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. Yoi icia/aao, /oi anee i?aaei?eyoea ianao oauoee, oi
eaaeaeue ec ia?oia?ia ee/ii ioaaonoaaiai ca ana aeieae iacaaeneii io
oiai, yaeyaony ii aeaenoaeoaeueii aeoeaiui o/anoieeai aeaea.

Aoi?ui nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii yoie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iu yaeyaony ia
aeaeinoue ia?oia?neeo niaeaoaiee. Anee i?eieiaaony iiaue ia?oia? eee
iaeei ec nouanoaothueo ia?oia?ia oie?aao eee oi/ao aueoe ec aeaea, oi
aeieaeiu auoue i?eaeaoaiu th?enou aeey ninoaaeaiey iiaiai ia?oia?neiai
niaeaoaiey. Yoa iaaeaeinoue nicaeaao iaoaeianoaa a i?ioeanna
i?eaea/aiey oeiainiaiai eaieoaea, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ia/aea
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e oeiaine?iaaiea aai ?inoa.

Ei?ii?aoeey – yoi i?aaiecaoeey, caieiathuayny ia caeiiiuo iniiaaieyo
ii?aaeaeaiiuie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe oaeeie eae yenieoaoaoeey aeaeaciuo
aei?ia eee auione aacaou. Aeaaeaeueoeu ei?ii?aoeee ianoo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue oieueei ca naie aeiaeaiey a aeaiioth ei?ii?aoeeth,
aeaaea anee eo iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey iie?uoey oauoeia, eioi?ua iia oa?ieo.

Ei?ii?aoeey a ioee/ea io aaeeiiee/iiai aeaaeaiey eee ia?oia?noaa eiaao
th?eaee/aneia nouanoaiaaiea, ioee/iia io nouanoaiaaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua
yaeythony nianoaaiieeaie ei?ii?aoeee a ethaie eiie?aoiue iiiaio a?aiaie.
Oaeei ia?acii, ei?ii?aoeey ia i?ae?auaao naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, eiaaea
iaeei ec aeaaeaeueoeaa, iacuaaaiue aeoeeiia?ii eee iaeueeii, oie?aao eee
eiaaea iiyaeythony iiaua aeaaeaeueoeu. Nianoaaiiinoue ei?ii?aoeee
?acaeaeaia iaaeaeo aa aeoeeiia?aie. Ii ia?a ?inoa oe?ia iiaeao iieo/eoue
aeaiueae ca n/ao auionea aeoeeiia?iuo na?oeoeeaoia e eo i?iaeaaee.

I?eaueue ei?ii?aoeee iiaeao auoue auiea/aia aeoeeiia?ai a aeaea
aeeaeaeaiaeia eee iiaeao inoaaaoueny a oe?ia a aeaea ia?ani?aaeaeaiiuo
aeioiaeia.

Aeeaeaeaiaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aieaa eee iaiaa ?aaoey?iua auieaou,
iai?aaeaiiua ei?ii?aoeeae naiei aeoeeiia?ai. Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue
– yoi /anoue i?eauee, eioi?ay oe?ia ia auiea/eaaao naiei aeoeeiia?ai a
ea/anoaa aeeaeaeaiaeia. Yoe aeioiaeu inoathony a ?anii?yaeaiee oe?iu.
Auieaoa aeeaeaeaiaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?yiua aeioiaeu aeiaeaiey
aeoeeiia?ia. Ei?ii?aoeey ia iaycaia ieaoeoue aeeaeaeaiaeu, ii
aieueoeinoai ei?ii?aoeee eo ieaoeo.

Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue iaania/eaaao aeoeeiia?ai ioaea/o a aeaea
aeioiaeia ia i?e?ino eaieoaea.

Ei?ii?aoeey iiaeao eniieueciaaoue ia?ani?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue aeey
oaaee/aiey naiae niiniaiinoe e iieo/aieth i?eauee iiiaeie niiniaaie. Iia
iiaeao oeiaine?iaaoue iiaua aeiaeaiey a iai?oaeiaaiey eee a caaiaeu,
iiaeao i?eia?anoe ae?oaoth eiiiaieth, oiaiueoeoue inoaoie ia naiai n/aoo
eee oaaee/eoue ae?oaea oeiainiaua aeoeau. Anee eiiiaiey naa?aaaao /anoue
i?eauee e eniieuecoao aa aeey oaaee/aiey aeoeaia, i?eiinyueo aeioiaeu,
oi noieiinoue aeoeee eiiiaiee, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, aic?anoaao, oae eae
naaiaeiyoiea e iioaioeeaeueiua aeoeeiia?u aoaeoo iaeeaeaoue io oe?iu
oaaee/aiey auieao ii aeeaeaeaiaeai a aoaeouai. Oaeei ia?acii,
nouanoaiaaiea ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee a iauai neo/aa auaiaeii
aeoeeiia?ai.

I?aaei?eyoey a /anoiinoe e?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee, eiiaaea aeaeatho
iiaea?oaiaaiey ia aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee, auaeaeytho n?aaenoaa aeey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oaeaaeaeaiey eee ecae?atho ae?oaea oi?iu
aeaaioai?eoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
oaaee/eaatho aaee/eio eo i?eauee. Yoi ii?iaeaeaao aeaa acaeiinaycaiiuo
aii?ina. Icia/aao ee oaeiai ?iaea aeayoaeueiinoue ioeac io caaiou i
auaiaeao aeoeeiia?ia? Aeieaeiu ee e?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee aeoiaoue oieueei i
naieo aeoeeiia?ao?

Aeaaioai?eoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeao ia naiii aeaea einaaiiui
ia?acii oaaee/eoue i?eaueue a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa, iioiio /oi
aeaaiaea?y yoiio a iauanoaaiiii ie?oaeaiee, a eioi?ii aeaenoaoao oe?ia,
i iae neeaaeuaaaony oi?ioaa iiaiea. Aiciiaeii, oe?ia aoaeao eaa/a
iieo/eoue «aeia?i» io ai?iaeneeo aeanoae ia no?ieoaeuenoai iiaiai
caeaiey eee, anee aae?oa ia oe?ia i?iecieaeao neo/aeiue aua?in
caa?yciythueo aauanoa, ae i?inoyo yoi, iineieueeo ei?ii?aoeey eiaao
oi?iooth ?aiooaoeeth.

?uiie o?oaea a No?aooa e No?aooneii ?aeiia.

A No?aooa e No?aooneii ?aeiia iaeiei ec naiuo e?oiiuo iauaaeeiaiee
yaeyaony AI «No?aooiaooaaac», eioi?ia iaania/eaaao ?aai/eie ianoaie
iiiai ouny/ ethaeae, anaaaea aac caaea?aeee auiea/eaaao caieaoo ?aai/ei,
ia eiaao aeieaia ia?aae ainoaea?noaii, iinoiyiii aiaae?yao a
i?iecaiaenoai iiaua oaoiieiaee, eiaao oi?iooth ?aiooaoeeth aeaeaei ca
i?aaeaeaie Othiaineie iaeanoe.

Oiaaea, iiaeii ee aiai?eoue i oii, /oi «No?aoo ” iacen aeaaiiieo/ey»? –
eae cayaee ia anth no?aio A. Iieeoeianeee, aaaeouee i?ia?aiiu
«Oa??eoi?ey OA6». Anee n?aaieoue No?aoo e No?aooneee ?aeii n ae?oaeie
ai?iaeaie e ?aeiiaie, oi o?oaeii yoiio aic?aceoue.

Naiui e?oiiui oniaoii no?aooyi iy? No?aooa Aeaenaiae? Eaiieaeiae/
Neaei?ia n/eoaao aoiaeaeaiea ai?iaea a eo/ooth aeanyoeo ia ninoiyaoainy
eaoii a Iineaa eiieo?na «?inneeneee iy? – 96». A noa?a ai?iaeneiai
oicyenoaa: a 1996a. 2 iei. ea. iao?ia aeeeoiiaea ia?aoei a
ioieoeeiaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue, a iaia/aiiue ieai ii aeaaiono?ienoao
oeeoe No?aooa aue auiieiai ii/oe iieiinoueth, 170 oun. ea. iao?ia
aeeeuey auei iino?iaii aeey no?aooyi. Eaeao aeoeaiia ?acaeoea aunoae
oeieu a No?aooa, auea ioe?uoa Oeiea Eneonnoa, naia iyoeeaoea ioia/aea
aeiiacey, ?aeiiiie aieueieoea i?enaiai noaoon – eeeie/aneie. Ioia/aeinue
aeoeaiia nio?oaeie/anoai n iaeanoueth Caea a Aaia?ee, n eioi?ie
caeeth/ai ?yae yeiiiie/aneeo eiio?aeoia. Iaeaaeeaathony nayce n
i?iaeioeeae *aiyi a Eeoaa. Aa?iaiey, niaeanii caeeth/aiiui aeiaiai?ai,
caieiaaony iinoaaeie a No?aoo iiaaeoaai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e
aiaae?aieai iiauo oaoiieiaee. Aoaeao iinoaaeaii niaa?oaiiia
iai?oaeiaaiea aeey i/enoee aiaeu e ia?a?aaioee ioni?a.

Ia oiia yoiai iacena aeaaiiieo/ey iiiaea ianoiua i?aaei?eyoey
?aniaaeathony, iiyaeyaony oeaeay aaa?aeey aac?aaioiuo.

Ia?eiaee/anee oiiae caiyoinoe auaeaeyao iaoa?eaeueioth iiaeieoeo
i?aaei?eyoeyi iiae nio?aiaiea ?aai/eo iano eee eo i?aaiecaoeeth. Ii
/anoi auaaao oae, /oi aac?aaioiua ianoa oai naaa ia iaoiaeyo. N
iieiaeaaeueth i?yii aaaea, io iaa o?aaothony noaae e iiuo.

O?aaothony /aua iecei eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eaae?u: noi?iae, aaooa?,
iiaeniaiua ?aai/ea, naieoa?ee. Iaeueeioe ni?in e ia eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia, aaea, o?aaiaaeny: noaae, iiuo, ciaiea eiiiuethoa?a,
i?ia?aiiu, eiino?aiiiai ycuea. Ii iiiaea iaoiaeyo ?aaioo, ia?aoeaoenue a
Oeaio? caiyoinoe.

I?ineaaeei aeeiaieeo iieaciinoe oeaio?a caiyoinoe.

Ia?aoeiny e oaaeeoea ?1

Ii No?aooo ca 9 ianyoeaa 1997a.

Eoae, ca 1996a. 554/., ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo ii No?aooneiio
?aeiio, ia?aee ?aaioo. A ca 1997a. ii No?aooneiio ?aeiio ia?aee ?aaioo –
809/., ec /enea 1568 aac?aaioiuo e 1790 ec /enea 2467 – ia?aoeaoeony, ii
No?aooo o?oaeiono?iaiu 3775 /ae. ec 7281- ia?aoeaoeony e 366 /ae. ec
/enea 1494 – aac?aaioiuo.

*enei a?aaeaeai, o?oaeiono?iaiiuo a iaainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a, n
eaaeaeui aiaeii oaaee/eaaaony. I?iii?oeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey caiyouo
eciaieeenue a iieueco oao io?aneae, aeaeiaay aeoeaiinoue a eioi?uo
aic?inea a nayce n ?uii/iuie i?aia?aciaaieyie: oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, e?aaeeoiaaiey, oeiainia e
no?aoiaaiey.

Ia?aoeiny e oaaeeoea ?2

Naaaeaiey i aunaiaiaeaeaiee ?aaioieeia

(ca 9 ianyoeaa 1997a. ii a. No?aooo)

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi iaia/aiiua e aunaiaiaeaeaieth ?aaioieee, a
iniiaiii aeaiueiu e iieiaeaaeue. A nei?ii aoaeouai iie iiiieiyo ?yaeu
aac?aaioiuo. E oiaaea aac?aaioiuo aeaiuei e iieiaeaaee noaiao aua
aieueoa.

Ia?aoeiny e oaaeeoea ?3

*eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo

(ca 9 ianyoeaa 1997a. ii a. No?aooo)

*eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo

(ca 12 ianyoeaa 1997a. ii No?aooneiio ?aeiio).

Ethaee, eioi?ua ia?auathony a neoaeao caiyoinoe, iieo/atho iaiaoiaeeiua
eiinoeueoaoeee.

Iiiaea iinea yoiai ia i?eoiaeyo, iineieueeo a i?eioeeia o?oaeiinoae a
ono?ienoaa ia ?aaioo ia eniuouaatho, ii euoo aieaa iiaeoiaeyuaa ?aai/aa
ianoi. A ana, eoi cao?oaeiyaony a iienea ?aaiou, ii aeaeaao o?oaeeoueny
e eiaao i?aai iieo/eoue noaoon aac?aaioiiai – noaaeony ia o/ao a neoaeaa
caiyoinoe. A ai?iaeneie neoaeaa caiyoinoe ia 1 ieoya?y 1997a. 1091
/aeiaae noieo ia o/aoa, ec ieo 998 – iacia/aii iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea.

Ia?aoeiny e oaaeeoea ?4

?ani?aaeaeaiea aac?aaioiuo ii

i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aac?aaioeoeu

(ca 9 ianyoeaa 1997a. ii No?aooo).

?ani?aaeaeaiea aac?aaioiuo ii

i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aac?aaioeoeu

(ca 12 ianyoeaa 1997a. ii No?aooneiio ?aeiio).

Enoi/iee: aaeieieno?aoeaiay noaoenoeea neoaeau caiyoinoe a. No?aooa

e neoaeau caiyoinoe No?aooneiai ?aeiia.

Iiieoi?eia ?uiea o?oaea.

Aaaeiui eiaeeeaoi?ii ninoiyiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?uiea o?oaea neoaeeo
n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aac?aaioeoeu. ?aaeiiu n aunieei O?A
(o?iaaiue ?aaoee?oaiie aac?aaioeoeu), ii n?aaeiae
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth aac?aaioeoeu i?aaenoaaeythony aieaa
aeaaiiieo/iuie, /ai oa, aaea n?aaeiee O?A ni/aoaaony n aunieie aa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth. Anee aeiey aeeeoaeueii aac?aaioiuo iaaaeeea, oi
aac?aaioeoea aeaaea i?e aunieii aa o?iaia iiaeao iineoue i?aeiouanoaaiii
ooieoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ii eae oieueei yoa aeiey ia/eiaao ?anoe,
iiaeii aiai?eoue, /oi oaeay neooaoeey ia ?aaeiiaeueiii ?uiea o?oaea
noaiiaeony e?eoe/aneie.

Aiaoiaa i?iyaeaiea e?eoe/aneeo neooaoeee ia ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieao o?oaea
ii?aaeaeyaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue nioeeaeueiui e i?ioanneiiaeueiui
ninoaaii o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ?aaeiia a oeaeii e aac?aaioiuo a /anoiinoe.
Oae, oooaeoaiea iieiaeaiey n caiyoinoueth a i?iiuoeaiiuo iaeanoyo
(oaeaaeiauaathueo, iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo, oaenoeeueiuo) n ?acaeoui
i?ionithciui e ?aai/ei aeaeaeaieai io?aceony ia iieeoe/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie aeecie no?aiu. Iai?ioea, a ?aaeiiao n ieceie ieioiinoueth
ianaeaiey, iaaunieei o?iaiai aai nioeeaeueiie aeoeaiinoe eee aea n
aunieei o?iaiai aoi?e/iie caiyoinoe (iai?eia? a A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe.
?anioaeeea Eaeiueey) nioeeaeueiua eiioeeeou iaeiaa?iyoiu.

Aicieeiiaaiea e?eoe/aneie neooaoeee ia ?uieao o?oaea a ?aaeiiao
i?eaiaeyo /aua anaai e nie?auaieth ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey e
nieaeaieth o?iaiy aeecie, i?eieoeaecaoeee oi?i caiyoinoe, ?ac?ooaieth
nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa.

I?e/eiu, i?eaiaeyuea e iai?yaeaiiiio iieiaeaieth ia ?aaeiiaeueiii ?uiea
o?oaea, iiaoo iineoue anoanoaaiiue (oeeeee/aneee, iaoneiaeaiiue
/a?aaeiaaieai yoaiia ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu) e no?oeoo?iue
oa?aeoa?. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee e?eoe/aneia ninoiyiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo
?uieia o?oaea iiaeao auoue iauyniaii aeaenoaeai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
no?oeoo?iuo i?e/ei, naycaiiuo n o?ainoi?iaoeeae yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu
no?aiu e niaaeii i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeiaiiaeaaaaiii naeoi?a yeiiiieee, /oi
aaaeao e nie?auaieth ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo. I?e yoii yeanoe/iinoue
iaaeaiey ni?ina ia ?uiea o?oaea a caaeneiinoe io nieaeaiey iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa inoaaony n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieie.

Aeaenoaea ae?oaeo i?e/ei, oooaeoathueo niioiioaiea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieao o?oaea, a eaaeaeii ?aaeiia eiatho
naith niaoeeoeeo. E oaeei i?e/eiai ioiinyony:

– aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u, a eiaiii, aeaeaeaiea o?oaeiniiniaiiai
ianaeaiey a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa, aeeythuaa ia aeeiaieeo ?aai/ae
neeu ia ?aaeiiaeueiii ?uiea o?oaea;

– iea?aoeey o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee
auaeaeythony ?aaeiiu, o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eaeaeaaiua aeey iea?aioia, e
?aeiiu aiciiaeiiai iooiea ianaeaiey a eciaieaoeony
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo);

– io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a oicyenoaa ?aaeiia. I?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo
?uiee o?oaea ?aaeiiia, a eioi?uo nin?aaeioi/aiu i?aaei?eyoey,
oa?aeoa?ecothueany aeoaieei niaaeii i?iecaiaenoaa, ieacaeenue a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie iiaeaa?aeaiu e?eceniui yaeaieyi;

– aiciiaeiia aaie?ionoai i?aaei?eyoee a ?aaeiia;

– i?e?iaeiua (caieao?ynaiey, ae?oaea noeoeeiua aaaenoaey) e
aio?iiiaaiiua (inouanoaeaiea aiaiiuo iia?aoeee) oaeoi?u. Eae i?aaeei, eo
aeaenoaea i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo a ?aaeiia, /oi
iaoneiaeaii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?iaaaeaiey ia aai oa??eoi?ee
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio.

?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe caiyoinoe e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea
iaoneiaeaiu niaoeeoeeie oi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey,
neiaeeaoeieny o?iaiai e no?oeoo?ie caiyoinoe, i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiie
io?aneaaie no?oeoo?ie oicyenoaa, noaiaiueth aa eiiaa?neiiiie
«ooyaeaeaiiinoe» e caaa?oaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea,
iaania/aiiinoue nu?ueaaie aacie, aeeiaieeie e yooaeoeaiinoueth
i?iecaiaenoaa, eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoueth oa??eoi?ee (aeey aiaoieo eiaanoi?ia), oa?aeoa?ii
iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eyoee ni noi?iiu oaaea?aeueiuo e ianoiuo i?aaiia
aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey.

Auaiaeu.

I oii, /oi aua ia ana oi?ioi ia ?uiea o?oaea, aiai?yo iiiaea oaeou: eae
ie no?aiii i?e nouanoaothuai aeaoeoeeoa ?aai/eo iano oaaee/eeinue
eiee/anoai oaieeaoeony ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth.

Aea, e naia nenoaia o?oaeiono?ienoaa ianiaa?oaiia. Iiiaea aac?aaioiua
eiay ia ?oeao eenoie aeey ioiaoee iinauaiey i?aaei?eyoee eee
i?aaiecaoeee – i?aaeinoaaeythueo ?aaioo, i?aaeii/eoatho ia/aoue a eenoa
n ioiaoeie, /oi eae niaoeeaeeno i?aaei?eyoeth ia ioaeai. Oae eae ia
iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aai/ea iieo/atho ca?ieaoo n caaea?aeeie, a ia
Ae?aea iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea auiea/eaatho ?aaoey?ii, aea aua e /anoiie
oi?aiaeae iiaeca?aaioaoue iiaeii.

Oae, /oi aea iieo/aaony: Ae?aea ?anoieaaeeaaao, ioo/aao ?aaioaoue? Anee
au iaeaaeeoue yeiiiie/aneea nayce anao ?aaeiiia, iiaeii auei au
iiaeiyoue ia aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii nae/an yeiiiieea ?innee ia?aaeeaaao niaae, a ?uiie o?oaea ?aaioaao
aua ia oae yooaeoeaii.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia caiyoinoue e o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey aeieaeii noaoue iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iauae
nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee e nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee iaoae no?aiu.
?inney iiaeao e aeieaeia a iieiie ia?a o/anoue e eniieueciaaoue iiuo
iiiaeo ainoaea?noa a nicaeaiee iaoaieciia ?aaeecaoeee aeoeaiie iieeoeee
caiyoinoe, oi?ie?iaaiea iieiioeaiiiai ?uiea o?oaea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. E. Eeineoe – «Yeiiiieea aac oaei», Iineaa «AeAEI» 1993 a.

2. «Aii?inu yeiiiieee» 01.96 a. «?uiie o?oaea a ?O e iio?aaiinoue
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee a eiino?aiiuo ?aaioieeao».

3. E. E. Ethaeiia E. A. Eeineoe- «Iniiau yeiiiieee», Iineaa
«I?inaauaiea» 1994 a.

4. A. A. ?aenaa?a – «Aaaaeaiea a yeiiiieeo», Iineaa II «Iiaay oeiea»
1993 a.

5. N. Oeoa? e ae?. – «Yeiiiieea» Iineaa «AeAEI» Eoae 1995 a.

6. A. A. ?aenaa?a – «Iniiau yeiiiieee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa», Iineaa
II «Iiaay oeiea» 1993 a.

7. Aacaoa: «Aanoiee» ?51 1996 a., ?1 1997 a., ?31 1997a. .

8. Aacaoa: «O?oae» 13 aaaonoa 1997a., «A ii?a aaeainee».

9. Aacaoa: «O?oae» ?233 1997a., «O aac?aaioeoeu thiia eeoei».

554/.

174/.

184/. caeii- /eee o/?ao,

ec ieo 62/. o?oaeiono?.

809/.

255/.

1568/.

165/.

341/.

226/.

144/.

1667/.

479/.

ia?aiao/eeenue e

iao/athony aeaaiaea?y

Oeaio?o caiyoinoe:..

ia?aee ?aaioo

aeaaiaea?y Oeaio?o

caiyoinoe:……………

i?aaeeiaeaii ?aai-

/eo iano:………………

ca?aaeno?e?iaaii

aac?aaioiuo:…………

1995 1996 1997

Ii No?aooneiio ?aeiio

iaoee ?aaioo

3775/.

7281/.

1) ia?aoeeenue a iienea ?aaiou:

366/.

1494/.

2) ca?aaeno?e?iaaii aac?aaioiuo:…………………………

Caeii/eee o/?ao 345 e ec ieo 188 o?oaeiono?iaii

177/.

3) iai?aaeaii ia i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea:…

2217 ain. naeoi?

115 iaain. naeoi?

2332

4) i?aaeeiaeaii ?aai/eo iano:…

aeaiuei

Iieiae?aeue a aic?anoa 16-29 eao

Anaai

1234 ec

664 ec

Iinoaaeaii ia o/?o a io/?oiii ia?eiaea:…………………..

1494/.

135 ec

72 ec

177/.

Iai?aaeaii ia i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea:…………………

aeaiueiu

Iieiae?aeue a aic?anoa 16-29eao

Anaai

1221/. ec

715/. ec

1568/.

Iinoaaeaii ia o/?o a io/?oiii ia?eiaea:……..

88/. ec

134/. ec

174/.

Iai?aaeaii ia i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea:……………………

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aac?aaioeoeu:

Anaai

ec a?aou 2

eiaaeeaeu

aeaiueiu

Iieiae?aeue a aic?anoa 16-29

5

4

3

2

1

3

105

104

134

aei 1 ianyoea:…………….

5

227

161

282

io 1 aei 4 ianyoeaa:……

398

7

113

411

io 4 aei 8 ianyoeaa:……

136

3

40

168

io 8 aei 1 aiaea:…………

93

19

96

aieaa 1 aiaea:…………..

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aac?aaioeoeu

ec a?aou 2

iieiae?aeue a aic?anoa 16-29

eiaaeeaeu

aeaiueiu

Anaai

5

4

3

2

1

53

42

77

aei 1 ianyoea:…………

5

255

158

323

io 1 aei 4 ianyoeaa:.

4

186

54

208

io 4 aei 8 ianyoeaa:.

2

206

70

227

io 8 aei 1 aiaea:…….

3

279

88

307

aieaa 1 aiaea:………

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