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Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaiue iioea aeayoaeueiinoe ethaie oe?iu a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo –
iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee. ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeecaoeee yoie
no?aoaae/aneie oeaee ai anao neo/ayo ia?aie/aiu ecaea?aeeaie
i?iecaiaenoaa e ni?inii ia auioneaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth. A eiie?aoiuo
neo/ayo ( caaiaaaiea ianoa ia ?uiea, eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa e o. i.) oe?ia
iiaeao eaeoe ia a?aiaiiia nieaeaiea i?eauee e aeaaea oauoee. Ii
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy nouanoaiaaoue aac i?eauee oe?ia ia iiaeao, eai iia ia
aunoieo a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa. Iineieueeo ecaea?aeee – yoi iniiaiie
ia?aie/eoaeue i?eauee e iaeiia?aiaiii aeaaiue oaeoi?, aeeythuee ia iauai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, oi i?eiyoea ?aoaiee ?oeiaiaenoaii oe?iu iaaiciiaeii aac
aiaeeca oaea eiathueony ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e eo aaee/eiu ia
ia?niaeoeao. Yoi ioiineony e auioneo oaea inaiaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e
ia?aoiaeo ia iiaua ecaeaeey.

Iiiyoea ecaea?aeae e i?eauee oe?iu.

Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee.

Ecaea?aeee iau/ii annioeee?othony n ii?aaeaeaiiuie iioa?yie, aea?oaaie,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii iiianoe aeey iieo/aiey iaeioi?uo iieaciuo
?acoeueoaoia. Yoe iioa?e iiaoo auoue aanueia ?aciiia?aciu, iiyoiio iao
aaeeiiai, oieaa?naeueiiai e i?inoiai iaoiaea ii?aaeaeaiey ecaea?aeae.
Nouanoaoao aeaa iiaeoiaea e o?aeoiaea ecaea?aeae, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
eiaao naith iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey.

Niaeanii ia?aiio ec ieo, ecaea?aeee ii?aaeaeythony eae oeaiiinoue
ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo ?ano?nia a oaeoe/aneeo oeaiao eo i?eia?aoaiey. Yoe
ecaea?aeee yeiiiienou iacuaatho «aooaaeoa?neeie ecaea?aeeaie». Niaeanii
aoi?iio iiaeoiaeo – eae oeaiiinoue ae?oaeo aeaa, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au
iieo/eoue i?e iaeaieaa auaiaeiii eniieueciaaiee oao aea ?ano?nia. A yoii
neo/aa aiai?yo ia «aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ecaea?aeeao» ( «oeaia auai?a» ).

Aeey ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ii?aaeaeythuaa cia/aiea eiaao
eaoaai?ey aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ecaea?aeae. Aeaiiua ecaea?aeee i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iaeii ec iaeaieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iiiyoee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.
Aeueoa?iaoeaiua ecaea?aeee aicieeatho a ie?a ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia, e
iiyoiio ana aeaeaiey ethaeae ia iiaoo auoue oaeiaeaoai?aiu. Anee au
?ano?nu auee aaca?aie/iu, oi ie iaeii aeaenoaea ia inouanoaeyeinue au ca
n/ao ae?oaiai, o. a. Aeueoa?iaoeaiua ecaea?aeee ethaiai aeaenoaey auee
au ?aaiu ioeth. I/aaeaeii, /oi a ?aaeueiii ie?a ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia
aeueoa?iaoeaiua ecaea?aeee iieiaeeoaeueiu.

No?iai aiai?y, ecaea?aeee a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee anaaaea icia/atho
aeueoa?iaoeaiua ecaea?aeee, e iiyoiio aooaaeoa? e yeiiiieno aiieia iiaoo
ii-?aciiio ii?aaeaeeoue ecaea?aeee iaeioi?iai aeaenoaey. Aeey aooaaeoa?a
eiatho cia/aiea aeaiaaeiua ?anoiaeu ia ?ano?nu, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey yeiiiienoa yoe aeaiaaeiua oeaiu iiaoo
auoue iaoi/iui io?aaeaieai aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ecaea?aeae ia i?eia?aoaiea
?ano?nia, anee ii eaeei-oi i?e/eiai ?uiee ia iaania/eaatho ioeaiee yoeo
?ano?nia ii naiie aunieie oeaiiinoe eo aeueoa?iaoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey.
E?iia oiai, yeiiiieno no?aieony o/anoue ana auaiaeu, i?eianaiiua a
aea?oao inouanoaeaieai aeaiiiai aeaenoaey.

Iai?eia?, AOI «EOI «Aa?iaoee» auioneae iaiiieai, oai naiui ioaeaeay
iai?ioiue eaieoae io eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa eeay-aa?iaoeea. Ii
?yaeo i?e/ei «Aa?iaoee» ioeacuaaaony io auionea iaiiieaia a iieueco eeay
e iieo/aao yeiiiie/aneoth i?eaueue.

Aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea ecaea?aeee.

?anniio?ei ecaea?aeee n iiceoeeae ioaeaeueiie oe?iu. Iie?aynue ia
iiiyoea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo (aiaiaiiuo) ecaea?aeae, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee – yoi oa auieaou, eioi?ua oe?ia iaycaia
naeaeaoue, eee oa aeioiaeu, eioi?ua oe?ia iaycaia iaania/eoue iinoaaueeo
?ano?nia aeey oiai, /oiau ioaea/ue yoe ?ano?nu io eniieueciaaiey a
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iecaiaenoaao. Yoe auieaou iiaoo auoue eeai aiaoieie,
eeai aioo?aiieie. Aeaiaaeiua auieaou – oi anoue aeaiaaeiua ?anoiaeu,
eioi?ua oe?ia ianao «ec naiaai ea?iaia» a iieueco «aoonaeaea?ia»,
iinoaaeythueo o?oaeiaua oneoae, nu?uea, oiieeai, o?ainii?oiua oneoae,
yeaeo?iyia?aeth e o. ae., o. a. Ana oi, /oi iia ia i?iecaiaeeo naia aeey
nicaeaiey aeaiiiai ecaeaeey, – iacuaathony aiaoieie ecaea?aeeaie.

Eiuie neiaaie, aiaoiea ecaea?aeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ieaoo ca ?ano?nu
iinoaaueeai, ia i?eiaaeeaaeauei e /eneo aeaaeaeueoeaa aeaiiie oe?iu.

Iaeiaei, e?iia oiai, oe?ia iiaeao eniieueciaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ?ano?nu,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea ae naiie. Ciay, /oi iacaaeneii io oiai, yaeyaony ee
?ano?n nianoaaiiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey eee iieo/ai ei aiaai, ii?aaeaeaiiue
niinia eniieueciaaiey yoiai ?ano?na naycai n iaeioi?uie ecaea?aeeaie.
Ecaea?aeee ia nianoaaiiue e naiinoiyoaeueii eniieuecoaiue ?ano?n
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaiiea/eaaaiua, eee aioo?aiiea, ecaea?aeee. N oi/ee
c?aiey oe?iu yoe aioo?aiiea ecaea?aeee ?aaiu aeaiaaeiui ieaoaaeai,
eioi?ua iiaee au auoue iieo/aiu ca naiinoiyoaeueii eniieuecoaiue ?ano?n
i?e iaeeo/oai – ec aiciiaeiuo niiniaia – aai i?eiaiaiee.

Yeiiiienou n/eoatho ecaea?aeeaie ana ieaoaaee – aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea,
aeeth/ay a iineaaeiea e ii?iaeueioth i?eaueue, – iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oiai,
/oiau i?eaea/ue e oaea?aeaoue ?ano?nu a i?aaeaeao aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yeiiiie/aneay e aooaaeoa?neay i?eaueue.

Aooaaeoa?neea ecaea?aeee aianoa n aeueoa?iaoeaiuie ecaea?aeeaie
ninoaaeytho iauea ecaea?aeee oe?iu. Ana yoe ecaea?aeee aeieaeiu
o/eouaaoueny aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?eauee oe?iu.

Yeiiiienou e aooaaeoa?u ii-?aciiio iiieiatho cia/aiea oa?ieia
«i?eaueue». Aooaaeoa?neay i?eaueue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauoth au?o/eo
oe?iu ca au/aoii aiaoieo ecaea?aeae. Iaeiaei yeiiiienou ii?aaeaeytho
i?eaueue eia/a. Yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue – yoi iauay au?o/ea ca au/aoii
anao ecaea?aeae (aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo, aeeth/ay a iineaaeiea e
ii?iaeueioth i?eaueue). Iiyoiio anee yeiiiieno aiai?eo, /oi oe?ia aaeaa
iie?uaaao ecaea?aeee, oi yoi cia/eo, /oi ana aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea
ecaea?aeee aiciauathony, a oe?ia iieo/aao oaeie aeioiae, eioi?iai aaeaa
oaaoaao, /oiau oaea?aeaoue aai eee aa oaeaio a ?aieao aeaiiiai
iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe. Anee noiia aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee i?aauoaao
yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee oe?iu, oi anyeee inoaoie iaeaieeaaaony a ?oeao
i?aaei?eieiaoaey. Yoio inoaoie iacuaaaony yeiiiie/aneie, eee /enoie,
i?eaueueth.

Yeiiiie/aneay = iauay – aiaiaiiua ecaea?aeee

i?eaueue au?o/ea ia ana ?ano?nu.

Yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue ia aoiaeeo a ecaea?aeee, oae eae, ii
ii?aaeaeaieth, yoi aeioiae, iieo/aiiue naa?o ii?iaeueiie i?eauee,
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey nio?aiaiey caeioa?aniaaiiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaey a
aeaiiii iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe.

E?eoa?eai oniaoa oe?iu yaeyaony ia aooaaeoa?neay, a yeiiiie/aneay
i?eaueue. Anee aeueoa?iaoeaiua «aooaaeoa?neea» ecaea?aeee i?aainoiaeyo
aeioiae, oi «io?eoeaoaeueioth i?eaueue» iacuaatho oauoeaie oe?iu.

Oneiaiue i?eia? iiaen/aoa aooaaeoa?neie e yeiiiie/aneie i?eauee, /oiau
iieacaoue, a /ai caeeth/aaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieie.

Noaouee aeioiaeia e cao?ao Aooaaeoa?neee

?an/ao Yeiiiie/aneee

?an/ao

Iauee aeioiae io i?iaeaae (oun. ?oa.) 1000 1000

Aeaiaaeiua (yaiua) cao?aou (oun. ?oa.)

nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu

oiieeai e yia?aey

ca?ieaoa

i?ioeaio ii caeiai (10%)

350

100

250

100

350

100

250

3.Aeueoa?iaoeaiua (iayaiua) cao?aou

aeueoa?iaoeaiay oeaiiinoue a?aiaie i?aaei?eieiaoaey

aeueoa?iaoeaiay oeaiiinoue nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea (2000 i?e A=10%)

50

5.Yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue (1-2-3)

-50

Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai ?an/aoa aeaeii, /oi i?e iieiaeeoaeueiie aooaaeoa?neie
i?eauee yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue ?aaia -50 oun. ?oa. A yoii neo/aa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth auaiaeii aueoe ec aeaea, /oi i?eianei au aio ieieioi
50 oun. ?oa., a ecuyoue eaieoae iaania/ee au aeioiae 200 oun. ?oa. a
aiae (2000 o 0.1).

Anee au yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue auea ?aaia 0, oaeay neooaoeey auea au
aiieia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie aeey oe?iu, iineieueeo ana ?ano?nu i?eiinyo
aeioiae, ii e?aeiae ia?a ia iaiueoae, /ai iie i?eiineee au, anee au eo
eniieueciaaee iaeeo/oei aeueoa?iaoeaiui niiniaii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oe?ia
aoaeao eiaoue ioee/ioth io ioey iieiaeeoaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth
i?eaueue, eiaaea iia oae eniieuecoao aaiaeeiua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa,
/oi i?eiineiue eie aeioiae i?aainoiaeeo aeioiae, eioi?ue oe?ia iiaea
iieo/eoue, anee au eniieueciaaea yoe ?ano?nu eiui, iaeeo/oei niiniaii.

Oaeei ia?acii, yeiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae i?e ?an/aoa i?eauee eiaao
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Aooaaeoa?neee
iiaeoiae aaaeai aeey oaeouae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (aeey
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ?an/aoa aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee e o. i.)
Yeiiiie/aneee aea iiaeoiae eiaao oieaa?naeueiia cia/aiea a i?aaiecaoeee
aeciana.

Aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea.

Aeey oaaee/aiey naiae i?eauee oe?ia no?aieony ieieiece?iaaoue
ecaea?aeee. Iiaaaeaiea oe?iu i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony a caaeneiinoe io
oiai, a eaeii ec ia?eiaeia iia ooieoeeiie?oao.

E?aoein?i/iue ia?eiae – yoi ia?eiae a?aiaie neeoeii ei?ioeee, /oiau
i?aaei?eyoea niiaei eciaieoue naie i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe, ii
aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue aeey eciaiaiey noaiaie eioaineaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey yoeo oeene?iaaiiuo iiuiinoae.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe oe?iu inoathony iaeciaiiuie a i?aaeaeao
e?aoein?i/iiai ia?eiaea, ii iauai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeao auoue eciaiai
iooai i?eiaiaiey aieueoaai eee iaiueoaai eiee/anoaa aeeaiai o?oaea,
nu?uey e ae?oaeo ?ano?nia. Nouanoaothuea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe a
i?aaeaeao e?aoein?i/iiai ia?eiaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aieaa eee iaiaa
eioaineaii.

Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa eaeiai-eeai i?iaeoeoa aeaiiie oe?iu caaenyo ia
oieueei io oeai iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia, ii e io oaoiieiaee – io
eiee/anoaa ?ano?nia, eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii aeey i?iecaiaenoaa. A oa/aiea
e?aoein?i/iiai ia?eiaea oe?ia iiaeao eciaieoue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa iooai
niaaeeiaiey eciaiythuaainy eiee/anoaa ?ano?nia n oeene?iaaiiuie
iiuiinoyie.

Iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee.

I?e auionea i?iaeoeoeee iaeie ecaea?aeee oe?iu aoaeoo iineoue iinoiyiiue
oa?aeoa?, ae?oaea – ia?aiaiiue. Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee FC (fixed costs) –
yoi cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea caeaiee, a?aiaeo caiee, eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio,
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneea ?anoiaeu, aii?oecaoeeth, iieaoo
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea, no?aoiaaiea, ?aeeaio, ieaoaaee ca e?aaeeo e
o. ae. Iie iinoiyiiu a oii niunea, /oi eo aaee/eia a ei?ioeii ia?eiaea
ia eciaiyaony n oaaee/aieai eee nie?auaieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Aieaa
oiai, iie eiatho ianoi aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea i?iaeoeoeey aiiaua ia
auioneaaony.

Ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee VC (variable costs) – yoi ecaea?aeee, aaee/eia
eioi?uo eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io oaaee/aiey eee oiaiueoaiey iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa. E ia?aiaiiui ecaea?aeeai ioiinyony cao?aou ia nu?uea,
yeaeo?iyia?aeth, iieaoo o?oaea, ?anoiaeu ia aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e
o. i. A ioee/ea io iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae, aaee/eia eioi?uo ia caaeneo io
eciaiaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee oaaee/eaathony
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii auioneo i?iaeoeoeee. Ia ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo
i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee ?anooo aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie, /ai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?iaeoeoeey. Ii ia?a aeinoeaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo iauaiia
auionea oaiiu ?inoa ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae nieaeathony. Iaeiaei
aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaiaeeo e onei?aieth ?inoa
ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae.

Iauea (aaeiaua) ecaea?aeee TC (total costs) – niaieoiiinoue iinoiyiiuo e
ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae. TC=FC+VC.

N?aaeiea ecaea?aeee.

Iiieii iaueo iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae, eniieuecoaony ?an/ao
n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae, io?aaeathueo ioiioaiea: iauea ecaea?aeee ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.

Iineieueeo n oaaee/aieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee,
i?eoiaeyueany ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, aoaeoo oiaiueoaoueny, oi e?eaay
n?aaeieo iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae AFC(average fixed costs) aoaeao eiaoue
io?eoeaoaeueiue iaeeii (?en.). N?aaeiea iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee
?ann/eouaathony ii oi?ioea: AFC=FC/Q.

N?aaeiea ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee AVC (average variable costs)
ii?aaeaeythony iooai aeaeaiey ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae ia iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa: AVC=VC/Q. I?e aeinoeaeaiee iioeiaeueiiai ?acia?a
i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaeiea ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee noaiiayony ieieiaeueiuie.

N?aaeiea ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a aiaeeca
yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey oe?iu: iieiaeaiea aai ?aaiiaaney e ia?niaeoea
?acaeoey – ?anoe?aiey, nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa eee ooiaea ec io?anee.

N?aaeiea iauea ecaea?aeee ATC (average total costs) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
/anoiia io aeaeaiey iaueo ecaea?aeae ia iauai i?iaeoeoeee: ATC=TC/Q.
N?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iiaeii oaeaea iieo/eoue iooai neiaeaiey n?aaeieo
iinoiyiiuo e n?aaeieo ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae: ATC=AFC+AVC.

A?aoe/anee n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee ecia?aaeathony noiie?iaaieai e?eauo
n?aaeieo iinoiyiiuo e n?aaeieo ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae e eiatho
U-ia?acioth oi?io.(?en)

?ieue n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi
eo n?aaiaiea n oeaiie iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio i?eauee, eioi?ay
?ann/eouaaaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo iauae au?o/eie e iaueie
ecaea?aeeaie. Yoa ?acieoea iicaieyao aua?aoue i?aaeeueioth no?aoaaeth e
oaeoeeo oe?iu.

I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee.

Iiiyoee iaueo e n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae auaaao iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey aiaeeca
iiaaaeaiey oe?iu. Iiyoiio yeiiiienou eniieuecotho aua iaeei aeae
ecaea?aeae – i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee.

I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee MC (marginal costs) – yoi i?e?auaiea iaueo
ecaea?aeae ia i?iecaiaenoai aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee
ioiineoaeueii oaeoe/aneiai eee ?an/aoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eaoaai?ey i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae eiaao no?aoaae/aneia cia/aiea,
iineieueeo iicaieyao iieacaoue oa ecaea?aeee, eioi?ua i?eaeaony iiianoe
oe?ia a neo/aa i?iecaiaenoaa aua iaeiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee eee
nyeiiiieoue a neo/aa nie?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaa ia yoo aaeeieoeo. Eia/a
aiai?y, i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee – yoi oa aaee/eia, eioi?oth oe?ia iiaeao
eiio?iee?iaaoue iaeaieaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii.

I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee iieo/atho eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo ecaea?aeeaie
i?iecaiaenoaa n+1 aaeeieoe e ecaea?aeeaie n aaeeieoe i?iaeoeoa.

Iineieueeo i?e eciaiaiee iauaia iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee FC ia iaiythony,
i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee ii?aaeaeythony eeoue ia?aiaiiuie ecaea?aeeaie a
?acoeueoaoa auionea aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaoaiaoe/anee i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee iiaeii caienaoue
oae MC=VCn+1 – VCn,

MC= dTC/dQ,

aaea d – i?iecaiaeiay, eioi?ay a yeiiiieea eioa?i?aoe?oaony eae
i?aaeaeueiay aaee/eia ooieoeee. Ia?aie i?iecaiaeiie ooieoeee ia?aiaiiuo
ecaea?aeae ii auioneo i?iaeoeoeee yaeythony i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee.
A?aoe/anee i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee ecia?aaeathony neaaeothuei ia?acii
(?en.)

?enoiie

N?aaeiea ecaea?aeee , eee oaeaeueiua cao?aou, AN (average costs)
ii?aaeaeytho, ai /oi iaoiaeeony a n?aaeiai aaeeieoea i?iaeoeoeee:
AN=ON/Q.

I?ieiiiaioe?oai iniiaiua niioiioaiey iaaeaeo n?aaeieie e i?aaeaeueiuie
ecaea?aeeaie:

I?aaeaeueiua e n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee eiatho eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia
cia/aiea, iineieueeo ?aoathuei ia?acii neacuaathony ia auai?a oe?iie
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

E?eaay MC ia caaeneo io FC, o.e. FC ia caaeneo io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa,
a MC – yoi i?e?inoiua ecaea?aeee.

Iiea IN inoathony iaiueoa AN, e?eaay n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae eiaao
io?eoeaoaeueiue iaeeii. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?iecaiaenoai aeiiieieoaeueiie
aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee oiaiueoaao n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee.

Eiaaea IN ?aaii AN, yoi cia/eo, /oi n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee ia?anoaee
iaaeaoue, ii aua ia ia/aee ?anoe. Yoi oi/ea ieieiaeueiuo n?aaeieo
ecaea?aeae (AN = min).

Eiaaea IN noaiiayony aieueoa AN, e?eaay n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae eaeao
aaa?o, /oi icia/aao oaaee/aiea n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae a i?iecaiaenoaa
aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.

E?eaay IN ia?anaeaao e?eaoth AVC e e?eaoth AN a oi/eao eo ieieiaeueiuo
cia/aiee.

Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie ecaea?aeae aeaeiu ia neaaeothuai
/eneiaii i?eia?a.

1 50 50 100 28 50.0 50.0 100.0

2 50 78 128 20 25.0 39.0 64.0

3 50 98 148 14 16.7 32.7 49.3

4 50 112 162 18 12.5 28.0 40.5

5 50 130 180 20 10.0 26.0 36.0

6 50 150 200 25 8.3 25.0 33.3

7 50 175 225 29 7.1 25.0 32.1

8 50 204 254 38 6.3 25.5 31.8

9 50 242 292 58 5.6 26.9 32.4

10 50 300 350 85 5.0 30.0 35.0

11 50 385 435

4.5 35.0 39.5

A?aoee, io?aaeathuee caaeneiinoue ecaea?aeae.

Ecaea?aeee ia aeieaia?aiaiiii yoaia.

Aeieaia?aiaiiue ia?eiae -yoi ia?eiae a?aiaie aeinoaoi/ii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue, /oiau eciaieoue eiee/anoai anao caiyouo ?ano?nia,
aeeth/ay e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe. N oi/ee c?aiey io?anee,
aeieaia?aiaiiue ia?eiae oaeaea aeeth/aao a naay aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie,
/oiau aeaenoaothuea a iae oe?iu niiaee ?anoi?ie?iaaoueny e iieeiooue
io?aneue, a iiaua oe?iu – aicieeiooue e anooieoue a io?aneue.

Aeieain?i/iue ia?eiae ioee/aaony io e?aoein?i/iiai niiniaiinoueth oe?iu
naiaiaeii aa?uee?iaaoue ana oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa a aeieain?i/iii
ia?eiaea. A oi a?aiy eae caeaiey e iai?oaeiaaiea oe?iu ia iiaoo auoue
caiaiaiu a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea, a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea oe?ia iiaeao
iino?ieoue eee a?aiaeiaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiiauaiey
e onoaiiaeoue eiaiii oa iaoeiu, eioi?ua ae iaiaoiaeeiu. A aeieain?i/iii
ia?eiaea ana oaeoi?u yaeythony ia?aiaiiuie.

A ioee/ea io ei?ioeiai ia?eiae, a oa/aiea eioi?iai ana oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieuecoaiua oe?iie, yaeythony oeene?iaaiiuie,
aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi caaea/o auionea oiai eee
eiiai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee oe?ia iiaeao ?aoaoue, iaiyy ana aaiaeeiua ath
?ano?nu. Iineieueeo ana oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa noaiiayony ia?aiaiiuie,
oe?ia no?aieony ?anoe?eoue iauai auionea, i?e/ai oae, /oiau ecaea?aeee
ia aaeeieoeo auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee auee ieieiaeueiuie. I?e yoii
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae
ia nouanoaoao, a n?aaeiea i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee ?aaiu n?aaeiei iauei
ecaea?aeeai. Iiyoiio a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea eniieuecoaony oieueei
iaeii iiiyoea – n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee.

Eaaeaeay oe?ia a oio eee eiie iiiaio oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaeaiiuie
ianooaaaie i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ui niioaaonoaoao oa eee eiay e?eaay
n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae ei?ioeiai ia?eiaea. Oaeeo e?eauo nouanoaoao
noieueei, neieueei ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa enneaaeoaony. Iaiyy yoe
ianooaau, oe?ia ia?aoiaeeo io iaeiie e?eaie n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae
ei?ioeiai ia?eiaea e ae?oaie. I?e yoii n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee aei
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaia auionea aoaeoo oiaiueoaoueny, a caoai ia/ioo
iinoaiaiii aic?anoaoue (ia ?enoiea yoi aeaeii i?e ia?aoiaea io AN1 e
AN3, a caoai io AN3 e AN5).

Niaaeeiea oi/ee ieieioia AN1, AN2,…,ANn, iieo/ei n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee a
aeeeoaeueiii ia?eiaea LAC. E?eaay aeieain?i/iuo ecaea?aeae iieacuaaao
iaeiaiueoea ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa ethaiai caaeaiiiai iauaia auionea,
aeiioneay i?e yoii aiciiaeiinoue oiaiueoaiey anao oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa
iioeiaeueiui ia?acii a oeaeyo ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae.

I?e oneiaee, /oi oeaiu ia aaiaeeiua ?ano?nu inoathony iaeciaiiuie,
oiaiueoaiea n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea aei iauaia Q3
iauyniyaony oai, /oi n ?anoe?aieai i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiu i?e?inoa aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee ia/eiatho iaaiiyoue nei?inoue i?e?inoa ecaea?aeae ia
aaiaeeiua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo a neeo aeaenoaey
«yooaeoa yeiiiiee ia ianooaaa». Nooue aai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ia
ia/aeueiii yoaia oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aaiaeeiuo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa
iicaieyao iiauneoue niaoeeaeecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieueciaaoue aieaa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth oaoieeo e oaoiieiaeth, nieceoue /enei caiyouo,
nyeiiiieoue ia no?ieoaeuenoaa caeaiee, eiiioieeaoeee, oiaiueoeoue
ecaea?aeee ia aeecaei, iao/aiea, ?aeeaio, ia?eaoeia e o. ae.

Iai?eia?, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ieue aeey iaeiiai ?anoi?aia «Iaeaeiiaeaen»
yaii ia yooaeoeaai. Iiyoiio ?anoi?aiu iauaaeeiythony a nenoaio, aaea
eiaaony oeaio?aeeciaaiiay eooiy, ec eioi?ie iaaaeu aeinoaaeythony ai ana
?anoi?aiu, aaeeiue oeaio? iiaeaioiaee ia?niiaea.

Iaeiaei aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaaeao e oiio, /oi ia
oe?iao aic?anooo oae iacuaaaiua ecaea?aeee ath?ie?aoe/aneiai eiio?iey
(iio?aaothony aeiiieieoaeueiua oi?aaeythuea no?oeoo?u – ioaeaeu, niaiu,
oeaoa, o/anoee; aic?anooo ?anoiaeu ia aaeieieno?aoeaiue aiia?ao;
nieceony yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeaiey, o/anoyony naie a i?aaiecaoeee). Ana
yoi a eiia/iii n/aoa auciaao oaaee/aiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e
e?eaay LAC noaiao aic?anoaoue.

Yooaeoeaiui ianooaaii i?iecaiaenoaa n/eoaaony oaeia ninoiyiea, eiaaea
i?e ?inoa iauaia auionea LAC nieaeathony (Q1 – Q3).

Iayooaeoeaiue ianooaa – yoi oaeia ninoiyiea, eiaaea oe?ia ianao iioa?e
io oaaee/aiey auionea (Q4, Q5,…, Qn).

Iioeiaeueiui ianooaaii n/eoaaony oio, i?e eioi?ii aeinoeaaaony
aeiaaeueiue ieieioi ecaea?aeae Q3. I?e yoii iauaia e?eaay AN3 e e?eaay
LAC aeinoeaatho iaeiaiueoeo cia/aiee. Ethaay iiiuoea oe?iu aeiaeoueny
iaeiia?aiaiiiai ?anoe?aiey e nie?auaiey n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae aoaeao
aaconiaoiie. Aiciiaeiinoe yeiiiiee ia ianooaaao i?iecaiaenoaa en/a?iatho
naay, e oa oe?ia, eioi?ay iieaeao ia ?ene ?anoe?aiey auionea, iioa?ieo
iaoaea/o. Cia/eo, i?e iauaia Q3 oe?ia iioeiece?oao naith aeayoaeueiinoue
a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea.

?acthia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey iienuaaao ana oaoiieiae/anee yooaeoeaiua
niiniau i?iecaiaenoaa, iieacuaay iaeneiaeueiue auione, eioi?ue iiaeao
auoue i?iecaaaeai i?e eniieueciaaiee caaeaiiuo iauaiia ?ano?nia.
Yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiia i?iecaiaenoai ieieiece?oao aeueoa?iaoeaioth
noieiinoue ?ano?nia, eniieuecoaiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ethaiai caaeaiiiai
auionea.

A e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea cao?aou ia?aiaiiuo oaeoi?ia iiaoo auoue
eciaiaiu, oiaaea eae cao?aou iinoiyiiuo oaeoi?ia yaeythony
oeene?iaaiiuie. A aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea iauaiu cao?ao anao oaeoi?ia
yaeythony ia?aiaiiuie.

Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee – yoi ecaea?aeee iinoiyiiuo oaeoi?ia oe?iu;
neaaeiaaoaeueii iie ia caaenyo io o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa a e?aoein?i/iii
ia?eiaea. Ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee, iai?ioea, caaenyo io iauaia ia?aiaiiuo
oaeoi?ia e , neaaeiaaoaeueii, io o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaieoiiua
ecaea?aeee ?aaiu noiia iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae.

I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee (IN) i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaaee/aiea niaieoiiuo
ecaea?aeae, o?aaoaiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa 1 aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu
auionea. I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoueny i?e i?eiyoee
?aoaiee i oii, neieueei i?iecaiaeeoue.

N?aaeiea ecaea?aeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ecaea?aeee ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee. N?aaeiea ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny a
?an/ao i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey i i?ae?auaiee aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu a
e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea.

Eciaiaiey a oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey ecaea?aeae i?eaiaeyo e naeaeao e?eauo
ecaea?aeae. Oaaee/aiea iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae ia aeeyao ia e?eaoth
i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, ii oaaee/aiea oeaiu ia?aiaiiiai oaeoi?a
io?aceony ia e?eauo AVC, AON e IN.

N?aaeiea niaieoiiua eee ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee anaaaea nieaeathony,
eiaaea i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee ieaea n?aaeieo, e ?anooo, eiaaea
i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee auoa n?aaeieo. I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee ?aaiu
n?aaeiei ecaea?aeeai a oii neo/aa, eiaaea n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee
aeinoeaatho naiaai ieieiaeueiiai cia/aiey.

E?eaay aeieain?i/iuo n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae (LAC) iieacuaaao ieieiaeueiua
n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, eiaaea ana oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa
yaeythony naiaiaeii iaiythueieny. Eaaeaeie oi/ea ia e?eaie LAC
niioaaonoaoao eiie?aoiue ianooaa (?acia?) i?aaei?eyoey (eae niaieoiiinoe
aeaeia cao?ao, yaeythueony iinoiyiiuie a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea) ni
naiae nianoaaiiie e?eaie AON.

Oi?ia e?eaie aeieain?i/iuo n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae ii?aaeaeyaony a oa?ieiao
iieiaeeoaeueiie e io?eoeaoaeueiie yeiiiiee io ianooaaa. Eiaaea eiaao
ianoi yeiiiiey io ianooaaa, aeieain?i/iua n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee
nieaeathony n oaaee/aieai iauaia auionea; eiaaea eiaao ianoi
io?eoeaoaeueiay yeiiiiey io ianooaaa, e?eaay LAC yaeyaony aic?anoathuae.
LAC ai?eciioaeueia i?e iinoiyiiie ioaea/a io ianooaaa.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Yeiiiieea. O/aaiee/ Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A. E. A?oeiiaa, A. I. Ianoa?aiei,
A. E. Aieueoaeiaa. I.: «I?iniaeo», 1998a.

Eaiaaa A.Ae. e eieeaeoea aaoi?ia. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey: O/aaiee. – I.:
Aoiaieoa?iue ecaeaoaeueneee oeaio? AEAAeIN, 1998a.

Oeoa? N., Aei?iaoo ?., Oiaeaice ?. Yeiiiieea: Ia?aaiae n aiaeeeneiai ni
2-ai ecaeaiey. – I.: Aeaei, 1998a.

Iaeeiiae E.?., A?th N. E. Yeiiiieen: I?eioeeiu, i?iaeaiu e iieeoeea. A
2-o o.

Nia?aiaiiay yeiiiieea. Iauaaeinooiiue o/aaiue eo?n. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio:
«Oaieen», 1997a.

Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea.

Iiiyoea ecaea?aeae e i?eauee oe?iu.

Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee

Aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea ecaea?aeee

Yeiiiie/aneay e aooaaeoa?neay i?eaueue

Aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea.

Iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee

N?aaeiea ecaea?aeee

I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee

Ecaea?aeee ia aeieaia?aiaiiii yoaia.

?acthia.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

AFC

AVC

ATC

AFC

AVC

ATC

AFC

AVC

ATC

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