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Пластиковые карты

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Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii aaieianeiio aeaeo ia oaio “Aaieianeea ieanoeeiaua
ea?oi/ee”

?aaioo auiieiee nooaeaio 2 eo?na

a?oiia EA-204 Iaaeia TH?ee

Iineaa 1996

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea

I. Aaieianeay ieanoeeiaay ea?oi/ea eae eino?oiaio ?an/aoia e
e?aaeeoiaaiey.

1. Aeaeu ieanoeeiauo ea?o

2. Aaciaay noaia iia?aoeee n aaieianeie e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/eie

3. Auaiaeu nenoai ea?oi/iuo ?an/aoia aeey aa o/anoieeia

II. Aaiee o/anoieee nenoai ea?oi/iuo ?an/aoia

1. Aaie-yieoaio

2. Aaie-yeaae?

3.Aica?aou

4. I?eaueueiinoue iia?aoeee n aaieianeeie ieanoeeiauie ea?oi/eaie

Aaaaeaiea.

ss aua?ae oaio “Aaieianeea ieanoeeiaua ea?oi/ee” iioiio /oi n/eoath /oi
aiiaua yeaeo?iiiua n?aaenoaa e eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaeee iaeaieaa
aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathuaeny io?aneth aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. A
naiae eo?niaie ?aaioa y ?anneaaeo Aai /oi oaeia aaieianeea ieanoeeiaua
ea?oi/ee, eaeea auaaatho aeaeu ieanoeeiauo ea?o, eae e ii eaeie noaia
i?inoiaeeo ieaoaae ii ea?oi/eai e eaeoth ?ieue ea?atho a yoii aaiee
o/anoieee ieanoeeiauo ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

I. AAIEIANEAss IEANOEEIAAss EA?OI*EA EAE EINO?OIAIO ?AN*AOIA E
E?AAeEOIAAIEss.

1. Aeaeu ieanoeeiauo ea?o.

A oiaea ?acaeoey ieanoeeiauo ea?o aicieeee ?aciua aeaeu ieanoeeiauo
ea?oi/ae, ?acee/athueony iacia/aieai, ooieoeeiiaeueiuie e oaoie/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

N oi/ee c?aiey iaoaiecia ?an/aoa auaeaeythony aeaonoi?iiiea e
iiiainoi?iiiea nenoaiu. Aeaonoi?iiiea ea?oi/ee aicieeee ia aaca
aeaonoi?iiieo niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie ?an/aoia, aaea aeaaeaeueoeu
ea?oi/ae iiaoo eniieueciaaoue eo aeey iieoiee oiaa?ia a caieioouo naoyo,
eiio?iee?oaiuo yieoaioii ea?oi/ae (oieaa?iaae, aaicieieiiee e o.ae.). A
ioee/ee io yoiai iiiainoi?iiiea nenoaiu, eioi?ua aicaeaaeytho
iaoeeiiaeueiua annioeeaoeee aaieianeeo ea?oi/ae, a oae aea eiiiaiee,
auioneathuea ea?oi/ee oo?ecia e ?acaea/aiee (Aia?eeai Yeni?ann),
i?aaeinoaaeytho aeaaeaeueoeai ea?oi/ae aiciiaeiinoue iieoiaoue oiaa?u a
e?aaeeo o ?acee/iuo oi?aiaoeaa e i?aaiecaoeee na?aena, eioi?ua i?eciatho
yoe ea?oi/ee a ea/anoaa ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa. Ea?oi/ee yoeo nenoai oae
aea iicaieytho iieo/aoue eanniaua aaainu, iieueciaaoueny aaoiiaoaie aeey
niyoey iaee/iuo aeaiaa n aaieianeiai n/aoa e o.ae.

Ae?oaia aeaeaiea ea?oi/ae ii?aaeaeyaony eo ooieoeeiiaeueiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Caeanue ?acee/athony e?aaeeoiua e aeaaaoiaua ea?oi/ee.
Ia?aua naycaiu n ioe?uoeai e?aaeeoiie eeiee a aaiea, /oi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeaaeaeueoeo iieueciaaoueny e?aaeeoii i?e iieoieao oiaa?ia
eee iieo/aiee eanniauo nnoae. Aoi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iieo/aiey
iaee/iuo aeaiaa a aaieianeeo aaoiiaoao eee iieoiee oiaa?ia n ?an/aoii
/a?ac yeaeo?iiiua oa?ieiaeu. Aeaiueae i?e yoii nienuaathony ni n/aoa
aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee a aaiea.

iaeioi?ua ethaee auaeaeytho iniaoth eaoaai?eth – ieaoaaeiua ea?oi/ee
eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae. Ioee/ea ninoieo a oii, /oi
iauay noiia aeieaa i?e eniieueciaaiee ea?oi/ee aeieaeia iiaaoaoueny
iieiinoueth a oa/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie iinea iieo/aiey auienee aac
i?aaa i?iaeeaiey e?aaeeoa.

Eiathony ?acee/ey a eniieueciaaiee ea?oi/ae a nenoaiao iniiaaiiuo ia
aoiaaeiie oaoiieiaee (paper-based systems), eee a yeaeo?iiiuo nenoaiao
(electronic systems). A “aoiaaeiuo” nenoaiao aea?aeaoaeue noaaeo naith
iiaeienue ia oi?aiaii n/aoa eee ae?oaii aeieoiaioa, iiaeaioiaeaiiii
oi?aiaoeai, /oi yaeyaony iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai aai ?ac?aoaiey aeaaaoiaaoue
naie n/ao a aaiea. Caoai oi?aiaue n/ao iai?aaeyaony yieoaioo ea?oi/ee
eae iniiaaiea aeey auieaou niioaaonoaothuae noiiu oi?aiaoeo
(e?aaeeoiaaiea aai n/aoa) e nienaia aeaiaa ni n/aoa aeaaeaeueoea
ea?oi/ee. A yeaeo?iiiie nenoaia aea?aeaoaeue ea?oi/ee iai?yioth
naycuaaaony n yioaioii /a?ac oa?ieiae. Aianoi iiaeiene ia n/aoa ii
aaiaeeo n iiiiuueth eeaaeaoo?u nae?aoioth eiiaeiaoeeth oeeo?, /oi i?e
i?aaeeueiii iaai?a yaeyaony naieoeeae ia aeaaaoiaaiea aai aaieianeiai
n/aoa.

?anniio?ei e?aoei iniiaiua aeaeu ea?oi/ae.

Aaieianeea e?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee (bank credit cards) i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
iieoiee oiaa?ia n eniieueciaaieai aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa, a oae aea aeey
iieo/aiey aaainia a aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie oi?ia. Aeaaiay iniaaiiinoue
yoie ea?oi/ee – ioe?uoea aaieii e?aaeeoiie eeiee, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony
aaoiiaoe/anee eaaeaeue ?ac, eiaaea i?iecaiaeeony iieoiea oiaa?a eee
aa?aony e?aaeeo a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia. E?aaeeoiay Eeiey eniieuecoaony a
i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiiai aaieii eeieoa. A iaeioi?uo nenoaiao aaieianeay
e?aaeeoiay ea?oi/ea iiaeao i?eiaiyony aeey eueaioiie iieaou iaeioi?uo
aeaeia oneoa, a oae aea aeey iieo/aiey aeaiaa a aaieianeeo aaoiiaoao.

?acee/athony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua e ei?ii?aoeaiua ea?oi/ee.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua auaeathony ioaeaeueiui eeeaioai aaiea e iiaoo auoue
“noaiaea?oiuie” eee “cieiouie”. Iineaaeiea i?aaeiacia/athony aeey eeoe n
aunieie e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoueth i?aaeoniao?eaatho iiiaeanoai eueaio aeey
iieueciaaoaeae. Ei?ii?aoeaiay ea?oi/ea auaeaaony i?aaiecaoeee (oe?ia),
eioi?ay ia iniiaa yoie ea?oi/ee iiaeao auaeaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
ea?oi/ee eca?aiiui eeoeai (?oeiaiaeeoaeyi eee i?inoi oeaiiui
nio?oaeieeai). Ei ioe?uaathony ia?niiaeueiua n/aoa, “i?eaycaiiua” e
ei?ii?aoeaiiio ea?oi/iiio n/aoo. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae aaieii ii
ei?ii?aoeaiiio n/aoo ianao i?aaiecaoeey a ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
aeaaeaeueoeu ea?oi/ae.

Ea?oi/ee oo?ecia ?acaea/aiee e ioaeuoa (travel & entertaiment cards).
Yoi “ieaoaaeiua” ea?oi/ee, niaeanii i?iecaaaeaiiie auoa oa?ieiieiaee.
Iie auioneathony eiiiaieyie, niaoeeaeece?othueieny ia ianeoaeeaaiee
oeacaiiie noa?u (American Express, Dinners Club). Ea?oi/ee i?eieiathony
nioiyie ouny/ oi?aiauo e na?aeniuo i?aaei?eyoee ai anai ie?a aeey iieaou
oiaa?ia eee oneoa, a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeytho aeaaeaeueoeai ea?o ?acee/iua
eueaiou i?e ii a?iie?iaaieth aaeaaeeaoia, iiia?ia a ainoeieoeao,
iieo/aieth neeaeeao n oeaiu oiaa?a, no?aoiaaieth aeecie e o.ae.

Aeaaiua ioee/ey yoiai aeaea ea?oi/ae io aaieianeeo e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae
caeeth/aaony ai -ia?auo, a ionoonoaee ?aciaiai eeieoa ia iieoiee e,
ai-aoi?uo, iaycaiiinoe aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee iiaaneoue caaeieaeaiiinoue
a oa/aiee ianyoea aac i?aaa i?ieiiae?iaaoue e?aaeeo. A neo/aa i?in?i/ee
ieaoaaea n aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee acuiaaony iiauoaiiue i?ioeaio.

A oeacaiiuo nenoaiao oaeaea nouanoaoao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua e
ei?ii?aoeaiua ea?oi/ee.

*anoiua ieaoaaeiua ea?oi/ee i?aaei?eyoee oi?aiaee e oneoa (private
cards, retail charge cards, departament store cards, affinity cards).
I?eiaiaiea yoeo ea?oi/ae ia?aie/aii ii?aaeaeaiiie caieiooie naoueth
oi?aiauo o/?aaeaeaiee, iai?eia? oeaiueth oieaa?iaaia, nenoaiie
cai?aai/iuo noaioeee ii?aaeaeaiiie eiiiaiee. E?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyao naia
eiiiaiey, Iia aea iieo/aao i?ioeaio ii nnoaeai. Ia/eiay n 70-uo aiaeia
iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea aaieianeea /anoiua ea?oi/ee (bank private
cards), n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaeii niaa?oaoue iieoiee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iaaaceiao ni neeaeeie, ii auione ea?oi/ae, auaea/a e?aaeeoa ii iieoieai
e ?an/aou ii iieaoa oi?aiauo n/aoia inouanoaeyao aaie – o/anoiee
niaeaoaiey. Eiiaaea ea?oi/ee oaeiai ?iaea auioneaaony aeey /eaiia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo a?oii (ieeioia, aaeaieaoia) eee eeoe,
naycaiiuo iaueie eioa?anaie (iai?eia? oeeaoaeenoia). Eo iacuaatho
“eeoaiuie” ea?oi/eaie.

Ea?oi/ee aeey aaieianeeo aaoiiaoia (ATM cards). Yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue
aeaaaoiauo ea?oi/ae, eioi?ua aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aeaaeaeueoeo n/aoa a
aaiea iieo/aoue iaee/iua aeaiueae a i?aaeaeao inoaoea n?aaenoa ia n/aoa
/a?ac aaoiiaoe/aneea ono?ienoaa, onoaiiaeaiiua a aaieao, oi?aiauo caeao
e o.ae. I?e iaee/ee ea?oi/ee aeaiueae iiaeii iieo/aoue a ethaia a?aiy
nooie e ii i?acaeie/iui, auoiaeiui aeiyi. E?iia oiai, oi?aiauo caeao, ia
aiecaeao e o.ae.

Aaiee NOA onoaiaaeeaatho ii?aaeaeaiiue eeieo aaeaaeiaaiiai niyoey
aeaiaa ni n/aoa /a?ac aaoiiaou – aei 200 aeieea?ia. A iineaaeiea aiaeu
ai iiiaeo no?aiao aaoiiaou, i?eiaaeeaaeauea ?aciui aaieai,
iauaaeeiythony a naoe niaianoiiai iieueciaaiey, eioi?ua ioaaouaatho
ii?aaeaeaiiue ?aeii eee iinyo iauaiaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oaeea
aeaaioneea naoe aaoiiaoia eae “IEAN” (Plus) a NOA, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
inouanoaeyoue iia?aoeee a aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa.

Iaeioi?ua oeiu aaoiiaoia auiieiytho aieaa oe?ieee e?oa iia?aoeee iiieii
i?inoiai niyoey aeaiaa ni n/aoa; iie iicaieytho aiineoue aeaiueae ia
aeeaae, aeaeaoue aciin ia iiaaoaiea nnoaeu, iieo/eoue auieneo i
ninoiyiee aaieianeiai n/aoa, ia?aaiaeeoue aeaiueae n iaeiiai n/aoa ia
ae?oaie e o.ae.

Neaaeoao aua ?ac iiae/a?eiooue /oi ea?oi/ea aeey aaoiiaoia ia n naycaia
n e?aaeeoiie eeieae (eae a neo/aa n aaieianeie e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/eie), a
n oaeouei eee naa?aaaoaeueiui n/aoii aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee a aaiea.
Iiyoiio a aieueoeinoaa aaieia nenoaia ?an/aoia ii yoei ea?oi/eai
aaeieieno?aoeaii e ooieoeeiiaeueii ioaeaeaia io nenoaiu aaieianeeo
ea?oi/ae.

Ea?oi/ea aeey iieoiee /a?ac oa?ieiaeu a oi?aiauo oi/eao (point-of-sale
terminals – POS – cards). Ea?oi/ee yoiai aeaea oaeaea ioiinyony e
?ac?yaeo aeaaaoiauo. Iie “i?eaycaiu” e /aeiaiio eee naa?aaaoaeueiiio
n/aoo aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee e ia i?aaeoniao?eaatho aaoiiaoe/aneiai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoa. Ea?oi/ea POS auiieiyao ooieoeee aaieianeiai
/aea, iaeiaei aa i?eiaiaiea aieaa iaaeaaeii, oae eae eaeaioeoeeaoeey
aeaaeaeueoea i?iecaiaeeony a iiiaio niaa?oaiey naeaeee e aeaiueae
ia?a/eneythony ia aaieianeee n/ao oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey iaiaaeeaiii.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeaaaoiaua ea?oi/ee /anoiuo
naoae (property debit cards). Eo auioneatho aaiee, eioi?ua o/anoaotho a
?aaeiiaeueiuo nenoaiao oi?aiauo oa?ieiaeia, a ia iiaeeeth/aiiuo e
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiui eiiioieeaoeeyi. Aaiee i?eaeaeaao oi ianoiyoaeuenoai,
/oi a yoii neo/aa ia ioaeii ieaoeoue eiienneth ca ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee
ii iauei eiiioieeaoeeyi.

Auoa aiai?eeinue /oi i?e eniieueciaaiee POS-ea?o noiia iieoiee
iaiaaeeaiii nieiaaony ni n/aoa iieoiaoaey. Yoi iaauaiaeii iineaaeiaio
oae eae i?e ae?oaeo oi?iao ?an/aoia (/ae, e?aaeeoiay ea?oi/ea) ii
iieo/aao ion?i/eo ieaoaaea. Aeey oi?aiaoeaa aea naeaeee n POS-ea?oie
iaoiaeyony aei?iaea, /ai i?e eniieueciaaiee /aeia. Yoi iaoneiaeei
ioiineoaeueii iaaeeaiiua oaiiu ?inoa iia?aoeee n ea?oi/eaie oeacaiiiai
aeaea.

*aeiaay aa?aioeeiay ea?oi/ea (cheque guarantee card). Yoa ea?oi/ea
auaeaaony aeaaeaeueoeo oaeouaai n/aoa a aaiea aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee
/aeiaeaoaey e aa?aioee ieaoaaea ii /aeo. Ea?oi/ea aace?oaony ia
e?aaeeoiie eeiee, eioi?ay iicaieyao aeaaeaeueoeo n/aoa iieueciaaoueny
e?aaeeoii ii iaa?ae?aooo. I?e yoii aaie aa?aioe?oao oi?aiaoeo iieo/aiea
aeaiaa ii /aeo a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiiai eeieoa a oii neo/aa, anee ia
n/aoa /aeiaeaoaey ionoonoaoao iaiaoiaeeiay noiia.

Iniiaiua i?aaeea iieueciaaiey /aeiaie aa?aioeeiie ea?oi/eie naiaeyony e
neaaeothuaio:

– iiaeiene ia /aea e ea?oi/ea aeieaeiu auoue eaeaioe/iuie

– noiia /aea ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue eeieo oeacaiiue ia ea?oi/ea

– anee noiia auieaou ii /aeo i?aauneo noiio n?aaenoa ia n/aoa, n
aeaaeaeueoea acuiaaony eiienney ca eniieueciaaiea e?aaeeoiie eeiee e
i?ioeaio ii iaa?ae?aooo.

Aua iaeia eeanneoeeaoeey e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae naycaia n eo
oaoiieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu ea?oi/ee aeaoo
aeaeia – n iaaieoiie iieinie e ni ano?iaiiie iee?inoaiie (chip card –
/eiiaay ea?oa, smart card – nia?o ea?oa, “oiiay” ea?oa)

Ea?oi/ee n iaaieoiie iieinie eiatho ia iai?ioa iaaieoioth iieino, aaea
caienaiu aeaiiua iaiaoiaeeiua aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee ee/iinoe aeaaeaeueoea
ea?oi/ee i?e aa eniieueciaaiee a aaieianeeo aaoiiaoao e yeaeo?iiiuo
oa?ieiaeao oi?aiauo o/?aaeaeaiee. Eiaaea ea?oi/ea anoaaeaia a
niioaaonoaothuaa n/eouaathuoth ono?ienoai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeaiiua
aeaaeaeueoea ia?aaeathony ii eiiioieeaoeeiiiui naoyi aeey iieo/aiey
?ac?aoaiey ia inouanoaeaiea naeaeee.

Ia ea?oi/eao e?oiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ea?oi/iuo annioeeaoeee “Aeca” e
“Ianoa? Ea?ae” iaaieoiay iieina eiaao ianeieueei aei?iaeae aeey
oeenaoeee iaiaoiaeeiuo naaaeaiee a caeiaee?iaaiiie oi?ia. Ia iaeiie ec
aei?iaeae aeey oeenaoeee iaiaoiaeeiuo naaaeaiee a caeiaee?iaaiiie oi?ia.
Ia iaeiie ec aei?iaeae caienai ia?niiaeueiue eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?
– IEI (Personal Identification Number), eioi?ue aaiaeeony aeaaeaeueoeai
ea?oi/ee n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiie eeaaeaoo?u i?e eniieueciaaiee ei
aaieianeeo aaoiiaoia e oa?ieiaeia POS. Iaa?aiiua oeeo?u n?aaieaathony n
IEI-eiaeii, caienaiiui ia iieina. A neo/aa eo ianiaiaaeaiey aeaaeaeueoeo
aeaaony aiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue aua ianeieueei iiiuoie iaai?a IEI-eiaea.
Caoai ea?oi/ea ecuiaaony eee aica?auaaony aeaaeaeueoeo (aa?iea?oa).

Ea?oi/ea n iee?inoaiie (chip card, smart card) auea ecia?aoaia ai
O?aioeee a 1974 a. e iieo/eei aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a yoie no?aia e
ca ?oaaaeii. Ano?iaiiay a ea?oi/eo iee?inoaia (/ei) – yaeyaony
o?aieoaeai eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay caienuaaaony ca?aiaa, a caoai iiaeao
iaiiaeyoueny a iiiaio niaa?oaiey naeaeee. Yoi ?anoe?yao ooieoeeiiaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe ea?oi/ee e iiauoaao aa iaaeaaeiinoue.

Ia iniiaaiee caienaiiuo a /eia naaaeaiee naeaeea ii ea?oi/ea iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny a aaoiiiiiii ?aaeeia ioo-eaei (off-line), o.a. aac
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n oeaio?aeueiui i?ioeanni?ii aaieianeie
eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu a iiiaio niaa?oaiey iia?aoeee. Iineieueeo
ea?oi/ea naia o?aieo a iaiyoe noiio n?aaenoa, eiathueony ia aaieianeii
n/aoa, oi aaoi?ecaoeee caeanue ia o?aaoaony: anee eeieo i?aauoai naeaeea
i?inoi ia ninoieony. Anee aea noiia iia?aoeee iaiueoa noiiu eeieoa, oi a
iiiaio aa niaa?oaiey noiia naiaiaeiiai eeieoa aoaeao oiaiueoaia e
caienuaaaony iiaue inoaoie, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai i?e
neaaeothuae iieoiea. I?e aianaiee aeaiaa ia n/ao eeieo
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony, i /ai aeaeaaony iiaay caienue a iee?inoaia.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe nia?o ea?o ai?acaei oe?a /ai, o ea?oi/ae n
iaaieoiie iieinie (8 oun. aeo ii n?aaiaieth n 1 oun. aeo, n
aiciiaeiinoueth iineaaeothuaai ?anoe?aiey a 24 ?aca). E?iia oiai,
aeinoieinoaii aa yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue iia?aoeaiiai iaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo
a iaiyoe iee?ii?ioeanni?a. Iaeiiaoe, aaaeiui aeinoieinoaii ea?oi/ee
yaeyaony aa aieaa aunieay iaaeaaeiinoue. *ei eiaao ianeieueei noaiaiae
caueou e iiaeaeaeaoue eioi?iaoeeth, caienaiioth a iai, i/aiue o?oaeii
eee aiana iaaiciiaeii. Anee ea?oi/ea oe?aaeaia ia iaaeeaaeauee
aeaaeaeaoe caoi/ao ath ainiieueciaaoueny aeey iieo/aiey aeaiaa a
aaoiiaoa, oi i?e iai?aaeeueiii aaaaeaiee IEI-eiaea /ei ?ac?ooaaony e
ea?oi/ea ia iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia.

Nia?o ea?ou eiatho ioiineoaeueii aunieoth noieiinoue (a 5-7 ?ac auoa ii
n?aaiaieth n iaaieoiie ea?oi/eie). ,E?iia oiai, eo aaaaeaiea a iai?io a
no?aiao, eioi?ua n ia/aea nicaeaiey nenoaiu ea?oi/iuo ?an/aoia
i?eaioe?iaaeenue ia iaaieoiua ea?oi/ee, cao?oaeiaii. Oai onoaiiaeaiu
aeanyoee e nioie ouny/ aaeeieoe iai?oaeiaaiey, ia i?eniiniaeaiiiai aeey
n/eouaaiey eioi?iaoeee n iee?inoaiu, a caiaia yoiai iai?oaeiaaiey ia
ono?ienoaa, niaianoeiua ni nia?o-ea?oaie, iio?aaiaaea au e?oiiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. Iiyoiio yenia?ou ia iaeeaeatho auno?iai aiaae?aiey
nia?o-ea?o a oaeeo no?aiao eae NOA, Eaiaaea, Aaeueaey e o.ae., oioy
yenia?eiaiou ii ?ac?aaioea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai noaiaea?oa ia yoe ea?oi/ee
i?iaiaeyony e?oiiaeoeie ea?oi/iuie annioeeaoeeyie ie?a.

Aeaonoi?iiiea ea?oi/iua IEANOEEIAUA
*aeiaua aa?aioee-

niaeaoaiey
EA?OI*EE iua ea?oi/ee

*anoiua *anoiua Eeoaiua
Iiiainoi?iiiea ea?oi/iua niaeaoaiey

ea?oi/ee ea?oi/ee ea?oi/ee

oi?aiauo n o/anoeai

nenoai aaiea

E?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee
Aeaaaoiaua ea?oi/ee

Aaieianeea Ea?oi/ee oo?ecia Ea?oi/ee aeey
Ea?oi/ee aeey oa?ie-

E?aaeeoiua e ?acaea/aiee aaieianeeo
iaeia a oi?aiauo

ea?oi/ee
aaoiiaoia oi/eao

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua Ei?ii?aoeaiua
Ea?oi/ee Ea?oi/ee

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua nenoai
Nenoai

noaiaea?oiua

Ea?oi/ee
Ea?oi/ee

?aaeiiaeueiuo
?aaeiiaeueiuo

Cieioua Naoae
Naoae

Noaia 1

2. aaciaay noaia iia?aoeee n aaieianeie e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/eie

Aaieianeay e?aaeeoiay ea?oi/ea ia yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei
naeaeaoaeuenoaii aeieaa eee aeieaiaiai o?aaiaaiey, eaeiaui yaeythony,
iai?eia? aaenaeue eee /ae. Yoi nei?aa iaoa?eaeueiue neiaie th?eaee/aneeo
ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo iaaeaeo noi?iiaie, caeeth/eaoeie ea?oi/iia
niaeaoaiea.

Iniiaiua o/anoieee nenoaiu ea?oi/iuo ?an/aoia:

– aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee (cardholder)

– aaie-yieoaio (issuing bank)

– i?aaei?eyoea oi?aiaee eee noa?u oneoa (oi?aiaaoe) (merchant)

– aaie-yeaae? (aaie ianeoaeeaathuee oi?aiaia i?aaei?eyoea – acquring
bank, acquirer).

I?aaa e iaycaiiinoe noi?ii a nenoaia ea?oi/iuo ?an/aoia.

Aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee:

– iiaeao eniieueciaaoue ea?oi/eo aeey iieaou oiaa?ia eee oneoa,
i?aaeeaaaaiuo ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie ea?oi/iiai niaeaoaiey, a oae aea
iieo/aiey o aaiea e?aaeeoa a iaee/iiaeaiaaeiie oi?ia a i?aaeaeao
onoaiiaeaiiiai eeieoa

– iiaeao iiaaneoue naith caaeieaeaiiinoue aaieo ii iieoieai a oa/aiee
eueaioiiai ia?eiaea (grace period) aac oieaou i?ioeaioia

– iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny i?iaeeaiiui e?aaeeoii aaiea (ca i?aaeaeaie
eueaioiiai ia?eiaea n oieaoie onoaiiaeaiiuo i?ioeaioia)

iaycai iiaaneoue aeiea e i?ioeaiou a niioaaonoaee ni noaiie,
ii?aaeaeyaiie niaeaoaieai.

Aaie yieoaio ea?oi/ee (caeanue e yeaae?):

– auaeaao ea?oi/eo iinea ouaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey e
ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa

– ioe?uaaao aeaaeaeueoeo ea?oi/ee niaoeeaeueiue n/ao, ia eioi?ii
o/eouaathony ana iia?aoeee n ea?oi/eie

– aaeaiany/ii aunueaao eeeaioo auieneo n oeacaieai ?acia?ia
caaeieaeaiiinoe, noii e n?ieia iiaaoaiey aeieaa

– iaycoaony iiea/eaaoue n/aoa oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey ii iieoieai
naeaeaiiui n i?eiaiaieai ea?oi/ae ca au/aoii eiienneiiiuo nai?ia
(aeeneiioa)

– iiaeao ioeacaoueny io iieaou oi?aiauo n/aoia, anee ia?ooaiu
eaeea-eeai oneiaey niaeaoaiey (iai?eia? i?aauoai eeieo iieoiee aac
niioaaonoaothuaai ?ac?aoaiey ia yoi aaiea yieoaioa).

Oi?aiaia i?aaei?eyoea o/anoaothuaa a niaeaoaiee:

– iaycoaony i?eieiaoue ea?oi/ee a oieaoo ca oiaa?u e oneoae e
i?iaiaeeoue aaoi?ecaoeeth (iieo/aoue ?ac?aoaiea) a i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
niaeaoaieai neo/ayo

– iaycoaony ecueyoue ea?oi/eo anee anoue iiaeic?aiey, /oi
i?aaeuyaeoaeue ia yaeyaony caeiiiui aai aeaaeaeueoeai.

– iiaeao i?aaeuyaeyoue aaieo aeey iieaou oi?aiaua n/aoa aeey iieo/aiey
ii iei aeaiaa iaiaaeeaiii

– iaycai o?aieoue eiioeaeaioeeaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth i eeeaioa.

Oaeiaa iauay noaia th?eaee/aneeo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie
niaeaoaiey n i?eiaiaieai e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae.

N i?aaiaie oi/ee c?aiey nooue iia?aoeee n e?aaeeoiie (e ieaoaaeiie)
ea?oi/eie ninoieo a oii, /oi aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee e oi?aiaaoe iinea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ioe?uoey n/aoia a aaiea aeiaiaa?eaathony /oi ethaay
naeaeea iaaeaeo ieie aoaeao o?aaoee?iaaia iooai e?aaeeoiaaiey n/aoa
oi?aiaoea e aeaaaoiaaiey n/aoa aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee. I?e yoii, ca
eneeth/aieai iniai iaiaa?eaaaiuo neo/aaa, yoio ieaoaae aoaeao
ieii/aoaeueiui e aaconeiaiui.

Noaia ea?oi/iuo ?an/aoia a iniiaa naiae i?aaeiieiaaao iaee/ea o?ao
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia eiio?aeoia:

– iaaeaeo oi?aiaoeai e aeaaeaeueoeai ea?oi/ee – i i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia eee
oneoa

– iaaeaeo aaieii e oi?aiaoeai – i niaeanee iineaaeiaai i?eieiaoue
ea?oi/ee a iieaoo oiaa?ia eee oneoa

– iaaeaeo aaieii e aeaaeaeueoeai ea?oi/ee – i aiciauaiee aaieo noiiu,
oiea/aiiie oi?aiaoeo ii iia?aoeee n e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/eie.

A aieueoeinoaaa no?ai iia?aoeee n ea?oi/eaie ?aaoee?othony
niaoeeaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. A Aaeeeea?eoaiee, iai?eia?, aeaaiui
caeiiii, ?aaoee?othuei oneiaey ea?oi/iuo niaeaoaiee, yaeyaony Caeii i
iio?aaeoaeueneii e?aaeeoa 1974 a.

?annio?ei iauea i?aaeea ?aaiou n e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/eie.

1. Eeeaio aaiea i?aaenoaaeyao a aaie cayaeo ia iieo/aiea aaieianeie
e?aeeoiie ea?oi/ee. Oi?ia cayaee ii?aaeaeyaony aaieii. Naaaeaiey
i?eaaaeaiiuaeeeaioii, eniieuecothony aaieii aeey ioeaiee
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa e ii?aeaeaiey aaee/eiu onoaiaaeeaaaiiai
eeieoa.

2. I?e iieiaeeoaeueiii ?aoaiee aii?ina aaie ioe?uaaao eeeaioo
niaoeeaeueiue ea?oi/iue n/ao. Iaeiia?aiaiii ecaioaaeeaaaony
ia?niiaeueiay ieanoeeiaay ea?oi/ea, ia eioi?oth caiineony iaiaoiaeeiay
eioi?iaoeey: oaieeey e eiy aeaaeaeueoea, iiia? ea?oi/iiai n/aoa, n?ie
aeaenoaey ea?oi/ee.

3. Aaie- yieoaio onoaiaaeeaaao aeaa aeaea ia?aie/aiee:

– iauee e?aaeeoiue eeieo noiiu iaiiaaoaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii
ea?oi/iiio n/aoo, eioi?ue aeieaeai niaethaeaoueny a oa/aiee anaai
ia?eiaea aeaenoaey ea?oi/ee

– ?aciaue eeieo ia noiio iaeiie iieoiee.

?acee/iui eeeaioai onoaiaaeeaathony ?aciua e?aaeeoiua eeieou a
niioaaonoaee n i?eiyouie aaieii noaiaea?oaie e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe.

4. A iiiaio iieoiee oiaa?a eee oneoae aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee
i?aaeueyaeyao ea?oi/eo. I?iaeaaaoe ia/aoaao oi?aiaue n/ao, ia eioi?ii n
iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa ioia/aouaathony naaaeaiey n
ea?oi/ee. Yoio i?ioeann iacuauaaony eii?eoeiaii.

Oi?iaue n/ao ecaioaaeeaaaony a o?ao yecaiiey?ao. Ia?aue yecaiiey?
iieo/aao aeaaeeaoe ea?oi/ee, aoi?ie inoaaony o i?iaeaaoea, o?aoee
ionueaaony aaieo yeaae?o.

5. Anee noiia naeaeee i?aauoaao onoaiiaeaiiue ?aciaue eeieo, oi?iaiaaoe
aei ioi?ieaiey oi?aiaiai n/aoa iaycai i?iaanoe oae iacuaaaioth
aaoi?ecaoeeth, oi anoue iieo/eoue ?ac?aoaiea aaiea yieoaioa ia
i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee.

I?e iaee/ee niaoeeaeueiuo eanniauo oa?ieiaeia aaoi?ecaoeey i?iaiaeeony
ii eaaeaeie naeaeea a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie (on-line). A yoeo
neo/ayo eeieo ia iaeio iia?aoeeth iao/eouaaaony.

6. Aaie oi?aiaoea (yeaae?) iieo/aao io naiaai eeeaioa aaeaaeiaaii eee a
ae?oaea onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee iaaeeaaeaua ioi?ieaiiua oi?aiaua n/aoa. Yoe
n/aoa ?anniao?eaathony aaieii eae yeaeaaeaio aeaiaaeiuo noii, eioi?ua
iiaeeaaeao iaiaaeeaiiiio ca/eneaieth ia n/ao oi?aiaoea. Oi?aiaaoe iiaeao
n?aco aea eniieueciaaoue yoe aeaiueae iacaaeneii io oiai, aicianoeo ee
iieoiaoaeue a iineaaenoaeenoiio naiae iieoiee aaieo yieoaioo.
Eneeth/aiea aeaeaaony eeu a oao neo/ayo, anee iieoiea naeaeaia n
ia?ooaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaaee i?e niciaoaeueiii o/anoee oi?aiaoea.

I?e iieaoa n/aoia n oi?aiaoea oaea?aeeaaaony iniaay eiienney (aeeneiio)
a ?acia?a io 2 – 5% io noiiu naeaeee.

7. A eiioea eaaeaeiai ianyoea aaie inouanoaeyao i?ioeaaeo?o aeeeeiaa,
oi anoue iinueaao aeaaeaeueoeo ea?oi/ee niaoeeaeueioth auieneo n aai
ea?oi/iiai n/aoa n oeacaieai anao iia?aoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiuo ca ia?eiae,
a oae aea noii e n?ieia iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe.

O aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee anoue aeaa aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioa ?an/aoia n
aaieii:

– iiaaneoue aeiea aac auieaou i?ioeaioia a oa/aiee eueeaioiiai n?iea –
25-30 aeiae n aeaou ieaoaaea, oeacaiiie a auienea

– i?iaeeeoue e?aaeeo ca i?aaeaeu eueaioiiai n?iea n ia/eneaieai 1,5-2%
a ianyoe ia noiio iaiiaaoaiiiai n?aaeiaaeiaaiiai inoaoea aeieaa.

Iniiaiua yoaiu oi?aiaie iia?aoeee oi?aiaie iia?aoeee n i?eiaiaieai
aaieianeie e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ee i?eaaaeaia ia neaaeothuae noaia –

I?e iieoiea oiaa?a ii aaieianeie e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ea ia noiio iaiaa
?aciaiai eeieoa oi?aiaaoe auienuaaao oi?aiaue n/ao, eiiey eioi?iai
aianoa n oiaa?ii e ea?oi/eie ia?aaeaaony iieoiaoaeth (1,2). A a neo/aa
aea i?aauoaiey eeieoa oi?aiaaoe naycuaaaony n aaieii-yeaae?ii aeey
i?iaaaeaiey aaoi?ecaoeee (iieo/aiey ?ac?aoaiey ia naeaeeo). Anee
aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee – eeeaio aaiea-yeaae?a oi anoue iineaaeiee yayeaony
oaeaea yieoaioii ea?oi/ee, oi aaoi?ecaoeeth i?iaiaeeo nai yeaae? (3.3a).
Naeaeea a yoii neo/aa ioi?ieyaony niaeanii i?ioeaaeo?a (2). Anee aea
aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee – eeeaio ae?oaiai aaiea, oi aeey iieo/aiey
aaoi?ecaoeee yeaae? naycuaaaony n aaieii-yieoaioii /a?ac nenoaio
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia (4,4a). Iinea iieo/aiey ?ac?aoaiey yoa
eioi?iaoeey iinooiaao e oi?aiaoeo, e naeaeea caaa?oaaony ia?aaea/ae
oiaa?a (3a e 2). Ii ieiii/aiee ?aai/aai aeiy (iaaeaee, ianyoea)
oi?aiaaoe i?aaeueyaeyao aaieo – yeaae?o oi?aiaua n/aoa ii ea?oi/iui
iieoieai. Aaie ca/eneyao noiiu (ca au/aoii aeeneiioa) ia oaeouee n/ao
aeaaeaeueoea (5). Anee aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee – eeeaio aaiea -yeaae?a (ni 3
, 3a), oi iineaaeiee i?iaiaeeo ?an/ao iaiin?aaenoaaiii n aeaaeaeueoeai
(6). Aaie iinueaao auieneo n oeacaieai noi iiaeeaaeaueo iiaaoaieth, e
n?ieia oieaou aeieaa. A neo/aa aea, anee aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee – eeeaio
ae?oaiai aaiea, noaia ?an/aoa oneiaeiyaony. Aaie-yeaae? iieo/aao
aeaiueae io aaiea yieoaioa /a?ac nenoaio eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia
(eioa?/aeiaeae) (7) . I?e yoii aaie-yeaae? oiea/eaaao yieoaioo eiienneth
ca eioa?/aeiaeae. Aeey caaa?oaiey ?an/aoa a niioaaonoaee n (7) aaie
yieoaio iieo/aao ieaoaae io aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee (8).

Oaeiaa iauay noaia ?an/aoa i?e iieoiea oiaa?a n i?eiaiaieai aaieianeie
e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ee. Ca aa ?aieaie inoaaony ?yae aaaeiuo iia?aoeeiiiuo e
oaoie/aneeo aeaoaeae, eioi?ua aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu iicaea.

3. Auaiaeu nenoaiu ea?oi/iuo ?an/aoia aeey aa o/anoieeia.

Auno?ia ?aniino?aiaiea aaieianeeo e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae, eo i?aa?auaiea a
ianniaue eino?oiaio ?an/aoia, iaoeeiiiue ?ino eo iiioey?iinoe n?aaee
oe?ieeo a?oii ianaeiey neoaeeo iaaeyaeiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi yoa
oii?ia ?an/aoia auaiaeia iniiaiui eaoaai?eyi o/anoieeia nenoaiu. Eaeiau
yoe auaiaeu?

Aeaaeaeueoeu ea?oi/ae. Iniiaiua i?eaeaeaoaeueiua /a?ou aeey
aeaaeaeueoeoeaa ea?oi/ae caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai:

– oaeianoai iieueciaaiey

– aaoiiaoe/aneia i?aaeinoaaeaiea aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa

– aiciiaeiinoue ion?/eoue iiaoaiea aeieaa

– ?aaoey?iia iieo/aea iieiie eioi?iaoeee i i?iecaaaeaiiuo iia?aoeeyo.

Oi?aiaoeu. Aeey yoie eaoaai?ee o/anoieeia ea?oi/iua ?an/ou eiatho
neaaeothuea i?aeiouanoaa:

– ?anoe?aiea i?iaeaae e i?eaea/aiea iiauo iieoiaoaeae

– aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoa aac eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa e aaaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo nenoai o/aoa

– nieaeaiea ?enea aeaaiaea?y caiauaieth aaieianeeo /aeia ea?oi/eaie.

Aaiee. Aaiee aunooieee eieoeeaoi?aie aiaae?aiey e?aaeeoiuo e ae?oaeo
aeaeia ea?oi/ae, ?ann/eouaay iieo/eoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

-oaaee/aiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo nnoae

– ?anoe?aiea noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe aaiea ia ioaeaeaiiua ?aeiiu

-”ia?ae?anoiay” i?iaeaaea aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa
aeaaeaeueoeai ea?oi/ae

– iieo/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai aeioiaea a oi?ia eiienneiiiiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e i?ioeaioiuo iinooieaiee.

II. AAIEE O*ANOIEEE NENOAIU EA?OI*IUO ?AN*AOIA.

A nenoaiao aaieianeeo ea?oi/ae i?iaiaeeony /aoeia ooieoeeiiaeueiia
?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo aaieaie yieoaioaie ea?oi/ae e aaieaie-yeaae?aie.
Ia?aua ianeoaeeaatho aeaaeaeueoeaa ea?oi/ae, ioe?uaatho ei niaoeeaeueiua
n/aoa e auiieiytho ooieoeee i?ioeanneiaa, aoi?ua i?aaeinoaaeytho
eiiieaen oneoa oi?aiaui i?aaei?eyoeyi e na?aeniui oe?iai, i?eieiathuei
ea?oi/ee a iieaoo oiaa?ia e oneoa. A ia/aeueiue ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey
ea?oi/iuo nenoai aieueoeinoai aaieia auiieiyei iaeiia?aiaiii ooeoeee
yieoaioa e yeaae?a. Iaeiaei a ?acoeueoaoa eiieo?aioeee noaaea aeeneiioa,
oiea/eaaaiay oi?aiaoeaie, nieceeanue ianoieueei, /oi iia?aoeee
yeaae?eiaa iaee i?eiineoue aeioiae oieueei e?oiiui aaieai e
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieyi, iieo/athuei yeiiiieth ia iannooaaao
iia?oeee. Niioaaonoaaiii i?iecioea eiioeaio?aoeey yeaae?eiaa o iaiiiaeo
o/?aaeaeaiee.

Inoaiiaeiny aieaa iiae?iaii ia niaoeeoeea ooieoeee yieoaioa e yeaae?a.

1. Aaie-yieoaio.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee aaiea-yieoaioa naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

– auione ea?oi/ae (eiaee?iaaiea e caienue ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo
aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee, yiainneia, aunnueea ea?oi/ee eeeaioo,
aiciaiiaeaiea ea?oi/ee).

– aiaeec e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe (ioeaiea oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey cayaeoaey,
ioe?uoea ea?oi/iiai n/aoa, ii?aaeaeaiea e?aaeeoiiai eeieoa)

– aaoi?ecaoeey (ioaao ia cai?in oi?aiaoea i aiciiaeiinoe niaa?oaiey
naeaeee a aaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia eee ii oaeaoiio, iaiiaeaiea
ianoa?-oaeea, acaeiiaeaenoaea n nenoaiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia)

– iaiai eioi?iaoeeae e iieo/aiea eiiennee ca eioa?/aeiaeae

– aeeeeia (iiaeaioiaea e aunueea aeaaeaeueoeo ea?oi/ee auienee n
oeacaieai noii e n?ieia iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe)

– aooaaeoa?neee o/ao iia?aoeee ii ea?oi/iiio n/aoo

– acuneaiea i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe e eiio?ieue i?aauoaiey
e?aaeeoiiai eeieoa

– ?aaioa n eeeaioaie (ioaaou ia cai?inu, ?anniio?aiea aeaeia)

– iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe e eiio?ieue ca iioaiie/anoaii (iiaeaioiaea
io/aoia ii oe?aaeaiiui e iiaeaeaeaiiui ea?oi/eai, aeiee?iaaiea n/aoia)

– ia?eaoeia (iiene iiauo eeeaioia, ?aeeaia, i?ia?aiiu aeoeaecaoeee
iia?aoeee ii ea?oi/iui n/aoai)

Yienney ea?oi/ae. Yoi ioithaeue ia oaoie/aneay ooieoeey.
Iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea ii cayaea eeeaioa ia iieo/aiea ea?oi/ee
auiineony iinea ouaoaeueiiai eco/aiey aai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey e
ioeaiee ?enea iaieaoaaea. Anee ?acoeueoaou aiaeecaiaaeaaii?eyoiu aeey
eeeaioa, aio iiaoo i?aaeeiaeeoue aeaaaoiaoth ea?oi/eo aeey niyoey
iaee/iuo aeaiaa ni n/aoa i?e 100%-e aaoi?ecaoeee a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai
a?aiaie.

Anee aea e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue eeeaioa ioeaiaia iieiaeeoaeueii, any
nouanoaothuay eioi?iaoeey n cayaee aaiaeeony a eiiiueoa?,aaea nicaeaaony
oaee-ianoa? aeey ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo. A iaai caiineony oaieeey e eiy
eeeaioa, aai iinoiyiiue aae?an, iiia? a nenoaia nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey, e?aaeeoiue eeieo, iia? ea?oi/iiai n/aoa e n?ie
aiciaiiaeaiey ea?oi/ee. Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeaioaaeeaaaony iaaieoiay eaioa,
iaiaoiaeeiay aeey ecaioiaeaiey ea?oi/ee eeeaioa.

Iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue ia ia?u aaciianiinoe, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
niaethaeaoueny a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?anueea eeeaioai ea?oi/ae.
O/anoie i?iecaiaenoaa ea?oi/ae a aaiea (eee a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie oe?ia)
ioaeaeai io ae?oaeo ioaeaeia e iaoiaeeony iiae no?iaei eiio?eai. Aeinooi
?ac?aoaaony oceiio e?oao eeoe, /oiau nie?aoeoue ?ene iioeuaiey aeaieia
eee aioiauo ea?oi/ae, iiaeeaaeaueo ioi?aaea aeaaeaeueoeai.

Iinea aunueee ea?oi/ee ii ii/oa aeaaeaeueoeo niiauaaony IEI-eiae,
eniieuecoaiue aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee aeaaeaeueoea i?e iia?aoeeyo /a?ac
yeaeo?iiiua oa?ieiaeu e aaieianeea aaoiiaou. Eiaaa?o n IEIii aunueaaony
iau/ii /a?ac ianeieueeiaeiae iinea aunueee a?oi/ee. E?iia oiai ia
ea?oi/ea /anoi oeacuaaaonyaeaoa, n eioi?ie iia noaiiaeony
aeaenoaeoaeueiie. Ana yoiaeaeaaony aeey oiai, /oiau nieceoue iianiinoue
iacaeiiiiai eniieueciaaiey ea?oi/ee, anee iia aoaeao iioeuaia i?e
ia?anueea.

Iu oaea aiai?eee ia aaoi?ecaoeee oi?aiaie naeaeee aaieii-yieoaioii. Iia
i?iecaiaeeony aeaoiy niiniaaie:

– /a?ac yeaeo?iiiue oa?ieiae a oi?aiaii i?aaei?eyoee

– ii oaeaoiio (aieiniaay aaoi?ecaoeey)

Oa?ieiaeu onoaiaaeeaathony a e?oiiuo oi?aiauooeaio?ao n
aieueoeiaaeaaeiaaiui iai?ioii. Iau/ii oa?ieiaeu i?iecaiaeyo 100%-th
aaoi?ecaoeeth anao naeaeie a aaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia. I?e iaee/ee
yeaeo?iiiiai oa?ieiaea oeaio?aeueiue eiiiuethoa? oi?aiaiai oeaio?a
iai?yioth niaaeeiai n oeaio?aeueiui eiiiuethoa?ii nenoai
eioi?iaoeoiiiiai iaiaia, iai?eia? “Aecaiao” eee “Aaieiao”

Aieiniaay aaoi?ecaoeey i?eiaiyaony oai, aaea iaueai naeaeie
ioiineoaeueii iaaaeee. Eae e aaoi?ecaoeey /a?ac oa?ieiae, iia
inouanoaeyaony, eiaaea noiia iieoiee i?aauoaao onoaiiaeaiiue eeieo aeey
iaeiie iia?aoeee eee a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea nouanoaotho niiiaiey ii
iiaiaeo ee/iinoe i?aaeueyaeoaey ea?oi/ee.

Aaoi?ecaoeey aeieaeia i?iaiaeeony auno?i, /oiau ia canoaaeyoue
iieoiaoaey aeaeaoue. Aianoa n oai, yoi aanueia o?oaeiaieay i?ioeaaeo?a,
o?aaothuay a?aiaie e aieiaiey.

?aaioiee ioaa/athuee ia cai?in, oeene?oao ia eeaaeaoo?a naiaai
oa?ieiaea neaaeothuea aeaiiua:

– eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia? oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey (ieieioi 16 ciaeia)

– iiia? n/aoa aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee (16 ciaeia)

– aeaoo enoa/aiey n?iea ea?oi/ee (4-6 ciaeia)

– noiio iia?aoeee (5-10 ciaeia)

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeaea /aiaeaoue ioaao ia cai?in, iaiaoiaeeii
iaa?aoue ia ye?aia aeenieay io 40 aei 50 ciaeia.

*oiau eiio?iee?iaaoue auno?ioo e i?aaeeueiinoue ?aaiou nio?oaeieeia
aaoi?ecaoeeiiiiai oeaio?a, aaiee onoaiaaeeaatho ii?aaeaeaiiua e?eoa?ee:
n?aaeithth nei?inoue ioaaoa ?aaioieea aaiea ia aaoi?ecaoeeiiiue cai?in
(a naeoiaeao n iiiaioa oaeaoiiiiai caiiea aei ia/aea ioaaoa),
i?aaeeueiinoue ioaaoa (ii caiene ia eaioa), auno?ioo ?aaeoeee, anee
ea?oi/ea /eneeony a “ai?y/ai”nienea (hot list),eiaaea o?aaoaony aucaaoue
neoaeao aaciianiinoe e o.ae.

Aeeeeia. Aaie yieoaio ia?eiaee/anee, iau/ii ?ac a ianyoe , iinueaao
eeeaioo iniaue aeieoiaio – auieneo n aai e?aaeeoiiai n/aoa, aa
oeacuaathony eiienneiiiua nai?u, eioi?ua eeeaio aeieaeai oieaoeoue aaieo
nayce n i?iaaaeaieai iia?aoeee, iauecaoaeueioth ieieiaeueioth noiio
iiaaoaiey aeieaa e iiaue inoaoie caaeieaeaiiinoe. Yoa i?ioeaae?a
iacuaaaonny aeeeeiaii (billing), aeaoa auienee – aeaoie auienee (billing
date), ia?eiae iaaeaeo aeaoiy aeaoaie – (billing cycle), a nai aeieoiaio
auieneie ii aeeeeiao (billing statment). Niaeanii “Caeiio i
ni?aaaaeeeaii e?aaeeoiii aeeeeiaa”, i?eiyoiio a NOA a 1977 a., auienea
ii aeeeeiao aeieaeia auoue auneaia aaieii eeeaioo ia iicaeiaa /ai ca 14
aeiae aei ianooieaiey aeaou ieaoaaea.

Auienea ii aeeeeiao niaea?aeeo aaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth aeey aaiea e aai
eeeaioa. I?aaeaea anaai oeacuaaaony iiia? ea?oi/iiai n/aoa a aaiea.
Eeeaioiiaeao eiaoue ianeieueei ea?oi/ae, e iiyoiio iiia? n/aoa
iaiaoiaeei aio aeey i?iaa?ee ?an/aoia aaiea. Aeaeaa a auienea
niaea?aeeony iaiiieiaiea i e?aaeeoiii eeieoa, onoaiiaeaiiii ii
ea?oi/iiio n/aoo e i?eaiaeeony iaeniieueciaaiiay noiia e?aaeeoiie eeiee.
Iineaaeiee iieacaoaeue naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi onoaiiaeaiiuue aaieii
e?aaeeoiue eeieo ia i?aauoai eeeaioii. A noiio iaeniieueciaaiiiai eeieoa
ia aeeth/aiu oa naeaeee, eioi?ua ia iinooiaee a aaie e iiiaioo
iiaeaioiaee auienee. Aeeeeiaiaue oeeee iau/ii ninoaaeyao 30 aeiae. E?iia
oiai, aaie niiauaao eeeaioo aeaoo ieii/aiey aeaiiiai aeeeeiaiaiai
oeeeea. Ana naeaeee niiauaiey i eioi?uo iinooieee a aaie iicaeiaa yoie
aeaou, aoaeoo aeeth/aiu a ?an/aoneaaeothuaai oeeeea. Oeacuaaaony oae aea
eiia/iue n?ie iinooieaiey ieaoaaea io eeeaioa ii aeaiiiio oeeeeo. Ana
noiiu anooieaoea iicaeiiaa yoie aeaou, n/eoathony i?in?i/aiiuie, e ii
iei aaie aoaeao aceiaoue nai? ca i?in?i/eo. Aeaeaa aaie iaiiieiaao
eeeaioo ieieiaeueioth noiio iaueycaoaeueiiai ieaoaaea. caoai
i?eaiaeyonynaaaeaiey i naiie iia?aoeee, eioi?oth inouanoaee eeeaio n
i?eiaiaieai e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ee. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai, aeaoa, eioi?ay
aeieaeia niaiaaeaoue n aeaoie ia eiiee oi?aiaiai n/aoa, eiathuaeny o
aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee. Aeaeaa oeacaia aeaoa niioaaonoaothuae
aooaaeoa?neie i?iaiaeee ii ea?oi/iiio n/aoo eeeaioa a aaiea. Yoa aeaoa
iniaaiii aaaeia, oae eae ia/eiay n iaa aaie ?ann/eouaaae n?aaeiaaeiaaiue
inoaoie caaeieaeaiiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eiienneiiiai
nai?a. Eaaeaeie iia?aoeee n ea?oi/eie i?enaaeaaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue
iiia?, ii eioi?iio a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey nii?a iiaeii ?acuneaoue ana
iaiaoiaeeiua aeieoiaiou. A niaoeeaeueiie a?aoa ia?a/eneaiu ana oi?aiaua
iia?aoeee, aeeth/aiiua a auieneo, n oeacaieai iacaaiey e aae?ana
oi?aiaiai eee na?aeniiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Aaaeiui yoaiii iiaeaioiaee aaieii aeeeeiaiaie auienee yaeyaony ?a/nao
noiiu oeiainiaiai nai?a ca iia?aoeee n e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/eie. Yoio nai?
neeaaeuaaaony ec aeaoo yeaiaioia: ia?eiaee/aneee oeianiaue nai?,
o?ainaeoeeiiiue oeiainiaue nai?. Ia?eiaee/aneee oeiainiaue nai?
?an/eouaaaony eae i?iecaaaeaiea onoaiiaeaiiie aaieii iany/iie
ia?eiaee/aneie noaaee ii nnoaea ia n?aaeiaaeiaaiue inoaoie
caaeieaeaiiinoe. ?an/ao i?iecaiaeeony a o?e yoaia: n ia/aea
ii?aaeaeyaony noiia inoaoeia iaiiaaoaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia eaaeaeue
aeaiue aeeeeiaiaiai ia?eiaea, caoaii yoe inoaoee noiie?othony e iauay
noiia aeaeeony ia /enei aeiae oeeeea. Ii?o/aiiue n?aaeiaaeiaaiue inoaoie
oiiiaeaaony ia iany/ioth ia?eiaee/aneoth noaaeo.

Ae?oaeie o?ainaeoeeiiiue oeiainiaue nai? – ieaoa ca eanniaue aaain
acyoue a aaiea n/ao ea?oi/iie e?aaeeoiie eeiee. Yoio aaain iiaeao auoue
iieo/ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aaiea, ii ii/oa eee /a?ac aaieiiao. A
aeiaiai?a ia ioe?uoee ea?oi/iiai n/aoa aaie iau/ii oeacuaaao i?ioeaio,
aceiaaiue ca eaaeaeue eanniaue aaain a oae aea ieieiaeueioth noiio
nai?a. Ia eanniaue aaain ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony eueaioiue ia?eiae, e ii
aeieaeai auoue iiaaoai iieiinoueth n iiiaioa iieo/aiey a oa/aiee
ianyoea.

I?eaaaeai i?eia? ?an/aoa oeiainiaiai nai?a. I?eiai neaaeothuea
enoiaeiua aeaiiua:

N?aaeiaaeiaaiue inoaoie iaiiaaoaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii n/aoo eeeaioa
520$

Ia?eiaee/aneay iany/iay noaaea
1,6%

Eanniaue aaain 60$

Noaaea ii eanniaiio aaaino 1,5%

Ieieiaeueiue nai? ca eanniaue aaain n 5$

Oeianiaue nai? a yoii i?eia?a ?aaai 520*(1,6/100)+5=12,8$

Iiaeaioiaea aeienee ii aeeeeiao o?aaoao io ?aaioieeia niioaaonoaothuaai
iiae?acaeaeaiey aaiea aieueoiai aieiaiey e aeeo?aoiinoe. Auienea
aeieaeia auoue ioi?aaeaia eeeaioo ca?aiaa. Aaiee noa?athony ioineaoue
aai n?aco aea iinea ieii/aey aeeeeiaiaiai ia?eiaea, /oiau eeeaio iia
i?iaa?eoue ?an/ao e i?iecaanoe iieaoo n/aoa.

Anee auienea ioi?aaeaiia ianaiaa?aiaiii eee ii ioeai/iiio aae?ano, yoi
iiaeao noaoue i?e/eiie i?in?i/ee ieaoaaea, a eioi?ie eeeaio ia aeiiaao.
Yoi, anoanoaaiii, i?eaaaeao e eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee e e aeiiieieoaeueiui
?anoiaeai aaiea.

Aaaeii oae aea i?aaeeueii onoaiiaeoue aeeeeiaiaua ia?eiaeu aeey
?acee/iuo a?oii eeeaioia, /oiau auienee ii aeeeeiao aunueaenenue a
oa/aiee ianyoea e iaania/eaaeanue ?aaiii?iay iaa?ocea niioaaonaothueo
aaieianeeo neoaea (aooaaeoa?ey, ioaeae ?annueee e oae aeaeaa).

Ieaoaae ii aeeeeiao.

Ieaoaaeiue oeeee ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia:

– iieo/aiea aaieii ia?aaiaea i eeeaioa

– ia?aiin aeaiiuo

– i?iaicea aeaiiuo

– aooaaeoa?neea i?iaiaeee

– eiioieue ca i?aaeeiinoueth ioi?ieaiey iia?aoeee

Iieo/aiiue aaieii ia?aaiae a n/ao ieaoaaea ii aeeeeiao aeieaeai auoue
ca/eneai ia ea?oi/iue n/ao a aeaiue aai iieo/aiey iacaaeneii io oiai,
eiaaea ii aoaeao ia?aaioai e i?iaaaeai ii aooaaeoa?neei eieaai.

Ia ieaoaaeiii i?aea?a, neoaeauai iniiaaieai aeey i?iaiaeee aeieaeiu
auoue oeacaiu:

– ieieiaeueiay noiia ieaoaaea

– i?in?i/aiiay noiia

– n?ie ieaoaaea

– iiaue inoaoie

– iiia? n/aoa eeeaioa

noiia i?eoiaeiiai i?aea?a iacaaiea e aae?a aaiea e oaieeey e aae?an
eeeaioa

– iiia? n/aoa aeey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee

I?e ?o/iie ia?aaioea iia?aoi? iaae?aao ia eeaaeaoo?a iiaue n/ao eeeaioa
e noiiu ia?aaiaea. A aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoaiao a ?o/ioth aaiaeeony
oieueei noiia, a iiia? n/aoa n/eouaaaony iaoeiie. E?iia oiai, anee noiiu
ia?aaiaea iaiueoaa ieieiaeueiiaiiaueycaoaeueiiai ieaoaaea, oeacaiiiiai a
ieaoaaeiii i?aea?a eiiiuethoa? iiaeaao neaiae iia?aoi?o.

Iinea i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe aaiaea aeaiiuo a eiiiuethoa? noiiu
i?iaiaeyony ii n/aoai. I?e yoii anee ieaoaae iinooiee ca aeaiue eee
aieaa aei oaeoe/aneie i?iaiaeee, oi i?iaiaeea aeaoe?oaony n?ieii
iieo/aiey. Anee ieaoaae iinooiee a ioaeaeaiea aaiea e o?aaoaony a aeaiue
aeey ia?aaea/e a a ioaeae ia?aaioee, i?iaiaeee oae aea aeaoe?othony
aeiai ?aiueoa. Yoi aaaeiia o?aaiaaiea oae eae iiiaea eeeaiou aiinyo
aeaiueae a aeaiue ianooieaiey n?iea ieaoaaea e caaea?aeea n ioi?ieaieai
iiaeao aucaaoue naieoeee ca i?in?i/eo.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou ia?niiaea i?eiaaony ?yae
iieacaoaeae, iai?eia? i?ioeaio ioeaie i?e ia?a?i i?iaiia ieaoaaeiuo
aeieoiaioia e oae aeaeaa.

Ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioo?u. E yoie ooieoeee ioiinyony ana aeaeu eiioaeoia
aaiea n eeeaioii ca eneeth/aieai aiaeeca e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe e acueaniey
i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe. A ia?aoth i/a?aaea ?a/ue eaeao ia ioaaoao
ia cai?inu e ?anniio?aiea aeaeia.

I?e/eiu ii eioi?ui eeeaio ia?auaaony a aaie, eae i?aaeei, naycaiu ni
neaaeothuei:

– iia?aoeee, inia?eaaaiua eeeaioii

– iaiieo/aiea a n?ie aeeeeiaiauo auienie

– ia iieo/aiea aaieii ia?aaiaea a iieaoo aeeeeiaiaie auienee

– cai?in ia inoaoea iaiiaaoaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Cai?in ia?a?ai ?iaea aicieeaao oiaiaea, eiaaea eeeaio, iieo/ea
aeeeeiaiaoth auieneo, iaia?oaeeaaao a iae iia?aoeeth. eioi?oth ii ia
niaa?oae. Iai?eia?, a auienea cia/eony iieoiea oaeaaeci?a o iaeie
eiiiaiee “AEUeOA” ia noiio 1500$, n eioi?ie aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee
ioiioaiee ia eiae. Yoa ioeai/iay caienue iiaeao aicieeiooue ii ?aciui
i?e/eiai a oii /enea e a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi eoi-oi ainiieueciaaeny
n/aoii eeeaioa a iioaiie/aneeo oeaeyo. *anoi auaaao oae aea, /oi a
oi?aiaii n/aoa iacaaia eiiiaiey – oieaeeia, eioi?ay eiio?iee?oaooe?io, o
eioi?ie eeeaio aeaenoaeoeueii /oi-oi eoiee.

Aaie aeieaea auynieoue i?e/eio ioeaee, ia?aoeaoenue e i?eaeiaeo
oi?aiaiai n/aoa iiaeienaiiiai eeeaioii. I?e yoii aei auyniaiey enoeiu
nii?iay noiia aeieaeia auoue ca/eneaia ia iniaue n/ao e ii iae ia
aeieaeiu ia/eneyony i?ioeaiou.

Iieo/aiea a n?ie aeeeeiaiaiai n/aoa oiaea iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii
cai?ina. Iau/ii aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee ciaao aeaoo i?enueee auienee ii
aeeeeiao e iiaeao auoue iaaniieiai aai ionoonoaeai. I?e iieo/aiee
niioaaonoothuaai cai?ina ?aaioiee aaiea aeieaeai i?iaa?eoue oaeo
ioi?aaee auienee i?aaeeueiinoueoeacaiiiai aae?ana e oae aeaeaa. Iau/ii
ae auyniaiey aii?ina aaie ia aa?ao n eeeaioa eiiennee a neo/aa i?in?i/ee
ieaoaaea.

Ae?oaay i?e/eia aiiiaeiiai eiioeeeoa – ionoonoaea e?aaeeoiie caiene ii
ea?oi/iiio n/aoo iinea ianooieaiey n?iea ieaoaaea e ia?aaiae n/aoa a
?ac?yae i?in?i/aiiuo. Aaie ioi?aaeyao eeeaioo iaiiieiaiea i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iecaanoe ieaoaae. Iaeiaei iineaaeiee iiaeao ecaanoeoue
aaie /oi ieaoaae aue i?iecaaaeai, e i?aaenoaaeoue eiiey aeaiaaeiiai
ia?aaiaea. Aaie a yoii neo/aa aeieaeai iaiaaeeaiii i?eiyoue ia?u aeey
eciaiaiey noaoona n/aoa n i?in?i/aiiiai ia aeaenoaothuee eauynieoue
i?e/eio ioeaee. Eeeaioo aea neaaeoo i?aaeinoaaeoue aiciiaeiinoue
iieueciaaony ea?oi/eie a oa/aiee ia?eiaea ?anneaaeiaaiey. *oi eanaaony
ia inoaoea iaiiaaoaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii n/aoo oi oaeea ni?aaee ioaeii
aeaaaoue n ecaanoiiie aeieae iniio?eoaeueiinoe. Eeoei, iacaeiiii
caaeaaeaaoaa ea?oi/eie, iiaeao iuoaoueny oaeei iooai iieo/eoue
naaaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aa eniieueciaaiey. Ii yoiio ?aaioieeo aaiea
neaaeoao i?aaeaa?eoaeueii auynieoue, enoiaeeo ee cai?in io caeiiiiai
aeaaeaeueoea, iai?eia?, ociaoue aeaoo e noiio iineaaeiae iia?aoeee n
ea?oi/eie e naa?eoue ioaao n eiathueieny o aaiea aeaiiuie.

Iiaoo auoue e ae?oaea cai?inu, iai?eia? i oa?aeoa?a iiauo i?iaeoeoia e
oneoa, i?aaeeaaaaiuo aaieii. ?aaioieee ieoaeaea ianeoaeeaaiey aeieaeiu
?aniieiaaoue niooaaonoaothuae eioi?iaoeeae, iniaaiii anee aaie a yoio
iiiaio i?iaiaeeo ia?eaoeiaiaoth eiiiaeth ii i?iaeaeaeaieth iiaiai
i?iaeoeoa.

Aieueoeinoai aaieia eiio?ieee?oao naiaa?aiaiiinoue e ea/anoai ioaaoia
ia cai?inu e aeaeiau. O/eouaaaony a?aiy n iiiaioa caiiea aei ioaaoa,
aeiey i?a?aaiiuo ?acaiai?ia ec-ca aeieaiai iaeeaeaiey eeeaioa, n?aaeiaa
a?aiy ?acaiai?a e oae aeaeaa.

?OEIAIAeNOAI

AeAIA?OAIAIOA

E?aaeeou Ii?a?aoeee

E?aaeeou Eieanni Aaciian- Auione
Aaoi?ecaoeey Aeeeeia

Aeieaia e iinoue Ea?oi/ae

i?aau-

oaiea
Aoiaeiie
Ieaoaaee

eeieoa eioa?/aeiaeae

Ianeoaeeaaiea
Ia?eaoeia

eeeaioia

2.aaie yeaae?.

Iaycaiiinoe aaiea, caieiathuaainy yeaae?eiaii, ii?aaeaeythony aai
?ieueth ii ianeoaeeaaieth oi?aiauo o/anoieeia ea?oi/iuo nenoai.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee:

– i?ioeanneia oi?aiauo n/aoia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a aaie oi?aiaoeai ii
iia?aoeeyi n ea?oi/eaie

– iaiai eioi?iaoeeae i naeaeeao e oieaoa eiiennee ca eioa?/aeiaeae a
iieueco aaiea yieoaioa

– ?anniio?aiea cayaie oi?aiaoeaa ia i?eniaaeeiaiea e nenoaia ?an/aoia,
aiaeeca e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe iiauo e oaea eiathueony i?aiaoean, i?iaa?ea
oi?aiaoeaa, iiaeic?aaaaiuo a ioaiie/aneoaa

– ia?eaoeia, iiiiu oi?aiaoeai a i?eia?aoaiee iai?oaeiaaiey aeey
ieanoeeiauo ea?oi/ae

I?ioeanneia oi?aiauo n/aoia ninoieo a ia?aiina aeaiiuo n aoiaaeiiai
n/aoa ia iaaieoioth eaioo aeey aaaaeaiey a nenoaio eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaiaia e “i?iaeaaee” yoeo noii aaieo-yieoaioo (enoiaeyuee
eioa?/aeiaeae).

A oi?aiaii n/aoa oeacuaaaony i?aaeaea anaai oeacaaaony iiia?
aaieianeiai n/aoa aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee, aai oaieeey, aeaoa enoa/aiey
n?iea ea?oi/ee. I?e i?ioeanneiaa n/eouaaaony oieueei iiia? n/aoa. Aeaeaa
i?eaiaeeony iacaaiea oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey, aae?an, eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue
iiia?. Yoe aeaiiua caeiaeaiu a ianoa?-oaeea aaiea-yeaae?a e, eae
i?aaeei, ia ia?aiinyony i?e iiaeaioiaea iaaieoiie eaiou. Aeaeaa
niiauaaony aeaoa niaa?oaiey naeaeee. Yoa aeaoa aiineony a eaioo,
ia?aaeaaony ii eiiioieeaoeeyi e ia/aoaaony a auienea ii aeeeeiao,
iai?aaeyaiie aeaaeaeueoeo ea?oi/ee. E iaeiiaoe, oeacuaaaony noiia
naeaeee. Iia oae aea ia?aienuaaaony ia eaioo e eniieuecoaony i? ?an/aoao
e aeeeeeiaa.

I?ioeanneia oi?aiauo n/aoia eiaao ianeieueei noaaeee. Nia/aea oi?aiaua
n/aoa, iinooieaoea a aaie io oi?aiaoea, oi?ie?othony a ia/ee
iaeeiaeiaiai ?acia?a e i?iaa?ythony (i?aaeeueiinoue caiieiaiey, iao ee a
ia/ea /oaeeo n/aoia io ae?oaeo oi?aiaoeaa. noiio n/aoia a ia/ea ). Caoai
i?iaiaeeony n/eouaaiea e ia?aiin aeaiiuo. I?e ?o/iie ia?aaioea n/aoia
aeaiiua aaiaeyony n iiiiuueth eeaaeaoo?u ia eiiiuethoa?iii oa?ieiaea. A
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoaiao oi?aiaua n/aoa i?ioiaeyo /a?ac naini?iua
ono?ienoaa. Noiiu n/eouaathony iaoiaeii iioe/aneiai ?aniiciiaaiey
ciaeia. Anee eaeea eeai aeaiiua ia iiaoo auoue i?e/eoaiu iaoeiie, eo
aeiiieieoaeueii aaiaeyo a?o/ioth. Caoai i?iecaiaeeony naa?ea noii,
caoeene?iaaiiuo iaoeiie, n noiiaie ia/ae aei ia/aea ia?aiina. Yoio
eiio?ieue iaiaoiaeei aeey auyaeaiey ioeaie.

Iaeiiaoe, iinea n/eouaaiey e eiio?iey, noiia n/aoia ia?aaeaaony ii
nenoaia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia, eaaie-yeaae? iieo/aao aiciauaiea yoie
noiiu io annioeeaoeee ca au/aoii eiiennee ca eioa?/aeiaeae.

Eae e ana ae?oaea yeaiaiou i?ioeanneiaa, ia?aaioea oi?aiauo n/aoia
o?aaoao no?iaiai eiio?iey. Aaie ca/eneyao noiiu n/aoia, i?aaeueyaeaiiuo
oi?aiaoeai, ia aeaiiceoiue n/ao iineaaeiaai a aeaiue iiaea/e n/aoia. A
oi aea a?aiy aiciauaiea yoie nooiu /a?ac nenoaio eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia
ia iiaeao auoue iieo/aii, iiea n/aoa ia ia?aaioaiu e ia i?iaaaeaiu ii
nenoaiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia. Oaeei ia?acii aaie auioaeaeai
aanieaoii e?aaeeoiaaoue oi?aiaoea ia ia?eiae ia?aaioee n/aoia. Anee
aianoi2 aeiae aoaeao cao?a/aii 4 eee 5 aeiae, ?anoiaeu aaiea nouanoaaiii
aic?anooo.

Iiyoiio aaeieieno?aoeey aaiaeeo aeanoeea noaiaea?ou n?ieia ia?aaioee
n/aoia. A eaii neo/aa neaaeoao anaaaea o/eouaaoue, /oi caaea?aeea
i?ioeanneiaa icia/aao iioa?th aeaiaa aeey aaiea, a onei?aiea ia?aaioee
n/aoia – auea?uo.

3.aica?aou

A i?iioeanna ?an/aoia ii ea?oi/iui naeaeeai /anoi aicieeaao neooaoeee,
eiaaea aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee inia?eaaao iainiiaaiiinoue iia?aoeee e
o?aaoao aica?aoa nienaiiuo noii. Aaie-yieoaio iiaeao i?iecaanoe
iiaeiaiia nienaiea ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa, aac o?aaiaaiey eeeaioa,
anee ii iaia?oaeeo, iai?eia?, /oi n?ie ea?oi/ee enoae eee /oi, n/ao ii
eioi?iio i?iecaiaeeony iia?aoeey,cae?uo. Aaie-yeaae?, ionoaeaathuee
eioa?anu oi?aiaoea, iiaeao ii i?inueaa iineaaeiaai eee ii nianoaaiiie
eieoeeaoeaa iiaoi?ii aa?iooue aeieoiaiou aaieo-yieoaioo. Yoi aeaeaaony a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aica?ao iaaeinoaoi/ii aeieoiaioe?iaai eee o?aaoaony
aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey.

A eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee aaiee iiaoo naiinoiyoaeueii ?ac?aoeoue nii? eee
aea i?eaaaiooue e a?aeo?aaeo annioeeaoeee.

Iieo/ea ecaauaiea ia ia?aoiii nienaiee, aaie-yeaae? ca/eneyao noiio ia
niaoeeaeueiue aaeainiaue n/ao aeey nii?iuo noii, aaea iia aoaeao
/eneeony, iiea ia aoaeao i?eiyoi ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea. i?e yoii aaie
aeieaeai eae iiaeii auno?aa ?ac?aoeoue neooaoeeth, oae eae nii?iay noiia
/eneeony ia aai aaeaina e ii ianao ?anoiaeu ii aa oeiaine?iaaieth.

Aaiee onoaiaaeeaatho eiio?ieueiua n?iee ii iia?aoeeyi aica?aoa.
Aaie-yieoaio ii?aaeaeyao ieieiaeueiua n?iee n iiiaioa iieo/aiey
i?aoaicee io aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee aei iiiaioa aooaaeoa?neiai ioi?ieaiey
ia?aoiiai nienaiey noii n aaiea-yeaae?a. I?e yoii aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony aeieoiaioaeueiiio iainiiaaieth aica?aoa, eai a i?ioeaiii
neo/aa, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, naeaeea iiaeao auoue iiaoi?ii
i?aaeueyaeaia e iieaoa aaieii-yeae?ii.

4 i?eaueueiinoue iia?aoeee n aaieianeeie ea?oi/eaie.

Iia?aoeee n ea?oi/eaie ioiinyony e /eneo iaeaieaa aeioaeiuo aeaeia
aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe. A n?aaeiai aeioiae ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao a
ea?oi/iii aeciana auoa, /ai ii ae?oaei aeaeai iia?aoeee, oae ea
ei?eieiaao aunieee ?ene.

Iniiaiie iieacaoaeue aeey ecia?aiey i?eaueueiinoe ea?oi/iuo iia?aoeee –
i?eaueue ia aaeeieoeo ea?oi/iuo nnoae. ?an/ao yoiai iieacaoaey
iicaieyao n?aaieoue aeioiaeiinoue iia?aoeee ?aciuo aaieia.

ii?ooaeue iaiiaaoaiiuo e?aaeeoia ii ea?oi/eai I?eaueue io ea?oi/iuo
iia?aoeee Aeioiaeiinoue a %

Aaie A 2000000 140000 7

Aaie A 5500000 302500 5,5

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aaie A iieo/ee aieueoa i?eauee, ii ?aaioae iaiaa
yooaeoeaii:iieacaoaeue aeioiaeiinoe o iaai 5,5%, oiaiaea eae o aaiea A
-7%.

i?eaueue yoi ?acieoea iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie aaiea, no?oeoo?a
eioi?uo ?acee/ia aeey aaiea-yieoaioa e aaiea-yeaae?a.

Ia/iai n aaiea-yieoaioa. Aa iniiaiua aeioiaeu:

– aiaeiaay i?ioeaioiay noaaea

– aiaeiaie /eaineee aciin

– eiienney ii eioa?/aeiaeaeo

– oo?aoiua nai?u ca ia?ooaiea oneiaee aeiaiai?a.

Aiaeiaay i?ioeaioiay noaaea ii ea?oi/iiio e?aaeeoo aceiaaony n
aeaaeaeueoea ea?oi/ee i?e i?ieiiaaoeee e?aaeeoa ca i?aaeaeu eueaioiiai
ia?eiaea. Noaaea aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaa e ia iaiyaony a nayce n
eiiuethieoo?iuie eciaiaieyie ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea
iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa.

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ia any caaeieaeaiiinoue ii ea?oi/eiiio ii?ooaeth
nnoae i?eiineo i?ioeaioiue aeioiae, oae eae a oa/aee eueaioiiai ia?eiaea
i?ioeaiou ia ia/eneythony. Iiyoiio /oiau i?eiaieoue aiaeiaoth
i?oeaioioth noaaeo, aa ioaeii nia/aei oiiiaeeoue ia aeieth ii?ooaey, ii
eioi?ie oiea/eaaaony i?ioeaio.

Anee yoa aeiey ?aaia 65% ii?ooaey, oi i?e aiaeiaie i?ioeaioiie noaaea,
?aaiie 20% aiaeiauo, ?aaeueiay noaaea ii aeaiiiio ii?ooaeth ninoaaeyao
13%.

I? iany/iii aeeeeiaa i?eiaiyaony ia?eiaee/aneay iany/iay i?ioeaioiay
noaaea, eioi?ay yaeyaony i?iecaiaeiie io aiaeiaie noaaee.

Aiaeieaie /eaineee aciin aei ia/aea 80-uo aiaeia ia aceiaeny. Caoai,
nieaeaiea aaieianeeo aeioiaeia aucaaei iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaaeaiey yoie
ieaou. A 1992 aiaeo yoio aciin, aue aeey noaiaea?oiie ea?oi/ee – 0-25$,
aeey cieioie aei 50$. Yoa noaouey iaania/eaaao aeiy 50% /enoie i?eauee
ii ea?oi/iui iia?aoeeyi.

Eiienney ca eioa?/aeiaeae. Iia ?aaia ii?aaeaeaiiiio i?ioeaioo n
eaaeaeiai aeieea?a i?iaeaae, eioi?ue oiea/eaaaony yeaae?ii yieoaioo aeey
iie?uoey aai ?anoiaeia.

Nai?u ca ia?ooaiea ea?oi/iuo niaeaoaiee aeeth/atho:

– eiienneth ca i?in?i/eo

– eiienneth ca i?aauoaiea eeieoa

– eiienneth a aica?ao /aoa.

Oo?aoiie nai? ca i?in?i/eo i?e oieaoa i/a?aaeiiai aciina a iiaaoaiea
caaeieaeaiiinoe ninoaaeyao a aia?eeaineeo aaieao 10-15 $ a ianyoe.
i?eia?ii iieiaeia eiiia?/aneeoc aaieia NOA aceiaao eiieneth ca
i?aauoaiea e?aaeeoiiai eeieoa i?e eniieueciaaiee ea?oi/ee. Iia aeieaeia
eiiiaine?iaaoue ?ene iaieaoaaea, eioi?ue nouanoaaiii oaaee/eeny a
80-90-o aa.

?anoiaeu aaiea-yieoaioa ii ea?oi/iui iia?aoeeyi aeeth/atho i?aaeaea
anaai ieaoo ca ?ano?nu, eioi?ua aaie eniieuecoao aeey oeiaine?iaaiey
anaai ii?ooaey ea?oi/iuo nnoae. E?iia oiai, e ?anoiaeai ioiinyony
neaaeothuea noaouee:

– iioa?e io nienaiey aaciaaeaaeiuo aeieaia e ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey ea?oi/ae

– ?anoiaeu ia i?iaaaeaiea i?ioeanneiaiauo iia?aoeee (aaoi?ecaoeey,
eeeeia)

– ?anoiaeu ia ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioia

– ?anoiaeu ii ia?eaoeiao

No?oeoo?a aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia aaiea-yeaae?a ioee/aaony naiaia?aceai
ec-ce niaoeeoeee aai ooieoeee. Aeaaiay/ noaouey aeioiaea – yoi aeeneiio,
oiea/eaaaiue oi?aiaoeai i?e aeaiiie?iaaiee oi?aiauo n/aoia a aaiea.
Aeioiae ii yoie noaouea ?aaai i?iecaaaeaieth no?aaeiae noaaee aeeneiioa
ia noiio i?iaeaae ii e?aaeeoiui ea?oi/eai. Iai?eia?, anee n?aaeiyy
neaaea aeeneiioa ?aaia 2,2%, oi eaaeaeua 100 aeiee. oi?aiauo n/aoia
yeaae? iieo/aao niioaaonoaaiii 2,2 aeieea?a. Yoa noiia nienuaaaony ni
n/aoa oi?aiaoea a aaiea a eiioea eaaeaeiai ianyoea. Aua iaeei eaiae
aeioiaeia yeaae?a – iinooieaiey io i?iaeaaee eee naea/e a iaai oi?aiaoeo
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey eii?eioeiaa (ia?aiina aeaiiuo ea?oi/ee a oi?aiaue
n/ao) e yeaeo?iiiuo oa?ieiaeia. Iaeiiaoe, aaie-yeaae? iieo/aao aeioiae
i?e eniieueciaaiee n?aaenoa o?aiyueony ia n/aoa aeaii oi?aiaoea.

Iniiaiay noaouey ?anoiaeia aaiea-yeaae?a – yoi eiienney ca
eioa?/aeaeae. Iia oiea/eaaaony aaieo-yieoaioo a ii?aaeaeaiiii i?ioeaioa
io noiiu oi?aiauo n/aoia. Ae?oaea aeaeu ?anoiaeia yeaae?a aiaeiae/iu
oai, eioi?ua ianao yieoaio – ?anoiaeu ii i?ioeanneiao, ia?eaoeiao.

Caeeth/aiea.

A aeaiiia a?aiy oaiaeaioeey eaeao a noi?iio eniieueciaaiey ieanoeeiauo
ea?o n /eiii (nia?o-ea?ou). A ioee/ea io ea?o n iaaieoiie iieinie,
nia?o-ea?ou aieaa “oiiua”, a?aiy oaiaeaioeey eaeao a noi?iio
eniieueciaaiey ieanoeeiauo ea?o n /eiii (nia?o-ea?ou). A ioee/ea io ea?o
n iaaieoiie iieinie, nia?o-ea?ou aieaa “oiiua”, ano?iaiiue a ieo /ei
eiaao iaiyoue e naiue yeaiaioa?iue i?ioeanni? eioi?ue auiieiyao
iaeioi?ue iauai ano?iaiiuo eiiaiae. Ieaoaaeiua nenoaiu ia iniiaa
nia?o-ea?o iiaoo ?aaioaoue a ?aaeeia off-line, oae aea nenoaiu ia iniiaa
oaeeo ea?o aieaa caueuaiu io iioaiieeia. A ie?a nicaeathony
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee n oeaeth aaanoe aaeeioth ieaoaaeioth
nenoaio eeai eaeie ieaoaeue anaiauee noaiaea?o, aieaa niaa?oaiiue /ai
iuia nouanoaothuea. ?oeiaiaeeoaee yoeo i?aaiecaoeee a iniiaiii aeaeyo
ieaoaaeioth ea?oi/eo aoaeouaai – /eiiaie (nia?o-ea?oa). Iaeia ec oaeeo
i?aaiecaoeee ?ac?aaioaea oieaa?naeueioth yeaeo?iiioth nenoaio UEPS
(Universal Electronic Payment System). UEPS – ?ac?aaioaia o?ainocneie
eiiiaieae NET1 International e a oa/aiee ianeieueeeo eao ooieoeeiie?oao
a ?yaea no?ai. Ioiaoei /oi, iniiaiui oaoiieiae/aneei i?eioeeiii UEPS
yaeyaony inouanoaeaiea o?aicaeoeee a oi?aiauo oi/eao a ?aaeeia off-line
i?e iai?in?aaenoaaiiii acaeiiaeaenoaee aeaoo ea?o – ea?ou iieoiaoaey e
i?iaeaaoea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. “Aaieianeea ieanoeeiaua ea?oi/ee EOeI “Aaca?-Oa??i” I., Onineei A.I.
1995a.

2. “Yeaeo?iiiay nenoaia aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia I., Oeiainu e Noaoenoeea
Eeien A. Ia?oaee O. Eeiea? ss. 1988a.

3. “Iiaua ieanoeeiaua aeaiueae” ec-ai “Aaieianeia Aeaei” I.,
Niaoeeaoeaaa A.A. 1994a.

Iineianeee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue Oieaa?neoao Aeciana e Eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
Oaoiieiaee

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