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План Маршалла – программа американской помощи в восстановлении экономики послевоенной Европы

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“Ieai Ia?oaeea”- i?ia?aiia aia?eeaineie iiiiue

a ainnoaiiaeaiee yeiiiieee iineaaiaiiie Aa?iiu.

TOC \o “1-3” AAAAeAIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543545 PAGEREF
_Toc446543545 3

1. YEIIIIEEA NO?AI CAIAAeIIE AA?IIU IINEA AOI?IE IE?IAIE AIEIU
GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543546 PAGEREF _Toc446543546 5

2. ?INO YEIIIIE*ANEIAI IIAOUANOAA NOA GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543547
PAGEREF _Toc446543547 10

3. YEIIIIE*ANEIA ?ACAEOEA AA?IAIEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543548
PAGEREF _Toc446543548 13

4. ?AC?AAIOEA “IEAIA IA?OAEEA” GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543549 PAGEREF
_Toc446543549 15

5. ?AAEECAOeEss “ IEAIA IA?OAEEA” A NO?AIAO CAIAAeIIE AA?IIU
GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543550 PAGEREF _Toc446543550 20

6. “IEAI IA?OAEEA” – IEAI AINNOAIIAEAIEss EEE
AIAIIUE IEAI ? GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543551 PAGEREF _Toc446543551
23

7. NIA?AIAIIUE ACAEssAe IA “IEAI IA?OAEEA” GOTOBUTTON
_Toc446543552 PAGEREF _Toc446543552 25

AEAEEIA?AOE*ANEEE NIENIE GOTOBUTTON _Toc446543553 PAGEREF
_Toc446543553 26

AAAAeAIEA

I?iaeaia, eioi?ay aeaea ia?aiia/aeueiue eiioeuen yeiiiie/aneie iaoea,
oie “oaeiie”, /oi ieaiyea Aaeaia Nieoa oae aea, eae ethaiai
nia?aiaiiiai yeiiiienoa, yaeyaony i?iaeaia ?uii/iiai iaiaia. A
yeiiiie/aneie anaeaiiie i?enoonoaoao iuouaiea ii?yaeea, e yoio ii?yaeie
ia iaaycai naa?oo, a eaeei-oi ia?acii yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii iaiaiiuo
naeaeie iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie, i?e/ai eaaeaeay ec noi?ii
no?aieony iaeneiaeueii oaaee/eoue naith nianoaaiioth auaiaeo. Oaeei
ia?acii, enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneie iunee – ia /oi eiia, eae enoi?ey iaoeo
iiiuoie iiiyoue aeaenoaea yeiiiieee, iniiaaiiie ia ?uii/iuo iia?aoeeyo.
Ii oioy iauai?eiyoia o/aiea anaaaea auei naycaii n aiaeecii ?uii/iuo
nenoai, no?oeoo?a yoeo nenoai ni a?aiaiai cia/eoaeueii eciaiyeanue, e ,
/oiau i?ieeoue naao ia yoe eciaiaiey, eaaeaeia iieieaiea i?eiaiyei
?acee/iua eiioeaioeee e iaoiaeu aiaeeca.[1]

Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey naycaia ni iiiaeie iauanoaaiiuie iaoeaie, e
i?aaeaea anaai ni anaie?iie enoi?eae. Ethaee a naiae iianaaeiaaiie
ai?ueaa ca aeaaiiieo/ea i?eniinaaeeaathony e oneiaeyi, a eioi?uo yoa
ai?ueaa i?ienoiaeeo, a ?acee/iua iieeoe/aneea niauoey anaith i/a?aaeue
cao?aaeaatho eo ee/iua eioa?anu. Iiiaea no?aiu euoo iooue e aieaa
aunieiio o?iaith aeecie e ciaiea yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee e?aeia aaaeii,
iineieueeo iicaieyao ec iannu aa?eaioia oaea eiathuaainy a ie?a iiuoa
aua?aoue aaeaeaaoioth eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi iiaeaeue ?acaeoey,
iaeneiaeueii nie?aoea iaecaaaeiua ecaea?aeee e ineaaea nioeeaeueioth
iai?yaeaiiinoue.

Iuiaoiaa ninoiyiea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee n?aaieaatho n e?eceniie
neooaoeeae a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iinea ieii/aiey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu [2].
Ionthaea e eioa?an e iineaaiaiiiio yeiiiie/aneiio aic?iaeaeaiea
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai, aeinoeaiooiio a nio?oaeie/anoaa n NOA,
aiieiuaiiii a ecaanoiii “ieaia Ia?oaeea” , oneiaey eioi?iai auee i?eiyou
i?aaeoaeuenoaaie 16 aa?iiaeneeo no?ai: Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Eoaeee,
Oaaoeee, Ii?aaaee, Aeaiee, Aaeueaee, Ieaea?eaiaeia, Ethenaiao?aa,
Aano?ee, E?eaiaeee, Eneaiaeee, A?aoeee, Oaaeoea?ee, Oo?oeee, Ii?ooaaeee,
oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiai ia Caiaaeioth Aa?iaieth e O?eano . Iineaaiaiiue
iiuo Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey eae n iiceoeee
ainnoaiiaeaiey oicyenoaa, icaei?iaeaiey oeiainia e aeaiaa, iaeaaeeaaiey
yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai, oae e n oi/ee c?aiey no?aoaaee
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey, iaania/eaoae nicaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
i?aaeiinueie aeey iiuiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ia?anna a ?acee/iuo noa?ao
i?iecaiaenoaa.

1. YEIIIIEEA NO?AI CAIAAeIIE AA?IIU IINEA AOI?IE IE?IAIE AIEIU

A OO a. ia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee aaaeoueo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai ieacaee
aieueoia aeeyiea aeaa aeiaaeueiuo niauoey – ia?aay e aoi?ay ie?iaua
aieiu. Iineaaiaiiay yeiiiieea aeaaea aaaeoueo no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
auea a e?eoe/aneii ninoiyiee.

AIAEEss. [3] Caiaaeeaiea oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey Aiaeee ia/aeinue
iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu. A 20-a aiaeu a?eoaineia oicyenoai
?acaeaaeinue ia?aaiiia?ii. N?aaieoaeueii auno?i ?inei i?iecaiaenoai a
iiauo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a eioi?uo iaeaieaa auno?i oee i?ioeannu
oaoie/aneie ?aeiino?oeoeee i?aaei?eyoee, oaaee/aiea eo
yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe, oe?ieie iaoaiecaoeee, yeaeo?eoeeaoeee e oeiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia. Noa?ua io?anee a?eoaineie eiaeono?ee
ia?aaeeaaee canoie. Nie?aoeeenue aeiau/a oaey, auieaaea /oaoia,
i?iecaiaenoai aiaeeeneie oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I?aaei?eyoey
/a?iie iaoaeeo?aee auee caa?oaeaiu eeoue iaiieiaeio. I?ienoiaeee
i?ioeann naa?ouaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii oaiiai
?acaeoey aiaeeeneay yeiiiieea ionoaaaea io aaaeoueo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
aea?aeaa.

Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia aucaaea aeaeueiaeoaa ineaaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo iiceoeee Aaeeeia?eoaiee. A oeaeii ca aiaeu aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu iia iioa?yea ieiei 25% iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa no?aiu.
Iai?oaeiaaiea aiaeeeneeo i?aaei?eyoee ca aiaeu aieiu eciineeinue,
oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann caiaaeeeeny. Aieia i?eaaea e oneeaieth caaeneiinoe
Aaeeeia?eoaiee io NOA, eioi?ua a ia?eiae aieiu iai?aaeyee naiaio
nithcieeo aieueoea iinoaaee aii?oaeaiey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey ia oneiaeyo
eaiae-eeca, e?iia oiai i?eoeinue nie?aoeoue, a a iaeioi?uo iai?aaeaieyo
e iieiinoueth i?a?aaoue naie aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea nayce ni no?aiaie,
eoaea ana aieueoa aiaae?yeny eaieoae NOA. A 1947 aiaeo a noaia ianooiee
ino?ue oeiainiaue e?ecen, e i?aaeoaeuenoai auioaeaeaii auei iieoe ia
nie?auaiea eiii?oa i?iaeiaieuenoaey, /oi i?eaaei e ?aceiio
iiaei?iaeaieth i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey. Auoiae ec neiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie
neooaoeee i?aaeoaeuenoai Aiaeee aeaeaei a i?eniaaeeiaiee e “ieaio
Ia?oaeea”.

O?AIOeEss. [3] Iieeoeea, i?iaiaeeiay i?aayueie e?oaaie O?aioeee ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 30-o aiaeia, i?eaaea no?aio e aiaiiie eaoano?ioa. A
ethia 1940 aiaea O?aioeey eaieooee?iaaea e aa yeiiiieea auea iinoaaeaia
ia neoaeao oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee. Aieia e /aou?aoeaoiyy ieeoiaoeey
iaianee O?aioeee cia/eoaeueiue oua?a. Ii/oe ia 70% nie?aoeeinue
i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, aai no?oeoo?a auea a?oae/iie, aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy ia iaiiaeyeny iaoeiiue ia?e. Aaeaia ii n?aaiaieth n 1938 aiaeii
oiaiueoeeanue i?iaeoeoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Ieii/aiea aieiu
iinoaaeei O?aioeeth ia?aae neiaeiaeoeie caaea/aie, aeaaiie ec eioi?uo
auea eeeaeaeaoeey yeiiiie/aneie ?ac?ooe. Iaeiaei ie o i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ie
n?aaee i?aaei?eiaiaoaeueneeo e?oaia ia auei aaeeinoaa iiaiee
ioiineoaeueii iieeoeee a oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie iaeanoe. Oae, ieieno?
yeiiiieee ?aaeeeae I. Iaiaean-O?ain i?aaeeaaae n oeaeueth
i?aaeioa?auaiey eioeyoeee caii?iceoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo e oeaiu, a
oaeaea iaeiia?aiaiii aeiee?iaaoue aaieianeea n/aoa e i?enooieoue e
i?eioaeeoaeueiiio iaiaio aaieiio. Ieieno? oeiainia ?. Ieaaai ?ac?aaioae
i?iaeo, iniiaie eioi?iai yaeyeny auione e?oiiiai aioo?aiiaai caeia,
i?ecaaiiiai nianoe aiaiiua i?eauee. Eiiioienou, o eioi?uo auee neeueiua
iiceoeee aaeaeo eo aeoeaiiai o/anoey a aeaeaeaiee Nii?ioeaeaiey,
aaaeiaeoeie caaea/aie n/eoaee i?iaaaeaiea iaoeeiiaeecaoeee e nicaeaiea
nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey. Aie?oa i?iaeaiu iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
?acaa?ioeanue ino?ay iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa, eioi?ay caeii/eeanue
eiii?iiennii. Eae e a ae?oaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao,
iaoeeiiaeecaoeey ai O?aioeee ia einioeanue anao iniiaiuo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ia iaiyea nouanoaa eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee. Ii
naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth iia icia/aea ia?aoiae io /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe e ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneie, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie
e?oiiue oaa a ?acaeoee ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaeecia.
Iio?aaiinoe ainnoaiiaeaiey yeiiiieee i?eaaee e oiio, /oi aieueoay /anoue
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee noaea iai?aaeyoueny a i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Yoi iicaieeei
onei?eoue oaiiu i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa no?aiu e eaoii 1947 aiaea
aeinoeaiooue aai aeiaiaiiiai o?iaiy ( a naeueneii oicyenoaa yoio
o?iaaiue aue i?aacieaeai a 1950 aiaeo). A iaa 1947 aiaea iiae
i?aaeeiaii aieiniaaiey ieieno?ia-eiiioienoia i?ioea aeiaa?ey
i?aaeoaeuenoao iie auee oaeaeaiu ec ninoaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie
eiaeeoeee. I?ioeann iaoeeiiaeecaoeee aue i?einoaiiaeai, e 28 ethiy
1948a. a Ia?eaea auei iiaeienaii niaeaoaiea ia yeiiiie/aneii
nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e Niaaeeiaiiuie Ooaoaie Aia?eee,
iciaiaiiaaaoaa niaie ia/aei aeaenoaey ai O?aioeee “ieaia Ia?oaeea”.

EOAEEss. [5] Eoaeey anooieea ai 2-th ie?iaoth aieio ia noi?iia
Aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee. Yoi ?acaeoay eiaeono?eaeueii-aa?a?iay no?aia, ii
o?iaith ?acaeoey ioiineony e no?aiai auniei?acaeoiai eaieoaeecia.
Aaaeiaeoea io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe naycaiu n aiaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii. A
1948 aiaeo auea aeeth/aiu a nenoaio “ieaia Ia?oaeea”.

OAAOeEss. [5] Oaaoeey eiaeonoe?aeueii-aa?a?iay no?aia, aaaeoueie
yaeythony ai?iiaeiauaathuay , iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay,
iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuay, yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay e oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.
Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia eaeao ia yenii?o. A naeueneii
oicyenoaa iyni-iiei/iia aeeaioiiaiaenoai i?aiaeaaeaao iaae
caieaaeaeeai. Ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu Oaaoeey iauyaeea
iaeo?aeeoao, eioi?ue, iaeiaei, ia?ooaeny a iieueco aeoea?ianeie
eiaeeoeee. A iineaaiaiiua aiaeu i?eaea?aeeaaaony iieeoeee “naiaiaeu io
nithcia”.

II?AAAEss. [5] Onoaiiaeaiea iacaaeneiinoe Ii?aaaee a 1905 aiaeo
aeaaii?yonoaiaaei yeiiiie/aneiio iiaeuaio. Ai a?aiy 2-e ie?iaie aieiu
Ii?aaaey auea caoaa/aia aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaieae.

AeAIEss. [5]Aa?a?ii-eiaeono?eaeueiay no?aia n eioaineaiui naeueneei
oicyenoaii. I?iiuoeaiiinoue Aeaiee iineo y?eiau?aaeaiiue ia?aaaouaathuee
oa?aeoa?. A 1940 aiaeo auea ieeoie?iaaia aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaieae.

AAEUeAEss. [5] E eiio 19 a. Aaeueaey auea ?acaeoie eaieoaeenoe/aneie
no?aiie, n e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e eioaineaiui naeueneei oicyenoaii.
Ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu auea caoaa/aia Aa?iaieae.

IEAeA?EAIAeU. [5] Eiaeono?eaeueii-aa?a?iay no?aia , iaoiaeyuayny a
neeueiie caaeneiinoe io aiaoieo enoi/ieeia nu?uey e ?uieia nauoa. Ai
a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iaoiaeeeanue iiae aeanoueth Aa?iaiee.

ETHENAIAO?A. [5] Eiaeono?eaeueiay no?aia, iniiao yeiiiieee eioi?ie
ninoaaeyao e?oiiay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. N 1939 ii 1945
aiae Ethenaiao?a aue ieeoie?iaai Aa?iaieae.

AANO?Ess. [5] Naiue eao (1938-1945) Aano?ey iaoiaeeeanue iiae aeanoueth
oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee. Any yeiiiieea no?aiu auea iiae/eiaia aiaiiui
ioaeaeai Aa?iaiee, cieioie caian Aano?ee aue auaacai a Aa?eei. Aeaaiay
?ieue a yeiiiieea no?aiu i?eiaaeeaaeaea e?oiiui iiiiiieeyi. A1943 aiaeo
ieieno?u eiino?aiiuo aeae NNN?, NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee iiaeienaee
aeaeea?aoeeth ia Aano?ee, cayaea i aeaeaiee aeaeaoue aa ainnoaiiaeaiiie,
naiaiaeiie e iacaaeneiie. A 1948 aiaeo i?e aeoeaiii niaeaenoaee NOA,
Aiaeee e O?aioeee auei iiaeienaii niaeaoaiea ia o/anoee Aano?ee a
“ieaia Ia?oaeea”.

E?EAIAeEss. [5] Aa?a?iay no?aia a eioi?ie iiiaiaaeiaia aiaeeeneia
ainiiaenoai caaea?aeaei ?acaeoea yeiiiieee. Ai aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia ,
i?ee?uaaynue “iaeo?aeeoaoii”, iiaeaea?aeeaaea aeoea?ianeoth Aa?iaieth.

ENEAIAeEss. [5] Eiaeono?eaeueii-aa?a?iay no?aia. Iniiaiay io?aneue
yeiiiieee – ?uaieianoai e ?uaiia?a?aaioea. Ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu NOA aaaee a Eneaiaeeth naie aienea e nicaeaee aiaiii-ii?neea e
aaeaoeeiiiua aacu.

A?AOeEss. [5] A?aoeey i?aeiouanoaaiii aa?a?iay no?aia n ioiineoaeueii
?acaeoie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. Ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu auei
ieeoie?iaaia Aa?iaieae.

OAAEOeA?Ess. [5] No?aia aunieiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey, a yeiiiieea iniiaiay
?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?iiuoeaiiinoe. N eiioea 19 a. a iae ooaa?aeeeinue
ainiiaenoai oeiainiaiai eaieoaea. Ai aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia iauyaeea
iaeo?aeeoao.

II?OOAAEEss. [5]Aa?a?iay no?aia, iaeaieaa ionoaeay ec anao no?ai Aa?iiu.
Ai aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia iiiiaaea oaoenoneiio aeieo.

OO?OeEss.[5] Neaai?acaeoey aa?a?iay no?aia. Iaeaioia 2-e ie?iaie aieiu
aieueoia aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo e iieeoeeo Oo?oeee ieacuaaea Aa?iaiey. ai
a?aiy aieiu iia niaaaeaea Aa?iaieth no?aoaae/aneei nu?ueai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iinea 2-e ie?iaie aieiu yeiiiieea no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
ieacaeanue a e?aeia neiaeiii iieiaeaiee.

2. ?INO YEIIIIE*ANEIAI IIAOUANOAA NOA

Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia noeioee?iaaea yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Niaaeeiaiiuo
ooaoia Aia?eee. Iie ieacaeenue a yoe aiaeu a iaiau/aeii aeaaii?eyoiii
iieiaeaiee. Aiaiiua aeaenoaey niaa?oaiii ia cao?iioee Aia?eeaineee
eiioeiaio, e iiyoiio no?aia ia eniuouaaea oiai ianniaiai ?ac?ooaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, eioi?ia eci aeiy a aeaiue niaa?oaeinue a Aa?iia.
Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou oniaoii eniieueciaaee niauoey a Aa?iia aeey naiaai
iaiaauaiey. Iie aunooieee a ?iee aeaaiiai iinoaaueea aiaiiuo iaoa?eaeia,
i?iaeiaieuenoaey e nu?uey aiththuei ainoaea?noaai [3].

Ae?oaei aaaeiaeoei eoiaii ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu noaei eciaiaiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai noaoona NOA : iie i?aa?aoeeenue a iniiaiiai e?aaeeoi?a
aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, i?aaeinoaaeyy ei ia?iiiua caeiu ia aiaiiua
ioaeaeu. A ?acoeueoaoa aieiu Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou caoaaoeee iniiaiua
ie?iaua ?uiee nauoa e enoi/ieee nu?uey. Yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai, aucaaiiue
iio?aaiinoyie aieiu, aua aieaa onei?ee i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e eaieoaea. Iaeiaei a ?yaea aaaeiuo io?aneae aia?eeaineie
yeiiiieee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 20-o aiaeia ana aieaa io/aoeeai auyaeyeenue
i?eciaee ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa, ii ia oiia iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia
iie inoaeenue a oaie. I?ioeaaoaiea eacaeinue aaneiia/iui, a
yeiiiie/aneea o?oaeiinoe aini?eieiaeenue eeoue eae a?aiaiiua e
eaaeii?aiaeieeiua. ?ac?aceeny yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1929-1933 aiaea,
iieo/eaoee iacaaiea “Aaeeeay aeai?anney”. Aeaaioneay ?ac?ooeoaeueiay
neea e?ecena i?iyaeeanue a ?aceii iaaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Neeueiia iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, cae?uoea ouny/ caaiaeia, oaa?ee, oaoo,
iaaeia?ocea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae i?eaaee e eieeinaeueiiio ?inoo
aac?aaioeoeu. Eiaaea e?ecen a NOA aeinoea aiiaay e aeanoe i?eoae O.
?ocaaeueo. Ii i?aaeeiaeee noaia na?eth eeaa?aeueiuo ?aoi?i, ecaanoiuo
eae “iiaue eo?n”. Oai?aoe/aneoth iniiao “iiaiai eo?na” ninoaaeee
aicc?aiey aiaeeeneiai yeiiiienoa Aeae. I. Eaeina i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee aeey
iaania/aiey aania?aaieiie ?aaiou ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia. Eaein ioaa?aae
eiioeaioeeth iaoaiecia aaoiiaoe/aneiai noeoeeii-?uii/iiai ainnoaiiaeaiey
?aaiiaaney eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa, aeieacuaae, /oi eaieoaeeci
oo?aoee yoio iaoaieci, a iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea. Ainoaea?noai, ii aai iiaieth , aeieaeii iaania/eaaoue
iiaeaea?aeaiea caiyoinoe ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yooaeoeaiii o?iaia,
?aaoee?iaaiea aaeaina iaaeaeo naa?aaeaieyie e iio?aaeaieai, n iiiiuueth
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa noeioee?iaaoue eiaanoeoeee [4].

?aoi?iu iiaie aaeieieno?aoeee ioaaoeee ana noa?u yeiiiieee:
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia oicyenoai, oeiainiaoth e aaieianeoth nenoaiu,
a oaeaea nioeeaeueiua e o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey. Inouanoaeyy eo
aaeieieno?aoeey ?ocaaeueoa ?ann/eouaaea iaiiaeoue yeiiiieeo no?aiu e
ecaaaeoue aa io iiaeiaiuo “aaeeeie aeai?annee” iio?ynoae e e?ecenia.
Iaeiaei yoe oeaee iieiinoueth aeinoeaioou ia auee. Ianooieaiea
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a 1937 aiaeo yaeeinue iaiaeeaeaiiui. Eeoue a 1939
aiaeo yeiiiieea NOA ni?aaeeanue n aai iineaaenoaeyie, ii aei aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu no?aia oae e ia oaeaeinue aeinoe/ue aeie?eceniiai o?iaiy
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aianoe n oai ?aoi?iu “iiaiai eo?na” eiaee aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey
?acaeoey eae aia?eeaineiai, oae e ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Iie
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee ?ieue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a nenoaia
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa e iieacaee, /oi aeaeia e oia?aiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee, iniaaiii a o?oaeiua ia?eiaeu aa ?acaeoey,
yaeyaony aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiui. Ni a?aiaie “iiaiai eo?na”
ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a oicyenoaaiioth aeeciue, i?eiaiyaiia a
?aciuo oi?iao, noaei iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia NOA.

Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou Aia?eee caeii/eee aoi?oth ie?iaoth aieio yaeyynue
aannii?iui eeaea?ii eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?a. Ca aiaeu aieiu
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae NOA oaeaieeny, aieaa /ai a aaeaia aic?inei
i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. A no?aia aue nicaeai oi?ioi ioeaaeaiiue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaoaieci, iie?athueeny ia aieee aioo?aiiee e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uiee. Iinoaaee nu?uey, i?iaeiaieuenoaey e aiaiiiai
nia?yaeaiey nithcieeai, oeiaine?oaiua ainoaea?noaii, noeioee?iaaee
iaiiaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea. Oneeeeny i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa: eiee/anoai e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee n /eneii ?aai/eo aieaa 10
oun. oaaee/eeinue a 7 ?ac.

Aieia onei?eea i?ioeann eioaineoeeaoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa:
iaoaiecaoeey e oeiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa noeioee?iaaeenue ia?iiiui
ni?inii ia aia?eeaineia i?iaeiaieuenoaea, /oi iicaieeei oa?ia?ai ?acei
oaaee/eoue naie aeioiaeu.

Aiaiiua aeaenoaey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ?ac?ooaiey ia einioeenue
oa??eoi?ee NOA e ?ano?nu no?aiu a ianeieueei ?ac i?aainoiaeeee ?ano?nu
ae?oaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa.

3. YEIIIIE*ANEIA ?ACAEOEA AA?IAIEE

Yeiiiieea Aa?iaiee iinea ?acaycaiiie ath ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu
ieacaeanue ia a?aie e?aoa. Iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu no?aiu a ?acoeueoaoa
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia ia aieio ?acei nie?aoeeenue. Yoi
ioiineeinue e caianai /a?iuo e oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, oiieeao, i?iaeoeoai
oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, n?aaenoaai o?ainii?oa. Iauee iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa a 1918 aiaeo nieceeny ii n?aaiaieth n 1913 a. ia 43%, a
iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai nie?aoeeinue aaeaia.

N 1924 a. ia/eiaaony ia?eiae iaeioi?ie noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee
Aa?iaiee. ?aoathuoth ?ieue a yoii nua?aee ieeeea?aeiua caeiu,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiua Niaaeeiaiiuie Ooaoaie Aia?eee e Aiaeeae. Iaeiaei
aeaeueiaeoaio oaeoaeaieth e?ecena niaeaenoaiaaee niauoey ia
Iueth-Ei?eneie oiiaeiaie ae?aea, aicaanoeaoea ia/aei naiiai
?ac?ooeoaeueiiai a eiaeono?eaeueiie enoi?ee no?ai e?ecena
ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa, ioaaoeaoaai ia /aou?a aiaea yeiiiieeo ?acaeouo no?ai.
Aa?iaiey noaea iaeiie ec iaeaieaa iino?aaeaaoeo no?ai, oae eae aa
yeiiiieea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aace?iaaeanue ia eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoao
e eiaanoeoeeyo .

Oaeoaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena aucaaei e?ao iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu
Aa?iaiee ( eiiaoe Aaeia?neie ?anioaeeee). E aeanoe i?eoae I.
Aeiaeaiao?a – ieeeoa?eno, ia/oaaoee i ?aaaioa, i?ecuaaaoee e aeanoieiio
ii?yaeeo e ianeeuenoaaiiie ia?ae?ieea ea?ou Aa?iiu. A1930 aiaeo ii
iacia/ee ?aeoneaioeea?ii Aeoea?a e n oao ii? a Aa?iaiee ia/aeny ia?eiae
oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u.

Aeaaiui niaea?aeaieai yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee oaoecia noaea anaiauay
ieeeoa?ecaoeey. Iia aaeanue onei?aiiuie oaiiaie e iaoneiaeea auoiae ec
e?ecena e cia/eoaeueiue ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa. E 1938 aiaeo Aa?iaiey noaea
iiuiie aiaiiie aea?aeaaie e ii i?iiuoeaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao auoea ia
ia?aia ianoi a Aa?iia e ia aoi?ia a ie?a. Yeiiiieea Aa?iaiee auea
i?eaioe?iaaia ia aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai.

Iinea ii?aaeaiey Aa?iaiee ai aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia i?iecioae aa ?acaeae
ia O?A (Caiaaeioth Aa?iaieth) e AAe?. Enoiaeiia ninoiyiea ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee auei i/aiue oyaeaeui. Aieueoay /anoue
i?iiuoeaiiinoe auea oie/oiaeaia aiiaa?aee?iaeaie eee aeaiiioe?iaaia
iiaaaeeoaeyie. Ioaeaeueiua nio?aieaoeany i?aaei?eyoey ii/oe ie/aai ia
i?iecaiaeeee. A 1946 aiaeo i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai ninoaaeyei 1/3 io
aeiaiaiiiai, eao ia 30 iacaae auei ioa?ioaii naeueneia oicyenoai. Ec-ca
aiaiiuo ?ac?ooaiee ?acei iaino?eeny aeeeeuiue e?ecen. A oi aea a?aiy
eaieooeyoeey e yiea?aoeey iaioeaa ec ainoi/iuo iaeanoae Aa?iaiee i?eaaee
e nea/eiia?aciiio ?inoo ianaeaiey. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai onoaoaeei
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiioth i?iaeaio, eioi?ay e aac oiai auea a e?eoe/aneii
ninoiyiee. Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea no?aiu oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue iieiaeoei
enoiuaieai. Eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iaoiaeeaoeony a ia?auaiee, ai iiiai ?ac
i?aauoaei iaee/iua oiaa?iua ?aca?au, a ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea aeinoea
ia?iiiuo ?acia?ia. Ii/oe iieiia ionoonoaea oiaa?ia, ieieiaeueiay
i?ieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ie?ee aaee e iaoo?aeecaoeee oicyenoaa e
i?iaeoeoiiaiaio. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?e aeoeaiii niaeaenoaee NOA,
i?aaeinoaaeaoeo Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee ii “ieaio Ia?oaeea” ia?iiiua
oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa auee i?iaaaeaiu ?aoi?iu, iai?aaeaiiua ia
?aoeoaeueiia noaiiaeaiea naiaiaeiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.

4. ?AC?AAIOEA “IEAIA IA?OAEEA”

“Ieai Ia?oaeea” , eee i?ia?aiia aic?iaeaeaiey Aa?iiu, aue i?aaeeiaeai
ainoaea?noaaiiui nae?aoa?ai NOA Aeae. Ia?oaeeii a aai aunooieaiee a
Aa?aa?aeneii oieaa?neoaoa a ethia 1947a. Ii auneacaeny ca
oe?ieiianooaaioth iiiiuue NOA aa?iiaeneei no?aiai i?e oneiaee, /oi iie
?ac?aaioatho aaeeioth i?ia?aiio ainnoaiiaeaiey naiae yeiiiieee. Ii
ioiaoee, /oi aac caei?iaie ie?iaie yeiiiieee iao iieeoe/aneie
noaaeeueiinoe e ianoaeaae ia oii, /oi eieoeeaoeaa aeieaeia enoiaeeoue ec
Aa?iiu [6].

A aeaeueiaeoai ca aeaoaeueioth ?ac?aaioeo ieaia acyeenue aeaa
aaaeiinoaa: Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeaia?oaiaio e Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aiaiii-ii?neie eii?aeeiaoeeiiiue eiieoao. Aieueooth ?ieue a
i?iaeaeaeaiee ieaia nua?ae Aeeueyi Eeaeoii, eioi?iai iacuaatho e?anoiui
iooeii “ieaia Ia?oaeea”, ainnae?aoa?ue ii yeiiiieea, aia?eeaineee
i?aaenoaaeoaeue a AAOO ( Aaia?aeueiia niaeaoaiea ii oa?eoai e oi?aiaea
– iiiainoi?iiiaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiia niaeaoaiea ia oneiaeyo oi?aiaee,
caeeth/aiiia a 1947 a. 23 no?aiaie ) e a Yeiiiie/aneie eiiennee III aeey
Aa?iiu.

A 1947 aiaeo auea nicaeaia niaoeeaeueiay eiienney i?e i?aceaeaioa NOA ii
aiaeeco iiiiue eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai. Yoa eiienney a naiai aeieeaaea
ioia/aea, /oi :

iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu cia/eoaeueii ieaea
aeiaiaiiiai n e?eoe/aneei o?iaiai aeiau/e oaey;

iio?aaiinoue a eiii?oa i/aiue auniea;

Aa?iia iioa?yea e?oiiue enoi/iee eiino?aiiie aaethou a oi?ia ieaoaaeae
ca oneoae ( oo?eci, aaieianeea iia?aoeee e ae?.);

i?iecioae neeueiue naeaea a niioiioaiee oeai iaaeaeo i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e
naeueneei oicyenoaii a iieueco iineaaeiaai;

iaaethaeaeinue ?ac?ooaiea aaeeiie nenoaiu oi?aiaee yoeo no?ai – e
aioo?aiiae , e aiaoiae.

A aeieeaaea eiiennee ioia/aeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu.
Aianoa n oai oeacuaaeinue, /oi iineaaeiyy ia iiaeao auoue yooaeoeaiie
oieueei ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa. Ei aeieaeiu
i?ioeainoiyoue iaiaoiaeeiua oiaa?u, caiania eioi?uo ia oaaoaei aeaaea ia
oi, /oiau i?iei?ieoue ?aai/eo iaeaieaa aaaeiuo io?aneae e oai naiui
“caionoeoue” i?iecaiaenoai. Ia oaaoaei e ?aca?aia, eioi?ua iiaeii auei
au eniieueciaaoue, /oiau iiaeoieeiooue ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaiaaeeaiiia naaeaine?iaaiea athaeaeaoia caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai auei
i?eciaii iainouanoaeiui. Aianoa n oai eiienney oeacuaaea ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaeaeaeaiey a yoii iai?aaeaiee iaeiia?aiaiii n
ia?aueaaieai auionea i?iaeoeoeee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, oe?aieaiea
oeiainiaie nenoaiu ?anniao?eaaeinue ia eae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay eee
caeeth/eoaeueiay noaaeey yeiiiie/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey, a eae i?ioeann, a
eioi?ii icaei?iaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeiainia iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
iiaeuaio i?iecaiaenoaa e naii, a naith i/a?aaeue, caaeneo io yoiai
iiaeuaia.

E 1947 aiaeo neiaeeeinue iieiaeaiea, i?e eioi?ii naii nio?aiaiea
aeinoeaioouo iauaiia auionea i?iaeoeoeee ieacaeinue iiae aii?inii.
AEecianiiniaiinoue caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie yeiiiieee ai iiiaii
iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue eiii?oii ec Naaa?iie Aia?eee. No?aiu Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu ca n/ao eo nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaee iaania/eoue naia
iio?aaeaiea ca?ia, oeiiea, aethieiey e iaaee oieueei ia 40%, naeioea e
oeeiea – ia 30%, naea e ianea – i?eia?ii ia 15%, aeeaeeiai oiieeaa e
iyna – ia 10%. Aano?ey, e i?eia?o, ia iie?uaaea nianoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii aeaaea iieiaeiu iio?aaiinoe a iniiaiuo i?iaeoeoao
ieoaiey. Oiaiueoaiea eiii?oa yoeo i?iaeoeoia ec NOA iiaei i?eaanoe e
aieiaeo [2].

N?aco iinea aieiu eiii?o no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu iaania/eaaeny
i?aaeinoaaeaieai noaneaeee e caeiia ni noi?iiu NOA e Eaiaaeu,
eniieueciaaieai cieiouo e aeieea?iauo ?aca?aia e ae?. E 1947 a. iioie
oeiainiauo iinooieaiee ec yoeo enoi/ieeia enoiueeny. Ec-ca iaaeinoaoea
ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea no?aiu ieacaeenue ia?aae
ia?niaeoeaie nie?auaiey eiii?oa i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia e
eeth/aauo nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia. Aac iiiiue NOA aaic a ainoaea?noaa
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu oaea a 1947 a. nie?aoeeny au iaiieiaeio, a
aeieea?iaue eiii?o – ia 4/5, /oi icia/aei au aeey yoeo ainoaea?noa
yeiiiie/aneee ia?aee/.

Aai ianooieaiea ia ioaa/aei au e nianoaaiiui eioa?anai NOA. A oi aea
a?aiy ie aia?eeaineei, ie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei eioa?anai ia ioaa/ae e
eo?n ia cae?aieaiea ca NOA ?iee aeaenoaothuaai ia aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo
ia/aeao iinoaaueea nu?uey e naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oiaa?ia ia?aie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii o?aaiaaeny oaeie noeaia?ee
nio?oaeie/anoaa, eioi?ue au :

iaania/eaae aieueooth naiiieoiaaiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey
Aa?iiu;

iiauoae ioaea/o aia?eeaineie iiiiue;

aienuaaeny a ia/aaoaany a eiioea 40-o aiaeia i/a?aaeiia iaiiaeaiea
oaoiieiae/aneie aacu aia?eeaineie yeiiiieee.

A ethea 1947 aiaea a Ia?eaea auea nicaaia eiioa?aioeey aa?iiaeneeo no?ai
aeey ianoaeaeaiey “ieaia Ia?oaeea” n oeaeueth iieo/aiey eo niaeaney ia
?ac?aaioeo iauaaa?iiaeneie yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu. Ia yoie
eiioa?aioeee auea caeeth/aia eiiaaioeey i nicaeaiee I?aaiecaoeee
(ia?aiia/aeueii eiieoaoa) aa?iiaeneiai yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa.
Aa caaea/ae noaea ?ac?aaioea niaianoiie I?ia?aiiu ainnoaiiaeaiey
Aa?iiu. A aaaonoa 1947 aiaea eiieoaou eiioa?aioeee ii?aaeaeeee iauoth
noiio e?aaeeoia, iaiaoiaeeioth Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ia 4 aiaea. NOA iineaee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae Eiia?anna a Aiaeeth, O?aioeeth, Aa?iaieth, Eoaeeth,
Aano?eth, Neaiaeeiaaneea no?aiu, /oiau ia ianoa eco/eoue aii?in ia
iauaia iiiiue aa?iiaeneei no?aiai a ii?yaeea ?aaeecaoeee “ieaia
Ia?oaeea”. A eiioea 1947 aiaea i?aaeoaeuenoai NOA aianei ia
?anniio?aiea eiia?anna caeiiii?iaeo i “ieaia Ia?oaeea”.

“Ieai Ia?oaeea” Aue ooaa?aeaeai eiia?annii 2 ai?aey 1948 aiaea e
aeaenoaiaae n 3 ai?aey 1948 aiaea ii 30 aeaeaa?y 1951 aiaea. Aai
inouanoaeaiea i?iaiaeeeinue a ?aieao Caeiia i /aou?aoeaoiae i?ia?aiia
iiiiue eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai.

Aaaeiui aniaeoii ?aaeecaoeee “ieaia Ia?oaeea” noae aii?in ia enoi/ieeao
oeiaine?iaaiey ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia i?ia?aiiu. Aai ?aoaiea oaycuaaeinue
n oa?aeoa?ii iinoaaie, aeaeii iinoaaie [2].

Iinoaaee ia?aiai aeaea ioaaouaaee i?aaeiaou aaaeiaeoae aeeciaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe – oa, /oi o?aaiaaeenue aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey aieiaea.
Eaaeaeoth aanio auaeaeyeenue anneaiiaaiey ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey,
oiieeai, iaeaaeaeo. Aiae io aiaea ii ia?a ?inoa nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai yoe anneaiiaaiey nie?auaeenue. Iineieueeo iiiiuue
oaeiai ?iaea ia ieoiaeanue, iia oea a aeaea aeioaoeee, a ia caeiia.
Ianoiay aaethoa, au?o/aiiay io i?iaeaaee yoeo i?iaeoeoia, aeieaeia auea
eniieueciaaoueny i?aaeoaeuenoaii aa?iiaeneeo no?ai aeey oiaiueoaiey
aeaoeoeeoa ainathaeaeaoa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oaiiia eioeyoeee; aeey
ia?aueaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aoi?ie aeae iinoaaie – i?iiuoeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Caeanue a
oeiaine?iaaiee i?aiaeaaeaee caeiu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaiea.

O?aoee aeae – nu?uea, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu, i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u,
caianiua /anoe e o.ae. Yoe iinoaaee oeiaine?iaaeenue iiae aa?aioee
aia?eeaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa /a?ac Yenii?oii-eiii?oiue aaie NOA,
nicaeaaoee aeey yoeo oeaeae niaoeeaeueiia ioaeaeaiea.

A ai?aea 1948 aiaea a Ia?eaea ieieno?aie 16 aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa e
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie nithcieeia io Aa?iaiee auea iiaeienaia eiiaaioeey. A
niioaaonoaee n “Ieaiii Ia?oaeea” aai aa?iiaeneea o/anoieee aeieaeiu
auee :

i?aaei?eiyoue ia?u ii iaeaa/aieth iaiaia oiaa?aie e oneoaaie iaaeaeo
niaie, onei?eoue ?acaeoea aioo?eaa?iiaeneie oi?aiaee;

/a?ac iaaeno?aiiaoth eiiia?aoeeth iaania/eoue aeoeaecaoeeth iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaenei?aeoaai
?inoa auionea i?iaeoeoeee;

i?aaei?eiyoue oeiainiaua e ae?oaea ia?u ii oe?aieaieth naieo aaetho,
ainnoaiiaeaieth aeiaa?ey e iei;

i?eaeaoue aa?iiaeneie eiiia?aoeee i?aaiecaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea.

Eae ecaanoii, oi?iie oaeiai iaania/aiey noaea IAYN – I?aaiecaoeey
Aa?iiaeneiai Yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, iauaaeeieaoay 16
ainoaea?noa.

5. ?AAEECAOeEss “ IEAIA IA?OAEEA” A NO?AIAO CAIAAeIIE Aa?IIU

A yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai i?ienoiaeeee eciaiaiey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia iiene e i?eiaiaiea iiauo iaoiaeia yeiiiie/aneiai
?aaoee?iaaiey [6]. Ainoaea?noaa noieeioeenue n i?ioeai?a/eai. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, oneiaeai aia?eeaineie iiiiue aue ioeac no?aiu, aa i?e
i?eieiathuae, io aeaeueiaeoae i?ia?aiiu iaoeeiiaeecaoeee e ieaiia,
eioi?ua aoaeoo i?e/eiyoue oua?a /anoiiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, o.a.
?acaeoea /anoiiai eaieoaea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ainnoaiiaeaiea iiaeii
auei inouanoaeoue oieueei i?e aaaeouae ?iee ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia
iaania/eaaei ia ia?auo yoaiao ianaeaiea i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, a
i?iiuoeaiiinoue – nu?ueai, noa?aeinue eeeaeaee?iaaoue aac?aaioeoeo. A
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?eoeinue iaoeeiiaeece?iaaoue ianiiniaiua e
naiiiaania/aieth io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe: aeaeaciua aei?iae, aicaeooiue
o?ainii?o, noa?o nioeeaeueiuo oneoa, iaeioi?ua io?anee oyaeaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A yoeo oneiaeyo, oaeaea eae e a NOA a 30-a aiaeu, noaei iaiaoiaeeiui
eniieueciaaiea eaeineaineiai iiaeoiaea e yeiiiie/aneiio ?aaoee?iaaieth:
noeioee?iaaiea ni?ina /a?ac aeinoeaeaiea iieiie caiyoinoe iooai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaieioee?iaaiey iaeiaaie e ?anoiaeaie. Nieiay iaeaieaa
ino?ua aii?inu, “ieai Ia?oaeea” eniiaeaieue iiiu?ye yoio i?ioeann.

O?iaaiue aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo aue ?aciui. Oae,
O?aioeey e Oaaoeey iioee ii iooe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey. Aunie
aue o?iaaiue iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe a Aano?ee, Aa?iaiee,
Aaeueaee, Eoaeee. Ai O?aioeee inouanoaeyeny aeanoeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
eiio?ieue ca e?aaeeoii, aeaaiie oeaeueth auei ia noieueei aeinoeaeaiea
aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa, neieueei iiaea?iecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aaeeeia?eoaiey ia oi?iieeanue n i?eiaiaieai ieaie?iaaiey, a
iaoeeiiaeecaoeeth ?anniao?eaaea eae ia?o “nianaiey” noaaie?othueo
io?aneae, a ia n?aaenoai noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe.
Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea no?aiu auea iai?aaeaia ia ?aoaiea 2-o caaea/ :
aeinoeaeaiea aunieiai o?iaiy caiyoinoe ia iniiaa eaeineaineiai iaoiaea
iiauoaiey niaieoiiiai ni?ina /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a
yeiiiieeo e oeo/oaiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, eniieuecoy oeiainiaoth
iiiiuue NOA.

Aeaaiuie i?iaeaiaie Eoaeee a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae auee aac?aaioeoea e
aunieay eioeyoeey. N?aaieoaeueii auno?ia ainnoaiiaeaiea oaeaea
iie?aeinue ia oneeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey, ?ino i?yiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee, iiaea?iecaoeeth i?iiuoeaiiinoe a
ainnaeoi?a. A ioee/ea io Aaeeeia?eoaiee, eniieueciaaaoae aia?eeaineoth
iiiiuue ia oe?aieaiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, eoaeueyineia i?aaeoaeuenoai
?ac?aoeei /anoiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi eniieueciaaoue oiiaeu iiiiue ia
oeiaine?iaaiea eiii?oa iai?oaeiaaiey ec NOA.

Iniaia ianoi a “ieaia Ia?oaeea” auei oaeaeaii Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee. Iinea
ieii/aiey 2-e ie?iaie aieiu Caiaaeiay Aa?iaiey i?aa?aoeeanue ii
nouanoao ec i?ioeaieea a ia?oia?a caiaaeiuo aea?aeaa, ae ioaiaeeeanue
?ieue oi?iinoa a ai?ueaa i?ioea “niaaoneiai eiiioiecia”. Ec anao
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai eiaiii Aa?iaiee “ieai Ia?oaeea” ioaeaaae
yaiia i?aaeii/oaiea. Oae, ca ia?aua aiaeu ?aaeecaoeee “ieaia
Ia?oaeea” (1948-1951) Aa?iaiey iieo/eea io NOA ii/oe noieueei aea,
neieueei Aaeeeia?eoaiey e O?aioeey aianoa acyoua e ii/oe a 3,5 ?aca
aieueoa, /ai Eoaeey.

Aaiee a Aa?iaiee o?aaeeoeeiiii a?aee ia naay eiiia?/aneee ?ene e
aeaaioth ?ieue a iaania/aiee eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, aoiaeeee a aeaoaee
oi?aaeaiey e?aaeeooaiuo oe?i. Iinea e?aoa oeiainiaie nenoaiu
aneaaenoaea 2-e ie?iaie aieiu ainoaea?noai noaei i?eia?aoaoue aieueooth
aeanoue ii eiio?ieth ca e?aaeeoiie nenoaiie, ii i?iaiaeeiay iieeoeea
auea ?acoeueoaoii ia?aaiai?ia e nio?oaeie/anoaa n iniiaiuie oeiainiauie
e i?iiuoeaiiuie iaaiaoaie. Iieo/aiiua ii “ieaio Ia?oaeea” oiiaeu, auee
eiaanoe?iaaiu a /anoiue e i?iiuoeaiiue naeoi?. Iaeiaei, aaiee auee
iniiaie eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. O/anoaoy a eaieoaea oe?i, iieoiay
iaeaou aeoeee , aaiee oai naiui auee caeioa?aniaaiu a aoaeouai
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?aaeinoaaeee oiiaeu aeey aa ?acaeoey. Iiiu?aiea
iaeiieaiey eaieoaea e ianniaua ainoaea?noaaiiua eiaanoeoeee a Aa?iaiee
noaee iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Aieueoia cia/aiea ia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee a Aa?iaiee ieacaee oicyenoaaiiua
?aoi?iu 1948 aiaea. Eaeaieiaii yoeo ?aoi?i aue i?ioanni? Ithioaineiai
oieaa?neoaoa E.Y?oa?ae. A o?oaeao ii yeiiiie/aneei aii?inai ea naiae
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ii aunooiae ca oi?ie?iaaiea oae iacuaaaiiai
nioeeaeueiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. Aai eiioeaioeey no?ieony ia oii, /oi
noeioeii aeey /aeiaaea yaeyaony no?aieaiea e nianoaaiiiio aeaaiiieo/eth.
?u/aae yeiiiie/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey no?aiu Y?oa?ae ii?aaeaeye eae
naiaiaeioth /anoioth eieoeeaoeao e eiieo?aioeeth n aeoeaiie ?ieueth
ainoaea?noaa a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie.[3]

?aaeecaoeey “ieaia Ia?oaeea” a O?A auea, ia?yaeo n ?aoi?iie Y?oa?aea,
aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai ia?aoiaea io oioaeeoa?iie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iie. Ii
aua aaaeiaa auei i?eiyoia nithcieeaie ?aoaiea i aica?auaiee O?A ia
iieeoe/aneoth e yeiiiie/aneoth a?aio Aa?iiu. Niyoea ia?aie/aiee ia
aiaoithth oi?aiaeth iicaieeei Aa?iaiee aa?iooue naie eeaee?othuea
iiceoeee a Aa?iia. Caiaaeiiaa?iaineee aa?eaio ia?aoiaea io
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeyaiiai oicyenoaa e ?uieo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oeaiiue iiuo aeey anao no?ai, ?aoathueo iiaeiaioth caaea/o.

6. “IEAI IA?OAEEA” – IEAI AINNOAIIAEAIEss EEE
AIAIIUE IEAI ?

A 1948 aiaeo iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aeooaeueiuo aii?inia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iieeoeee aue “ieai Ia?oaeea”. Ieii/aiea 2-e ie?iaie aieiu i?eaaei e
nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieyi anae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ianoaiiaee. Aiaiiue
?aca?ii aeiea oaoenoneeo ainoaea?noa, aioeoaoenoneee inaiaiaeeoaeueiue
oa?aeoa? aieiu, ?aoathuay ?ieue Niaaoneiai Nithca a iiaaaea eciaieee
niioiioaiey nee iaaeaeo aeaoiy nenoaiaie – nioeeaeenoe/aneie e
eaieoaeenoe/aneie. Niaaoneee Nithc e noi?iiieee nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
iooe ?acaeoey ?acei io?eoeaoaeueii ioiineeenue e eieoeeaoeaa NOA. Iie
n/eoaee, /oi “ieai Ia?oaeea” ia iiiiaaao aa?iiaeneei ia?iaeai
ainnoaiiaeoue naith yeiiiieeo, a iaiai?io, oi?iiceo aeaei
ainnoaiiaeaiey, eeoaao aa?iiaeneea no?aiu eo naiinoiyoaeueiinoe,
i?aa?auaao eo a i?eaeaoie aia?eeaineiai eiia?eaeecia.

Iniaua iianaiey auneacuaaeenue a ioiioaiee ieeeoa?enoneiai oa?aeoa?a
ieaia. O?aioeocneee ioaeeoeeno A.Eeiae [8] ieoao, /oi aia?eeaineea
ieeeoa?enou i?iaicaeaneee iiaue eo?n, iai?aaeaiiue ia caaiaaaiea
ie?iaiai ainiiaenoaa. Aaaeiie aaoie ia yoii iooe yaeyaony “ieai
Ia?oaeea” – ieai caeaaaeaiey aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia aia?eeaineei
eaieoaeeciii. Nin?aaeioi/eaay naia aeaaiia aieiaiea ia Aa?iiaeneii
eiioeiaioa, aia?eeaineea eiia?eaeenou no?aieeenue ?ac?aoeoue
iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa caaea/e: ecaaaeaoue yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, aeaa
aa?iiaeneei no?aiai aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeieaeaoue caeoiee aia?eeaineeo
oiaa?ia, e “iiaeaea?aeaoue” eiia?eaeenoe/aneoth nenoaio a Aa?iia,
i?einoaiiaea ?ino aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey. Yoa aeaieiay caaea/a e
aeieaeia auoue ?ac?aoaia iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey aa?iiaeneei no?aiai
aia?eeaineeo e?aaeeoia ia oneiaeyo, eioi?ua naeaeaee au yoe no?aiu
iieiinoueth caaeneiuie io NOA e i?aa?aoeee au eo ia?iaeu a iauaeo
eieiieaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee aia?eeaineeie iiiiiieeyie.

Aaoi? i?aaeeneiaey e ?aaioa [9] n/eoaao, /oi iniiaiie oeaeueth,
eioi?oth noaaee ia?aae niaie aia?eeaineee ioaeeoeenoa A. Aeaeaein
yaeyeinue ?aciaea/aiea ooaa?aeaeaiee i oii, /oi “ieai Ia?oaeea”
yaeyaony yeiau ieaiii iiiiue aa?iiaeneei no?aiai a ainnoaiiaeaiee eo
yeiiiieee. Aeaeaein n/eoae, /oi “ieai Ia?oaeea” – yoi /enoi aiaiiue,
aa?anneaiue ieai.

I?aeoe/anee ana ecaeaiey iineaaiaiiiai ia?eiaea a Niaaoneii Nithca
oa?aeoa?ecotho “ieai Ia?oaeea” eae aa?anneaiue ieai , iai?aaeaiiue ia
oe?aieaiea aaaaiiiee NOA a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, nicaeaiea
iauaaeeiaiiiai eiia?eaeenoe/aneiai o?iioa i?ioea inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey, NNN? e neeaaeuaathuaeny ie?iaie nenoaiu nioeeaeecia.

7. NIA?AIAIIUE ACAEssAe IA “IEAI IA?OAEEA”

?aoi?iu aoi?ie iieiaeiu 80-o aiaeia a auaoai NNN? iieiaeeee ia/aei
iaiiaeaieth iauanoaa e oicyenoaaiiiio ia?aono?ienoao a ?innee. Inaiueth
1991 aiaea ?inney iieo/eea a ianeaaenoai io NNN? e?aeia
ianaaeaine?iaaiioth yeiiiieeo n o?iaiai ioe?uoie eioeyoeee nauoa 300% a
aiae. Iiaeaaeaiiay eioeyoeey i?eaaea e eiioeo aiaea e anaiauae iaoaaoea
aaaeiaeoeo oiaa?ia, aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa ninoaaee nauoa 30% AAI.
Ia?iiiue aiaoiee aeiea iaaiciiaeii auei ianeoaeeoue aeaaea eiioeneaoeeae
anao aaethoiuo naa?aaeaiee [3]. Iiene iooae ia?aoiaea e iiaui
yeiiiie/aneei ioiioaieyi e iiaeuaio e noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieea i/aiue
neiaeai. Iaiythony i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iaiythony i?ei?eoaou iai?aaeaiey
?acaeoey yeiiiieee.

Aaoi?u ?aaiou [2] n/eoatho, /oi i?aaenoaaeythony aiieia iainiiaaiiuie
niia?aaeaiey i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aieaa ?aciinoi?iiiaai eco/aiey
yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a iineaaiaiiie Aa?iia e eniieueciaaiey
iiuoa Caiaaeiuo ainoaea?noa i?eiaieoaeueii e yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a
?innee.

Iineaaiaiiue iiuo Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey eae n iiceoeee
ainnoaiiaeaiey oicyenoaa, icaei?iaeaiey oeiainia e aeaiaa, iaeaaeeaaiey
yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai, oae e n oi/ee c?aiey no?aoaaee
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey, iaania/eaoae nicaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
i?aaeiinueie aeey iiuiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna a ?acee/iuo noa?ao
i?iecaiaenoaa. E?iia oiai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ianiio?y ia iieo/aiea
oe?ieiianooaaiie iiiiue, yoe no?aiu ia noaee yeiiiie/aneei i?eaeaoeii
NOA, aieaa oiai, i?aa?aoeeenue a eiia/iii n/aoa a neeueiuo eiieo?aioia.
?aaeecaoeey “ieaia Ia?oaeea” a naia a?aiy i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea
?acoeueoaoeaiinoue yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee, i?e eioi?ie eioeyoeee
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyeny eiio?ieue ia oieueei ca aeaiaaeiie, ii e oiaa?iie
iannie.

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii , /oi enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey
e ?aaeecaoeee “ieaia Ia?oaeea” a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iieiinoueth
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao auneacuaaiea ciaiaieoiai iaeiioaieeueoea ainnae?aoa?y
NOA – aiaeeeneiai yeiiiienoa Aeueo?aaea Ia?oaeea i oii, /oi “
onoa?aaoea eaeae a yeiiiieea ieeiaaea iieiinoueth ia en/acatho. Eiaaea
iiaua enneaaeiaaiey ni a?aiaiai noaiiayony ia naie ianoa, a eo
e?eoe/aneay ino?ioa nieiaaony, oi ieacuaaaony, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iie ioithaeue ia ia?ooatho i?aainoaaiiinoue i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
iaoee”[10]

AEAEEIA?AOE*ANEEE NIENIE

Aeaoa I. Yeiiiie/aneay iuneue a ?ao?iniaeoeaa. Ia?.n aiae., 4-a ecae. –
I.: “ Aeaei Eoae”, 1994. – 720n.

Aeaiaioueaa A.A.,Ieaaneay A.I. “Ieai Ia?oaeea”: acaeyae ec naaiaeiyoiae
?innee. ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae. N8, 1993, n. 81-86.

Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. Eo?n eaeoeee ./ Iiae iau.?aae.
A.E.Aieoaiae/a. – Ii.: EI “Yeiia?niaeoeaa”, 1997. – 432n.

Iaaeiaa E.I. e ae?. Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee: O/aa. iiniaea ;
NIaAAAI, Ecae.2-a. NIa.,1996.

Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. Ae. ?aae. A.A. Aaaaeaineee. 1,2,3,oii.-
AIE “ANY”. I.1953-55.

Ai?iaeaoeeee A.A. e ae?. “Ieai Ia?oaeea” – iooue e noaaeeecaoeee e
aic?iaeaeaieth Aa?iiu. I?ai?eio aeieeaaea. ?AI, einoeooo Yeiiiieee,
I.,1993.

European Recovery and American Aid. A Report by the President’s
Committee of Forein Aid.- W., 1947.- Now. 7.

Eeiae A. Ieai Ia?oaeea. “Eiino?aiiay eeoa?aoo?a”, I.,1950

Aeeai Ae. “Ieai Ia?oaeea”. Ieai ainnoaiiaeaiey eee aiaiiue ieai?.
“Eiino?aiiay eeoa?aoo?a”, I., 1949.

Ia?oaee A. I?eioeeiu yeiiiie/aneie iaoee, o.1,2,3.Ia?. n aiae. –
I.,Ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia “I?ia?ann”, 1993 – 26e, 19,5e, 22e.

Iaaeoe O. Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee: O/aaiee/ Ia?. n aiae. iiae ?aae.
E.E. Ethaeiiaa e A.N. Aaoiiiiiaa.- I.: AI “Aniaeo I?ann”, 1995. – 462n.

Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee: O/aaiee aeey yeii. niaoe. aocia/ ?uiaeeia
I.I., Aaneeaaneee A.A., Aieinia A.A. e ae?. – I.: Auno. oeiea, 1983 a.
– 559n.

Niaaoneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue / Ae. ?aae. A.I.I?ioi?ia. – 3-a
ecae. – I : “Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey”, 1984. – 1600n.

Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue / Ae. ?aae. A.A. Aaaaeaineee. 1,2 o.
I:”Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey”, 1964. – 736n.

O?eano – aaeieieno?aoeaiay i?iaeioeey Eoaeee. Iinea 2-e ie?iaie aieiu
ii ie?iiio aeiaiai?o n Eoaeeae O?eano n iaaieueoei ie?oaii aue
auaeaeai a naiaiaeioth oa??eoi?eth O?eano.

Eaiae-eec – nenoaia ia?aaea/e NOA acaeiu eee a a?aiaeo aii?oaeaiey,
aiai?eiania, no?aoaae/aneiai nu?uey, i?iaeiaieuenoaey e ae?.
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia no?aiai aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee a ia?eiae 2-e
ie?iaie aieiu.

Aeaei?aeo Eaoeaoo Ia?oae ( 1880 – 1959 ) aia?eeaineee aaia?ae a?iee .
A 1939-45 ia/aeueiee Aaiooaaa, a 1947-49 ainoaea?noaaiiue nae?aoa?ue
NOA, a1950-1951 ieieno? iai?iia. Noi?iiiee “oieiaeiie aieiu” e aiiee
aii?oaeaiee.

Ethaeaea Y?oa?ae (1897) 1948-49 a. – aee?aeoi? aeaaiiai oi?aaeaiey
Aeciiee. !949-63 – ieieno? yeiiiieee O?A, n 1963 – eaioeea? O?A.

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