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Ответы на билеты к госэкзаменам (Международный независимый эколого-политологический университет)

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? 1.?uii/iue iaoaieci e aai yeaiaiou

?uiie – yoi iaiai oiaa?ia, i?aaieciaaiiue ii caeiiai oiaa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia?auaiey.

4 yoaia ?acaeoey ?uiea:

1) oi?ia iaiaia oiaa?a ia oiaa?;

2) oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiue iaiai;

3) aicieeiiaaiea eaieoaeecia e /anoiuo nianoaaiieeia;

4) aic?iaeaeaiea ?uiea ia anoanoaaiiuo ia/aeao a ?innee e ae?oaeo
no?aiao auaoaai NNN?.

?uii/iue iaoaieci – yoi iaoaieci acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia ?uiea: ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey, oeaiu e eiieo?aioeee.
Iniaaiiinoue ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia ninoieo a oii, /oi eaaeaeue aai yeaiaio
oaiiaeoei ia?acii naycai n oeaiie, eioi?ay neoaeeo iniiaiui
eino?oiaioii, aicaeaenoaothuei ia ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea. A /anoiinoe,
ni?in iaoiaeeony a ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe io oeaiu: n iiauoaieai oeaiu
oiaa?a ni?in ia iaai nie?auaaony e iaiai?io. Ni?in oaeaea aeeyao ia
i?aaeeiaeaiea, a i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ni?in. Iai?eia?, i?aaeeiaeaiea ia
?uiea iiauo ea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia anaaaea noeioee?oao ni?in ia ieo, a
?ino ni?ina ia ioaeaeueiua oiaa?u a eoiaa aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
oaaee/aiee i?aaeeiaeaiey yoeo oiaa?ia.

Oeaia. (i?eia?: no?. 105 “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey”). Eciaiaiea
ioiineoaeueiuo oeai neoaeeo i?eaioi?ii aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. Eciaiaiea
oeai aeeyao ia auai? oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Oeaiu a eiia/iii eoiaa
i?aaeii?aaeaeytho oi, eai i?e aeaiiii o?iaia aeioiaeia aoaeao iio?aaeai
i?iaeoeo.

Ni?in – yoi i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia ?uiea iio?aaiinoue a oiaa?ao,
ii?aaeaeyaiay eiee/anoaii oao eee eiuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iio?aaeoaee
iiaoo eoieoue i?e neiaeeaoeony oeaiao e aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeao.

I?aaeeiaeaiea – yoi eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia eiaaony a i?iaeaaea i?e
aeaiiie oeaia. Eciaiaiea niioiioaiey iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai
ii?iaeaeaao eieaaaiey ?uii/iuo oeai aie?oa oeaiu ?aaiiaaney. *a?ac yoe
eieaaaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony oio o?iaaiue oeai, i?e eioi?ii iaania/eaaaony
?aaiiaany ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e a eiia/iii eoiaa ?aaiiaanea
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey. Eiieo?aioeey. Oeaeue eaaeaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
?anoe?aiea ianooaaia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
acaeiiie ai?ueaa i?eaaei?eieiaoaeae ca ieaaieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa oiaa?ia, ?ino iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, e iie
aunooiatho ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao eae niia?ieee eee eiieo?aiou.
Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a aieueoa, /ai ni?in ia iaai, oi
oneeeaaaony eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie. Eaaeaeue ec ieo,
/oiau i?iaeaoue naie oiaa?, ca/anooth auioaeaeai nieaeaoue oeaio, /oi,
eae i?aaeei, aea/ao ca niaie nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a.
Anee ni?in aieueoa, /ai i?aaeeiaeaiea, oi eiieo?e?iaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii
auioaeaeaiu oaea iieoiaoaee. *oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?anoe
aeaoeoeeoiue oiaa?, eaaeaeue ec ieo noa?aaony i?aaeeiaeeoue ii
aiciiaeiinoe aieaa aunieoth oeaio, /ai yoi iiaoo naeaeaoue aai
niia?ieee. Oeaia iiauoaaony, e yoi noeioee?oao oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Eiieo?aioeey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia.

Ooieoeee ?uiea.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay ooieoeey: /a?ac iinoiyiii iaiythueany oeaiu, i?ioeaioiua
noaaee e ae?oaea eino?oiaiou iia auaeaeaao i?iecaiaenoao neaiae i
eiee/anoaa, ea/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth neaaeoao
iinoaaeoue a i?iaeaaeo. Yoa ooieoeey aaaeia,oae eae a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee i?iecaiaeeoue neaaeoao oi, /oi iiaeii i?iaeaoue.

Oeaiiia?acothuay ooieoeey: eiaiii a noa?a ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee i?ienoiaeeo
niiinoaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo cao?ao o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee e ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue iauanoaaiii-iaiaoiaeeiuo cao?ao, a
IICO – enoiaeiay aaca aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu oiaa?a.

Iin?aaeie/aneay ooieoeey: aia ioiioaiee iaiaia, eoiee-i?iaeaaee
i?iaeoeoeee oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaee a oneiaeyo iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia iiaoo aiciaiiaeyoue naie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee.

?aaoee?othuay ooieoeey ?uiea ?aaeecoaony /a?ac iaoaieci aeaenoaey
i?enoueo aio caeiiia (caeiia noieiinoe, eiieo?aioeee, i?eauee,
niioaaonoaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey).

Naie?othuay ooieoeey ?uiea. ?uiie aeanoie ii ioioaieth e iaeiyooaeoiui,
yeiiiie/anee iaonoie/eaui i?aaei?eyoeyi. Oa ec ieo, /uey i?iaeoeoeey ia
iieuecoaony ni?inii, eoi ia no?aieony e nieaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
cao?ao, iinoiyiiiio iaiiaeaieth anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee, a eiioea
eiioeia “auiuaathony” n ?uiea. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii, ?anoao aai iauay
yeiiiie/aneay onoie/eainoue.

Iaaaoeaiua noi?iiu ?uiea

ia niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth iaaini?iecaiaeeiuo ?ano?nia;

ia iiaeao ?aaoee?iaaoue eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo anaio
/aeiaa/anoao, iai?eia? ?uaiuo aiaaonoa ieaaia;

ia nicaeaao noeioeu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa eieeaeoeaiiai
iieueciaaiey;

iiaeaa?aeai ianoaaeeueiiio ?acaeoeth (eioeyoeey).

? 2. Eiieo?aioeey e iiiiiieee. Niaa?oaiiay e ianiaa?oaiiay
eiieo?aioeey. Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey

Eiieo?aioeey – iniaue oei acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie ii
iiaiaeo onoaiiaeaiey oeai e iauaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia ia ?uiea e
iniaue oei acaiioiioaiee iaaeaeo iio?aaeoaeyie ii iiaiaeo oi?ie?iaaiey
oeai e iauaia ni?ina ia ?uiea. Eiieo?aioeey niinianoaoao onoaiiaeaieth
?uii/iiai ?aaiaaney. Eiieo?aioeey auaaao: aioo?eio?aneaaay – aioo?e
iaeiie io?anee oe?iu eiieo?eotho ca noa?u i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea, ?uiee
nauoa, e iaaeio?aneaaay – eiieo?aioeey eaeao ii iiaiaeo aeiaeaiey
eaieoaea a ?aciua io?anee. Oeaeue eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey –
iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ?anoe?aiea ianooaaia
oacyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e acaeiiie ai?ueaa
i?eaaei?eieiaoaeae ca ieaaieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa
oiaa?ia, ?ino iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, e iie aunooiatho ii ioiioaieth
ae?oa e ae?oao eae niia?ieee eee eiieo?aiou. Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea
eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a aieueoa, /ai ni?in ia iaai, oi oneeeaaaony
eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie. Eaaeaeue ec ieo, /oiau
i?iaeaoue naie oiaa?, ca/anooth auioaeaeai nieaeaoue oeaio, /oi, eae
i?aaeei, aea/ao ca niaie nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Anee
ni?in aieueoa, /ai i?aaeeiaeaiea, oi eiieo?e?iaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii
auioaeaeaiu oaea iieoiaoaee. *oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?anoe
aeaoeoeeoiue oiaa?, eaaeaeue ec ieo noa?aaony i?aaeeiaeeoue ii
aiciiaeiinoe aieaa aunieoth oeaio, /ai yoi iiaoo naeaeaoue aai
niia?ieee. Oeaia iiauoaaony, e yoi noeioee?oao oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Eiieo?aioeey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia. Iia i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ia?aie/aiiua ?ano?nu eniieueothony
aieaa iieii e yooaeoeaii. Iie ono?aieythony a oa io?anee, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyo iaiaoiaeeioth aeey iio?aaeoaey e ?aioaaaeueioth aeey
i?iecaiaeeoaey i?iaeoeoeeth. Eiieo?aioeeth iacuaatho iniiaiie
?aaoee?othuae e eiio?iee?othuae neeie a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

2 iniiaiua a?oiiu iaoiaeia eiieo?aioeee: oeaiiaua e iaoeaiiaua.

Oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niia?ie/anoai i?aaei?eieiaoaee
ca ecaea/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee ia iniiaa oiaiueoaiey ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iia?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nieaeaiey oeai
ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth aac eciaiaiey aa anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa.

Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey aeeth/aao:

a) eciaiaiea naienoa i?iaeoeoeee;

a) i?eaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ea/anoaaiii iiauo naienoa;

a) nicaeaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey oao aea
iio?aaiinoae.

2 oi?iu eiieo?aioeee: niaa?oaiiay e ianiaa?oaiiay (/enoay iiiiiieey,
aeoiiieey, ieeaiiieey, iiiiiieene/aneay eiieo?aioeey).

Niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey: (naeueneia oicyenoai)

aieueoia /enei oe?i;

noaiaea?oece?iaaiiue oei i?iaeoeoa;

ionoonoaea eiio?iey iaae oeaiie;

eaaeea oneiaey anoieaiey a io?aneue;

ionoonoaea iaoeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee.

Iiaeaeue no?ieony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ie iaeei oicyenoaothuee noauaeo
ia iia ieacaoue ieeaeiai aeaaeaiey ia ?uiie. I?aaeiieaaaao, /oi oe?iu e
?ano?nu iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny iaaeaeo io?aneyie. A oaeie yeiiiieea
aeaenoaey no?aiyueony e i?eauee i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?eaaaeoo e oaeiio
?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia, eioi?ia iaeneiece?oao oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaeoaeae. Eiieo?aioiua oe?iu aoaeoo eniieueciaaoue iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaioth ec ecaanoiuo oaoiieiaee e iacia/aoue naioth ieceoth oeaio n
o/aoii naieo ecaea?aeai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii oai ia iaiaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia, naycaiiia n aeaenoaeyie
/enoi eiieo?aioie ?uii/iie nenoaiu iiaeao aanoe e i?iecaiaenoao ionoyeia
aeey aiaaouo, ioeacuaay aaaeiui a oaeiaeaoai?aiee eo iniiaiuo ioaeae.
Io?aneue n /enoie eiieo?aioeeae iiaeao iaoaoue i?eiaiaieth eo/oae ec
ecaanoiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoieee e aeaaii?eyonoaiaaoue iaaeeaiiiio
oaiio oaoie/aneiaii?ia?anna. Eiieo?aioiay nenoaia ia iaania/eaaao ie
oe?ieiai aeeaiaciia auai?a i?iaeoeoia, ie oneiaee aeey ?ac?aaioee iiauo
i?iaeoeoia, iia i?eaiaeeo e noaiaea?oecaoeee iiaeoeoia, oiaaea eae
ae?oaea ?uii/iua no?oeoo?u (ieeaiiieey e iiiiiieenoe/aneay
eiieo?aioeey) ii?iaeaeatho oe?ieee aeeaiacii oeiia, noeeae e iooaieia
ea/anoaa ethaiai i?iaeoeoa. Ieeaeiai i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey oaeay
iiaeaeue ia eiaao.

Iiiiiieey: (ianoiua i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey)

iaeia oe?ia;

oieeaeueiue oei i?iaeoeoa, iao aeeceeo caiaieoaeae;

aunieay noaiaiue eiio?iey iaae oeaiie;

anooieaiea ae?oaeo oe?i a io?aneue aeiee?iaaii;

iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey – aeaaiui ia?acii ?aeeaia nayce n iauanoaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie. Ia ?uiea nouanoaoao aaeeinoaaiiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue –
iiiiiieeno, oaeiaeaoai?ythuee ni?in anao iio?aaeoaeae. Ioaeaeueiua
iio?aaeoaee ia iiaoo ieacuaaoue aeeyiey ia oeaio e auioaeaeaiu
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia oeaio iiiiiieenoa, ni?in aoaeao iaiyoueny iiae
aeeyieai iiiiiieenoa. Ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiiiiieeno aoaeao noa?aoueny
i?aaieciaaoue ?uiie oaeei ia?acii, /oiau aanue aunoaaeaiiue ei ia ?uiie
oiaa? aue eoieai, oi anoue ?aaoee?oao oeaio, iiaeno?aeaay aa iiae iauai
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iiiiiieey auaaao: anoanoaaiiay – oicyenoaothuea noauaeou iaeaaeatho
?aaeeeie yeaiaioaie i?iecaiaenoaa, yoi – onoie/eaay iiiiiieey e
eneonnoaaiiay – ?uiie nin?aaeioi/ai a iaieo ?oeao, iiaeao auoue
neo/aeiie, iaonoie/eaa. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiiiiieey iaiineo oua?a
yeiiiieea a oeaeii e iio?aaeoaeth a /anoiinoe – iineaaeiee auioaeaeai
“ia?aiea/eaaoue” ca oiaa? ii n?aaiaieth n neooaoeeae “naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee”. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiaiii iiiiiieey iaania/eaaao
eiioeaio?aoeeth eaieoaea e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie a iaeieo ?oeao,
i?e yoii iauanoai iieo/aao cia/eoaeueioth yeiiiieth n?aaenoa ia aeaiiiua
oeaee.

Aeoiiieey – i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee nin?aaeioi/aii ia
aeaoo oe?iao, /anoe/iue eiio?ieue iaae oeaiaie.

Ieeaiiieey – i?iecaiaenoai noaee, aaoiiiaeeae, n/o eiaaioa?y, ye.
auoiauo i?eai?ia

ianeieueei oe?i;

noaiaea?oece?iaaiiue eee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue oei i?iaeoeoa;

/anoe/iue eiio?ieue iaae oeaiaie;

iaee/ea nouanoaaiiuo i?aiyonoaee i?e anooieaiee a io?aneue;

nouanoaoao iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey (anee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue oei
i?iaeoeoa). A yoii neo/aa ianeieueei iacaaeneiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
oaeiaeaoai?ytho ni?in aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iio?aaeoaeae. Ana
ieeaiiieenou oanii caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa.

Auaatho: /enoay ieeaiiieey – ieeaiiieee i?iecaiaeyo iaeii?iaeiue
i?iaeoeo, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiay ieeaiiieey – i?iecaiaeeiua oiaa?u,
aoaeo/e aiaoia iaeii?iaeiuie, ?acee/athony ii eeannai – eiiiuethoa?u
?aciie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. I?e eciaiaiee neooaoeee oe?iu-ieeaiiieenou
eciaiytho iauai auionea, a ia oeaiu eae i?e niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee.

Auaeaeythony: oaeiay ieeaiiieey – oe?iu iiaeno?aeaathony ae?oa iiae
ae?oaa, anooiay a naiai? e ieeaiiieey aeiieie?iaaiey – eiaaea ia ?uiea
nouanoaoao e?oiiay oe?ia, caieiathuay 60-80% ?uiea.

Iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey: (?icie/iay oi?aiaey, i?iecaiaenoai
iaeaaeaeu, iaoae)

iiiai oe?i;

aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue oei i?iaeoeoa;

neaaue eiio?ieue iaae oeaiie;

eaaeea oneiaey anooieaiey a io?aneue;

iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey – cia/eoaeueiue oii? ia ?aeeaio, oi?aiaua ciaee
e ia?ee. Eiaaony aieueoia /enei iio?aaeoaeae e i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
ieieiaeueiu aa?uea?u aeey aoiaea ia ?uiie e auoiaea ec iaai, ana oe?iu
?aaoee?otho oieueei oeaiu ia auioneaaiua eie oiaa?u, ia aeeyy ia oeaiu
eiieo?aioia. Ana oe?iu ia aeaiiii ?uiea auioneatho oiaa?u iaeiie
oiaa?iie a?oiiu, ii eaaeaeay ec ieo auioneaao naie iniaaiiue oiaa?,
oioue a /ai-oi ioee/iue io oiaa?ia ae?oaeo oe?i. Oe?ia iaeaaeaao
iiiiiieueiie aeanoueth, ii oaea ia iaae ?uieii, a iaae nianoaaiiui
oiaa?ii. Iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey noeioee?oao ni?in, iiauoaao
?aciiia?acea oiaa?ia e oneoa, ii oai ia iaiaa canoaaeyao i?iecaiaeeoaeae
ia?aoeeiiaeueii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu e noeioee?oao i?aauoaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eaeie-oi iaeiie a?oiia oneoa.

? 3.Oai?ey oeaiu oiaa?a. ?aaiiaaniua oeaiu

Oeaiu oiaa?ia neoaeao i?eaioe?aie, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue eioi?uie
i?aaei?eieiaoaee e iio?aaeoaee aeaeatho naie auai?, iaania/eaathuee
ee/iue eioa?an. Nouanoaotho 2 iiaeoiaea e oi?ie?iaaieth oeaiu oiaa?a. A
nia?aiaiiie ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eea eiioeaioeey oeaiu A. Ia?oaeea. Ii iuoaaony iauaaeeieoue 3
eiioeaioeee: i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey a iaeio oai?eth oeaiu. Ii n/eoaao, /oi oeaia eaeie-eeai
aaue i?aaenoaaeyao aa iaiiaoth noieiinoue (aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?aoaiey
ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia) ioiineoaeueii anao aauae aiiaua. Oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony
eae ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe, iieo/aaiia ca oiaa?.
Iaaeaeo ?uii/iie oeaiie e oai aai eiee/anoaii, ia eioi?ia i?aaeuyaeyaony
ni?in, anaaaea nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia niioiioaiea: /ai auoa oeaia, oai
iaiueoa /enei oao, eoi niaeaneony eoieoue aeaiiue oiaa?, e iaiai?io, /ai
ieaea oeaia, oai aieueoa /enei iieoiaoaeae e eiee/anoai i?eia?aoaaiiai
oiaa?a. Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie e aaee/eiie ni?ina – ia?aoiay.
Iieo/aiiay e?eaay eeethno?e?oao caeii iinoaiaiiiai oauaaiey ni?ina: anee
oeaia eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a iiauoaaony, oi ni?in aoaeao i?aaeuyaeyoueny ia
iaiueoaa eiee/anoai yoiai oiaa?a.

Ana i?iaeaaoeu no?aiyony iieo/eoue ia ?uiea naioth aunieoth oeaio, e
/ai auoa aoaeao oeaia, oai aeoeaiaa iie aoaeoo iuoaoueny i?iaeaoue
aieueoaa eiee/anoai oiaa?a, oi anoue oaaee/eoue i?aaeeiaeaiea. O
eaaeaeiai i?iaeaaoea iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey aoaeao iaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe
io oeaiu: /ai auoa oeaia, oai auoa ?acia? i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea
aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Aeey eaaeaeiai oiaa?a nouanoaotho naie e?eaua ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Nouanoaoo ?acieoea iaaeaeo aaee/eiie ni?ina e naieie
ni?inii. I?e nieaeaiee oeaiu oaaee/eaaaony aaee/eia ni?ina, nai ni?in
eae au?aaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a aeaiiii oiaa?a inoaaony iaeciaiiui.
Eciaiaiea aaee/eiu ni?ina – yoi ia?aaeaeaeaiea n iaeiie oi/ee ia
ae?oaoth ia iinoiyiiie e?eaie ni?ina. (io a e a’). Iiaeii aiai?eoue ia
oaaee/aiee ni?ina, anee i?e eaaeaeie oeaia iieoiaoaee aoaeoo
i?eia?aoaoue aieueoaa eiee/anoai oiaa?a. Oae, eaoii aic?anoaao ni?in ia
iaieoee e ii?iaeaiia. A yoii neo/aa aoaeai aeaeaaoueny ia ii e?eaie D1,
a i?iecieaeao naeaea e?eaie a iiaia iieiaeaiea D2. Ii ia aaee/eio
ni?ina, e?iia oeaiu, aeeytho o?iaaiue aeioiaeia, ?acia? ?uiea, oeaia e
iieaciinoue ae?oaeo oiaa?ia, eciaiaiea i?aaeii/oaiee e aeonia
iieoiaoaeae. Anee, iai?eia?, aeioiae iieoiaoaeae aic?anoaao, oi e?eaay
ni?ina D1 nianoeony ai?aai aaa?o (?en.3) e oiio aea o?iaith oeaiu P1
aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue aic?inoee o?iaaiue ni?ina Q2. Aeaaiue oaeoi?,
aicaeaenoaothuee ia i?aaeeiaeaiea – ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiyoiio, anee a ?acoeueoaoa aeinoeaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna
oaeaaony nieceoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey S1
niacaaony ai?aai aiec (?en. 4). Aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey i?e iaeciaiiie
oeaia P1 aic?anoaao n Q1 aei Q2 (eee n b aei b’ ?en.5). Ia i?aaeeiaeaiea
ieacuaatho aeeyiea: eciaiaiea oaoiieiaee, oeai ia ae?oaea oiaa?u, /enea
iinoaaueeia.

Anee iaeiaeeoue ae?oa ia ae?oaa aeaa a?aoeea. Ithicia/athuea
niaieoiiue ni?in e niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeiiai e oiai aea oiaa?a,
iieo/ei a?aoee, iieacuaathuee iaeiia?aiaiiia iiaaaeaiea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a. A eaeie-oi oi/ea aeaa e?eaua ia?anaeoony. A oi/ea
ano?a/e E (?en.5) ni?in eiee/anoaaiii ?aaai i?aaeeiaeaieth (Q1)

e oeaia P aunooiaao eae oeaia ?aaiiaaney. I?e aieaa aunieie oeaia P
aicieeaao ecauoie P1i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii (io?acie AB). Yoio
ecauoie a ?acoeueoaoa eiieo?aioeee i?iaeaaoeia aoaeao niinianoaiaiaaoue
nieaeaieth oeaiu. I?e oeaia ieaea o?aaiiaaoeaathuae (P3) ni?in P3
i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea (io?acie CF). A yoii neo/aa eceeoae ni?ina e
eiieo?aioeey iieoiaoaeae aoaeao oieeaoue oeaio aaa?o. Eeoue a oi/ea E
aeinoeaaaony ?aaiiaanea nee e onoie/eaay oeaia, eioi?ay iiaeao
nio?aiyoueny. I?e oeaia ?aaiiaaney onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaainoai ia iieoiie
e i?iaeaae – oaeia ?aaainoai nouanoaoao i?e ethaie oeaia. I?e oeaia
?aaiiaaney eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie iio?aaeoaee
iaia?aiu i?iaeieaeaoue aeaeaoue caeoiee, aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue oiio
eiee/anoao i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeoaee iaia?aiu i?iaeieaeaoue
iinoaaeyoue ia ?uiie. Oieueei i?e oaeie oeaia aoaeao ionoonoaiaaoue
oaiaeaioeey e iiauoaieth eee iiieaeaieth oeaiu.

Oai?ee oeaiu. A. Nieo: “Aeaenoaeoaeueiay oeaia anyeiai i?aaeiaoa, oi
anoue oi, /oi eaaeaeue i?aaeiao noieo a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oiio
/aeiaaeo, eioi?ue oi/ao i?eia?anoe aai, anoue o?oae e oneeey, eioi?ua ii
aeieaeai oiio?aaeoue, /oiau i?eia?anoe yoio i?aaeiao”. O?oae aue ia?aie
oeaiie, ia?aiia/aeueiuie aeaiueaaie,eioi?uie ieaoeee ca ana i?aaeiaou.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiay oeaia – yoi o?oae, a aeaiueae ninoaaeytho eeoue
iiieiaeueioth oeaio oiaa?ia.

? 4.Oai?ee oeaiiinoe. Noieiinoue e iieaciinoue

Iieaciinoue – yoi niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe.
“Iieaciinoue” e “iieueca” ia neiiieiu: ea?oeia Ieeanni iiaeao auoue
aaniieaciie n i?aeoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, e a oi aea a?aiy i?eiineoue
iieueco aeey ciaoiea eneonnoaa. Iieaciinoue – yoi noauaeoeaiia iiiyoea,
iieaciinoue iia?aaeaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa aoaeao ?acee/iie aeey ?aciuo
ethaeae. Ia?a i/eia eiaao ia?iiioth iieaciinoue aeey oiai, eoi no?aaeaao
aeeci?oeinoueth eee aeaeueiici?einoueth, ii niaa?oaiii aaniieacia aeey
/aeiaaea ni 100% c?aieai. Caeii oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe –
iineaaeothuea aaeeieoeu aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa i?eiinyo ana iaiueoa e
iaiueoa oaeiaeaoai?aiey, iio?aaeoaee iieoiatho aeii. aaeeieoeu
i?iaeoeoa, i?e oneiaee, /oi oeaia ia iaai nieaeaaony. Iiae i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoueth iu eiaai a aeaeo aeiaaai/ioth iieaciinoue, eee
oaeiaeaoai?aiea, ecaeaeaaiia iio?aaeoaeai ec iaeiie aeiiieieoaeueiie
aaeeieoeu eiie?aoiie i?iaeoeee. I?aaeei iaeneiecaoeee iieaciinoe
caeeth/aaony a oaeii ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiiai aeioiaea iio?aaeoaey,
i?e eioi?ii iineaaeiee aeieea?, cao?a/aiiue ia i?eia?aoaiea eaaeaeiai
aeaea i?iaeoeoia, i?eiinee au iaeeiaeiaoth aeiaaai/ioth (i?aaeaeueioth)
iieaciinoue.

Yooaeo aeioiaea – i?e aieaa ieceie oeaia /aeiaae iiaeao iicaiaeeoue naaa
eoieoue aieueoa aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, ia ioeacuaay naaa a i?eia?aoaiee
eaeeo-eeai aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoeoia, yooaeo caiauaiey – i?e aieaa
ieceie oeaia o /aeiaaea iiyaeyaony noeioe i?eia?anoe aeaoaaue oiaa?
aianoi aiaeiae/iuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua oaia?ue ioiineoaeueii aei?iaea,
iieoiaoaee neeiiiu caiaiyoue aei?iaea i?iaeoeou aieaa aeaoaauie.

A. Nieo: “Neiai “noieiinoue” eiaao 2 ?aciuo cia/aiey: eiiaaea iii
icia/aao iieaciinoue eaeiai-ieaoaeue ioaeaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa, a eiiaaea
iieoiaoaeueioth neeo ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei aaeaaai, eioi?oth aeaao
iaeaaeaaiea ei”. Ia?aoth iiaeii iacaaoue iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoueth,
aoi?oth – iaiiaie. Iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue eiatho oeaa, ianei,
ea?oioaeue, a oaeaea aiaea a enoi/ieea – iia oaeiaeaoai?yao ee/ioth
iio?aaiinoue /aeiaaea. Iaiiaay noieiinoue – yoi eiee/anoaaiiia
ioiioaiea, a eioi?ii iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe iaeiiai ?iaea
iaiaieaathony ia iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe ae?oaiai ?iaea, iai?eia?,
iaeei oiii? iaiaieaaaony ia 20ea ca?ia; a yoii eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee
iaiaieaaaiuo oiaa?ia e au?aaeaia eo iaiiaay noieiinoue. Aaue, eiathuea
aaee/aeooth iio?aaeoaeueneoth noieiinoue /anoi iaeaaeatho iaeie eee
aiiaua ia iaeaaeatho iaiiaie noieiinoueth, e iaiai?io. Iieaciinoue ia
yaeyaony ia?ie iaiiaie noieiinoe. Anee i?aaeiao ie ia /oi ia aiaeai, ii
aoaeao eeoai iaiiaie noieiinoe. Oiaa?u, iaeaaeathuea iieaciinoueth,
/a?iatho naith iaiiaoth noieiinoue ec 2 enoi/ieeia: naiae ?aaeeinoe e
eiee/anoaa o?oaea, o?aaothuaainy aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa. Nouanoaotho
iaeioi?ua oiaa?u, noieiinoue eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony eo ?aaeeinoueth
(?aaeeea noaooe, ea?oeiu). Noieiinoue eo niaa?oaiii ia caaeneo io
eiee/anoaa o?oaea, ia?aiia/aeueii iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ia noieiinoue oiaa?ia aeeyao ia oieueei o?oae, i?eiaiaiiue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iei, ii e o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia i?oaeey, eino?oiaiou
e caeaiey, niinianoaothuea yoiio o?oaeo.

Ae.?eea?aei: “Noieiinoue caaeneo ia io eciaeeey, a io o?oaeiinoe eee
eaaeinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Noieiinoue eaaeaeiai i?aaeiaoa iiauoaaony eee
iaaeaao i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eaaeinoe eee o?oaeiinoe aai i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia aai i?iecaiaenoaa,
noieiinoue oiaa?ia aic?anoaao aneaaenoaea eo ?aaeeinoe”.

Oai?ee oeaiiinoe (noieiinoe). A iniiaa eeanne/aneie ao?aeoaciie
iieeoyeiiiiee eaaeeo o?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe. Niaeanii yoie oai?ee,
anyeee oiaa? iaeaaeaao noieiinoueth, oae eae yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
/aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea, oi anoue noieiinoue – yoi aiieiuaiiue a oiaa?a
o?oae. O.Iaooe n/eoae, /oi enoi/ieeii noieiinoe yaeyaony o?oae, a
aaee/eia noieiinoe oiaa?ia ecia?yaony ?aai/ei a?aiaiai, cao?a/aiiui ia
eo i?iecaiaenoai. Ii Iaooe aeee a yiioo ainiiaenoaa ia?eaioeeenoe/aneeo
aicc?aiee, e ii ia auaeaeye noieiinoue a ea/anoaa aioo?aiiaai naienoaa
oiaa?a, ioiaeaeanoaeyy noieiinoue n eiee/anoaii iieo/aaiuo ca oiaa?
aeaiaa, oi anoue oaeoe/anee n aai oeaiie. Oieueei a ?aaioao A.Nieoa e
Ae.?eea?aei o?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe neiaeeeanue eae oeaeinoiay
iao/iay eiioeaioeey. A.Nieo n/eoae, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea noiiinoe
cao?a/aiiui ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a o?oaeii yaeyaony caeiiii e, aiai?ee,
/oi iaiai oiaa?ia inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n caeeth/aiiui a ieo
eiee/anoaii o?oaea. Eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui, neiaeiui o?oaeii nicaeathony
noieiinoe aieueoa, /ai o?oaeii i?inoui, iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui.
Ae.?eea?aei ?ac?aaioae iieiaeaiea i o?oaea eae aaeeinoaaiiii enoi/ieea
noieiinoe. Ii onoaiiaee caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo aaee/eiie noieiinoe oiaa?a
e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinueth o?oaea. E Ia?en /aoei ?aca?aie/ee
iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue e noieiinoue eae aeaa iniiaiua naienoaa
oiaa?a. Iaiiaay noieiinoue ?anniao?eaaaony ei a ea/anoaa oi?iu
au?aaeaiey noieiinoe. Ii n/eoae, /oi aaee/eia noieiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony
cao?aoaie iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aai/aai a?aiaie, oi anoue a?aiaie,
cao?a/eaaaiiai ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a. A eiioea 19 aaea yeiiiie/aneie
iaoeie auei nicaeaii o/aiea i noieiinoe, i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?iai auee
o/aiua iaieeanne/aneie aano?eeneie oeieu – E. Iaiaa?, O. oii Aeca?. Iie
n/eoaee, /oi noieiinoue eaeiai-eeai aeaaa ii?aaeaeyaony aai i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoueth. A ioee/ea io o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, oai?ey
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe noaaeo a oeaio? enneaaeiaaiey ia cao?a/aiiue
o?oae ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a, i ioeaieo iieaciinoe aeaiiiai oiaa?a
iio?aaeoaeai. Naii iiiyoea “noieiinoue” iiaeiaiyaony iiiyoeai
“oeaiiinoue” naycuaaaony n iieaciinoueth aeaaa. Aua iaeei iiaeoiae e
ii?aaeaeaieth noieiinoe oiaa?a aeaiiino?e?otho noi?iiieee oai?ee
i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (Ae.Eea?e e A.Ia?oaee). A i?ioeaiaan
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, ooaa?aeaeathuae, /oi enoi/ieeii noieiinoe
yaeyaony eeoue o?oae oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey, oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?eciaao niiniaiinoue nicaeaaaoue noieiinoue ca
anaie iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa (o?oaeii. eaieoaeii, caieae).
Niaieoiiay noieiinoue i?iaeoeoa aeieaeia i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie noiio
“aeeaaeia” anao oaeoi?ia, a ?acia? “aeeaaea” eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a
ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie aeioiaea io aai i?iaiaiey, oi anoue ca?aaioiie
ieaou, i?ioeaioa e ?aiou. Caeii noieiinoe: i?iecaiaenoai e iaiai oiaa?ia
aeieaeiu inouanoaeyoueny a niioaaonoaee n eo noieiinoueth, oi anoue
niaeanii o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiuie cao?aoaie
o?oaea.

? 5. Aeaiueae e eo ooieoeee

Aeaiueae – n?aaenoai iieaou ca oiaa?u e oneoae, iauai?eiyoia a aeaiiii
ieaoaaeiii niiauanoaa. Aeaiueae – yoi iniaue oiaa?, iie noaiiayony
aeaiueaaie oieueei iinea anaiauaai i?eciaiey eo a yoii ea/anoaa, a
ia?aoiii neo/aa iie ia?anoatho auoue aeaiueaaie. A iniiaa aeaiaa –
i?eau/ea ianniaiai i?eciaiey, a iniiaa i?eciaiey – aa?a, /oi aeaiiue
oiaa? aoaeao i?eciai /eaiaie aeaiiiai niiauanoaa. A eaaeaeie no?aia –
naia ieaoaaeiia niiauanoai (a NOA i?eciatho $), a ieo niaoeeaeueiua
oi?iu aeaiaa (/aee ?ani?ino?aiaiu n?aaeeiaeaaeaoaeae aieaa aunieeo
aeioiaeia). Aeaiueae – aaniethoii eeeaeaeiia n?aaenoai iaiaia.

Nouiinoue aeaiaa, eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, iaoiaeeo au?aaeaiea a
aaeeinoaa 3 eo naienoa:

anaiauay iaiin?aaenoaaiiay iaiaieaaaiinoue;

naiinoiyoaeueiay oi?ia iaiiaie noieiinoe (aniaeo, iicaieythuee
iaiaieaaoue aeaiueae ia oiaa?);

aiaoiyy aauiay ia?a o?oaea.

Ia?enenoneea yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee auaeaeytho 5 aeaiaaeiuo ooieoeee, a
nia?aiaiiua yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee – 3 (4) ooieoeee.

Ooieoeee aeaiaa (ii Ia?eno):

ia?a noieiinoe (aeaiueae eae anaiauee yeaeaaeaio ecia?ytho noieiinoue
oiaa?ia; aeaiueae eniieuecothony aeey niecia?aiey noieiinoe ae?oaeo
oiaa?ia /a?ac iin?aaenoai ianooaaa oeai);

n?aaenoai ia?auaiey (aeaiueae ianeoaeeaatho ia?auaiea:
oiaa?-aeaiueae-oiaa?);

n?aaenoai iaeiieaiey e naa?aaeaiey (iaeiieaiea a aeaea cieiouo iiiao e
neeoeia – nie?iaeu);

n?aaenoai ieaoaaea (ooieoeey ?aaeecoaony oiaaea, eiaaea aicieeatho
ioiioaiey e?aaeeoa; aeaiueae ianeoaeeaatho e?aaeeoii-oi?aiaua iia?aoeee,
oieaoo aeieaia, a?aiaeiie ieaou);

ooieoeey ie?iauo aeaiaa (ooieoeey aeaiaa i?e ?acee/iuo acaeiiioiioaieyo
iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie e no?aiaie – eiii?oa; aeaiueae a naiae
ia?ai?iaeiie oi?ia – cieioa – iiaoo aunooiaoue eae anaiauaa ieaoaaeiia
eee anaiauaa iieoiaoaeueiia n?aaenoai).

Ooieoeee aeaiaa (yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee):

ia?eei noieiinoe. Eiaaea-oi oiaa?u au?aaeaee naie iaiiaua noieiinoe a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaao na?aa?a e cieioa. Yoe eiee/anoaa aeaiaaeiiai
oiaa?a aeieaeiu auoue a naith i/a?aaeue ecia?aiu. Ionthaea auoaeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aaeeieoea ecia?aiey aeaiaa. Oaeie aaeeieoeae i?e
cieioii noaiaea?oa yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiia aaniaia eiee/anoai cieioa,
i?eiyoia ca aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo a oie eee eiie no?aia, oi anoue
ianooaa oeai. Ii onoaiaaeeaaaony ainoaea?noaii a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea e iieacuaaao, neieueei a?aiiia cieioa niaea?aeeony a iaeiie
aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ooieoeeth ia?u noieiinoe
auiieiytho aoiaaeiua aeaiueae aac anyeiai cieioiai iaania/aiey
(aeieea?u, ooiou, ia?ee, ?oaee.

n?aaenoai iaiaia. Yoa ooieoeey ninoieo a oii, /oi iie aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea a i?ioeanna iaiaia oiaa?ia.

n?aaenoai iaeiieaiey aiaaonoaa. Yoa ooieoeey ?aaeecoaony oiaaea, eiaaea
aeaiueae aunooiatho a aeaea oeiainiaiai aeoeaa, nio?aiythuaainy o
noauaeoa ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa iinea i?iaeaaee ei eaeeo-eeai oiaa?ia e
oneoa. Aea?aeaoue naia aiaaonoai a aeaea aeaiaa ethaee i?aaeii/eoatho
iioiio, /oi aeaiueae iaeaaeatho aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoueth.

n?aaenoai ieaoaaea. N ?acaeoeai oiaa?iiai iaiaia aicieeaao naiaia?aciay
aai oi?ia: io/oaeaeaiea oiaa?ia iiaeao auoue ioaeaeaii ii a?aiaie io
?aaeecaoeee aai oeaiu, oi anoue oiaa?u iiao auoue i?iaeaiu a e?aaeeo.
Ianiaiaaeaiea ai a?aiaie iieoiie e i?iaeaae e ii?iaeaeaao yoo ooieoeeth.
A eoiaa e?aaeeoiie naeaeee aicieeaao ?aciiaeaeiinoue aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa –
aaenaeue, eee aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai. A iiiaio iiaaoaiey
aeieaaaeaiueae aunooiatho eae n?aaenoai ieaoaaea.

Oi?iu aeaiaa:

aoiaaeiua aeaiueae (aaieiiou, eacia/aeneea aeeaou);

iiiaou;

cieioua aeaiueae;

e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae (aaenaeue – aeieaiaia ienueiaiiia iaycaoaeuenoai
iaeiiai eeoea ae?oaiio, ninoaaeaiiia ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia; aaieiiioa –
aaieianeia aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai, yaeythuaany aaenaeai, ii eioi?iio
i?aaeuyaeoaeue a ethaia a?aiy iiaeao iieo/eoue aeaiueae; /ae –
ienueiaiiia ?anii?yaeaiea aeaaeaeueoea oaeouaai n/aoa aaieo ai iieaoa
iaee/iuie eee ia?aaiaea ia oaeouee n/ao ae?oaiai eeoea ii?aaeaeaiiie
noiiu aeaiaa; iaeeaaoeee, aao/a?u).

Oai?ee aeaiaa:

1) i i?ienoiaeaeaiee e nouiinoe aeaiaa;

2)ia eo noieiinoe iieoiaoaeueiie neea

3) 3 oai?ee

Iaoaeeenoe/aneay oai?ey aeaiaa (Ae.Ii?n) – ioiaeaeanoaeyee aiaaonoai
ainoaea?noaa n aeaiueaaie, a naie aeaiueae n cieioii. Nouiinoue aeaiaa
iie naycuaaee n anoanoaaiiuie naienoaaie cieioa a ea/anoaa aeaai?iaeiiai
iaoaeea.

Eeanne/aneee iiieiaeeci (Aeae. Aa?eee) – n/eoaee, /oi aeaiueae – yoi
oieueei eaeaaeueiua n/aoiua aaeeieoeu, ianeoaeeaathuea iaiai oiaa?ia.

Oiaa?iay oai?ey aeaiaa (E.Ia?ena) – aeaiueae – yoi oiaa?.

Eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey aeaiaa (Aeae.Eiee, Ae.?eea?aei. A.Ia?oaee) –
oaaee/aiea aeaiaa a no?aia ia icia/aao aa aiaaonoaa, a niinianoaoao
eeoue ?inoo oeai. N/eoaee, /oi noieiinoue aeaiaa ii?aaeaeyaony eo
eiee/anoaii, iaoiaeyueiny a ia?auaiee. Oeaiu caaenyo io iannu aeaiaa.
Oeaiu eciaiythony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao aeaiaa, eciaiaiea
eiee/anoaa aeaiaa ieacuaaao iaeeiaeiaia aeeyiea ia oeaiu anao oiaa?ia.

? 6. Yaiethoeey aeaiaa. Iaoaeee/aneea e aoiaaeiua aeaiueae. E?aaeeoiua
aeaiueae. Yeaeo?iiiua aeaiueae

Aeaiueae – n?aaenoai iieaou ca oiaa?u e oneoae, iauai?eiyoia a aeaiiii
ieaoaaeiii iauanoaa. 2 iai?aaeaiey a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, eioi?ua
iinoiyiii i?enoonoaotho a aii?inao, eanathueony aeaiaa e aeaiaaeiie
oai?ee: eeanne/aneay oai?ey (A. Nieo – aeaiueae, yaeyynue oiaa?ii,
eiatho e naith aioo?aiithth noieiinoue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie
o?oaea, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa), eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey
(Eiee, Aiaan, ?eea?aei – aeaiueae ia eiatho aioo?aiiae noieiinoe, yoi
ciae, neiaie, au?aaeaiea noieiinoe).

A. Nieo: “ Eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeeaao iaiaiii eee noaiiaeony oi?aiaoeai, a
naii iauanoai i?aa?auaaony a oi?aiaue nithc. Eaaeaeue ?acoiiue /aeiaae
ia ethaie nooiaie ?acaeoey iauanoaa iinea iiyaeaiey ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea
aeieaeai aue noa?aoueny oae ono?ieoue naie aeaea, /oiau iinoiyiii
ia?yaeo n iniauie i?iaeoeoaie naiaai nianoaaiiiai i?iiunea eiaoue
iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai oaeiai oiaa?a, eioi?ue, ii aai iiaieth, ieeoi ia
ioeaaeaony acyoue acaiai ia i?iaeoeou naiaai i?iiunea. A ?aciuo no?aiao
oaeeie i?oaeeyie iaiaia auee ?aciua aaue: auee, nieue, ?aeiaeiu, oaaae,
naoa?. Ii ai anao no?aiao ethaee a eiioea eiioeia aeaee i?aaeii/oaiea
iaoaeeai, oae eae iie i?i/iu e eo iiaeii aeaeeoue ia ethaia eiee/anoai
/anoae. Ia?aiia/aeueii iaoaeeu oiio?aaeyeenue a neeoeao, a ia a iiiaoa.
Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iaiaiia e iaaeoaaoaeuenoa auei ni/oaii iaiaoiaeeiui
ioia/aoue ioaee/iui eeaeiii ii?aaeaeaiiua eiee/anoaa oao iaoaeeia,
eioi?ua iau/ii oiio?aaeyeenue i?e iieoiea oiaa?ia, oae aicieeee /aeaiiay
iiiaoa e oa ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iieo/eee iacaaiea
iiiaoiuo aeai?ia. O anao oeeaeeeciaaiiuo ia?iaeia aeaiueae noaee
anaiauei i?oaeeai oi?aiaee, i?e iin?aaenoaa eioi?iai i?iaeathony e
iieoiathony anyeiai ?iaea oiaa?u eee aea iaiaieaathony iaeei ia
ae?oaie”.

Aeaiueae – yoi aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea iaiiaie noieiinoe (aiciiaeiinoue
i?eia?aoaiey ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia, eioi?oth aeaao iaeaaeaiea aeaiiui
i?aaeiaoii) oiaa?a.

Ieeiio ia ecaanoii eae aia?aua iiyaeeenue aeaiueae, ii ciatho, /oi
auee ?aciua oiaa?u, ioaa/athuea anaiauae iio?aaiinoe, eioi?ua a
aeaeueiaeoai iiaeii auee iaiaiyoue ia ae?oaea oiaa?u. A Ae?aaiae
A?aoeee, ?eia iio?aaiinoyi ioaa/ae neio, a ae?oaeo no?aiao – oeaie,
?uaa. Caoai iaoaeeu auoiaeyo ia ia?aia ianoi. A ?eia aeaiueaaie auea
a?iica, a Nia?oa – aeaeaci. Yoi nio?aiyeinue aei XIX aaea, caoai iie
auee auoaniaiu aaieiioaie, aeaiueaaie aaciaee/iiai ?an/aoa (caiene ia
n/aoa i?aaei?eyoey). Ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu ia iiaee ecaaaeaoue o/anoe
noaoue aeaiueaaie (eaaee a ia?aaicea, oaeiaiu a o?aiaiee, iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny aei aaneiia/iinoe). A ia/aea iaoaeee/aneea aeaiueae
eiaee ii?aaeaeaiiue aan. A Aioe/iua a?aiaia aeaiueae /aeaieee ethaua
noauaeou, n?aaeiea aaea – iiiiiieecaoeey /aeaiee aeey i?anoeaea,
naii?aeeaiu. Eciaiaiey i?iaeieaeathony e, ia/eiay n XIII aaea, a
ea/anoaa aeaiaa aeoeaii eniiocoaony cieioi e na?aa?i.

Nouanoaotho 3 yoaia aicieeiiaaiey aeaiaa a ?innee:

1) A Ae?aaiae ?one – na?aa?yiua, ii iioii eo caiaiyee neeoeaie ec
na?aa?a (a?eaia). N XIV aaea – oe?ieay /aeaiea a Iineaa, I. Iiaai?iaea,
?ycaie. Yoio yoai – iaoii?yaei/aiiue.

2) Yoai oii?yaei/eaaiey. 1535-1538 aa. – A. Aeeineay i?iaaea aeaiaaeioth
?aoi?io: iia ecuyea iaiieiioeaiiua oaeueoeaua aeaiueae, aaaea
aeanyoe/ioth nenoaio, a oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo oii?yaei/aiea aana 1 ?oaey (1
?oa.= 10 a?eaia). Aua oiaeee a ia?auaiee aeoui.

3) 90 eao nionoy a 1625 aiaeo ana iiiaoiua aeai?u, e?iia Iineianeiai,
cae?ueenue. Ainoaea?ue iiiiiieece?iaae /aeaieo iiiao e noae /aeaieoue
oieueei ia Iineianeii aeai?a. N 1700 aiaea i?iecaiaeeianue ?aaoey?iay
/aeaiea na?aa?yiuo ?oaeae e iaaeiuo iiiao.

Aeiaoaeee/aneay nenoaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi naiaiaeii /aeaiyony
iiiaou ec cieioa e na?aa?a. Caoai oeene?oaony niioiioaiea cieioa e
na?aa?a – aeiaoaeee/aneay ia?a. Eaaeaeay iiiaoa ec ethaiai iaoaeea
iaia?aie/aiii ?aciaieaaaony. N XVI aaea aeiieie?oao cieioi,
aeiaoaeee/aneay nenoaia ionooiaao ia?aae iiiiiaoaeee/aneie. Caeii
A?yoyia: ieioea aeaiueae auoaniytho oi?ioea (iiiaou, eioi?ua eo/oa,
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey iaeiieaiey nie?iaeu, eeai aeey aiaoieo
ieaoaaeae).

N XVI aaea ia?aoiae e cieioiio iiiiiaoaeeecio. A 1851 aiaeo a
Aano?aeee ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaua cieioua ?oaeieee, oaeei ia?acii,
aicieeaao oa?ica iaanna?aa?aaaiey. 1865 aiae – Eaoeineee aeaiaaeiue
nithc (Aaeueaey, Oaaeoea?ey, Eoaeey, O?aioeey – no?aiu, iaeaaeaaoea
na?aa?ii, nieceee i?iao (aei 835), aeiaoaeeeci nio?aieeny oieueei aeey 5
o?aieia. Oeaeue – ia?aie/aiea eniieueciaaiey na?aa?a a ia?auaiee,
naiaiaeiay /aeaiea e ?aciai aue i?ae?auai. Ia/aeinue iaanoeaiaiea
na?aa?a, aeaenoaoao caeii A?yoyia. Niioiioaiea cieioa e na?aa?a
eciaieeinue ii ioiioaieth e ioeoeeaeueiiio eo?no. Cieioi noaei aeaoaaea
na?aa?a TH ecuiaaony ec ia?auaiey. Na?aa?i auoaniyao cieioi. Ii
Eaoeineee nithc iiyoue iiaeienae Eiiaaioeeth ia ieii/aiee eniieueciaaiey
na?aa?a (1878 a). Ia/aeny yoai cieioiai iiiiiaoaeeecia, oioy 5-e
o?aieiaua iiiaou aua nio?aieeenue. A 1834a. – caeii, eciaieaoee cieioia
niaea?aeaiea aeieea?a, 1873 a. – iiaue aeaiaaeiue eiaeaen ooaa?aeee
cieioie iiiiiaoaeeeci a NOA (na?aa?yiua iiiaou nio?aiyee eaaaeueiue
eo?n e iaia?aie/aiii ?aciaieaaeenue, ii /aeaiea auea i?ae?auaia e
aoiaaeiua aeaiueae iiaeii auei iaiaiyoue ia cieioua). Cieioie
iiiiiaoaeeeci aaiaeeony e a ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao (1897 a. – ?inney,
ssiiiey, 1895 a. – Eiaeey, Iaeneea). Anei?a oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eee iaiaoaeee/aneea oi?iu aeaiaa – aoiaaeiua e e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae.

Caeii iaoaeee/aneiai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey: eiee/anoai iaoiaeyueony a
ia?auaiee aeaiaa ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia ?aaii eiee/anoao aeaiaa,
iaiaoiaeeiiio aeey ia?auaiey.

Aeaeu aeaiaa:

iaee/iua iaoaeee/aneea e aoiaaeiua;

aaciaee/iua, 90% anao naeaeie inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth /aeia (/ae –
ienueiaiiue i?eeac i ?anoiaeiaaiee aeaiaa, iaoiaeyueony ia /aeiaii n/aoa
a aaiea);

“ii/oe aeaiueae” – aunieieeeaeaeiua oeiainiaua aeoeau. 3 aeaea:
aan/aeiaua naa?aaaoaeueiua n/aoa; n?i/iua, aunieieeeaeaeiua aeeaaeu;
e?aoein?i/iua aunieieeeaeaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae.

E?aaeeoiua aeaiueae naycaiu n e?aaeeoiuie ioiioaieyie (aaenaeue, /ae,
iaeeaaoeee, aao/a?u).

Aoiaaeiua e aaciaee/iua aeaiueae iiyaeeenue n ?acaeoeai oi?aiaee e
aaieia. Ia?aiia/aeueii aaenaey eiaee aeiaa?eoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, a iioii
yoi noae th?eaee/anee /aoeee aeieoiaio, eioi?ue aeaaae aiciiaeiinoue
aino?aaiaaoue iacaae naie aeaiueae, aeaiiua a aeiea. I?inoie aaenaeue –
yoi iaycaoaeuenoai aaenaeaaeaoaey iieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio aeaiaa
e ii?aaeaeaiiiio n?ieo ieaoaaea aea?aeaoaeth aaenaey. Ia?aaiaeiie
aaenaeue (o?aooa) – ienueiaiiue i?eeac aaenaeaaeaoaey (o?annaioa)
ieaoaeueueeo (o?annaoo) oieaoeoue oeacaiioth a aaenaea noiio aeaiaa.
Aaieiiou ecia?ae oaaaeneee aaiee? a XVII aaea – eo iiaeii auei
?aciaieaaoue ia aeaiueae, eo auioneaee aeey iie?uoey iio?aaiinoae
ia?auaiey.

A ie?a aaieiiou iaiyeenue ia aeaiueae ii ?aciui i?aaeeai. A 1914-18
aa. aicieeee aieaa neiaeiua ?aaeeiu eiiaa?oaoeee aaieiio. Aicieeaao
cieioi=neeoeiaue noaiaea?o. Iaiaiyoue iiaeii auei ia cieioi oieueei
e?oiiua aeaiaaeiua noiiu. Aei 1933 aiaea – cieioiaaethoiue noaiaea?o
(aioo?aiiea aeaiueae a no?aia iiaoo eiiaa?oe?iaaoueny a eiaaethoo, a
eiaaethoa – a cieioi). N 1933 a. – caeii i iaeiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aeieea?a a
cieioi.

Iaeeaaoeee – aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa. Iiaoo auoue ainoaea?noaaiiuie e
ei?ii?aoeaiuie. Ii ainoae. iaeeaaoeeyi aeieaeiee- ainoaea?noai e oiaaea
oei. ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianao i?aaeoaeuenoai. Ei?ii?aoeaiua iaeeaaoeee –
eiaaea auioneaao eiiiaiey. Ii aeaiiie iaeeaaoeee ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aoaeao ianoe oieueei eiiiaiey a i?aaeaeao aa aeoeaia. Iaeeaaoeee – yoi
aeieain?i/iua aeieaiaua eino?oiaiou, eioi?ua oaeaea yaeythony
o?aaiaaieyie ia aeoeau oe?iu, eioi?ay auionoeea iaeeaaoeee. Aeioiae
aeaaeaeueoeaa iaeeaaoeee no?iai iaiai?ai e oeene?iaai, ii enoa/aiee
n?iea caeia auiea/eaaaony iniiaiay noiia aeieaa. Aeieain?i/iua
ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee iaiaa eeeaeaeiu e aieaa ?eneiaaiiu ii
n?aaiaieth n AEI. Ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee iiaoo auoue aioo?aiiaai
caeia (i?iaeaaea aioo?e no?aiu), a iiaoo e ca ?oaaaeii.

E?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee. (ieanoeeiaua aeaiueae). E?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee –
oaeiaiia n?aaenoai i?eia?aoaiey iieoiie. Iie nei?aa yaeythony ia
aeaiueaaie, a n?aaenoaii iieo/aiey e?aoein?i/iie nnoaeu a eiiia?/aneii
aaiea eee ae?oaii oeiainiaii o/?aaeaeaiee, auionoeaoai ea?oi/eo .
E?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oiai, /oiau ion?i/eoue iieaoo ia
ei?ioeia a?aiy, iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue eiaoue a ?anii?yaeaiee iaiueoa
iaee/iinoe e /aeiauo aeeaaeia aeey caeeth/aiey naeaeee. Iie iiiiaatho
neio?iiece?iaaoue ?anoiaeu e aeioiaeu, oiaiueoay oai naiui
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a o?aiaiee iaee/iuo e /aeiauo aeeaaeia.

Eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee = noiia oeai anao oiaa?ia/ n?aaeiaa
/enei iai?ioia iaeiieiaiiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu

? 7. Iiiyoea eaieoaea. I?eaueue e i?ioeaio ia eaieoae

Oa?iei “eaieoae” eiaao iiiai cia/aiee: ii iiaeao o?aeoiaaoueny e eae
iaeioi?ue caian iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, e eae ia/oi, aeeth/athuaa a naay ia
oieueei iaoa?eaeueiua i?aaeiaou, ii e iaiaoa?eaeueiua yeaiaiou, oaeea,
eae /aeiaa/aneea niiniaiinoe, ia?aciaaiea. Eaieoae annioeee?oaony ni
niiniaiinoueth i?eiineoue aeioiae. Eaieoae – yoi iaee/ea naiaiaeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua aeeaaeuaathony aeieain?i/ii
a i?iecaiaenoai. Ieeeue (“Iniiau iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”): “Iiieii
ia?aiia/aeueiuo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa o?oaea e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee,
nouanoaoao aua iaeii oneiaea, aac eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii inouanoaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?a/ue eaeao i i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
iaeiieaiiii caiana i?iaeoeoia i?ioeiai o?oaea. Yoio iaeiieaiiue caian
i?iaeoeoia o?oaea iacuaaaony eaieoaeii. Ooieoeey eaieoaea a
i?iecaiaenoaa – ii iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe caeaiey, io?aio, i?oaeey e iaoa?eaeu, a oaeaea ieoaiea e
eiua n?aaenoaa nouanoaiaaiey aeey ?aaioieeia ai a?aiy i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna. Yoi ana oaeea oneoae, eioi?ua oaeouee o?oae aeieaeai
iieo/eoue ca n/ao i?ioeiai o?oaea. Ana, /oi i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey
aeaiiie oeaee, aeey iaania/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea yoeie
?aciiia?aciuie oneiaeyie, – ana yoi e anoue eaieoae. Ana n?aaenoaa,
i?eiinyuea naiaio aeaaeaeueoeo aeioiae, eioi?ue ii iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue, aeey iaai ?aaiicia/iu eaieoaeo. I?iecaiaenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?aie/aia ?acia?aie eaieoaea. Eaaeaeia oaaee/aiea
eaieoaea i?eaiaeeo e iiaiio ?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa, aac
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea. Eaieoae – anoue ?acoeueoao naa?aaeaiey.
Eaieoaeii aeaaeaao ia oio, eoi aai iaeiiee, a oio, eoi, aoaeo/e neeueiaa
eee, i?eiaaeeaaea e aieaa iiaouanoaaiiie iaueia, i?enaiee aai
iin?aaenoaii a?aaaaea. Eaieoae, oioy e naa?aaaaony, ii ii e
iio?aaeyaony. Naa?aaeaiea iaiaauaao, a ?anoi/eoaeueiinoue iaaaeiyao
iauanoai; iauanoai a oeaeii noaiiaeony aiaa/a a ?acoeueoaoa ecaea?aeae
ia niaea?aeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea, aaaeiaa, ?anoiaeoy ?ano?nu
ia iio?aaeaiea ?aaee oaeiaieuenoaey. Eaieoae, eioi?ue iieiinoueth
en/a?iuaaao naith ooieoeeth a i?iecaiaenoaa aai iaeiie?aoiiai
i?eiaiaiey, iacuaaaony iai?ioiui (nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, yia?aaoe/aneea
?ano?nu). Eaieoae, eioi?ue nouanoaoao a ethaie ec aeieaiaa/iuo oi?i e
aeioiae io eioi?iai iinooiaao ia i?ioyaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai
ia?eiaea, iacuaaaony iniiaiui (caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, noaiee,
iai?oaeiaaiea). Iaeaieaa aeieaiaa/iui ec anao ?aciiaeaeiinoae iniiaiiai
eaieoaea yaeyaony eaieoae, aeiaeaiiue a iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
i?e?iaeu”. A i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iniiaiie eaieoae iiaeaa?aaaony
oece/aneiio e ii?aeueiiio eciino. Oece/aneee eciin – yoi i?ioeann, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai yeaiaiou iniiaiiai eaieoaea noaiiayony oece/anee
iai?eaiaeiuie aeey aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii
ii?aaeaeyaony i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth e eioaineaiinoueth eniieueciaaiey
iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, iniaaiiinoyie oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea
i?eiaiyaony iniiaiie eaieoae. Ii?aeueiue eciin – i?ioeann iaanoeaieaaiey
iniiaiiai eaieoaea aneaaenoaea iiyaeaiey aaeaa aeaoaaiai eee aieaa
nia?aiaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey; ii aeaaiui ia?acii naycai n aunieeie oaiiaie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aiciauaiea oece/anee eciioaiiiai e
ii?aeueii onoa?aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee (yoi /anoue noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ay aaeaaiaeii
aoiaeeo a noieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee). Ioiioaiea noiiu
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee e noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea, au?aaeaiiia
a i?ioeaioao, iacuaaaony ii?iie aii?oecaoeee.

I?e?ino eaieoaea iaae naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie aaee/eiie – i?eaueue. Iu
no?aieiny iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue – a yoii caeeth/aaony
iniiaiie niune eiieo?aioeee. I?eaueue – ?acieoea iaaeaeo aaeiaui
aeioiaeii e ecaea?aeeaie i?iecaiaenoaa. A. Nieo e Ae. ?eea?aei n/eoaee,
/oi i?eaueue anoue au/ao i?aaei?eieiaoaey ec i?iaeoeoa o?oaea iaaiiuo
?aai/eo, E. Ia?en ii?aaeaeyao i?eaueue eae i?aa?auaiioth oi?io
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Aiiaua i?eaueue i?aaenoaaeyaony eae aeioiae io
eniieueciaaiey iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oaeoi?a –
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo niiniaiinoae. Yoi aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca oaeaio
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, aai aea? i?aaiecaoi?a, aai niiniaiinoe i?aaeaeaeaiey e
oiaiey i?eaioe?iaaoueny a iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo. 2 ooieoeee
i?eauee: 1) ooieoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia n?aaee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
iieueciaaoaeae (i?aaei?eieiaoaee, no?aiynue ecaea/ue i?eauee e
ecaaaeaoue iioa?ue, ?anoe?ytho oa aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, a eioi?uo anoue
iio?aaiinoue e iaiai?io); 2) ooieoeey noeioee?iaaiey (i?eaueue
iiaoaeaeaao oe?iu inouanoaeyoue iiaiaaaaeaiey, oaaee/eaaoue iauee auione
e ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee). Anee iu aaee/eio i?eauee ?acaeaeei ia aanue
aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae, oi iieo/ei ii?io i?eauee.

Eaieoae – oa /anoue aiaaonoaa no?aiu, eioi?ay oiio?aaeyaony a
i?iecaiaenoaa e ninoieo ec ieue, iaeaaeaeu, eino?oiaioia, nu?uey,
iaoa?eaeia, iaoei, e ae?oaeo aauae, iaiaoiaeeiuo, /oiau i?eaanoe a
aeaeaeaiea o?oae. Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio ioiineony e eaoaai?ee aeioiaeia ia
nianoaaiiinoue. Yoi aeioiae, iieo/aaiue aeaaeaeueoeaie aeaiaaeiiai
eaieoaea, eioi?ue yaeyaony aaaeiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ?ano?nii e
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa niaoeeoe/aneiai oiaa?a ia ?uiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea.
Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio (eee noaaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa) – yoi oeaia, eioi?oth
aaie eee caaiuee aeieaeai caieaoeoue e?aaeeoi?o ca iieueciaaiea
aeaiueaaie a eaeie-oi ia?eiae a?aiaie. Oi anoue nnoaeiue i?ioeaio – yoi
oeaia ca eniieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea, iau/ii ii ii?aaeaeyaony
eae i?ioeaio io eiee/anoaa caiyouo aeaiaa. Eeanne/aneay e aneaae ca iae
ia?enenoneay iieeoyeiiiiey ?anniao?eaaao i?ioeaio eae /anoue i?eauee,
eioi?oth eaieoaeeno caaiuee onooiaao aaieo-e?aaeeoi?o ca iieueciaaiea
aeaiueaaie. Nai eaieoae, eae oaeiaie, ie/aai ia i?iecaiaeeo. Ii
i?iecaiaeeoaeai oieueei a oii niunea, /oi yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui oneiaeai
i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia nai ii naaa. I?eaueue e i?ioeaio – yoi eeoue oi?ia
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, nicaeaiiie o?oaeii iaaiiiai ?aai/aai. Iaeiaei iie
yaeythony ?uii/iuie eaoaai?eyie, eo aaee/eia iiaeao eieaaaoueny a
caaeneiinoe io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo oaeoi?ia a
a?aieoeao i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. I?e?iaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa
iauyniyaony ineoieiae/aneeie iioeaaie iiaaaeaiey ethaeae. Ethaee
i?aaeii/eoatho iieo/eoue ?ano?n nae/an e caieaoeoue ca yoi i?ioeaio,
aianoi oiai, /oiau aeaeaoue aei oao ii?, iiea iie naie ia ca?aaioatho
yoe aeaiueae. Iaiueoay oeaiiinoue aoaeoueo aeaa, ii n?aaiaieth n
ianoiyuei, iauyniyaony a iniiaiii oai, /oi oaea naaiaeiy iie iiaoo auoue
ia?auaiu a eaieoae e i?eiineoue aeioiae. E iiea auea?uo a aeioiaea
aoaeao a aeaea i?ioeaioa, ethaee aoaeoo i?aaeii/eoaoue a?aoue nnoaeo.

? 8. Oeiieiaey yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia. I?iiuoeaiiue oeeee e aai oacu.
Oai?ee oeeeeia

Iniaaiiinoue ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, i?iyaeyaoayny a neeiiiinoe e
iiaoi?aieth yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee, auea caia/aia yeiiiienoaie aua a
ia?aie iieiaeia i?ioeiai aaea. A no?aieaiee e aani?aaeaeueiiio
?anoe?aieth naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa, e caaiaaaieth aiciiaeii aieueoaai
?uiea, eioi?ue a eaaeaeeue aeaiiue iiiaio eiaao i?aaeaeu, aeaaeaeueoeu
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee ia?eiaee/anee noaeeeaaeenue n
ia?ai?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia. Iuoaynue auyaeoue i?e/eiu ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa,
yeiiiienou ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia ia?eiaee/iinoueoaeeo yaeaiee, eae
iiauoaiea eee iiieaeaiea ni?ina, oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa eee aai
canoie. Auyaeeanue e ii?aaeaeaiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a /a?aaeiaaiee
oeacaiiuo yaeaiee. ?acaeoea yeiiiieee n iiaeuaiaie e niaaeaie
i?iecaiaenoaa iacuaatho oeeeee/aneei, a ia?eiae io ia/aea iaeiiai niaaea
aei ia/aea ae?oaiai iacuaatho i?iiuoeaiiui, eee yeiiiie/aneei oeeeeii.
I. Naioyeuenii a naiae eieaa “Yeiiiieea” ii?aaeaeyao yeiiiie/aneee oeeee
eaeiauoth /a?oo ii/oe aeey anao iaeanoae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie e aeey
anao no?ai n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. I?eciaaay iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiienoia i?aaeeaaatho
eco/aoue yoi yaeaiea /a?ac aiaeec aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia oa?aeoa? oeeeea, aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, niaoeeoeeo
i?iyaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo oac. E aiaoiei oaeoi?ai iiaoo auoue ioianaiu
iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa, aucuaathuea ia?eiaee/aneoth
iiaoi?yaiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee, a oaeaea: aieiu, ?aaiethoeee e
ae?oaea iieeoe/aneea iio?ynaiey; ioe?uoey e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
cieioa, o?aia, iaooe e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo ?ano?nia; inaiaiea iiauo
oa??eoi?ee e naycaiiay n yoei iea?aoeey ianaeaiey, eieaaaiey /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey caiiiai oa?a;iiuiua i?i?uau a oaoiieiaee, ecia?aoaiey e
eiiiaaoeee.

Oai?ee, iauyniythuea yeiiiie/aneee oeeee aeaaiui ia?acii iaee/eai
aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, i?eiyoi iacuaaoue yenoa?iaeueiuie oai?eyie, a ioee/ea
io eioa?iaeueiuo oai?ee, ?anniao?eaathueo yeiiiie/aneee oeeee eae
ii?iaeaeaiea aioo?aiieo, i?enoueo naiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia, oaeoi?ia.
Yoe oaeoi?u iiaoo aucuaaoue eae iiaeueai, oae e niaae yeiiiie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie. Anee a iaeiie eee
ianeieueeeo io?aneyo ia/aeny aoi, aucauaoee ?aceia oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia
iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea, oi aiieia anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
yaeaiea iiaoi?eony /a?ac 10-15 eao, a oa/aiea eioi?uo yoe iaoeiu e
iai?oaeiaaiea aoaeoo iieiinoueth eciioaiu. Oece/aneee n?ie neoaeau
iniiaiiai eaieoaea (aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai) ?anniao?eaaaony iiiaeie
yeiiiienoaie eae iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia, ii?iaeaeathueo
yeiiiie/aneee oeeee. N?aaee ae?oaeo aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia auaeaeytho: 1)
ee/iia iio?aaeaiea,

2) nie?auaiea eee aic?anoaiea eioi?iai neacuaaaony ia iauaiao
i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe;

3) eiaanoe?iaaiea, oi anoue aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa a ?anoe?aiea
i?iecaiaenoaa, aai iiaea?iecaoeeth, nicaeaiea iiauo ?aai/eo iano;

4) yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa, au?aaeathuothny a i?yiii e
einaaiiii aicaeaenoaee ia i?iecaiaenoai, ni?in e iio?aaeaiea.

A i?iiuoeaiiii oeeeea auaeaeytho oacu: e?ecen, aeai?anney, iaeeaeaiea.

e?ecen
iiaeuai

O?iaaiue
e?ecen

i?-aa
iaeeaeaiea A /enoii
eaieoaeecia oacai

iiaeuai

i?iiuoeaiiiai oeeeea i?enoue

neaaeothuea /a?ou:

1)
E?ecen (niaae) – i?ienoiyo iaaeaiea

i?eicaiaenoaa, ?aceia oaaee/aiea

aeai?anney
iaaeia?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiu-

iinoae e aac?aaioeoeu, nieaeaiea oeai

ia
oiaa?u, ca?aaioiie ieaou, aeioiaeia

Aiaeu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ianniaua aaie?i-

Oeeee onoaa

2) Aeai?anney – iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?einoaiaaeeaaaony, aai iauai a
oeaeii noaaeeece?oaony, ia/eiaaony i?ioeann niaa?oainoaiaaiey no?oeoo?u
yeiiiieee e iaiiaeaiey aa oaoie/aneie aacu, nio?aiyaony aunieee o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu, ii iaaeaiea oeai i?einoaiaaeeaaaony, noaaeeece?othony
oiaa?iua caianu.

3) Iaeeaeaiea – noaaeeecaoeey niaiyaony ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa,
“auiiecaieai” ec aeai?annee, iinoaiaiii nie?auathony aac?aaioeoea,
iiauoathony ca?aaioiay ieaoa e aeioiaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, iinoaiaiii
ia/eiatho iiauoaoueny oeaiu, ia oiaa?iii ?uiea ?anoao ni?in ia iiaia
i?iiuoeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea.

4) Iiaeuai – aai enoiaeiui ioieoii n/eoaaony ainnoaiiaeaiea aei
e?eceniiai o?iaiy iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, aac?aaioeoea nie?auaaony aei
ieieiaeueiuo ?acia?ia, ?anoao ca?aaioiay ieaoa, ?anooo oeaiu, o?iaaiue
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aainoiaeeo aeinoeaiooue a i?aaeuaeouai oeeeea,
?anoe?yaony ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey e n?iaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Caoai i?iecaiaenoaa ia/eiaao io?uaaoueny io
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, iaeaieeaathony aeeni?iii?oeee, e noaiiaeony
iaecaaaeiui iiaue e?ecen ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iiuoeaiiue oeeee ia iaeeiaeiai aicaeaenoaoao ia ?acee/iua naeoi?u
yeiiiieee e ia ioaeaeueiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iau/ii io niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa a aieueoae ia?a no?aaeatho io?anee, auioneathuea n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, io?anee
no?ieoaeueiie eiaeono?ee. Io?anee aea, auioneathuea iio?aaeoaeueneea
oiaa?u e?aoeia?aiaiiiai iieueciaaiey, ?aaae?otho ia oacu i?iiuoeaiiiai
oeeeea a iaiueoae ia?a, oae eae ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia yoe oiaa?u ia
iiaeao nie?auaoueny ieaea ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy.

? 9. Ia?eaioeeeci eae yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea e eaeaieiaey

Ii?aaeaeythuei iai?aaeaieai yeiiiie/aneie iunee XV-XVII aa. noae
ia?eaioeeeci. Noi?iiieee ia?eaioeeecia iieaaaee, /oi enoi/ieeii
aiaaonoaa yaeyaony noa?a ia?auaiey, a ia noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa. Naii aea
aiaaonoai iie ioiaeaeanoaeyee n aeaiueaaie e ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi
aeaaininoiyiea ainoaea?noaa caaeneo io aiciiaeii aieueoaai neiieaiey a
no?aia aeaiaa (cieioa e na?aa?a). Iiyoiio ia?eaioeeenou i?ecuaaee
any/anee ?acaeaaoue oi?aiaeth, iniaaiii iaaeaeoia?iaeioth (aiaoithth) e
aeiaeaaeenue i?aiaeaaeaiey auaica oiaa?ia ca a?aieoeo iaae aaicii eo a
no?aio (aeoeaiue oi?aiaue aaeain). Oa?aeoa?iuie au?aceoaeyie eaeae
ia?eaioeeecia auee aiaee/aiei Oiian Iai e o?aioeoc AEai Aaoeno Eieueaa?.
A 17 aaea ia?eaioeeeci iieo/ee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a Aa?iia,
iniaaiii a ainoaea?noaao – iao?iiieeyo (Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Aieeaiaeee,
Eniaiee, Ii?ooaaeee). Naycaii yoi auei n oai, /oi oai?ee ia?eaioeeenoia
aunooiaee eae iaiauaiea iiuoa ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea,
eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeei a oi a?aiy ca n/ao ia?aaeaiey eieiiee. Ia /oaeaea
ia?eaioeeecio ieacaeanue e ?inney. A /anoiinoe, Iao? I no?iee naith
yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, ai iiiaii ?oeiaiaenoaoynue aicc?aieyie
ia?eaioeeenoia. A yiioo ?anoeaaoa ia?eaioeeecia iiyaeythony ?aiiea
i?iecaaaeaiey Oeeueyia Iaooe (1623-1687aa.). A ieo /oanoaoaony aeeyiea
eaeae ia?eaioeeecia, io eioi?iai Iaooe caoai ioioae.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia aanue neeaae iuneae ia?eaioeeenoia
ieacaee eaeae yiioe ?aiannaina. A yoo ii?o yeiiiie/aneia iuoeaiea, eae e
iaoea aiiaua, inaiaiaeaeaaony io ioo oaiaeaeueii-?aeeaeiciiai
ie?iaicc?aiey: enoeio oaea euoo ia a nayuaiiii ienaiee, yoe/aneeo
ii?iaoeaao, a a o?acaii aiaeeca ?aaeueiie aeecie, yeiiiie/aneie,
iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeaio?ii aieiaiey ia?eaioeeenoia noaiiaeony aeeaie, i?aaei?eei/eaue,
iieiue aaaioth?iuo no?aieaiee ao?aeoa n aai iaoa?eaeueiuie, caiiuie
eioa?anaie e aeaeaieyie, i?iua – n aai aeaaeaeie iaiaauaiey, aeaaeaeie
iaaeeau. Iaoiaeieiaey ia?eaioeeecia ii?aaeaeyaony iauei ia?aoiaeiui
oa?aeoa?ii eaeaieiaee oiaaeaoiaai iauanoaa. Yoi auei a?aiy eoeueoo?iuo
?aaiethoeee, iai?yaeaiiie e ao?iie eaeaeiie ?aaiou, eaeie aei oao ii? ia
i?eoiaeeeinue auiieiyoue /aeiaa/anoao. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea
ia?eaioeeecia niaeaenoaiaaea ia?aiia/aeueiiio iaeiieaieth eaieoaea,
ianeeuenoaaiii nie?auay ia?aoiae io oaiaeaeueiiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa
e ao?aeoaciiio, /oi iaoneiaeeaaei aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneeo
o/aiee.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?eaioeeeci ia i?aaenoaaeyao iai?aaeaiey,
oeieu a iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, eae iineaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey a
?acaeoee yeiiiie/aneie iunee. Ia?eaioeeeci iiae?acoiaaaao niaie nenoaio
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi yoa nenoaia
yeiiiie/anei e iieeoeee eiaea naiae oai?aoe/aneie i?aaeiinueeie
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i nouiinoe aiaaonoaa, i aeaiueaao e o.ae.,
ii iie ia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /aai-oi nenoaiaoe/aneiai ie ii naiaio
nouanoao, ie a naiai eceiaeaiee o ?aciuo ia?eaioeeenoia. Iaeuecy
neacaoue, /oiau ana ia?eaioeeenou eniiaaaeiaaee ia?eaioeeenoe/aneoth
oai?eth, ai-ia?auo, iioiio /oi ia ai anao aii?inao iie auee iaaeaeo
niaie niaeaniu, e, ai-aoi?uo, iioiio /oi ieeaeie aaeeiie “oai?ee ”,
ioaaouaathuae ana yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey, iie ia nicaeaee. *oiau iiiyoue
iniaaiiinoe ia?eaioeeecia, iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ii aicieeaao
a i?ioeanna ai?ueau oi?aiaiai eaieoaea i?ioea oae iacuaaaiie iieeoeee
aeaiaaeiiai aaeaina. Iauei a nenoaiao aeaiaaeiiai e oi?aiaiai aaeaina
yaeyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeaiueaao eae aaeeinoaaiiii aiaaonoaa no?aiu.
Ia yoii iniiaaiee ?anniao?eaatho eiiaaea nenoaio aeaiaaeiiai aaeaina eae
?aiiee ia?eaioeeeci. A nenoaio oi?aiaiai aaeaina – eae ia?eaioeeeci a
nianoaaiiii niunea neiaa. O. Yiaaeuen iiae/a?eeaae oi iauaa, /oi ?iaeieo
ea?eaioeeueioth nenoaio n iiiaoa?iie, a eiaiii: i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aeaiueaao, eae i aaeeinoaaiiii aiaaonoaa.

Ia?eaioeeeci ?anniao?eaaao o?oae eae enoi/iee iio?aaeoaeueiie
noieiinoe ia?yaeo n i?e?iaeie. Iaiiaie noieiinoueth i?iaeoeo o?oaea
noaiiaeony eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii i?aa?auaaony a iauaeo aiaoiae
oi?aiaee, auaiceony ca a?aieoeo e aeinoaaeyao no?aia a ea/anoaa naiaai
yeaeaaeaioa ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu: ii nouanoao ia?eaioeeenou iiae
aiaaonoaii iiieiatho ecauoie i?iaeoeoia, inoathueeny iinea
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae no?aiu. Aiaaonoai aeey ieo – yoi ecauoie
iaiiaie noieiinoe iaae iio?aaeaieai, eioi?ue iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai
i?eiyoue aeaiaaeioth oi?io. Iie, neaaeiaaoaeueii, inoathony a ieaio
eeethcee, /oi aiaaonoai nicaeaaony auaicii, a ia i?iecaiaenoaii. Aeey
ieo ia?eeii iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa yaeyaony oi?aiaue aaeain. Iniiaiui
i?aaenoaaeaieai ia?eaioeeecia auei oi, /oi o?oae i?iecaiaeeoaeai oieueei
a oao io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iaeoeou eioi?uo, aoaeo/e auaacaiu ca
a?aieoeo, aica?auatho no?aia aieueoa aeaiaa, /ai iie noieee, eee /ai
ioaeii auei ia ieo cao?aoeoue. Ia?eaioeeenou auaeaeaaee aieaa aeoaieia
iiieiaiea aeaiaa, /ai noi?iiieee iiiaoa?iie nenoaiu. Iie iiae/a?eeaatho,
/oi aeaiueae – yoi iniaue oiaa?, i?ioeainoiyuee anai ae?oaei oiaa?ai.
Iie ?anniao?eaaee aeaiueae eeoue eae i?iaeoeo ia?auaiey, eae oeaeue
ia?auaiey, oi anoue eae iaiiaoth noieiinoue, a ia eaeie-eeai
aauanoaaiiue yeaiaio aiaaonoaa.

Oa?aeoa?iui iiiaioii aeey anaai ia?eaioeeenoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey
yayeaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi aiaaonoai iaeiie iaoeee iiaeao
oaaee/eaaoueny oieueei ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey aai o ae?oaie iin?aaenoaii
aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Ana inoaeueiua iieiaeaiey ia?eaioeeenoia yaeythony
i?iecaiaeiuie io yoie oeaio?aeueiie eaeae:

1) no?aieaiea i?eaeaaoue /?acia?iia cia/aiea aieueoiio caiano
ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia; 2) no?aieaiea i?aaiciineoue eiino?aiioth
oi?aiaeth iaae aioo?aiiae, ia?aaaouaathuoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia?aae
aeiauaathuae; 3) no?aieaiea i?eaeaaaoue neeoeii aieueoia cia/aiea
ianaeaieth, eae yeaiaioo iaoeeiiaeueiie neeu; 4) no?aieaiea i?eaaaaoue e
aeayoaeueiinoe aeanoe aeey eneonnoaaiiiai aeinoeaeaiey aeaeaoaeueiuo
oeaeae. Ana yoe no?aieaiey ia?eaioeeenoia, icaai/aiiuo ?inoii aiaaonoaa
iaoeee, i?ienoaeatho ec no?aiaeaiey i?eaea/aiey a no?aio i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa ae?oaeo no?ai, oioy iie e ia iiieiaee i?e?iaeu i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa. Aeey ieo ii aue oeaeueth anae oicyenoaaiiie e iieeoe/aeneie
aeayoeaeueiinoe.

? 10. “Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea” O. Eaiy

Iaoeey ninoieo eo o?ao eeannia a?aaeaeai: eeanna i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai,
eeanna nianoaaiieeia e eeanna aanieiaeiiai. Eeannii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui
yaeyaony oio, eioi?ue aiciauaao iooai ia?aaioee oa??eoi?ee aaeaaiaeiua
aiaaonoaa iaoeee, aeaeaao ?anoiaeu ii caieaaeaeue/aneei ?aaioai e
iiea/eaaao aaeaaiaeii aeioiaeu nianoaaiieeia caiee. A caaeneiinoe io
yoiai eeanna iaoiaeyony ana cao?a/eaaaiua aeey yoie oeaee ecaea?aeee e
aanue o?oae aieioue aei i?iaeaaee i?iecaaaeaiee ec ia?auo ?oe,
i?iaeaaee, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao oeaiiinoue aaeaaiaeiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
aiaaonoa iaoeee. Eeann nianoaaiieeia aeeth/aao a naay ainoaea?y,
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e iieo/aoaeae aeanyoeiu. Yoio eeann nouanoaoao ia
aeioiae, eee /enoue i?iaeoeo, io caieaaeaeey, oiea/eaaaiue aio
aaeaaiaeii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui eeannii, iinea oiai eae iineaaeiee au/ae
ec aaeaaiaeii aini?iecaiaeeiuo ei aiaaonoa /anoue, iaiaoiaeeioth ia
aiciauaiea aaeaaiaeiuo cao?ao e ia iiaeaea?aeaiea aiaaonoa,
oiio?aaeyaiuo ia ia?aaioeo. Eeann aanieiaeiue ia?acotho ana a?aaeaeaia,
auiieiythuea ae?oaea caiyoey e ae?oaea aeaeu o?oaea, iiieii ioiinyueony
e caieaaeaeeth. Ecaea?aeee eo iiea/eaathony eeannii i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
eeannii nianoaaiieeia, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue iieo/atho naie aeioiaeu
io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna.

I?aaeiieiaeei aieueoia ainoaea?noai, oa??eoi?ey eioi?iai i?e naiie
aunieie noaiaie ?acaeoey caieaaeaeey aeinoaaeyao eaaeaeue aiae noiio
aini?iecaiaenoaa oeaiiinoueth a 5 ie?ae. e aaea iinoiyinoai yoie
oeaiiinoe iniiaaii ia iinoiyiiuo oeaiao, i?eiyouo a niioaieyo iaaeaeo
oi?aiauie iaoeeyie, i?e oneiaee iinoiyiiiai nouanoaiaaiey naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee a oi?aiaea e iieiie iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiinoe ia
aiaaonoaa, caiyoua a ia?aaioea caiee.

Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea iaieiaao o?e eeanna e eo aaeaaiaeiua aiaaonoaa e
iienuaaao ia?auaiea eo a neaaeothuae oi?ia:

Eeann i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue:Cao?aou: aaeaaiaeiua yoiai eeanna,
aeinoeaathuea 2 ie?ae. (yoi ?anoiaeu, i?iecaiaeeiua ia
caieaaeaeue/aneoth ?aaioo aaeaaiaeii) i?iecaaee 5 ie?ae., ec eioi?uo 2
ie?ae., i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /enoue i?iaeoao, eee aeioiae.

Eeann nianoaaiieeia: Aeioiae: yoiai eeanna ninoaaeyao 2 ie?ae., ec
eioi?uo 1 ie?ae. ?anoiaeoaony ia iieoieo o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna, a
ae?oaie ie?ae. – ia iieoiee o aanieiaeiiai eeanna.

Eeann aanieiaeiue: Cao?aou: yoiai eeanna ninoaaeytho noiio a 1ie?ae.,

eioi?ue ?anoiaeoaony aanieiaeiui eeannii ia iieoiee nu?uo iaoa?eaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue eeann i?iaeaao ia 1 ie?ae. naieo
i?iecaaaeaiee nianoaaiieeai aeioiaea e ia 1 ie?ae. – aanieiaeiiio
eeanno, iieoiathuaio o iaai nu?ua iaoa?eaeu aeey naieo ecaeaeee, /oi
ninoaaeo 2 ie?ae. Ieeeea?ae, eioi?ue nianoaaiieee aeioiaea
ec?anoiaeiaaee ia iieoieo o aanieiaeiiai eeanna, oiio?aaeyaony
iineaaeiei aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey nouanoaiaaiey eeoe, ec eioi?uo ninoieo
yoio eeann, ia iieoieo i?iecaaaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
eeanna, /oi ninoaaeo aua 1 ie?ae. Eoia iieoiie, naeaeaiiuo
nianoaaiieeaie aeioiaea e aanieiaeiui eeannii o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
eeanna, ninoaaeo 3 ie?ae. Ec yoeo 3 ie?ae., iieo/aiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui eeannii ca 3 ie?ae. a i?iecaaaeaieyo, i?iaeaiiuo ei,
ii aeieaeai oieaoeoue nianoaaiieeai ca oaeouee aiae 2 ie?ae. aeioiaea, a
1 ie?ae. ii ?anoiaeoao ia iieoiee ecaeaeee, aeinoaaeyaiuo aanieiaeiui
eeannii. Yoio iineaaeiee oaea?aeeaaao yoo noiio ia aiciauaiea naieo
cao?ao, eioi?ua auee niaa?oaiu ei aia/aea ia iieoiee o
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna nu?uo iaoa?eaeia, oiio?aaeyaiuo a ecaeaeeyo
aanieiaeiiai eeanna. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aai cao?aou ie/aai ia i?iecaiaeyo;
ii niaa?oaao eo e iie aiciauathony aio, inoaaaynue anaaaea a caiana ec
aiaea a aiae. Nu?ua iaoa?eaeu e o?oae, cao?a/eaaaiue ia ecaeaeey,
iiaeieiatho i?iaeaaee aanieiaeiiai eeanna aei noiiu a 2 ie?ae., ec
eioi?uo 1 ie?ae. aue ec?anoiaeiaai ia n?aaenoaa nouanoaiaaiey eeoe,
ninoaaeythueo yoio eeann; caeanue eiaao ianoi oieueei iio?aaeaiea eee
oie/oiaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiea, ii ia aini?iecaiaenoai. Ae?oaie ie?ae. aue
nio?aiai aeey aiciauaiey ecaea?aeae yoiai eeanna, eioi?ua a neaaeothuai
aiaeo aoaeoo aiiaue niaa?oaiu ia iieoiee o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna
nu?uo iaoa?eaeia aeey ecaeaeee, i?iecaiaeeiuo aanieiaeiui eeannii. Oaeei
ia?acii, 3 ie?ae., eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue eeann iieo/ee ca
niaa?oaiiua ei i?iaeaaee nianoaaiieeai aeioiaea e aanieiaeiiio eeanno,
auee oiio?aaeaiu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui eeannii ia oieaoo aeioiaea oaeouaai
aiaea a ?acia?a 2 ie?ae. e ia iieoiee a ?acia?a 1 ie?ae. ecaeaeee, ca
eioi?ua ii oiea/eaaao aanieiaeiiio eeanno.

Oi?ioea
yeiiiie/aneie oaaeeoeu

Iauee eoia
aini?iecaiaenoaa 5 ie?ae.

Cao?aou
Aeioiae
Cao?aou

aaeaaiaeiua
nianoaaiieeia caiee, aanieiaeiiai

i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
ainoaea?y e iieo/aoaeae eeanna

eeanna
aeanyoeiu

2 ieeeea?aea

1 ieeeea?ae

Noiiu, oiio?aaeyaiua 2 ieeeea?aea

ia oieaoo 1 ieeeea?ae

aeioiaea e i?ioeaioia ia 1 ieeeea?ae
1 ieeeea?ae

ia?aiia/aeueiua cao?aou 1 ieeeea?ae
1 ieeeea?ae

Eoia – 2 ie?ae.,

Ecaea?aeee ia aaeaaiaeiua
ec eioi?uo iieiaeia

cao?aou 2 ieeeea?aea
oaea?aeeaaaony
yoei

Eoia 5 ieeeea?aeia
eeannii aeey
cao?ao a

neaaeothuai
aiaeo

? 12. oai?ey ioiineoaeueiua i?aeiouanoa Ae.?eea?aei

?eea?aei iiiai aeoiae i oaeoi?ao, ii?aaeaeythueo iioiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee. Yoi iiiyoii: aeey Aiaeee aiaoiyy oi?aiaey anaaaea ea?aea iniai
aaaeioth ?ieue. Ii caaeaeny aii?inii – ii/aio ec aeaiiie no?aiu
auaicyony eiaiii oaeea oiaa?u, a aaicyony ae?oaea? E /oi aeaao aiaoiyy
oi?aiaey aeey ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa, aeey yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna?

O Aaeaia Nieoa aue i?inoie e a iauai-oi aeiaieueii ieineee ioaao ia
oaeea aii?inu. Iiaeao auoue, e iuneeii i?iecaiaeeoue a Oioeaiaeee
aeiia?aaeiia aeii, ii cao?aou o?oaea aoaeoo iaiiia?ii aaeeee. Auaiaeiaa
i?iecaiaeeoue a Oioeaiaeee, neaaeai, iaan e iaiaieaaoue aai ia aeii ec
Ii?ooaaeee, aaea i?iecaiaenoai aeia o?aaoao iaei cao?ao o?oaea, a iana –
iiiai. Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, auea?atho iaa no?aiu. Ii yoi ia iiaei
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?eea?aei. Iaoaeaee oi?aiaey aiciiaeia oieueei a
i/aaeaeiuo neo/ayo, eiaaea aeeeooao naia i?e?iaea? Ii ?annoaeaeae oae.
Anee aeaaea i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi Oioeaiaeey i?iecaiaeeo e iaan e aeii
n iaiueoeie ecaea?aeeaie, ii ii iano aa i?aeiouanoai aieueoa, /ai ii
aeio, oi i?e ecaanoiii niioiioaiee ecaea?aeae e ecaanoiuo i?iii?oeeyo
iaiaia ae aoaeao ana aea auaiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei iaan, a
Ii?ooaaeee – oieueei aeii. Yoi e anoue i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao,
eee n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa. ?eea?aei iniiauaae yoio i?eioeei ia
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe e iuoaeny aeieacaoue aai n iiiiuueth
/eneiaiai i?eia?a.

Iiiuoaainy i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue eaeae ?eea?aei /eneiaui i?eia?ii, eioi?ue
ii aiciiaeiinoe i?eaeeaeai e ?aaeueiinoe ia/aea 19 aaea. I?aaenoaaei
naaa, /oi a Aiaeee e O?aioeee i?iecaiaeyony oieueei aeaa oiaa?a – noeii
e ca?ii. A Aiaeee i?iecaiaenoai 1 iao?a noeia o?aaoao a n?aaeiai 10
/ania o?oaea, a 1 oiiiu ca?ia – 20 /ania. Ai O?aioeee oeeo?u ninoaaeytho
aeey noeia 20 /ania, aeey ca?ia – 30 /ania. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiii
noieiinoe a Aiaeee 1 oiiia ca?ia aoaeao iaiaieaaoueny ia 2 iao?a noeia,
a ai O?aioeee – ia 1,5 iao?a. Caiaoei, /oi a aeaiiii i?eia?a Aiaeey
eiaao aaniethoiia i?aeiouanoai a i?iecaiaenoaa iaieo oiaa?ia, ii
n?aaieoaeueiia – eeoue ii noeio. Ii ca?io n?aaieoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai
eiaao O?aioeey. Yoi iiaeii iauynieoue aua oae: ai O?aioeee i?iecaiaenoai
noeia iaoiaeeony a 2 ?aca aei?iaea, /ai a Aiaeee, a ca?ia – oieueei a
1,5 ?aca. Yoi oieueei e anoue n?aaieoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iaa no?aiu iineaaeiaaee niaaoo ?eea?aei e
niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue – Aiaeey – ia i?iecaiaenoaa noeia, O?aioeey – ia
i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa. Iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi niioiioaiea iaiaia noeia ia
oeaa aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny aaea-oi iaaeaeo aiaeeeneei e o?aioeocneei e
ninoaaeo, neaaeai, 1,7 (o.a. 1,7 iao?a noeia ca 1 oiiio ca?ia).
Aeaeueiaeoea ?annoaeaeaiey eo/oa ecia?aceoue a aeaea oaaeeoeu:

AiaeeyO?aioeeyNiaieoiiay cao?aoa ?aai/eo /ania ia 1 i noeia e 1 o
ca?ia3050Aei niaoeeaeecaoeeeI?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea noeia
(i)11I?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea ca?ia (o)11Iinea
niaoeeaeecaoeeeI?iecaiaenoai noeia (i)3-I?iecaiaenoai ca?ia
(o)-1,67Iio?aaeaiea noeia (i)10,67*1,7=1,14Iio?aaeaiea ca?ia a i?aaeaeao
aiciiaeiiai iaiaia (m)0,67Ia?aaeeciaaiiue inoaoie noeia (i)3 –
2,14=0,861Iaaei neacaoue, /oi ?eea?aei iinayoee oai?ee aiaoiae oi?aiaee
anaai ianeieueei no?aieoe. Eae e a ?yaea ae?oaeo iaeanoae, ii auneacae e
iainiiaae ooiaeaiaioaeueioth eaeath, i?aaeinoaaea iieieaieyi yeiiiienoia
?acaeaaoue e iiaea?iece?iaaoue aa.

A naiae aano?aeoiie oi?ia i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao ni?aaaaeeea ia
oieueei aeey eaieoaeecia. Ii i?eiaiei ii naiie naiae nouiinoe e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ?acaeaeaieth o?oaea. Caeiiiia?ii, /oi a iineaaeiea
aiaeu a nayce n oneeaieai aeey nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai cia/aeiey i?iaeai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea
yeiiiienoia-ia?enenoia.

Ia?en oeacuaae, /oi a i?eioeeia niaoeeaeecaoeey iiaeao auoue auaiaeia
aeaaea ioiineoaeueii ionoaeie no?aia, o.e. oaeay no?aia “ana-oaee
iieo/aao i?e yoii oiaa?u aeaoaaea, /ai iiaea au naia eo i?iecaiaeeoue”.
Aianoa n oai oaea ?eea?aei aeaeae ec i?eioeeia n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao
auaiaeu a aeooa naiae oai?ee i aa?iiie/aneii ?acaeoee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a oneiaeyo naiaiaeu oi?aiaee. O iaai
iieo/aeinue, /oi oi?aiaey nieioeo ana oeeaeeeciaaiiua iaoeee a iaeio
anaie?ioth iaueio, anee oeaa, aeii e ae?oaea n/o oiaa?u aoaeoo
i?iecaiaeeoueny a i?i/eo no?aiao ie?a, a iaoaeee/aneea ecaeaeey e
ae?oaea i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u – a Aiaeee. Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aaaeuaaeinue
“anoanoaaiiia” i?aiaeaaeaiea Aiaeee a ea/anoaa aeaaiie i?iiuoeaiiie
aea?aeaau ie?a. A aeaeueiaeoai i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao noae
eniieueciaaoueny a ?yaea neo/aaa aeey ii?aaaeaiey iaeiinoi?iiiae
niaoeeaeecaoeee yeiiiie/anee neaai ?acaeouo no?ai ia i?iecaiaenoaa
nu?uey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey, eae aeiaiae i?ioea eo eiaeono?eaeecaoeee.

Oioy naiaiaea oi?aiaee auea iniaaiii auaiaeia aeey aiaeeeneie
ao?aeoacee, aa iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea auei a oi a?aiy ana aea
i?ia?anneaiui: iia auea iaoeaeaia ia eeeaeaeaoeeth oaiaeaeecia a naiie
Aiaeee e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, ia nicaeaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?iaiai
?uiea. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo eaeay naiaiaeu oi?aiaee, ai anyeii neo/aa
a i?eiaiaiee e ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai, yaeyaony ia?aaeei ?aaeoeeiiiie.
Aeaaea iiiaea yeiiiienou ec Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e NOA i?eciatho, /oi
naiaiaea oi?aiaee ia?aeea au ?acaeaathueany no?aiu ia aa/ioth ?ieue
nu?ueaauo i?eaeaoeia e iiaea au eeoue caeiina?ae?iaaoue eo ionoaeinoue.
Iai?ioea, oieueei aeoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a noa?o aiaoiae oi?aiaee (eae
e a ae?oaea noa?u oicyenoaa), a /anoiinoe iaeiaeaiea iioeeiaie aaica
eiino?aiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia, niaeaenoaea iaoeeiiaeueiiio yenii?oo
oaeeo oiaa?ia e o.ae iiaoo iiii/ue yoei no?aiaie auaeoueny ec
ionoaeinoe.

? 13. “Ia?aeeiaeenoneay ?aaiethoeey” a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee

A iineaaeiae o?aoe 19 aaea a ye.iunee iiyaeeinue iiaia iai?aaeaiea –
ia?aeeiaeeci (a iai eniieuecoaony i?aaeaeueiue aiaeec). Aai
aicieeiiaaiea auei naycaii ni neaaeothueie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie:

1. iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey oai?ee iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey – oai?ey
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina

2. ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?enecia (yoi iai?aaeaiea auei ?aaeoeeae ia
ia?eneci). Iii – ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey ye.iunee

Ioee/ey iiaiai iai?aaeaiey io iniiaiiai iai?aaeaiey ye.iunee:

1. iiaia iai?aaeaiea iuoaaony iino?ieoue ye.oai?eth, enoiaey ec
iiaaaeaiey eiaeeaeaeooia (ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea), aai ?aaeoeeae ia
ye.i?ioeannu.

2. a oeaio?a aieiaiey ia?aeeiaeecia iaoiaeeony ni?in, iio?aaeaiea, a oi
a?aiy eae i?aaenoaaeoaee aiae. eeanne/aneie iieeo. yeiiiiee eco/aee
i?aaeaea anaai i?aaeeiaeaiea, o.a. i?-ai.

3. aieueoia cia/aiea i?aaenoaaeoaee ia?aeeiaeecia i?eaeaaaee
noauaeoeaiui ioeaieai oeaiiinoe oic. aeaa, iiyoiio yoi iai?aaeaiea
iio/eei iacaaiea noauaeo. iai?aaeaiey a ye. oai?ee.

4. eniieueciaaiea i?aaeaeueiiai aiaeeca, a /anoiinoe oai?ee i?aaeaeuei.
iieaciinoe e oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiae-oe oaeoi?ia i?-aa.

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee ia?aeeiaeenoneiai iai?aaeaiey
yae.iio?aaiinoue – yoi iethaia oyeinoiia iuouaiea, eioi?ia aeieaeii
auoue ono?aiaii. Iio?aaiinoe iiaoo auoue ?aiaee?iaaiu, o.e. iiaeao auoue
iino?iai ?yae iio?aaiinoae ii noaiaie eo iai?yaeaiiinoe. Ia?aeeiaeenou
naycuaaee oeaiiinoue oic.aeaaa n aai iieaciinoueth, ii n iieaciinoueth
i?aaeaeueiie. I?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue – iieaciinoue iineaaeiae
aaeeieoeu ec anaai iaee/iiai caiana aeaiiiai aeaaa, eioi?ia
eniieuecoaony aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey aeaiiie iio?aaiinoe. Niaeanii o/aieth
ia?aeeiaeenoia, oeaiiinoue oic.aeaaa (oiaa?u e oneoae) ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoueth aeaiiiai aeaaa. I?aaenoaaeoaee ia?aeeiaeecia,
i?eaea?aeeaathueany oaeie o?aeoiaee oeaiiinoe, – Aai-Aaaa?i, Aeca?
(Aano?ey), Aeaeaaain, Aaeue?an.

A ia?aeeiaeecia auaeaeythony 2 oa/aiey: ea?aeeiaeenoneia e
i?aeeiaeenoneia. I?aaenoaaeoaee ea?aeeiaeenoneiai enoiaeyo ec
aiciiaeiinoe aeiaieueii oi/iiai ecia?aiey iieaciinoe (iieaciinoue iiaeao
ecia?eoue ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaio aeaaa). I?aaenoaaeoaee i?aeeiaeenoneiai
iai?aaeaiey n/eoatho, /oi iieaciinoue (a o./. i?aaeaeueiay) ecia?eoue
iaeuecy, ii iieaciinoe iiaeii ?aiaee?iaaoue. Ia?aeeiaeenoai oaeaeinue
nicaeaoue ia aaca naiae aeecie eiioeaioeeth iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey
(iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina). A aa iniiaa eaaeeo oaaeeoea Iaiaa?a.
I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eiaaony 6 aaeeieoe eaeiai-oi ye. aeaaa e eiathony 3
iio?aaiinoe – A, A e N. Iio?aaiinoue A yaeyaony naiie ianoiyoaeueiie,
ianouiie, A – iaiaa, e N – naiie iaeiaaaeiie. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi
eiaeeaeae ana 6 aaeeieoe aeaaa ?anoiaeoao ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe
A. Oiaaea a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii Ainnaea, ia?aay aaeeieoea aeaaa,
?anoiaeiaaiiay ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A, aoaeao eiaoue
iieaciinoue (oeaiiinoue) 10 aaeeia aaeeia, aoi?ay – 9 a, o?aouey – 8,
4-y – 7, 5-y – 6, 6-y – 5. I?aaeiieiaeei, ana – ia A: 1-ay aaeeieoea
aeaaa – 9 aaeeia, 2-y – 8, ….7,6,5,4.

Aiaeiae/ii aeey N: 1-ay aaeeieoea aeaaa aoaeao eiaoue iieaciinoue 8,
aeaeaa 7,6,5,4,3. Ia?aoth aaeeieoeo aeaaa eiaeeaeae ec?anoiaeoao ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A, o.e. i?e yoii iaeneiaeueiay iieaciinoue
(10 aaeeia), aoi?oth aaeeieoeo – ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A – 9
aaeeia, o?aoueth – ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A (9 aaeeia), 4-th
aaeeieoeo – ia N (8 aaeeia), 5 e 6 – ia A e A (ii 8 aaeeia). Iu aeaeei,
/oi iieaciinoue iineaaeiae aaeeieoeu aeaaa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea eiie?aoiie iio?aaiinoe – A, A, N – ieacaeanue
iaeeiaeiaie ii anai o?ai iio?aaiinoyi = 8 aaeeia. Auaiae. Niaeanii
o/aieth ia?aeeiaeenoia, iio?aaeoaeue oae i?aaiecoao naia iio?aaeaiea,
/oi i?aaeaeueiua iieaciinoe aeaaa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
eiie?aoiuo iio?aaiinoae, ieacuaathony iaeeiaeiauie ii anai iio?aaiinoyi.
A ian. a?aiy ia?aeeiaeecia eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai oa/aiey iao, iaeiaei,
iaoiaeu ia?aeeiaeueiiai aiaeeca aeoeaii eniieuecothony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
anao ae?oaeo iai?aaeaiee ye. iunee (iaieeanne/aneiai, eaeineaineiai,
einoeoooeeiiaeueiiai).

? 14. Iainiiaaiea Eaeinii iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeiiiieee.

Iinea ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena 1929-33 aa. i?iecioea niaia
ia?aaeeaiu (ainiiaenoaothuae) a ye-eie oai?ee. Ie?.ye.e?ecen iieacae,
/oi ainiiae-uaa iaieeanne/aneia iai?aaeaiea a yeiiii-ie iunee
ieacuaaaony oai?aoe/anee ia ninoiyoaeueiui, iineieueeo aai auaiaeu ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeathony aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth. O.e. iaieeanneee (Ia?oaee e
ae?.) aneaae ca Nieoii ooaa?aeaeaaeo, /oi ?uii/iay ye-ea yaeyaony
naii?aaoee?othuaeny nenoaiie, a iae aiciiaeiu ioeeiiaiey, ii ye-ea ana
?aaii i?eoiaeeo a ninoiyiea ?aaiiaaney. Aac?aaioeoea, niaeanii
iaieeanneeai, aiciiaeia, ii iia eiaao a?aiaiiue oa?-?, neea ?uiea
iaania/eo a eiioea eiioeia ?aaiiaaniue o?iaaiue caiyoinoe.

Iaeiaei neooaoeey, neiaeeaoayny a aiaeu e?ecenu e iinea iaai,
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea i oii, /oi: – ?ui.ye-ea ia yae. naii?aaoee?othuaeny
nenoaiie

– i?e eaieoaeecia nouanoaoao auioaeaeaiiay aac?aaioeoea.

A yoeo oneiaeyo iiyaeeinue o/aiea Aeaeiia Iaeia?aea Eaeina (1883-1946).
A 1936 Eaein iioaeeeiaae eieao “Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, % e aeaiaa”. Yoa
eieaa i?iecaaea ia?aai?io a yeii-ie iaoea e iaeiie ec aa iniiaiuo eaeae
auei iainiiaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a
ye-eo.

A?aoiaiou a iieueco yoie eaeae.

Iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo eiioeaioeee Eaina yaeyaony oai?ey yooaeoeaiiai
(iiaeao, e yooaeoiiai) ni?ina. Iiae yooa-ui ni?inii Eain iiieiaao
ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u e oneoae, a oaeaea ia
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u (naycaiiua n eaieoaeiaeiaeaieai).

Ii Eaeino n ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia yo-iue ni?in ana aieaa e aieaa
noaiiaeony iaaeinoaoi/iui, o.e. aeaenoaoao iniiaiie ineoieiae/aneee
caeii. A niioaaonoaee n yoei caeiiii ii ia?a ?inoa aeioiaeia ana
aieueoay /anoue aeioiaea naa?aaaaony e ana iaiueoay iio?aaeyaony.
Iiyoiio yo-iue ni?in ieacuaaaony iaaeinoaoi/iui aeey iaania/aiey o?iaiy
iieiie caiyoinoe.

Eaein a naiai aiaeeca aeoeaii eniieuecoao iiiyoea niaieoiiue ni?in e
niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea. AD – niaieoiiue ni?in, AS – niaieoiiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea. Aeey oiai, /oiau ye-ea iaoiaeeeanue a ?aaiiaanee,
iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau AD = AS. A yoii neo/aa ana i?iecaaaeaiiua oiaa?u e
oneoae aoaeoo ?aaeeciaaiu, a ana aeioiaeu ioiaa?aiu.

Yoi auei ecaanoii e aei Eaeina. Iaeiaei iaieeanneee n/eoaee, /oi anee
AD=AS, oi eiaao ianoi iieiay caiyoinoue.

Eaein aeieacae, /oi iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea onoaiaaeeaaaony nianai
ia iaycaoaeueii a oie oi/ea, a eioi?ie iaania/eaaaony iieiay caiyoinoue.
Ii Eaeino a?aoee nia.i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeieth AS –
aennaeo?ena oaea. *oi nicaeaaony, ana i?aaeeaaaaony e i?iaeaaea.
Aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi /anoue aeioiaea naa?aaaaony, a?aoee nia.ni?ina AD
iieaeao aieaa iieiai, o.a. eeoue ia /anoue aeioiaea i?eoiaeeony ni?in. A
oi/ea A onoaiaaeeaaaony iae?iyeiiii.?aaiiaanea AD=AS, eioi?iio
niioaaonoaoao AII®IN.

Ii ii Eaeino a yoie oi/ea iao aua iieiie caiyoinoe, a iae oieueei AD
=AS. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iieiie caiyoinoe niioaaonoaoao AII OD, eioi?ue OC.

Anee, iai?eia?, a A iaania/eaaaony iieiay caiyoinoue e iinoaaei
ia?iaiaeeeoey?, oi a yoie oi/ea ia aoaeao iae?iye.?aaiiaaney, iaaei
niaieoue AD.

Ii Eaeino aeey iaania/aiey iae?iye.?aaiiaaney, a oi/ea caiyoinoe iaaei
nianoeoue AD aaa?o. Aeieaeia auoue neea, eioi?ay au iaania/eea yoi
niauaiea. Yoie neeie yaeyaony ainoaea?noai. Niiniau:

Oiaiueoeoue iaeiae

Ieacaoue iiiiuue aac?aaioiui e o.ae.

?15. Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia

Ioaaouaaao aa?a?ioth e ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaoth noa?o. C iai?aaeaiey:

?ac?ooaiea e?anoueyineie iaueiu e ianaaeaeaiea oooi?neiai e io?oaiiai
oicyenoaa

ieacaiea e?aaeeoiie iiiiue caaeeoi/iiio e?anoueyinoao /a?ac
e?anoueyineee iicaiaeueiue aaie

i?aaiecaoeey e?anoueyineiai ia?anaeaiey a ie?aeiiua ?aeiiu

A Noieuieineie ?aoi?ia oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caiye oeac 9 iiya?y 1906
aiaea, noaaoee caeiiii 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea. Ii iaio ana iaueiu
aeaeeeenue ia 2 eaoaai?ee: 1)Ioiioaiea e iaueia

– iaueiu, aaea ia auei ia?aaeaeia a oa/aiea 24 eao. Oai e?anoueyia ii
oaeoe/aneiio iieueciaaieth noaiiaeeenue nianoaaiieeaie.

– aaea auee ia?aaeaeu, oai e?anoueyia iiaee iieo/eoue nianoaaiiinoue,
anee 2/3 oicyaa auei ca auaeaeaiea ec iaueiu. Naeueneay iaueia ia iiaea
aiaoeaaoueny a aaaeaiea oicyenoaa. E?anoueyiei iia iio?aaiaaoue naaa
io?oa, aueoe ia io?oa.

2) Ieacaiea iiiiue. Ii ?aoi?ia e?anoueyineee aaie iieo/ee i?aai iieoiee
caiee, eioi?oth i?iaeaaaee iiiaueee, eeeaeaee?oy naie eiaiey. Ii
oeiaine?iaae i?iaeaaee caiee i?aeiouanoaaiii ao?aeoacii-eoeaoeeei
caaeeoi/iui oicyenoaai. Io?oaieee n?aaee iieoiaoaeae ninoaaeyee 54%, a
oooi?yia – 23%. Aaie auaeaaae ei e?oiiua noiiu nnoaeu aeey iieoiee
caiee. Eoeaee neoiaee caiee o aaaeiio.

E na?aaeeia 1914 aiaea 1,5 iei. (17%) /aeiaae noaee nianoaaiieeaie
caiee, ii eeoue 1/3 ec ieo auoea ia oooi?a e io?oaa, oioy ca oooi?neia
aeaaeaiea e?anoueyia iieo/aee neeaeeo 10% e eiaee i?aai ia eueaioiue
e?aaeeo aaiea. Ec iaueiu auaeaeyeenue iiiaicaiaeueiua e aaaeiioa.

3) Ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea. Ia?anaeaieai noa?aeenue ?aoeoue 3 caaea/e:

a) ?aoaeanue i?iaeaia e?anoueyineiai iaeicaiaeuey

a) e?anoueyineay eieiiecaoeey iicaieyea inaaeaaoue ionoothuea oeaeeiiua
caiee

a) oae?aee iiaeaeueoa aeoeaioth /anoue e?anoueyinoaa.

Aieueoeinoai e?anoueyi ia?anaeyeinue ca O?ae, a Neae?ue, ca 3 aiaea
ia?anaeeeinue 2 iei. /aeiaae. A ca 10 eao ?aoi?iu a Aia?eeo
eiiea?e?iaaee 1,5 iei. /aeiaae. Ia/aeinue niaeaenoaea ia?anaeai/aneie
iieeoeea, auaeaeyeenue nnoaeu ii 160 ?oaeae ia naiueth aeey iacaaaaeaiey
iiaui oicyenoaii, auei ?aoaii i?iaanoe iiaoth thaeii-neae?neoth
aeaeacioth aei?iao.

?acoeueoaou ia?anaeai/aneie iieeoeee

“+” Ia?aoiia ia?anaeaiea ninoaaeei io 17-80% a 1915 aiaeo. Ca O?aeii
neiieeinue ieiei700.000 naiae aac n?aaenoa e nouanoaiaaieth, oae eae
inaaeaaoue iiaua caiee iaueiieeai auei oyaeaei.

“-” e?anoueyinoai ia i?eiyei Noieuieineie ?aoi?iu

Iaueia aeaaaea e?anoueyinoao:

I?eau/ea e niaianoiiio caieaiieueciaaieth e ?aoaieth iiauo i?iaeai,
eieeaeoeaiie acaeiiiiiiue. Ii/aio e?anoueyiei oioae eiaoue iaeaiueeee
o/anoie caiee, ii a iaueia? Oae eae yoi auea aa?aio?iaaiiay caiey,
eioi?oth aeaaea i?e ieioii oicyenoaa iaeuecy auei iioa?youe.

Yoi aeaaaei: 1) anee o e?anoueyieia auei caiey, oi o iaai anaaaea auea
iaaeaaeaea niiaa noaoue oicyeiii;

2) iaueia iiaea ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaiu caieaono?ienoaa (no?ieoaeuenoai
ia?aaeu, ai?ueaa n ia?aaaie, eniieueciaaiea eania e iaoai, niaianoiay
iieoiea i?oaeee o?oaea e neioa).

Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia ia aeaea ei?aiiuo eciaiaiee naeueneiio oicyenoao,
ia eioi?ua ?ann/eouaae Noieuiei.

1) E 1-e ie?iaie aieia naeueneia oicyenoai inoaeinue ?ooeiiui e
ionoaeui, i?aiaeaaeaea a ianna i?eieoeaiay oaoieea: einu, nioe,
aea?aayiiua ai?iiu, ?o/iua iieioeeee; 2) ?aoi?ia ia niiaea ?ac?ooeoue
iaueiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey. Ia io?oaa e oooi?a auaeaeeeanue eeoue 1/10
/anoue e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa; 3) ?aoi?ia iioea ia niaae aua aei 1-e
ie?iaie aieiu, eiaaea caieaono?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou i?ae?aoeeenue; 4)
Oiaa?iue oeaa aeaaaee eoeaee e iiiaueee, a e?anoueyineia oicyenoai
inoaaaeinue iaoo?aeueiui, iio?aaeoaeueiui, a ia oiaa?iui; 5) inaieoue
iiaua caiee a iaecaanoiuo ii/aaiii – eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo a iaeeii/eo
iaueiiui e?anoueyiai auei ia iiae neeo.

Ioiioaiea e Noieuieineie ?aoi?ia ae?oaeo eeannia?

Noieuieio i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaee iiiaueee, ain. /eiiaieee, oioy aa?a?iay
iieeoeea i?iaiaeeeanue a niioaaonoaee n iieacaieyie niaaoa
iauaaeeiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa. Iiiaei ia i?aaeeanue eaeay i ?ac?ooaiee
iaueiu, oae eae a iae aeaeaee eneiiii ?onneia ia/aei e aa?aioeth io yca
i?ieaoa?eaoa.

?acoeueoaou “+”

A 1912 aiaeo e 1906 aiaeo a 1,5 ie?ae oaaee/eeny ?ino e?anoueyineeo
aeaiaaeiuo aeeaaeia

Oaaee/eeny auaic n/o i?iaeoeoeee:

?ino i?iecaiaenoaa ia oooi?ao;

?aci?aiea iaeeiai e?anoueyinoaa e iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue iiiaueeia;

Oaaee/eeanue o?iaeaeiinoue oeaaia n 39 ioaeia n aeanyoeiu (1900a) aei 43
ioaeia (1910a).

E 1913 aiaeo oaaee/eeanue iinaaiay ieiuaaeue

Oaaee/eeinue i?eiaiaiea n/o iaoei

I?ienoiaeeo ?ino naeueneeo iauanoa

A oiaea ?aoi?iu aunieeie oaiiaie ?acaeaaaony iio?aaeiiia?aoeey.

N 1906 -1913 aicieeei 8000 e?anoueyineeo eiiia?aoeaia n aiaeiaui
aeioiaeii 15 iei.?oa.

Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa, au?inei ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea
n 18iei. /ae. (1904a) aei 30 iei. /ae. (1914a)

A ai?iaea i?iecioae iaieua /a?ii?aai/eo;

Oaaee/eeanue eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo ?aai/eie, o.a. ana eeannu auee
iaaeiaieueiu ?aoi?iie: ?aai/ea, e?anoueyia, iaeioi?ia eoea/anoai e
iaeioi?ua iiiaueee

?16 Noaia ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey. No?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey – yoi nai?, ia?aaioea e aiaeec eioi?iaoeee
ii ninoiyieth ?uii/iiai ni?ina e aiciiaeiinoae aai oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

Iaeaieaa oeie/iua ninoaaiua nayce ethaiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey:

– enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea e i?iaeaae:

ioeaiea aieinoe ?uiea

ii?aaeaeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee ?uiea e aai naaiaioia

aiaeec oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiey ?uiea

i?iaiic iauaia i?iaeaae

iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i nouanoaothueo e iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeyo

eco/aiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee

eco/aiea eiieo?aioia

– enneaaeiaaiea oiaa?a:

ioeaiea niiniaiinoae nouanoaothuaai ia ?uiea oiaa?a oaeiaeaoai?eoue
ianoiyuea e aoaeouea iio?aaiinoe

au?aaioea eaeae i iiauo oiaa?ao

eco/aiea niioaaonoaey oiaa?ia ie?iaui noaiaea?oai e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao

enneaaeiaaiey e eniuoaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia oiaeiaee oiaa?a

– enneaaeiaaiea oeai:

enneaaeiaaiea acaeiinayce iaaeaeo oeaiie oiaa?a e ni?inii ia iaai

enneaaeiaaiea oeai eiieo?aioia

i?iaiice?iaaiea oeai

– enneaaeiaaiea i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a:

enneaaeiaaiea ?aeeaiu, ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa ia eo yooaeoeaiinoue

enneaaeiaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee

enneaaeiaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo iioeaaoeee

aiaeec n?aaenoa e iaoiaeu i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a iio?aaeoaeth

– enneaaeiaaiea i?aaiauo aniaeoia oi?aiaee ia ?uiea.

Noaia ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey aeeth/aao 5 ?acaeaeia:

auyaeaiea i?iaeai e oi?ie?iaaiea oeaeae enneaaeiaaiey

ioai? enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee

nai? eioi?iaoeee

aiaeec nia?aiiie eioi?iaoeee

i?aaenoaaeaiea iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Eioi?iaoeey aeey ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee iieo/aaony a ?acoeueoaoa
eaaeiaoiuo e iieaauo enneaaeiaaiee. Eaaeiaoiua enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyony
ii aeaiiui ioeoeeaeueiuo ioaeeeoaiuo iaoa?eaeia. Iie niaea?aeaoueny a
noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaieyo, ni?aai/ieeao, iiniaeyo e o.ae. Niaea?aeaueany
a ieo aeaiiua ia?acotho aoi?e/ioth eioi?iaoeeth. Iia iiaeao yaeoueny
iniiaie aeey auyaeaiey i?iaeaiu, aeey ?ac?aaioee aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia aa
?aoaiey, eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa ni?aai/iuo iaoa?eaeia aeey ?aaiou n
ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeeae.

Ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey – yoi oa, eioi?ay niae?aaony aia?aua aeey
eaeie-eeai oeaee. Ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey iieo/aaony a oiaea iieaauo
enneaaeiaaiee. Iiae ieie iiieiathony iaiin?aaenoaaiiia eco/aiea iiaiee
ii aii?inai ioiinyueiny e ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu. Iniiaiuie
enoi/ieeaie ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee yaeythony iio?aaeoaee i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaioieee iin?aaeie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, oi?aiaua aaaiou e ae?.
eiiiaoaioiua eeoea.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey iieaauo enneaaeiaaiee eniieuecothony neaaeothuea
iaoiaeu: eioa?auethe?iaaiea, aieaoe?iaaiea, aii?inu ii oaeaoiio, ii/oa,
yenia?eiaiou, i?iaaaeaiea aunoaaie, y?ia?ie e o.ae.

Iinea ananoi?iiiaai eco/aiey ?uiea ?ac?aaaouaaaony ananoi?iiiyy
ia?eaoeiaiaay i?ia?aiia. Iia ian/eouaaaony, eae i?aaeei, ia 5 eao e
yaeyaony iniiaie anae i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu. ?acoeueoaou ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a yoie
i?ia?aiia, eniieuecothony aeey:

nicaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo, oaeoe/aneeo e oaeoueo ieaiia

iainiiaaiey yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe

?ac?aaioee o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao i?iaeoeoeee

ii?aaeaeaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa

ii?aaeaeaiey iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiey
nauoa

ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou oe?iu.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee iinoaaeaiiuo a ia?eaoeiaa oeaeae ?ac?aaaouaathony
no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa. Iiae no?aoaaeae ia?eaoeiaa iiieiaaony
aeieain?i/iay i?ia?aiia ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, iai?aaeaiiay
ia caaiaaaiea eee oaea?aeaiea ?uiea.

I ) No?aoaaee, iniiaaiiua ia auai?a oeaeaaiai ?uiea:

1) No?aoaaey ianniaiai, iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa. I?eiaiyaony
oiaaea, eiaaea oe?ia i?aiaa?aaaao ?acee/eyie a naaiaioao ?uiea. “+” –
i?e iae aeinoeaaaony naiue ieceee o?iaaiue cao?ao ia ia?eaoeia.

2) No?aoaaey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa. I?eiaiyaony, eiaaea oe?ia
i?eaioe?oaony ia 2 eee aieaa naaiaioa ?uiea, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
iaeaaeaao naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie. “+” – aeoaieia
i?iieeiiaaiea ia eaaeaeue ec naaiaioia, oaaee/aiea nauoa. “-“ – ?ino
cao?ao ia ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey a neaaenoaee eco/aiey eaaeaeiai
naaiaioa.

3) No?aoaaey eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai oeaeaaiai ia?eaoeiaa. I?eiaiyaony,
eiaaea oe?ia auae?aao iaeei aaeeinoaaiiue naaiaio e eiioeaio?e?oao a aai
iai?aaeaiee naie ia?eaoeiaiaua oneeey.

II) No?aoaaee, iniiaaiiua ia aeiea ?uiea e ?uii/iii ni?ina:

1) No?aoaaey ianooieaiey (aoaeothuay). Iia i?aaeiieaaaao aa?anneaioth,
ianooiaoaeueioth iiceoeeth oe?iu ia ?uiea n oeaeueth aai caaiaaaiey eee
?anoe?aiey.

Iai?iieoaeueiay eee oaea?aeeaathuay no?aoaaey. I?aaeiacia/aia aeey
oaea?aeeaaiey naiae aeiee ?uiea.

2) No?aoaaey ionooieaiey. I?e iae oe?ia auioaeaeaia eaeoe ia nieaeaiea
naiae aeiee ?uiea.

III) No?aoaaee, iniiaaiiua ia i?iaeoeoa:

1) No?aoaaey eeaea?noaa. Iia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oe?ia i?eaea?o
naiae i?iaeoeoeee iniaua ea/anoaa, ionoonoaothuea o aiaeiae/iie
i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiea.

2) No?aoaaey ieceeo ecaea?aeae. Caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oe?ia iieo/aao
eiie?aoiua i?aeiouanoaa ca n/ao nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe.

3) No?aoaaey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee. Ninoieo a oii, /oi oe?ia i?iecaiaeeo
i?iaeoeoeeth ia naycaiioth n i?iecaiaenoaii i?ioeee?othuae i?iaeoeoeee.
Aeaiiay no?aoaaey iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue i?iaaea ia ?uiea.

4) No?aoaaey ?anoe?aiey a?aieoe ?uiea. Caeeth/aony a no?aieaiee oe?iu
oaaee/eoue iauai i?iaeaae ca n/ao aiaae?aiey naiae i?iaeoeoeee ia ae?.
?uiee.

?17 Oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee a nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa.
Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?a. AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a e oa?aeoa?enoeea
aai noaaeee.

Ea/anoai oiaa?a – niaieoiiinoue naienoa e oa?aeoa?enoee, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ui oiaa? oaeiaeaoai?yao ii?aaeae?iiua iio?aaiinoe. A ia?eaoeiaa
aieueooth ?ieue a ea/anoaa oiaa?a ea?aao ia?aoiay naycue n ?uieii.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue – oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea iniaaiiinoae oiaa?a,
ioee/athueo aai io oiaa?ia eiieo?aioa. Iniaaiiinoe iiaoo auoue
oaoie/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua (oeaia, aeecaei, ea/anoai).

AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a. Ii iienuaaao aeeiaieeo i?iaeaae ia ?uiea,
iieo/aaioth i?e yoii i?eaueue e no?aoaaeth ia?eaoeiaa ecaioiaeoaey yoiai
oiaa?a.

Nouanoaoao 4 noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a:

1) Noaaeey aiaae?aiey eee auoiaea oiaa?a ia ?uiie; 2) ?ino; 3)
C?aeinoue; 4) Niaae

Ia ia?aie noaaeee oiaa? iiyaeyaony ia ?uiea. Iauai i?iaeaae
iacia/eoaeueiue, a naaanoieiinoue aunieay, o.e. iiiai n?aaenoa o?aoeony
ia inaiaiea ?uiea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eaueue ieieiaeueiay eee
ionoonoaoao.

Ia aoi?ie noaaeee ni?in ia oiaa? ?ano?o aunieeie oaiiaie, oaaee/eaaaony
iauai i?iaeaae, naaanoieiinoue nieaeaaony ca n/ao nie?auaiey cao?ao ia
ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey e ca n/ao iauaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.
I?eaueue noaiiaeony iaeneiaeueiie, oeaiu iinoaiaiii nieaeathony
ioiineoaeueii ia?aie noaaeee.

Ia o?aoueae noaaeee ?ino i?iaeaae iinoaiaiii caiaaeeyaony. I?eaueue
nieaeaaony, o.e. i?aaei?eieiathony iiaua ia?eaoeiaiaua oneeey aeey
nio?aiaiey oiaa?a ia yoie noaaeee e iiaeaea?aeaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
oiaa?a. I?iecaiaenoai iieiinoueth ioeaaeaii, ea/anoai oiaa?a aunieia e
noaaeeueiia, i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua iiaeeoeeaoeee oiaa?a, oeaiu iiaoo
nieaeaoueny. Ia yoie noaaeee oe?ia i?iaiaeeo iau/ii ia?eaoeiaiaua
ia?ii?eyoey, eioi?ua iicaieeee au oaea?aeaoue oiaa?u io niaaea. E eo
/eneo ioiinyony: nieaeaiea oeai, inaiaiea iiauo ?uieia, noeioee?iaaiea
iieoiaoaeae, aeeooa?aioeeaoeey anni?oeiaioa, i?eaea/aiea iiauo
iio?aaeoaeae.

Ia /aoaa?oie noaaeee i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia nieaeaiea iauaia i?iaeaae e
i?eauee. ?anoiaeu ia ia?eaoeia iaaieueoea, oeaiu ia oiaa?u nieaeathony.
Oiaa?u iinoaiaiii auaiaeyony n ?uiea e caiaiythony iiauie.

Cia/aiea aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a a oii, /oi aai eniieueciaaiea ?aoaao
2 caaea/e:

naiaa?aiaiii nicaeaoue iiaua oiaa?u aeey caiaiu oao, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony
ia caaa?oathuae noaaeee.

yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoaa oiaa?a ia eaaeaeii ec yoaiia
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea.

?18 Iniiaiua ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa e ii?aaeaeythuea aai oaeoi?u.

Iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi iaeanoue aeayoaeueiinoe, i?ecaaiiay iaania/eoue ?ino
i?eaueueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo ?uiea, eniieuecoy eioaeeaeo, o?oae
e iioeau iiaaaeaiey ethaeae.

Iaiaaeaea?ii yaeyaony /aeiaae, i?aaiecothuee eiie?aoioth ?aaioo,
?oeiaiaenoaoynue nia?aiaiiuie iaoiaeaie. Iaiaaeaea? ia aaoiiaoe/anee
yaeyaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey eee aoiaeeo a ninoaa aunoaai
?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey. Iaiaaeaea?u ?aaioatho ia anao “yoaeiiao”
oi?aaeaiey, e oaeiaui yaeyaony /aeiaae, a caaea/o eioi?iai aoiaeeo
i?aaiecaoeey eiie?aoiie ?aaiou a ?aieao ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea
nio?oaeieeia, eioi?ua iiae/eiythony aio.

I?aaei?eyoea – i?aaeaea anaai ethaee. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi
iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ethaeae, nio?oaeieeia. Ethaee
yaeythony aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ia
i?aaei?eyoee. Oniaoe e iaoaea/e i?aaei?eyoey – yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
oniaoe e iaoaea/e iaiaaeaeiaioa. Anee i?aaei?eyoea ?aaioaao ieioi e
ia?aioaaaeueii aai oicyei a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaiyao ?oeiaiaenoai, a ia
?aai/eo.

Iaiaaeaeiaio eae iaoea oi?aaeaiey enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ?aai/ea e
neoaeauea yaeythony /aeiaa/aneeie nouanoaaie e eae oaeiaua ioee/athony
ae?oa io ae?oaa naieie ineoieiae/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, niiniaiinoyie
e iaaeinoaoeaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eieiay ethaua ?aoaiey, iaiaaeaea?u
aeieaeiu iinoiyiii eiaoue a aeaeo ia oieueei aunieoth ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey, ii e i?iaeaiu nouanoaiaaiey naieo nio?oaeieeia, a oaeaea
iio?aaeoaeae, ?aaee eioi?uo i?aaei?eyoea nouanoaoao, e oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaiinoae eioi?uo ?aaeueii iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey e ?aaiou aai iaiaaeaea?ia. Ethaia
i?eieiaaiia ?aoaiea aeieaeii a aeeeoaeueiie ia?niaeoeaa
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ia yeiiiie/aneie iieueca i?aaei?eyoey. Io, a oi,
/oi aeaao oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou oieueei a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie e ia
aeeaeaeoaa aoaeouaa, a a ioaeaeaiiii ia?eiaea noaaeo nouanoaiaaiea
i?aaei?eyoey iiae oa?ico, neaaeoao ?anoeaieaaoue eae ioeai/iia. Oaeei
ia?acii, iaania/aiea nouanoaiaaiey i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea iiaeii n/eoaoue
aeaaiie caaea/ae iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa:

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony oaeaea 1) nicaeaiea
iiaiai ?uiea e iaania/aiea auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey ia ana eciaiaiey a
nioeeaeueiie noa?a ?uiea. Ia i?aaei?eyoea e iaiaaeaeiaio aiceaaaaony au?
aeaa i/aiue aaaeiua ooieoeee – 2) ooieoeey ia?eaoeiaa e 3) ooieoeey
eiiiaaoeee.

Nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa aeieaeia caieiaoue i?aaaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea ai anao
noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaioo
i?aaei?eyoey iaaeeaaeeo ioeaieaaoue iiae yoei oaeii c?aiey.

Au? iaeiie aaaeiie ooieoeeae iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeythony 4) eiiiaaoeee,
?ac?aaioea iiauo oiaa?ia e oneoa, e oiio aea aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa.
Iiiyoea eiiiaaoeey aeeth/aao a naay ia oieueei /enoi oaoie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee, ii e ana eciaiaiey a noeea ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey a eo/ooth noi?iio. A ?aieao eiiiaaoeee ?oeiaiaenoao
iaiaoiaeeii ia?auaoue iniaia aieiaiea ia iiauoaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa e oiaiueoaiea caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Caaea/ae iaiaaeaeiaioa oaeaea yaeyaony 5) iaania/aiea aaoiiaoecaoeee
neiaeiie, a?yciie e iianiie ?aaiou, ia o?aaothuae eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
?aai/ae neeu, a oaeaea ia?aoiaea e eniieueciaaieth nio?oaeieeia,
iaeaaeathueo aieaa aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeeae. Aieaa oiai, caiaia eaae?ia
iaoneiaeeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia oieueei iiauneoue ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey, ii e noeioee?iaaoue ?aaioo naieo nio?oaeieeia iooai
nicaeaiey aeey ieo eo/oeo oneiaee o?oaea e onoaiiaeaiey aieaa aunieie
ca?aaioiie ieaou.

I?eaueue yaeyaony ia i?e/eiie nouanoaiaaiey i?aaei?eyoey, a ?acoeueoaoii
aai aeayoaeueiinoe e inouanoaeaiey iniiaiuo ooieoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey – nicaeaaaoue oneiaey,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oniaoiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
i?aaei?eyoey. Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii e i?eaioe?ii iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony ia
iaeneiaeecaoeey i?eauee, a oniaoiia yeeieie?iaaiea aeeyiey ?eneiauo
neooaoeee. Oa eee eiay iia?aoeey i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia i?eiineoue oaeoth
i?eaueue, eioi?ay iicaieyea au aeeoioee?iaaoue aeinoaoi/ii n?aaenoa,
nicaeathueo ?aaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue i?aiaeieaaaoue aiciiaeiua ?enee
aoaeouaai.

Ethaie iaiaaeaeiaio iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio ec oi?i
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?oeiaiaenoai ia iiaeao auoue /enoi
ath?ie?aoe/aneei , aaeieieno?aoeaiui aeoii eee aace?iaaoueny ia
iieeoe/aneeo aeiiuneao. Yoi – ii-ianoiyuaio oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue,
eneeth/athuay ana oi?iu i?eniiniaeai/anoaa. Iii aeieaeii iinoiyiii,
aeoeaii, a oe?ieeo ianooaaao nicaeaaaoue, oai?eoue iiaua oneiaey , a ia
i?inoi ianneaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea. Eiaiii yoi aeaeaao iaiaaeaeiaio enoeiii nia?aiaiiie oi?iie
oi?aaeaiey.

Iaiaaeaeiaio aeieaeai oiaei i?aaieciaaoue aiaeeoe/aneoth ?aaioo ia
i?aaei?eyoee. Caaea/e i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeythony ia i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, a
iio?aaeoaeyie. Aeaaiia aeaenoaothuaa eeoei caeanue – eeeaiou
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iniiaiuie noa?aie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeey eioi?uo aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai
aeieaeii onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaee, yaeythony neooaoeee ia ?uiea, eiiiaaoeee,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, iaania/aiea oeiainiauie n?aaenoaaie e
?aai/ae neeie, ?aioaaaeueiinoue a /enoi oaoie/aneii e oeiainiaii
niunea, a oaeaea yooaeoeaiinoue o?oaea neoaeaueo e eo acaeiiioiioaiey, a
oaeaea nayce n iauanoaaiiinoueth.

Ieioea ioiioaiey, neiaeeaoeany iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaenoaii e nio?oaeieeaie,
?aii eee iicaeii noaioo io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaoueny e ia iieiaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea. Neacaiiia ioiineony e e ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe
o?oaea ?aai/ae neeu, ieceie oaeiaeaoai??iiinoe nio?oaeieeia ?aaioie.
Iineaaeiaa iniaaiii aeeyao ia eo ioiioaiea n eeeaioaie.

?oeiaiaenoai oe?iu aeieaeii ii iaiueoae ia?a aiaeece?iaaoue: 1)
aeaeaaiia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea n oiaa?aie , auioneaaiuie a
ianoiyuee iiiaio; 2) aeaeaaiia iieiaeaiea oaeouae i?iaeoeoeee ia iiauo
iioaioeeaeueiuo ?uieao; 3) auione i?iaeoeoeee a caaeneiinoe io oiai, a
eaeie noaiaie iaiaoiaeeii auaiaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ecaeaeey ec
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu; 4) i?iecaiaenoai iiauo aeaeia oiaa?ia,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey auaaaeaiey ia iiaua ?uiee; 5) aiciiaeiua eciaiaiey
nauoiaie e i?i/eo i?aaiecaoeee, anee aicieeiao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aeinoeaeaiey auoaoeacaiiuo oeaeae. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aunieay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo e, iiaeao auoue, aeaaea
?aoathuei yeaiaioii oi?ie?iaaiey oi?ioaai eeeiaoa ia i?aaei?eyoee.
Iieiaeeoaeueiua eee io?eoeaoaeueiua acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo
?oeiaiaenoaii, ?aai/eie e neoaeaueie aeiaieueii nei?i ieacuaathony a
iieiaeeoaeueiii eee io?eoeaoaeueiii niunea ia iieiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey ia
?uiea, io eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoea caaeneo.

?20 Ea/anoai oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey e ii?aaeaeythuea aai oaeoi?u.

Oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea – yoi auai? ec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia iiaaaeaiey ia
oi?aaeyaiii iauaeoa. ?aoaiea i?eieiaao ?oeiaiaeeoaeue e ian?o ca iaai
ia?niiaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. A iiaeaioiaea ?aoaiey o/anoaoao aanue
ia?niiae. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey – yoi oai?/aneee i?ioeann, a naii ?aoaiea
aunooiaao eae i?eaeiaeueiue oai?/aneee i?iaeoeo /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea ioee/aaony io i?inoiai ?aoaiey
oai, /oi io iaai caaeneo yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e
o?iaaiue o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a eieeaeoeaa, iiyoiio ?aoaiea
aunooiaao eae eiia/iue, caaa?oathuee ioieo i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey. Io
ea/anoaa oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey caaeneo aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae
i?aaei?eyoey, e?iia oiai ?aoaiea yaeyaony eioaa?e?othuei oaeoi?ii anae
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A i?ioeanna i?eiyoey e ?aaeecaoeee
?aoaiey au?aaeaaony ea/anoaaiiue o?iaaiue oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua eeannu ?aoaiee. Iaeaieaa aeooaeueiay
eeanneoeeaoeey:

ii iai?aaeaieth aicaeaenoaey: 1) ?aoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
aicaeaenoaey ia aioo?aiithth n?aaeo; 2) ?aoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
aicaeaenoaey ia aiaoithth n?aaeo.

ii ia?eiaeo aeaenoaey: 1)no?aoaae/aneea ?aoaiey, 2)oaeoe/aneea ?aoaiey,
3)iia?aoeaiua ?aoaiey.

ii i?iaiice?oaiinoe: 1) aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua ( i?inoua, yniua), 2)
?eneiaaiiua, 3) i?iaiice?oaiua.

ii ya?enoe/aneie i?e?iaea: 1)?ooeiiua (noaiaea?oiua, oeiiaua);
2)?aoaiey, i?eieiaaiua ii aiaeiaee, oai?/aneea, i?eaeiaeueiua.

ii o?iaith eiiiaoaioeee: 1)aaeeiiee/iua, 2)eieeaeoeaiua.

Ea/anoai oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea o iaai oaeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ni/aoaiea eioi?uo i?eaiaeeo e aeinoeaeaieth oeaee. Y=Q*A

Y – yooaeoeaiinoue ?aoaiee eae niiniaiinoue aeinoeaaoue oeaee Q –
ea/anoai ?aoaiey A – aini?eyoea oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. Aini?eyoea
?aoaiey – yoi ioiioaiea e iaio eniieieoaeae aeaiiiai ?aoaiey.

Ea/anoai ?aoaiee aeieaeii ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi: 1) iii
aeieaeii i?eieiaoueny ia oii o?iaia, aaea aicieeea i?iaeaia, e
iaoiaeeony eeoei, iaeaaeathuaa iaeaieueoae eioi?iaoeeae ii aeaiiie
i?iaeaia; 2) ?aoaiea aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue aaeaino i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae eeoea, i?eieiathuaai ?aoaiea; 3) ?aoaiea aeieaeii ii
aiciiaeiinoe iaeiie?aoii au?aaeaoue aicieeooth i?iaeaio; 4) ?aoaiea
aeieaeii auoue iainiiaaiii, o.a. i?eieiaoueny ia iniiaa ?aciiia?aciie
ea/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee; ?aoaiea aeieaeii auoue iia?aoeaiui; 5) ?aoaiea
aeieaeii auoue aeaeei; ?aoaiea aeieaeii auoue eiie?aoiui e iiiyoiui.

A i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ?acee/atho 2 noaaeee:

– eiooeoeaii-eiae/aneay: auyniaiea i?iaeaiu, nai? e aiaeec eioi?iaoeee,
?ac?aaioea aa?eaioia ?aoaiee, ii?aaeaeaiea e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee aa?eaioia
?aoaiey, auai? iaeiiai aa?eaioa.

– i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aeoe/aneay: oi?ie?iaaiea ?aoaiey e ioi?ieaiea,
aeiaaaeaiea ?aoaiey aei eniieiaiey e ?acuyniaiea aai niunea, eniieiaiea
?aoaiey, eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai ?aoaiey, ei??aeoe?iaea ?aoaiey.

? 21. Ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u ?inneeneie
yeiiiieee iiaay eiioeaioeey oaaea?aeecia e caaea/e ?aaeiiaeueiiai
yeiiii. oi?aaeaiey. Aeai?anneaiua ?aaeiiu e i?iaeaia eo ain.
iiaeaea?aeee.

Oaaea?aeeci athaeaeaoiue – iiiaio?iaiaaay nenoaia an-aa, i?e eioi?ie
eaaeaeue ec o?iaiae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?aniieaaaao nianoaaiiui
athaeaeaoii e aeaenoaoao a i?aaeaeao cae?aieaiiuo ca iei athaeaeaoiuo
iiiiiieee. Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao a no?aiao n oaaea?aoeaiui ono?ienoaii
eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth niaoeeoeeo e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia
niaethaeaiee neaaeothueo iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia: 1) ?aaiii?aaea anao /eaiia
oaaea?aoeee a eo oeiainiauo acaeiiioiioaieyo n oeaio?ii, aeiioneathuea
i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo auai? oiai eee eiiai oeia acaeiiioiioaiee
/eaiia oaaea?aoeee n oeaio?aeueiui athaeaeaoii i?e niaethaeaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiuo ?aaeeiia yoeo ioiioaiee; 2) ?aca?aie/aiea
noa? aeayoaeueiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo oaaea?aoeaiui oeaio?ii e
/eaiaie oaaea?aoeee, o.a. oaeoe/anee ?aca?aie/aiea noa? oeiaine?iaaiey
?anoiaeia ca n/ao athaeaeaoia oiai eee eiiai o?iaiy, i?e yoii iiaeao
eiaoue ianoi onoaiaaeeaaaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueii eae iaee/ea i?aaa
oeiaine?iaaoue e-e ?anoiaeu aia i?aaeaeia eiiiaoaioiinoe oiai eee eiiai
o?iaiy aeanoe, oae e ionoonoaea oaeiai i?aaa; 3)naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
athaeaeaoia ?acee/iuo o?iaiae, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaaeaeue ec ieo
eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiua enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey e i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey i iai?aaeaieyo eniieueciaaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa.

? 22.Aecian-ieai i?aaei?eyoey e aai caaea/e

Aecian – ieai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeieoiaio, niaea?aeauee iainiiaaiea
aeaenoaee, eioi?ua iaia/aaony inouaaeoue aeey eaeiai-eeai eiiia?/aneiai
i?iaeoa eee nicaeaiey iiaiai i?aaei?eyoey. ii yaeyaony aaaeiui
eino?oiaioii i?e ?anniio?aiee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa neooaoeee aeey auai?a
i?eiaieiuo e ii?aaeaeaiey n?aaenoa aeey eo aeinoeaeaiey. Aecian-ieai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeieoiaio aioo?eoe?iaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey, eceaaathuee
ana iniiaiua aniaeou ieaie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e eii. Aeayo-oe
i?aaei?eyoey, aiaeece?othuee i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie iii iiaeao
noieeiooueny, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeythuee niiniau ?aoaiey oei.-oic. caaea/.

Iacia/aiea aecian-ieaia:

iiii/ue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi ioeaieoue naie aiciiaeiinoe;

auyaeoue aieinoue e ia?niaeoeau aoaeouaai ?uiea;

ioeaieoue iaiaoiaeeiua cao?aou e ni?acia?eoue eo n oaie, ii eioi?ui
iiaeii aoaeao ?aaeeciaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth eee oneoae;

oaaaeeoue aiciiaeiiai eiaanoi?a a i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe e
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe aua?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

iaia?oaeeoue aiciiaeiua “iiaeaiaeiua eaiie” a ia?aua aiaeu ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey;

?ann/eoaoue ii ioeaii/iui iieacaoaeyi i?eaueueiinoue aeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

ii?aaeaeeoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?acaeoey aeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
neiaeeaoeony yeii. oneiaeyo;

onoaiiaeoue aiciiaeiua eiio?aeou n eiio?aaaioaie.

Ninoaaeyy aecian-ieai, iaaei iiiieoue, /oi iniiaiie oeaeueth yaeyaony
iieo/aiea i?eauee /a?ac oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae iieoiaoaeae, a
n?aaenoaaie aa aeinoeaeaiey yaeythony iiaua i?iaeoeou eee oneoae.
?ac?aaioea aecian-ieaia iicaieyao iieo/eoue ioaaou ia aii?inu: eae
ia/aoue naia aeaei, eae yooaeoeaii i?aaieciaaoue i?iecaiaenoai, eiaaea
aoaeoo iieo/aiu ia?aua aeioiaeu, eae nei?i iiaeii aoaeao ?anieaoeoueny n
eiaanoi?aie, eae oiaiueoeoue aiciiaeiue ?ene. Aecian-ieai ninoaaeyaony
ia ianeieueei eao (3-5) e neoaeeo iniiaie acaeiiiiieiaiey iaaeaeo
eiaanoi?aie e i?aaiecaoi?aie.

No?oeoo?a aecian-ieaia:

Eiioeaioeey aua?aiiiai aeciana;

Neooaoeey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy (iaia?aiey, caaea/e, oeaee);

Oa?aeoa?enoeea nicaeaaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey, aai i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa;

Oi?aaeaiea;

Enneaaeiaaiea e aiaeec ?uiea;

Ieai ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee;

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue ieai;

Ioeaiea ?enea;

Oeiainiaue ieai.

? 23.Aiaeec naaanoieiinoe. ?aca?au e oaeoi?u nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe

Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee – niaieoiiua cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey,
au?aaeaiiua a noieiinoiie oi?ia. Naaanoieiinoue ninoaaeyao iniiao oeaiu
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Oeaia=Naaanoieiinoue +I?eaueue

Naaanoieiinoue – yoi aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea cao?ao i?iecaiaenoaaiio
oaeoi?ia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n auioneii e
?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee e ieacaieai oneoa, oi anoue ana oi, ai /oi
iaoiaeeony i?aaei?eyoeth i?iecaiaenoaie ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoe. A
niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaieai ecaea?aeae (naaanoieiinoe) i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee neaaeoao ?acee/aoue naaanoienioue i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee, auionea i?iaeoeoeee e i?iaeaae. Naaanoieiinoue auionea
(i?iecaiaenoaa) i?iaeoeoeee oa?aeoa?ecoao a aeaiaaeiii ecia?aiee ana
iao?eaeueiua cao?aou e cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea, eioi?ua a oii eee eiii
i?iecaiaenoaa iaaeatho ia aaeeieoeo e ia aanue iauai auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

A naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee niaeanii eino?oeoeee aeeth/athony:

cao?aou ia iiaeaioiaeo e inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa;

cao?aou, naycaiiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii n i?iecaiaenoaii i?iaeoeoeee,
iaoneiaeaiiua oaoiieiaeae e i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa;

cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea;

cao?aou, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai i?e?iaeiiai nu?uey;

cao?aou iaeaieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, naycaiiua n niaa?oainoaiaaieai
oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea n oeo/oaieai ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee;

?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ecia?aoaoaeuenoaii, oaoie/aneei
oniaa?oainoaiaaieai e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neeie i?aaeeiaeaieyie;

cao?aou ii ianeoaeeaaieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna (oaeouee,
n?aaeiee e eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio) – nthaea cao?aou ia iiaea?iecaoeeth
iai?oaeiaaiey e ?aeiino?oeoeeth iauaeoia iniiaiuo oiiaeia ia
aeeth/aathony.

cao?aou ii iaania/aieth ii?iaeueiuo oneiaee o?oaea e oaoieee
aaciianiinoe;

?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n iaai?ii ?aai/ae neeu;

oaeouea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai e yenieoaoaoeeae oiiaeia
i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiiai cia/aiey;

?anoiaeu, aycaiiua n oi?aaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaii;

cao?aou ia iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aaiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia;

?anoiaeu ii o?ainii?oe?iaea ?aaioieeia e ianoo ?aaiou e ia?aoii,
io/eneaiey ia ainoaea?noaaiiia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea e iaineiiiia
iaania/aiea, a ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae caiyoinoe io cao?ao ia iieaoo
o?oaea ?aaioieeia, caiyouo a i?iecaiaenoaa niioaaonoaothuae i?iaeoeoeee;

io/eneaiey ii iaycaoaeueiiio iaaeeoeeineiio no?aoiaaieth;

ieaoaaee ii n?aoiaaieth eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey;

cao?aou ia iieaoo i?ioeaioia ii e?aoein?i/iui nnoaeai aaieia, iieaoa
oneoa aaieia;

cao?aou ii aa?aioeeiiio ianeoaeeaaieth;

cao?aou, naycaiiua ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee, oiaeiaea, o?aiaiea,
o?ainii?oe?iaea);

cao?aou ia aini?iecaiaenoai iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia
(aii?oecaoeey, ia iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea);

eciin (aii?oecaoeey) ii iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai;

iioa?e io a?aea;

iioa?e io i?inoiaa ii aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?e/eiai.

Aaee/eia yoeo cao?ao caaeneo io oeai ia ?ano?nu, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, a oaeaea io oaoiieiaee eo eniieueciaaiey;

Iiiaieeaoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai ii yeiiiie/aneei yeaiaioai:

iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (ca au/aoii noieiinoe aica?aoiuo iooiaeia);

cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea (ana aeaeuiieaou o?oaea e ae?oaea auieaou);

io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu;

aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia;

i?i/ea aeaiaaeiua cao?aou.

?acee/iua aeaeu ?ano?nia ii-?aciiio ia?aiinyo naith naaanoieiinoue ia
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth. A niioaaonoaee n yoei a oai?ee e ia i?aeoeea
?acee/atho iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa. E
iinoiyiiui ecaea?aeeai i?iecaiaenoaa ioiinyony cao?aou, aaee/eia eioi?uo
ia iaiyaony n eciaiaieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iie aeieaeiu auoue
iiea/aiu. Aeaaea anee i?aaei?eyoea ia i?iecaiaeyeo i?iaeoeoeeth
(io/eneaiey ia aii?oecaoeeth, a?aiaea caeaiee e iai?oaeiaaiey, no?aoiaua
aciinu, iieaoa aunoaai oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea).

Iiae ia?aiaiiuie ecaea?aeeaie iiieiatho cao?aou, iauay aaee/eia eioi?uo
iaoiaeeony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee, a oaeaea eo no?oeoo?u i?e i?icaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
ianeieueeeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. E iei ioiinyony cao?aou ia nu?uea e
iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai, yia?aeth, o?ainii?oiua oneoae, aieueooth /anoue
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia e o.ae.

A aeaeaiee eae iiaeii aieueoa iieo/eoue i?eauee, eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea
aeieaeii no?aieoueny nieceoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa (naaanoieiinoue).
A aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iinoiyiii neaaeeoue ca neeaaeuaathueiny
ioiioaieai iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e cao?aoaie, naycaiiuie n ecaioiaeaieai
i?iaeoeoee e ieacaieai oneoa. Nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe – iiiaiieaiiaue
i?ioeann, o?aaothuee nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e aaeeiiai oi?aaeaiey. Yoi
iaoneaaeeaaaony oai, /oi naaanoieiinoue yaeyaony iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai
anao aeaeii cao?ao ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee – o?oaeiaieinoe,
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe, oiiaeiaieinoe, yia?aiaieinoe e ae?.

I?e oi?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoueth ii nieaeaieth naaanoieiinoe iaiaoiaeeii
enoiaeeoue i?aaeaea anaai ec auyaeaiey ?aca?aia. iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
yoiai. Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e oaeouea ?aca?au.
I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?aca?au i?aaeoniao?eaatho nicaeaiea a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii ieaia iioeiaeueiiai o?iaiy ?aca?aia, iaania/eaathueo
iaaeaaeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu i?e aiciiaeiuo naiyo. A oneiaeyo
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee eo aaee/eia caaeneo ia oieueei io iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e io aeaeaeaiey oeai ia nu?uea, aiciiaeiinoe auno?iai
aai i?eia?aoaiey e o.ae. A ?yaea neo/aaa enoiaey ec i?iaiica aeaeaeaiey
oeai oeaeaniia?acii nicaeaaaoue aieueoea caianu nu?uey. Oaeouea ?aca?au
auyaeythony ia iniiaa niiinoaaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe n ieaiii
e eoiaaie i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea. E iei ioiinyony nie?auaiea iioa?ue
nu?uey e ?aai/aai a?aiaie, eeeaeaeaoeey i?inoiaa, ai?ueaa n
ia?aoeeiiaeueiui eniieueciaaieai nu?uey.

Aianoa n oai i?e anai iiiaiia?acee eiie?aoiuo iooae yeiiiiee
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey:

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa,
yeaeo?iyia?aee;

nie?auaiea iooiaeia e iioa?ue;

eeeaeaeaoeey a?aea;

aiaae?aiea iiauo aeaeia yeiiiie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia e caiaieoaeae;

eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia;

oiaiueoaiea aica?aoiuo iooiaeia.

? 24. ?aioaaaeueiinoue eae iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoe?

?aioaaaeueiin?? – yoi ii?aaaeuaathuee ?anoiae, oeaeaniia?acaue e
i?eaueueiue n oi/ee c?aiey oicyenoaiaaiey. Anee i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao
i?eaueue, iii n/eoaaony ?aioaaaeueiui.

Nouanoaotho 3 aeaea
?aioaaaeueiinoe:

n?aaenoaa, iai?aaeyaiua ia nicaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey, aunooiatho eae aai
eaieoae, eioi?ue neoaeeo aeey inouanoaeaiey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. A
eiioea yoie aeayoaeueiinoe iaia?oaeeaaaony ?acoeueoao, aunooiathuee a
aeaea i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey. ?aioaaaeueiinoue iieacuaaao niiniaiinoue
i?e?auaiey aeiaeaiiiai a i?aaei?eyoea eaieoaea;

ia?aiia/aeueiue eaieoae iai?aaeyaony i?eia?aoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey, nu?uey,
iaoa?eaeia, oi anoue enoiaeiue eaieoae aeeaaeuaaaony a a iniiaiua oiiaeu
e iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey. Ii eae au aaaine?oaony a
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

? i? = I?i ( eee ??) 100% ??? -?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eoyey; I?? – i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?aaei?eyo??;

O + In I/ –
/enoay i?eaueue; O – iniiaiua oiiaeu; In – n?aaeiaa. no-oue iai?. n?-a
i?aaei?.

??? = I?? 100% N –
naaanoieiinoue

N
??? – ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyo??

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee iieacuaaao ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue oaeoueo
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee. Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo
?an/aoa ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iiaoo i?eieiaoueny ?aoaiey
ioiineoaeueii oeaeaniia?aciinoe auionea i?iaeoeoeee.

3) ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae iieacuaaao ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoee?

?i? = ?? 100% Q? – iauai
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (au?o/ea i?aaei?eyoe?)

Q?

Iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe, i?eiaiyaiua a yeiiiie/aneeo ?an/aoao
oa?aeoa?ecotho ioiineoaeueioth i?eaueueiinoue. ?acee/atho iieacaoaee
?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoe?e e ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyo??.
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee auaaao: ?aioaaaeueiin?ue ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee e ioaeaeueiiai ecaeaeey.
?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoe?? – yoi ioiioaiea i?eauee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e aa iieiie naaanoieiinoe. ?aioaaaeueiinoue
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoe?e oa?aeoa?ecoaony iieacaoaeai cao?ao ia aeaiaaeioth
aaeeieoeo oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ( (T-C) / N 100) – O – oiaa?iay
i?iaeoeoeey, N – naaanoieiinoue). ?aioaaaeueiinoue ecaeae?? – yoi
ioiioaiea i?eaueee ia aaeeieoeo ecaeaeey e naaanoieiinoe yoiai ecaeaeey.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeytho eae ioiioaiea aaeainiaie
i?eauee e n?aaeiae noieiinoe iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e
ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa (i?eaueue aei ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioia * 100
/ aeoeau)

? 25. Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey e iieacaoaee aai ioeaie?

Oeaeue oeiainiaiai iaania/aiey i?aaei?eyoey ninoieo a oii, /oiau
eiaoue n?aaenoaa aeey iieo?uoey iio?aaiinoae i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiaaeiuo
?ano?nao, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oniaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey.
?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey, iie?uaaaiua aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie, aeaeyony ia
iniiaiie e iai?ioiue eaieoae. Iniiaiie e iai?ioiue eaieoae ia?acotho a
noiia aai aeoeau. Aeoeau auaatho oaeouea (- iai?ioiue eaieoae – iaee/iua
n?aaenoaa, aeaaaoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinnoue, ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia)
e iniiaiua (aeiaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a iniiaiua oiiaeu
i?aaei?eyoey).

Iniiaiua caaea/e oeiainiaiai iaania/aiey:

auyaeyoue iio?aaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao;

aiaeece?iaaoue e eciaiyoue no?oeoo?o iniiaiiai e iai?ioiiai eaieoaea a
caaeneiinoe io oeiainiaie neooaoeee ia ?uiea;

nicaeaaaoue oiiaeu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?ani?aaeaeyoue eo a
niioaaonoaee n oeaeaaui iacia/aieai;

iaania/eaaoue iinoiyiioth ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey;

iaeaieaa i?eaueueii eniieueciaaoue ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey;

iiene iaeaieaa auaiaeiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey aeey i?aaei?eyoey.

?aoaiea yoeo e ae?oaeo caaea/ naycaii n oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoey, io aa i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee caaeneo ?aaioa
i?aaei?eyoey. Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo no?ieony oeiainieaay
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey:

oeiainiaay iacaaeneiinue;

ionoonoaea aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiey oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ni
noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa;

yeiiiie/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?aceeueoaou oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nouanoaotho 2 aeaea oeiainiauo enoi/iee?a i?aaei?eyoey, ii eioi?ui iie
iieo/atho oeiaineau n?aaenoaa:

nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee (eaieoae);

caaiiua (i?eaea/aiiua) enoi/ieee (caaiiue eaieoae).

Iniiaiui nianoaaiiui enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey yaeyaony onoaaiue
eaieo??. Ii ia?acoaony i?e nicaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey e oi?ie?oaony iooai
aianaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ?acee/iie oi?ia (aeoeee) a onoaaiue oiiae
i?aaei?eyoey. A aeaeueiaeoai, a oiaea inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaei?eyoea oi?ie?oao naie nianoaaiiue eaieoae ca n/ao
i?eauee e aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee. E?iia oiai, e /eneo nianoaaiiuo
enoi/iee?a ioiinyony: au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee eceeoiaai iai?oaeiaaiey,
i?iaeaaea aeoeee, n?aaenoaa io naea/e eiouanoaa a a?aiaeo, au?o/ea io
ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

Caaiiue eaieo?e aeaeeony ia: aeieain?i/iue eaieoae ( > 1 aiaea) e
e?aoein?i/iue (aei 1 aiaea). Aeieain?i/iue eaieoae aunooiaao a aeaea
nnoae, eioi?ua ianeoaeeaatho yeaiaiou iniiaiiai eaieoaea. E?aoein?i/iue
eaieoae aunooiaao a aeaea e?aaeeoia, eioi?ua ianeoaeeaatho yeaiaiou
iai?ioiiai eaieoaea (c/i, nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu). E?iia oiai, i?eaeaeaaiua
caaiiua n?aaenoaa iiaoo iinooiaoue e io ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia (i?eaea/aiea
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, ain. aeioaoeee, acaeiiia e?aaeeoiaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee).

Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

iieacaoaee ieaoaaeaniiniaiin?? (iie eniieuecothony aeey ioeaiee
niiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey iiea/eaaoue naie aeieae):

a) eiyooeoeeaio iie?uo??

Ei = Iai?ioiua aeoeau Yoio eiyooeoeeaio iieacuaaao
niniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ieaoeoue ii e?aoein?. Aeieaai (aei 1a.)

E?aoein?i/iay caaeieaeaiiinoue

Anee Ei > 1? i?aaei?eyoea a ninoiyiee ?ann/eouaaoueny ii naiei
e?aoein?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai.

a) eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiin??

Ee = Aeaiaaeiua n?aaeno?? Iieacuaaao niiniaiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey ?aniea/eaaoueny ii anai e?aoein?i/iui aeieaai

E?aoein?i/iay caaeieaeaiiinoue iia?aoeai?

a) eiyooeoeeaio aaoiiiie?

30 Ea = Nianoaaiiue eaieoa? Iieacuaaao
niiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey auaea?aeeaaoue oauoee iacaaeneii

Aeoeau (iai?ioiue+iniiaiie eaieoae) io enoi/ieea eo
oi?ie?iaaiey. Ii aeieaeai auoue auoa iieiaeiu (>0,5)TH

i?aaei?eyoea a ninoiyiee auaea?aeeaaoue oauoee.

iieacaoaee oeiainiaie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. Iie oa?aeoa?ecotho oeiainiaoth
iacaaeneiinoue i?aaei?eyoey io caaiiiai eaieoaea.

a) eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey caaiiiai e nianoaaiiiai eaieoa??

Ecn = Caaiiue eaieo?? Iieacuaaao, neieueei caaiiuo
n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoea i?eaeaeei ia ?oaeue nianoaaiiiai

Nianoaaiiue eaieoae eaieoaea. Anee E? 29. Ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia. Oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?e?ino ( oiaiueoaiea) noieiinoe eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey, ia?aciaaaoeeny a i?ioeanna aai oic. aeayo-oe ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. A aoo. o/aoa ?acoeueoao oic. aeayo-oe ii?aaeaeytho iooai iiaen/aoa e aaeaine?iaaiey anao i?eaueae e oauoeia ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. Aeey yoie oeaee neoaeeo n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia (n/. 80). Naeueaei ia yoii n/aoa (aeaaaoiaia - oauoie, e?aaeeoiaia - i?eaueue ) oa?aeoa?ecoao oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n ia/aea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea. Iia?aoeee io?aaeathony ia n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia ii oae iacuaaaiiio eoioeyoeaiiio i?eioeeio: iieacaoaee i?eaueae e oauoeia iaeaieeaathony ia n/aoa ia?anoathuei eoiaii n ia/aea io/aoiiai aiaea. Naeueaei ii n/aoo iieo/atho, aaeaine?oy ana i?eauee e oauoee n ia/aea io/aoiiai aiaea. Eiia/iue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao neaaaaony ec oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io 1) ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e eiiai eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey, 2) aeioiaeia io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee, oiaiueoaiiuo ia noiio ?anoiaeia ii yoei iia?aoeeyi. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ieie a oie, /oi i?eaueue eee oauoie io i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii auyaeyaony ia ioaeaeueiuo n/aoao ?aaeecaoeee, a caoai iauae noiiie ia?aiineony ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia. Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu , oauoee e iioa?e i?yii io?aaeathony ii e?aaeeoo eee aeaaaoo 80-ai n/aoa aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie caiene ia eaeeo-eeai eiuo n/aoao. 1) i?eaueue (oauoie) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a aeaenoaothueo oeaiao aac IAeN e aeoeecia e cao?aoaie ia aa i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth. I?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeythuea yenii?oioth aeayoaeueiinoue, i?e en/eneaiee i?eauee ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee eneeth/atho yenii?oiua oa?eou. Aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eeai ii ia?a aa iieaou, eeai ii ia?a ioa?ocee oiaa?ia e i?aaeuyaeaiey iieoiaoaeth ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee onoaiaaeeaaaony naiei i?aaei?eyoeai. ?acoeueoaou io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iieooaa?eeaoia, ?aaio e oneoa nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auyaeythony ia n/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (n/. 46). N/ao 46 aaeaiany/ii cae?uaaaony e naeueaei ia eiaao. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eiathuea y?ei au?aaeaiiue oeeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (o ieo 46 n/ao cae?uaaaony 1 ?ac a eiioea aiaea). Ia n/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee niiinoaaeythony aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ii ?aaeeciaaiiui i?iaeoeoai. Iiyoiio ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia ca/eneyaony aaeaiany/ii noiia i?eauee, iieo/aiiay io ?aaeecaoeee e aeaeaaony caienue Ae46 E80 (anee oauoie - Ae80 E46). 2) Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou - i?eauee e oauoee, ia naycaiiua n iia?aoeeyie ?aaeecaoeee (eoiee-i?iaeaaee). Eo iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeioiaeu oi o/anoey a ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo, aeeth/ay e aei/a?iea; i?eauee e oauoee io oeiainiauo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea neo/aeiua aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey i?eauee e oauoee. Aeioiaeu io o/anoey a ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo iiyaeythony a ?ac-oa iieo/aiey /anoe i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee e aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi, aea?aeaoaeai eioi?uo ya-ny aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea. E yoie a?oiia aeioiaeia iiaeii oaeaea ioianoe aeioiaeu oi naea/e eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey a a?aiaeo. A aoo. o/aoa aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa io?aaeaiey yoeo aeioiaeia: ii oaeoe/aneiio iinooieaieth aeaiaa eee iooai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ia/eneaiey aeioiaeia ia n/aoao. Aeioiaeu e oauoee io oeiainiauo iia?aoeee neeaaeuaaaony ec eo?niauo aaethoiuo ?acieoe, aeioiaeia io i?ioeaioia ca n?aaenoaa, ia?aaeaiiua acaeiu, a oaeaea ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n i?eia?aoaieai iaeeaaoeee, aaethou, eiuo oeiainiauo oeaiiinoae. Eo?niaua aaethoiua ?acieoeu aicieeatho a nayce n ia?an/aoii ii aeaenoaothuaio eo?no iaee/iie aaethou ia aaieianeeo n/aoao e ?an/aoia, inouanoaeyaiuo a eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethoa; iiaoo auoue eae iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiua. I?aaei?eyoey, nicaeathuea ?aca?a ia iiaaoaiea niiieoaeueiuo aeieaia, noiio ia/eneaiiiai ?aca?aa nienuaatho ia oiaiueoaiea aaeainiaie i?eauee io/aoiiai aiaea. E niiieoaeueiui aeieaai ioiineony aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, ia iiaaoaiiay a onoaiiaeaiiue ii aeiaiai?o n?ie eee a oa/aiee ii?iaeueiiai a?aiaie aeey aaieianeiai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa e ca/eneaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiue n/ao, a oaeaea ia iaania/aiiay onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aa?aioeyie ieaoaaea. Iaoa?aeoa?iua aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e oauoee iiiai/eneaiiu e ?aciiia?aciu. Iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athueany eo aeaeu: iinooieaiey io oieaou oo?aoia, iaie, iaonoiae e ae?. aeaeia naieoeee, a oaeaea aiciauaiea oauoeia, ana oaeea iinooieaiey ca/eneythony ia e?aaeeo n/aoa 80 a ei??aniiiaeaioeee ni n/aoaie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?an/aoia a aeaaeoi?aie. E yoiio aeaeo neaaeoao ioianoe e ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoey ia noaeaaiua ecaea?aeee, oiea/aiiua aeia?iaieueii eee i?enoaeaeaiiua noaeii a iieueco ae?oaeo oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, oo?aou, iaie ,iaonoieee e o.ae. , eioi?ua caienuaatho a ?anoiae ia aeaaao n/aoa 80; ia E80 ca/eneyaony i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiay a io/aoiii aiaeo: iinooiathuea io iinoaaueeii noiiu ii ia?a?an/aoai ca iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe e oneoae, iieo/aiiua e eniieueciaaiiua a i?ioeii aiaeo , ia?a?an/aou ii i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?ai, ?aaioai e oneoaai, ?aaeeciaaiiui a i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu, iinooieaiey ii ?an/aoai, ?aiaa nienaiiui ia oauoie eae aaciaaeaaeiay aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue. Ia Ae80 oeene?oaony oaeaea neaaeothuea iioa?e e oauoee, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeii n/eoaoue neo/aeiui aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey: cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai, ia aeaoaaea i?iaeoeoeee, e ii aiioee?iaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui caeacai; oauoee io nienaiey aaciaaeaaeiuo aeieaia, aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii enoa/aiee n?ieia eneiaie aeaaiinoe, ii eioi?ie ia nicaeaaaeny ?aca?a ia iiaaoaiea niiieoaeueiuo aeieaia; oauoee ii iia?aoeeyi i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiua a io/aoiii aiaeo: aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou ii caeacai, naeaeaiiui a i?ioeua aiaeu, aica?ao iieoiaoaeyi noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaeeciaaiiie a i?ioeii aiaeo e o.i.; iaeiiiaine?oaiua oauoee io oeuaiee eiouanoaa: iioa?e io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e a ?acoeueoaoa yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeee, i?aaenoaaeythuea noieiinoue oo?a/aiiiai, oie/oiaeaiiiai e enii?/aiiiai eiouanoaa, ia eiiiaine?iaaiioth no?aoiauie i?aaiaie eee ainoaea?noaii. E yoei iioa?yi ioiinyony e ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n eeeaeaeaoeeae iineaaenoaee noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee. ?30 Oeiainiaay nenoaia ?innee. Ooieoeee Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia Iiiyoea “oeiainiaay nenoaia” yae. ?acaeoeai aieaa iauaai iiiyoey “oeiainu”. Oeiainu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie yeii. ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaaieai, ?ani?aaeaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oiiaeia aeai. n?-a a oeaeyo auiieiaiey ooieoeee e caaea/ ain-aa e iaania/aiey oneiaee ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Eaaeaeia caaii oei. neoaiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aae. noa?o oei. ioiioaiee, a oei. nenoaia a oeaeii - niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo noa? oei. ioiioaiee, a i?ioeanna eioi?uo ia?acothony e eniieuecothony oiiaeu aeai. n?-a. Oei. nenoaia - yoi nenoaia oi?i e iaoiaeia ia?aciaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey oiiaeia aeai. n?-a ain-aa e i?aaei?eyoee. Oeiainiaay nenoaia ?O aeeth/aa neaae. caaiuey oei. ioiioaiee: ain. athaeaeaoioth nenoaio; aiaathaeaeaoiua niaoe. oiiaeu; ain. e?aaeeo; oiiaeu no?aoiaaiey; oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee ?ace. oi?i nian-oe (o.a. oeiainu oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia: ainoaea?noaaiiuo, ioieoeeiaeueiuo, /anoiuo, aeoeeiia?iuo, a?aiaeiuo, iauanoaaiiuo), oeiainu ianaeaiey (aeiiaoieo oicyenoa). Ia?aua o?e aeiea oei. ioiioaiee ioiinyony e oeaio?aeeciaaiiui oeiainai e eniieuecothony aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee e nioe. ioiioaiee ia iae?io?iaia, a iineaaeothueo aeieia - ia iee?io?iaia. *A niioa-e n Caeiiii ?NON? “Ia iniiaao athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa e athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna a ?NON?” io 10 ieoya?y 1991 a. e ?yaeii ae?oaeo caeiiia e iinoaiiaeaiee I?aa-aa ?O ain. athaeae. nenoaia ?innee auea ei?aiiui ia?acii ia?ano?iaia e a iano. a?aiy aeeth/aao o?e caaia: *?anioaeeeaineee athaeaeao ?O, eee oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao; *athaeaeaou iaoeeiiaeueii-ain-o e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee - yoi athaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee; *ianoiua athaeaeaou. Ana yoe athaeaeaou ooieoeeiie?otho aaoiiiiii. *Aoi?ia caaii oei. nenoaiu - aiaathaeaeaoiua niaoe. oiiaeu. Iie eiatho no?iai oeaeaaia iacia/aiea - ?anoe?eoue nioe. oneoae ianaeaieth, noeioee?iaaoue ?acaeoea ionoaeuo io?aneae eio?ano?oeoo?u, iaania/eoue aeiiieieoaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?ei?eoaoiua io?anee ye-ee. Aaaeiaeoee n?aaee nioe. oiiaeia - Iaineiiiue oiiae, n?-aa eioi?iai oi?ie?othony ca n/ao no?aoiauo aciinia ?aaioiaeaoaeae e ?aaioathueo, aeioaoeee ec oaae athaeaeaoa e ?ano?nia, iieo/aaiuo io nianoa. eiaanoeoeee oiiaea. E nioe. oiiaeai ioiinyony oaeaea Oiiae nioe. no?aoiaaiey, Ain. oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, Oaaea?. e oa??eoi?eaeueiue oiiaeu iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey. *Ain. e?aaeeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniaoth oi?io e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ain-aii e th?eae. e oec. eeoeaie, i?e eioi?uo ain-ai aunooiaao aeaaiui ia?acii a ea/-aa caaiueea n?-a. ain. e?aaeeo io?aaeaao e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo iiaeeecaoeee ain-aii a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeai. n?-a i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee e ianaeaiey ia ia/aeao aica?aoiinoe aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ain. ?anoiaeia. Aioo?aiiee aeiea ninoieo ec caaeieaeaiiinoe i?ioeuo eao e aiiaue aicieeathuae caaeieaeaiiinoe.Iieeoeeo a ioiioaiee ain. aioo?. aeieaa ii?aaeaeyao Oaae. Nia?aiea ?O, eioi?ia onoaiaaeeaaao aai aa?oiee i?aaeae i?e ooaa?aeaeaiee oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee oei. aiae. Oaaee/aiea aioo?. aeieaa ca iineaaeiea aiaeu naycaii n yienneae aaieiio Oeaio?. Aaieii ?innee aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e yaeeinoue iiuiui eioeyoeeiiiui oaeoi?ii. Ain. aiaoiee aeiea - yoi caaeieaeaiiinoue ii iaiiaaoaiiui aiaoiei caeiai e iaauiea/aiiui ii iei i?ioeaioai. A 1993 a. aeey iie?uoey athaeae. aeaoeoeeoa auee auiouaiu iiaua oeaiiua aoiaae - ain. e?aoein?i/iua iaeeaaoeee (AEI) ni n?ieii ia?auaiey o?e ianyoea e cieioua na?oeoeeaou Iei-aa oeiainia ni n?ieii ia?auaiey iaeei aiae. A 1995 a. auee auiouaiu iaeeaaoeee Oaae. caeia (IOC) e Ain. naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia (IANC), /oi i?eaaei e ?acaeoeth ?uiea ain. oe. aoiaa. A iano. a?aiy aioo?. ain. aeiea ?innee ninoieo ec ain. oe. aoiaa, auiouaiiuo Iei-aii oeiainia ?O io eiaie I?aa-aa ?innee, a oaeaea a aeaea e?aaeeoiuo niaeaoaiee n OeA ?innee. Ana aeaeu caeinoaiaaiee yae. n?i/iuie e ii iei auiea/eaathony i?ioeaiou. *Oiiae no?aoiaaiey iaania/eaao aiciauaiea aiciiaeiuo oauoeia io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e ian/anoiuo neo/aaa, a oaeaea niinianoaoao eo i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth. A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu aeaenoaiaaea ain. iiiiiieey ia no?aoiaia aeaei. N ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie ye-ea nicaeaiu iauaeoeaiua oneiaey aeey aeoeaiiai ?acaeoey no?aoiaaiey. *Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee ?ace. oi?i niano-oe ninoaaeytho iniiao oeiainia. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaieoiiinoue aeai. ioiioaiee, i?iyaeythueony a iniauo oi?iao aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, a /a?ac yoi - a oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeai. oiiaeia a i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e o/anoey a aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/ae neeu. Caeanue oi?ie?oaony i?aiaeaaeathuay /anoue oei. ?ano?nia. Io ninoiyiey oeiainia i?aaei?eyoee ai iiiaii caaeneo iauaa oei. iieiaeaiea no?aiu. A oneiaeyo ?ui. ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoey inou-tho naith aeayo-oue ia ia/aeao eiii. ?an/aoa, i?e eioi?ii ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo aeioiaeia. Aeaaiui enoi/ieeeii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e nioe. ?acaeoey o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia noaiiaeony i?eaueue. I?aaei?eyoey noaee iaeaaeaoue ?aaeueiie oei. iacaaeneiinoueth, naiinoiyoaeueii ?ani?aaeaeytho au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ii naiaio oniio?aieth ?anii?yaeathony i?eaueueth, oi?ie?otho i?iecaiaenaoaiiua e nioe. oiiaeu, ecuneeaatho iaiaoiaeeiua ei n?-aa aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey, eniieuecoy a oii /enea e ?ano?nu oei. ?uiea. *Oeiainu aeiiioicyenoa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaieoiiinoue aeai. ioiioaiee, i?iyaeythueony a oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee athaeaeaoa eaaeaeiai aeiiioicyenoaa a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey ee/iuo e naiaeiuo iio?aaiinoae. ***Nenoaia oeiainia i?ecaaia iaania/eaaoue naaeaine?iaaiiia aeaeaeaiea noieiinoiuo e iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiiuo iioieia a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e ?aai/ae neeu. Aeinoeaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea aeieaeiie naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaania/eaaaony yooaeoeaiui ooieoeeiie?iaaieai ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiuo oei. iiaenenoai, eaaeaeie ec eioi?uo i?enoue naie niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe e caeiiiia?iinoe ia?aciaaiey, iaeiieaiey e eniieueciaaiey oei. ?ano?nia. Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie a ?O i?aaeaea anaai inou-tho aunoea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe. Yoi Oaaea?aeueiia Nia?aiea e aai aeaa iaeaou - Ain. Aeoia e Niaao Oaaea?aoeee. Aaaeiaeoei i?aaiii, inouanoaeythuei oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie ?O, aunooiaao Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?innee e aai i?aaiu ia ianoao. Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?O auiieiyao neaae. ooieoeee: 1. O/anoaoao a ?aaioa ii ninoaaeaieth aeieaia?aiaiiuo e e?aoein?i/iuo i?iaiicia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ye-ee, ii?aaeaeyao iio?aaiinoue a ain. oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ?ano?nao, iiaeaioaaeeaaao i?aaeeiaeaiey i ?ani?aaeaeaiee eo iaaeaeo oaae. athaeaeaoii e ain. oaae aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie; 2. I?aaiecoao ?aaioo ii ninoaaeaieth i?iaeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa; 3. Iaania/eaaao eniieiaiea oaae. athaeaeaoa, a oaaae ain. oaae. aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia; 4. ?ac?aaaouaaao n o/anoeai Ain. iaeia. neoaeau, Oaae. neoaeau iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?O i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth iae. iieeoeee e iaeiaiaie nenoaiu; 5. I?eieiaao o/anoea a ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiiaie iieeoeee; 6. I?eieiaao o/anoea a ?aaioa ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth no?aoiaie aeayo-oe a no?aia; 7. ?ac?aaaouaaao i?aaeeiaeaiey ii auioneo e ?aciauaieth, a oaeaea inou-ao auione ain. aioo?. caeiia ?O; 8. ?ac?aaaouaaao i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oi?ie?iaaieth e ?acaeoeth oei. ?uiea; 9. Inou-ao ii ii?o/aieth I?aa-aa ?O nio?oaeie/anoai n iaaeae. oei. i?aaiecaoeeyie; 10. ?ac?aaaouaaao i?iaeou i?ia?aii aiaoieo caeinoaiaaiee ?O; 11. O/anoaoao a ?aaioa ii eiiieaeniiio aiaeeco ?acaeoey ye-ee, oeiainia e iaeiaiaiai noeioee?iaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayo-oe; 12. Aiaeece?oao oiae i?iaaaeaiey yeii. ?aoi?i, ninoiyiey ye-ee. ? 31. Oeiainiaay iieeoeea ?O Niaieoiiinoue ain. ia?ii?eyoee ii eniieueciaaieth oei. ioiioaiee aeey auiieiaiey ain-aii naieo ooieoeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo. Niaea?aeaiea oei. iieeoeee aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia, o.e. ioaaouaaao oe?ieee eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee: 1) ?ac?aaioeo iauae eiioeaioeee oei. iieeoeee, ii?aaeaeaiea aa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee, oeaeae, aeaaiuo caaea/; 2) nicaeaiea aaeaeaaoiiai oei. iaoaiecia; 3) oi?aaeaiea oei. aeayoaeueiinoueth ain-aa e ae?. noauaeoia ye-ee. Oei iieeoeea ain-aa i?ecaaia iaania/eoue ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oei. nenoaiu iau-aa e ia yoie iniiaa yooaeoeaiaa inou-oue anie ooieoeee - nioe., yeii., yeieiae/aneea, iai?iiiua. Ionthaea oei. iieeoeea yae. ninoaaiie /aoueth, naaiaioii nioe.-yeii. iieeoeee. Aaaeiaeoae oeaeueth oei. iie-ee yae. oaaee/aiea iauaia oei. ?ano?nia ia aaca yeii. ?inoa, niioaaonoaothuaa ia?aueaaiea ain. oeiainia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aieaa iieiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae iau-aa. Nia?aiaiiay oei. iie-ea ?O. A 1991 - 1996aa. e ii iano. a?aiy i?iaiaeeony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaay oei. iieeoeea, aace?othuayny ia eniieueciaaiee yeaiaioia ?ui. iaoaiecia e nenoaia ain. ?aaoee?iaaiey ye-ee. Iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei iaania/eaaoue oneiaey aeey nicaeaiey ioaeiiai iauaia oei. ?ano?nia, ii e nicaeaoue a e?ao/aeoea n?iee i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue iaoaieci ai anao noa?ao e caaiueyo oei. nenoaiu. Iniiaa nia?. oei. iie-ee - yoi i?eciaiea naiaiaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aaaaeaiea ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey, i?eaaoecaoeee ain. niano-oe e ia?aoiae e niaoaiiie ye-ea, aace?othuaeny ia oiaeii ni/aoaiee /anoiuo e ain. oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. Ia yoie iniiaa ?ac?aaaouaaaony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue oei. iaoaieci. Ain-ai ioeacuaaaony io aee?aeoeaiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa aioo?eoic. ioiioaieyie ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e ia?aaiaeeo eo ioiioaiey n athaeaeaoii ia iaeiaiaoth iniiao, eioi?ay noaaeo caneii i?iecaieueiiio ecuyoeth aeioiaeia. A yoeo oneiaeyo anth oyaeanoue iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ianoo iaeiaiieaoaeueueee. Nieaeaiea iaeiaiaiai ecuyoey aeioiaeia aiciiaeii oieueei i?e nie?auaiee ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa, a eo ?acia? a iniiaiii caaeneo io oe?iou auiieiyaiuo ain-aii ooieoeee. Iiyoiio aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae noaei eciaiaiea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa. Yoa i?iaeaia eiaea 2 aeaaiuo aniaeoa: - nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia a oeaeyo oiaiueoaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa; - eciaiaiea ii?yaeea i?aaeinoaaeaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?-a. Iieo/eea iiaia iai?aaeaiea nenoaia ain. e?aaeeoa. Ii noae aaaeiui e ioe?uoui enoi/ieeii iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa. Eciaiyaony a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?aaiecaoeey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu. Ia niaio oeaio?aeeciaaiiie athaeae. nenoaia i?eoea athaeaeaoiay nenoaia, iniiaaiiay ia ?aaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e ?aaiii?aaee athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae. Aieueoia cia/aiea a ieaia aeoeaecaoeee oei. iie-ee eiaao eciaiaiea i?aeoeee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oei. ?ano?nia. Oei ?ano?nu ia?a?ani?aaeaeythony a iano. a?aiy iaaeaeo yeii. noauaeoaie enoiaey ec ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey /a?ac oei. ?uiie, a ia iin?aaenoaii athaeaeaoa. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea nenoaia aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia ain-aa. Iia iicaieyao neiioeaio?e?iaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua n?-aa aeey oeaeaaiai oeiaine?iaaiey nioe. ?anoiaeia. ?acaeoea ?uii/iuo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey i?eaaei e aeaiiiiiieecaoeee no?aoiaiai aeaea e iiyaeaieth no?aoiaiai ?uiea - nicaeaieth iacaaeneiuo /anoiuo no?ao. Eiiiaiee, aaaaeaieth iiauo io?aneae e aeaeia no?aoiaaiey. Ea?aeeiaeueii eciaieeanue nenoaia oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie. Ia niaio aaeeiiio i?aaio oi?aaeaiey - Ieioeio i?eoea oeaeay nenoaia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oei. e eiio?ieueiuo i?aaiia: Ain. iaeia. neoaeaa, Oaae. neoaeaa iaeia. iieeoeee, N/aoiay iaeaoa, Ain. oaiiae. eiieoao e o.ae. Oe?ieia ?acaeoea iieo/ee iacaaeneiue aoaeeoi?neee oei. eiio?ieue. I?ioeann niaa?oainoaiaaiey oei. iie-ee iineo iinoiyiiue oa?aeoa?. A 1995 - 1998 aa. iaia/ai ?yae ia?ii?eyoee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth oei. iie-ee. Ini. caaea/a ia yoii yoaia - nieaeaiea aeaoeoeeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa aei o?iaiy 3% AAI, /oiau aai oeiaine?iaaiea ca n/ao aioo?. e aiaoieo enoi/ieeia ia oi?iiceei yeii. ?acaeoea no?aiu a oeaeii e niinianoaiaaei nieaeaieth eioeyoeee. Ini. caaea/a neaaeothuaai yoaia (n 1998 a.) ii ia?a iaeiieaiey oei. ?ano?nia - iieiay naaeaine?iaaiiinoue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia oaae. athaeaeaoa. A yoio aea ia?eiae aoaeao inou-ny iaeiaiaay ?aoi?ia, iai?aaeaiiay ia oe?aieaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu e oeo/oaiea ?aaeueiiai oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa. Aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny ain. iiaeaea?aeea no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee iin?aaenoaii i?iaaaeaiey eueaioiie iaeiaiaie e e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, a oaeaea i?yiuo athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iieo/ao ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa ia nioe. ioaeaeu. Ini. iai?aaeaiea caeanue - iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey n?-a. I?iaeieaeaaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa ?O. Aeey yoiai i?aaeoniao?eaaaony i?iaaaeaiea athaeaeaoiie ?aoi?iu: ?aoi?ie?iaaiea athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu a oeaeii ia iniiaa naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e ?aaiii?aaey anao athaeaeaoia; onoaiiaeaiea ?aaeaiaioa athaeae. i?ioeanna; ooi/iaiea nenoaiu iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee; oe?aieaiea aeioiaeiie aacu ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia. Aieueoia aieiaiea aeieaeii oaeaeyoueny ?acaeoeth e ?aaoee?iaaieth ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa. I?aaenoieo iaeoe iioeiaeueiia ni/aoaiea ia?auaiey ia yoii ?uiea ain. e ei?ii?aoeaiuo oe. aoiaa, /oi iicaieeo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaania/eoue iio?aaiinoe ain-aa a n?-aao iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, nicaeano oneiaey aeey ii?iaeueiiai ia?aeeaaa oei. ?ano?nia iaaeaeo ioae. i?aaei?eyoeyie e io?aneyie yeiiiieee. Aaaeiui i?aaenoaaeyaony iiauoaieea ea/-aa ?aaiou ain. oei. i?aaiia. A ?ac?aaioaiiie I?aa-aii ?O eiioeaioeee n?aaeian?i/iie i?ia?aiiu ia 1995-1997 aiaeu “?aoi?iu e ?acaeoea yeiiiieee” ioia/aaony, /oi i?iaiaeeiay oia?aiiay oei. e aeai. iie-ea en/a?iaea naay, e iiyoiio ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu icaei?iaeaiey ye-ee aeaeeony a i?eiyoee aeanoeiai athaeaeaoa. Nooue aai caeeth/aaony a inou-iee aeanoeeo athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee ia anao o?iaiyo n oai, /oiau iiaeaaeoue eioeyoeeth e nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey ?inoa eiaanoeoeee, noaaeeecaoeee e iaeeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?aieao oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?iaiaeyony neaae. ia?u: 1. N 1995 a. i?ae?auaii iie?uoea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa ca n/ao e?aaeeoia OeA e iaania/ai ia?aoiae e iaeioeyoeeiiiui enoi/ieeai oeiaine?iaaiey iooai oaaee/aiey ianooaaia ?aaeecaoeee ain. oe. aoiaa e aiaoieo caeinoaiaaiee; 2. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia nie?auaiea ia?aoeeiiaeueiuo ain. ?anoiaeia, i?aaeaea anaai aeioaoeee e eueaio; 3. Iiauoaiea ?iee iaeiaia eae nioe. ?aaoeyoi?ia, noeioee?othueo yooaeoeaiia i?iecaiaenoai e ia?aie/eaathueo ?anoi/eoaeueiia iio?aaeaiea, oi?iuaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu e nieaeaiea iae. a?aiaie aeey oic. noauaeoia. Enoiaey ec eiioeaioeee oei. iie-ee, oaae. i?aa-aii ii?aaeaeaiu ini. iai?aaeaiey e caaea/e ia 1995 a.: *inou-iea e caaa?oaiea athaeae. ?aoi?iu; *oe?aieaiea aeioiaeiie aacu athaeaeaoa iooai niaa?oainoaiaaiey iae. cae-aa, ?acaeoey iae. neoaeau e iiauoaiey o?iaiy niae?aaiinoe iaeiaia; *i?iaaaeaiea oanoeiai eiio?iey ca oeaeaaui oa?-?ii ?anoiaeiaaiey n?-a athaeaeaoa, o?iaiai aai aeaoeoeeoa, yae-ny ini. i?e/eiie eioeyoeee; *aeoeaiia ?acaeoea ?uiea ain. oe. aoiaa, a oii /enea iooai ?aciauaiey o.i. “aa?iiaeeaaoeee” ia ie?iaii oei. ?uiea e o.ae. ***Inou-a ain-aii naieo ooieoeee, aieaa iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae iau-aa caaeneo io iaee/ey oei ?ano?nia. Iiyoiio i?e ieaie?iaaiee aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iaiaoiaeeii ?aaeueii iiaeoiaeeoue e ioeaiea oei. aiciiaeiinoae, ecaaaaoue "i“eeoece?iaaiiuo" ”oeaiie aeeiaieee AAI e aeaaiuo athaeaeaoiia?acothueo iieacaoaeae. ? 32. Aeaeu e oi?iu oei. eiio?iey Oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee oeiainia aunooiaao oeiainiaue eiio?ieue. Aai niaea?aeaiea e iacia/aiea naiaeeony e i?iaa?ea oei. aeayo-oe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia e noauaeoia io?aneaaiai (aaaeiinoaaiiiai) e oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Iauaeoii oei. eiio?iey yae. ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua ioiioaiey ia noaaeee ia?aciaaiey e a i?ioeanna eniieueciaaiey oei. ?ano?nia, oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeai. oiiaeia, oei. eiio?ieue oaeaea aeeth/aao ioeaieo yeii. yooaeoeaiinoe oeiainiai-oic. iia?aoeee e oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Oei. i?iaa?ea iiaeaa?aathony noieiinoiua iieacaoaee - au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e oneoa, naaanoieiinoue, iieaoa o?oaea, aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey, oeaiu e oa?eou, i?eaueue, aeioiaeu io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee, aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu, iaycao. io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeae. oiiaeu, eniieueciaaiea i?eauee e ae?. Oei. eiio?ieue ioaaouaaao i?aaeeueiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoiuo iieacaoaeae e oei. ?acoeueoaoia aeayo-oe oic. noauaeoia, ninoaaeaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, ?anoiaeiaaiey niao iaeiii. i?aaiecaoeeyie, oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea athaeaeaoiuo n?-a, iieiioo e naiaa?aiaiiinoue iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae e iaiaeiaiauo io/eneaiee. Ia?ooaiea oei. aeenoeeieeiu ea?aaony yeiiiie/anee iin?aaenoaii oei. naieoeee e a aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea (a ioiioaiee aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea). Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeaeia oei. eiio?iey: ainoaea?noaaiiue, aioo?eoe?iaiiue e iacaaeniue (aoaeeo). Ain. oei. eiio?ieue ioaaouaaao iauaain. eiio?ieue, inou-iue niioa. i?aaiaie ain. e eniieieo. aeanoe a ethaie noa?a ye-ee e oi?aaeaiey, e aaaeiinoaaiiue eii?ieue, i?iaiaeeiue ieienoa?noaaie a ioiioaiee iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Noauaeoaie oei. eiio?iey aunooiatho a ia?aii neo/aa N/aoiay iaeaoa ?O, Aeaaiia eiio?ieueiia oi?aaeaiea I?aceaeaioa ?O, Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea eacia/aenoaa Neioeia, Ain. oaiiaeaiiue eiieoao, Ainiaeianeoaeaa, Oaae. neoaeaa iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, Oaae. eiienney ii ?uieo oe. aoiaa ?O. Aaaeiinoaaiiue eiio?ieue inou-ny eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiuie neoaeaaie ieienoa?noa. Aioo?eoe?iaiiue oei. eiio?ieue inou-ny oei. neoaeaie i?aaei?eyoey, a a AI, a eiiia?aoeaiie e iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee - ?aaeceiiiie eiienneae. Iacaaeneiue oei. eiio?ieue (aiaoiee aoaeeo) auiieiytho aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu a niioa-e n caeeth/aaiui aeiaiai?ii e ca ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Caeeth/aiea aoaeeoi?neie oe?iu ioaaouaaao oei. io/aoiinoue e aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee, ioaeeeoaony a ioe?uoie ia/aoe.Oei. iaiaaeaea? a e?oiiie eiii. no?oeoo?a eiio?iee?oao aanue i?ioeann eiaanoe?iaaiey eaieoaea. Yoi oae iacuaaaiue “iinoaoaeeo”, eioi?ue aeeth/aao n?aaiaiea oaeoe/aneeo oei. ?acoeueoaoia ia eaaeaeie noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayo-oe n i?iaiice?oaiuie a oeiainiaii ?acaeaea aecian-ieaia; aiaeec e ono?aiaiea i?e/ei eo ianiioaaonoaey; iiene iooae nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae e oeo/oaiey iaoiaeia oei. i?iaiice?iaaiey. Neaae-ii, oei. eiio?ieue - aaaeiue yeaiaio nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie oi?iaie oei. eiio?iey yae. i?iaa?ee e ?aaecee. I?iaa?ee i?iaiaeyony ii ioaeaeueiui aniaeoai oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayaoeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. ?aaecey - yoi eiiieaeniay i?iaa?ea anae oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayo-oe i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. ?aaecey i?iaiaeeony ii niioa. i?ia?aiia (oeaeue, iauaeo, ia?a/aiue ini. aii?inia) e caaa?oaaony ninoaaeaieai aeoa aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee i?aaei?eyoey, a eioi?ii io?aaeathony auyaeaiiua iaaeinoaoee oei.-oic. aeayo-oe i?aaei?eyoey, ii?aaeaeythony oei. naieoeee ca ia?ooaiea oei. aeenoeeieeiu, ia?u ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth iiaeiaiuo ia?ooaiee a aoaeouai e iiaeeecaoeee aioo?eoic. ?aca?aia oe?aieaiey oei. aacu. Ae?oaeie oi?iaie oei. eiio?iey yae. i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue oei. eiio?ieue - i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioeaieo iainiiaaiiinoe oei. i?ia?aii e i?iaiicia aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iayeiiiiiiai e iayooaeoeaiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey n?aaenoa; oaeouee (iia?aoeaiue) oei. eiio?ieue i?iecaiaeeony a iiiaio niaa?oaiey aeaiaaeiuo naeaeie, oei. iia?aoeee, auaea/e nnoae e noaneaeee, ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao aiciiaeiua ceioiio?aaeaiey i?e iieo/aiee e ?anoiaeiaaiee n?aaenoa, niinianoaoao niaethaeaieth oei. aeenoeeieeiu e naiaa?aiaiiinoe inou-y oeiainiai-aeai. ?an/aoia; iineaaeothuee oei. eiio?ieue, i?iaiaeeiue iooai aiaeeca e ?aaecee io/aoiie oei. e aooaaeoa?neie aeieoiaioaoeee, i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia oei. aeayo-oe yeii. noauaeoia, niiinoaaeaiey oei. ieaiia e i?iaiicia n ?acoeueoaoaie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe inou-y i?aaeeiaeaiiie oei. no?aoaaee, n?aaiaiey oei. ecaea?aeae n i?iaiice?oaiuie; ianeaaeiaaiea a ioee/ea io i?iaa?ee ioaaouaaao aieaa oe?ieee niaeo? oeiainiai-yeii. iieacaoaeae ianeaaeoaiiai yeii. noauaeoa aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aai oei. ninoiyiey e aiciiaeiuo ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey; iaaeci? i?iecaiaeeony eiio?iee?othueie i?aaiaie ca yeii. noauaeoaie, iieo/eaoeie eeoeaiceth ia oio eee eiie aeae oei. aeayo-oe, e i?aaeiieaaaao niaethaeaiea eie onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee e ii?iaoeaia; aiaeec oei. aeayoaeueiinoe eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue oei. eiio?iey i?aaeiieaaaao aeaoaeueiia eco/aiea ia?eiaee/aneie eee aiaeiae oeiainiai-aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe n oeaeueth iauae ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia oei. aeayo-oe, ioeaiee oei. ninoiyiey e iaania/aiiinoe nianoa. eaieoaeii e yooaeoeaiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey; iaaethaeaiea (iiieoi?eia) - iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee ca eniieueciaaieai auaeaiiie nnoaeu e oei. ninoiyieai i?aaei?eyoey-eeeaioa, iayooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea iieo/aiiie nnoaeu e nieaeaiea ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe iiaeao i?eaanoe e oaeanoi/aieth oneiaee e?aaeeoiaaiey, o?aaiaaieth aeieain?i/iiai aica?aoa nnoaeu; ?aaecey - iaeaieaa aeoaieee e anaiauaiethuee iaoiae oei. eio?iey. I?aaieciaaiiay eacia/aenoaii nenoaia iinoiyiiiai eiio?iey i?ecaaia niinianoaiaaoue nie?auaieth /enea ia?ooaiee a noa?a eniieueciaaiey oaae. athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa. E?iia oiai, ii ii?o/aieth Oaae. Nia?aiey ?O e N/aoiay iaeaoa inouanoaeyao aeanoeee eiio?ieue ca oeaeaaui e yooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaieai athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia. ? 33. Athaeaeao ainoaea?noaa e aai iniiaiua ooieoeee. Caaea/e athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee a ?O. A ethaie no?aia ain. athaeaeao - aaaeouaa caaii oei. nenoaiu. Ii iauaaeeiyao aeaaiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ain-aa. Athaeaeao anoue aaeeinoai iniiaiuo oei. eaoaai?ee (iaeiaia, ain. e?aaeeoa, ain. ?anoiaeia) a eo aeaenoaee, o.a. /a?ac athaeaeao inou-ny iinoiyiiay iiaeeecaoeey ?ano?nia e eo ?anoiaeiaaiea. Athaeaeao yae. oi?iie ia?aciaaiey e ?anoiaeiaaiey aeai. n?aaenoa aeey iaania/aiey ooieoeee i?aaiia ain. aeanoe. Nin?aaeioi/aiea oei. ?ano?nia a athaeaeaoa iaiaoiaeeii aeey oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee oei. iieeoeee ain-aa. Niaieoiiinoue anao aeaeia athaeaeaoia ia?acoao athaeaeaoioth nenoaio ain-aa. Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aa ioaeaeueiuie caaiueyie, i?aaiecaoeeth e i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu i?eiyoi iacuaaoue athaeaeaoiui ono?ienoaii. Ain. athaeaeao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ini. oei. ieai ain-aa ia oaeouee aiae, eiathuee neeo caeiia. Athaeaeao ooaa?aeaeaaony cae-iui i?aaiii aeanoe - ia?eaiaioii. ?anioaeeeaineee athaeaeao ?O (eee oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao ?innee) - aeaaiia caaii athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu. Ii au?aaeaao yeii. aeai. ioiioaiey, iiin?aaeothuea i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oiiaea aeai. n?-a ain-aa, e ooaa?aeaeaaony Oaae. Nia?aieai ?O eae caeii. *a?ac yoio athaeaeao iiaeeecothony n?-aa i?aaei?eyoee ?ace. oi?i niano-oe e /anoe/ii aeioiaeu ianaeaiey. Iie iai?aaeythony ia oeiaine?iaaiea ia?iaeiiai oic-aa, nioe.-eoeueoo?iuo ia?ii?eyoee, oe?aieaiea iai?iiiniiniaiinoe no?aiu, ia niaea?aeaiea i?aaiia ain. oi?aaeaiey, oei. iiaeaea?aeeo athaeaeaoia noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, ia iiaaoaiea ain. aeieaa, nicaeaiea ain. iaoa?eaeueiuo e oei. ?aca?aia. A oeaeii athaeaeaoiay nenoaia ?O nioieo ec 3 caaiueaa: *oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao ?O; *athaeaeaou noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee (?aaeiiaeueiua); *ianoiua athaeaeaou. Iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie athaeaeaoa yaeythony: *ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoe. aeioiaea e AAI, *ain. ?aaoee?iaaiea e noeioee?iaaiea yeiiiieee, *oei. iaania/aiea nioe. iieeoeee, *eiio?ieue ca ia?aciaaieai e eniieueciaaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oiiaea aeai. n?aaenoa. *a?ac ?anoiaeu e iaeiae athaeaeao aunooiaao aaaeiui eino?oiaioii ?aaoee?iaaiey e noeioee?iaaiey ye-ee e eiaanoeoeee, iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao nioeeaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue athaeaeaoiuo n?-a. Eoeueoo?a a oe?ieii niunea - iaeie-ec oeaio?aeueiuo eiiiiiaioia yeii. ?acaeoey. A nioe. iie-ea i?ei?eoaou - iiaeaea?aeea iaeiaiaa caueuaiiuo neiaa ianaeaiey, a oaeaea ooieoeeiie?iaaiea o/?aaeaeaiee cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey e eoeueoo?u. Aeieaeiu auoue nouanoaaiii oneeaiu aa?aioee nioe. e yeii. i?aa a?aaeaeai ?innee. Ain. athaeaeao auiieiyao ooieoeeth i?aaiecaoi?a ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a ia?iaeiii oic-aa. Oioy /a?ac athaeaeao ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony ia aanue /enoue aeioiae, ii aeeyao ia ?acia?u iaeiieaiee, ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie no?oeoo?u aeioiaeia ii oei. ieaiai i?aaei?eyoee e io?aneae oic-aa. A i?ioeanna athaeaeaoiiai ieaie?iaaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa inou-ny eiio?ieue ca oei.-oic. aeayo-oueth ia?iaeiiai oic-aa, onoaiaaeeaaaony iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuie oiiaeaie aeai. n?-a, ii?aaeaeythony ?acia?u oei. ?ano?nia, eiioeaio?e?oaiuo a oei. ieaiao i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea noaiaiue o/anoey i?aaei?eyoee a oi?ie?iaaiee aeioiaeia athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu e i?aaeaea anaai oaae. athaeaeaoa ?O. A oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea ia ?uii/iua iaoaieciu cia/aiea athaeaeaoiiai eiio?ey a i?ioeanna iiaeeecaoeee ?ano?nia e eo eniieueciaaiey oneeeaaaony. N iiiiuueth athaeaeaoa ?aaeecothony ain. e ianoiua i?ia?aiiu ii ?acaeoeth e ii?iaeueiiio ooieoeeiie?iaaieth io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oic-aa, ii i?iaaaeaieth eiiaa?nee aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, io?aiu ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, ii oe?aieaieth iao/iiai iioaioeeaea e eoeueoo?u, iaoa?eaeueiiai o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey, iiaeaea?aeea nioeeaeueii-yeii. ?acaeoey noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee. A oneiaeyo oaeoaeaiey ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i iniiaiua caaea/e athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee ?O ninoiyo a neaaeothuai: 1) oaea?aeaoue yeiiiieeo io niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa; 2) iaania/eoue oei. noaaeeecaoeeth. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai i?aaei?eiyoue iaioeiaeiua ia?u e oe?aieaieth aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey eae iniiau oniaoiiai i?iaaaeaiey yeii. ?aoi?i. Oieueei a oneiaeyo onoie/eaiai e oi?ioi ooieoeeiie?othuaai aeai. ia?auaiey aiciiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue nayce iaaeaeo anaie o/anoieeaie e ninoaaiuie /anoyie oic. iaoaiecia. Eae ecaanoii, eioeyoeey - iiiaioaeoi?iue i?ioeann. A ?O ia ?acaeoea eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna iaeaieaa aicaeaenoaea ieacaee e?oiiua athaeaeaoiua aeaoeoeeou e eeeaa?aeecaoeey oeai, i?iaaaeaiiay a yiaa?a 1992 a. Aeey oe?aieaiey aeai. ia?auaiey iaiaoiaeeii nieaeaoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo, oiaiueoaoue aiaiiua ?anoiaeu, cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea ain. aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, onoaiiaeoue aeanoeee eiio?ieue iaae aeeiaieeie aeai. iannu. Oieueei iiaeaaeaiea eioeyoeee iicaieeo ?ann/eouaaoue ia oaeaoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa, ia ianniaue i?eoie eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai; 3) noeioee?iaaoue eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeoeaiinoue, aeiaeaaoueny oaaee/aiey aeiee iaeiieaiey a iaoe. aeioiaea; 4) nie?aoeoue iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa ia ain. aeioaoeee ioaeaeueiui io?aneyi noa?u iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; 5) oe?aieoue aeioiaeioth aaco athaeaeaoa ca n/ao niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e oneeaiey eiio?iey ca iieiioie oieaou iaeiaia; 6) nicaeaoue nenaoio aeaenoaaiiiai oei. eiio?iey ca yooaeoeaiui e oeaeaeaiai?aaeaiiui eniieueciaaieai ain. ?anoiaeia; 7) oneeeoue eiio?ieue ca aaee/eiie ain. aeieaa. A Iineaiee I?aceaeaioa ?O I?aaeoaeuenoao ?O “I athaeaeaoiie iieeoeea a 1997 a.” iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi iniiaiua caaea/e athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee ninoiyo a iieiioeaiiii oeiaine?iaaiee nioe. noa?u, noeioee?iaaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe, aaconeiaiii auiieiaiee ain-aii naieo oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa. ? 34. Iiiyoea athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee. Iniiaiua yoaiu athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna. Ninoaaeaiea e eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa aace?oaony ia athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee, a eioi?ie auaeaeythony oeaeaaua iai?aaeaiey ain. aeayo-oe, auoaeathuea ec iniiaiuo ooieoeee ain-aa.Athaeaeaoiay eeanneoeeaoeey - yoi iaycaoaeueiay a?oiie?iaea aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae ii iaeii?iaeiui i?eciaeai n i?enaiaieai iauaeoai eeanneoeeaoeee a?oiie?iai/iuo eiaeia. Athaeaeaoiay eeanneoeeaoeey (AE) eniieuecoaony i?e ieaie?iaaiee e eniieiaiee athaeaeaoia, aaaeaiee o/aoa e ninoaaeaiee io/aoiinoe. Ia iniiaa AE iaania/eaaaony aaeeiiia?acea ninoaaeaiey i?iaeoia athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae, niiinoaaeiinoue iieacaoaeae athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae, o/ao e eiio?ieue ca iinooieaieai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeiaaieai n?aaenoa niaeanii ooaa?aeaeaiiui iieacaoaeyi (athaeaeaoiui iacia/aieyi). A Oaae. caeiia “I athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee”, iiaeienaiiii I?aceaeaioii ?O 15 aaaonoa 1996 a. ioia/aaony, /oi athaeaeaoiay eeanneoeeaoeey aeeth/aao: *eeanneoeeaoeeth aeioiaeia athaeaeaoia ?O; *ooieoeeiiaeueioth eeanneoeeaoeeth ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia ?O; *yeii. eeanneoeeaoeeth ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia ?O; *eeanneoeeaoeeth enoi/ieeia aioo?aiiaai oeiaine?iaaiey aeaoeoeeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa; *eeanneoeeaoeeth aeaeia ain. aioo?. aeieaia ?O e noauaeoia ?O; *eeanneoeeaoeeth aeaeia ain. aiaoiaai aeieaa e aiaoieo aeoeaia ?O; *aaaeiinoaaiioth eeanneoeeaoeeth ?anoiaeia oaae. athaeaeaoa. Aeaaiui a?oiie?iai/iui i?eciaeii aeioiaeia yae. enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey eaaeaeiai ec ieo, a o ?anoiaeia - iai?aaeaiea oeiainia ia auiieiaiea ooieoeee i?aaiia ain. aeanoe e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Aeioiaeu a AE iiae?acaeaeythony ia ?acaeaeu e ia?aa?aou. A ?acaeaea iauaaeeiaiu aeioiaeu (eee enoi/iee) iaeiiai aeaea, a ia?aa?ao eiie?aoece?oao iaeiaiiaaiea aeioiaea (eee enoi/ieea). Naiue aieueoie - ?acaeae 12 - “I?i/ea iaeiae, nai?u e ae?oaea iinooieaiey” iauaaeeiyao 98 ia?aa?aoia. ?anoiaeu a AE iiae?acaeaeythony ia ?acaeaeu, aeaau, ia?aa?aou e noaouee. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ?acaeaeaie yae.: 100 - ia?iaeiia oic-ai, 200 - ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia; 203 - cae?aaiio?aiaiea; 207 - nioe. iaania/aiea; 254 - n?-aa, ia?aaeaaaaiua ae?oaei athaeaeaoai. N 1 yiaa?y 1997 a. aaaaeai a aeaenoaea Oaae. caeii “I athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee ?O”. Ninoaa ?anoiaeia iino?iai a niioaaonoaee n ini. ooieoeeyie ain-aa (ooieoeeiiaeueiay eeanneoeeaoeey) e a ?ac?aca aaaeiinoa - eiie?aoiuo iieo/aoaeae athaeaeaoiuo n?-a (aaaeiinoaaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey). Yeii. eeanneoeeaoeey ?anoiaeia yae. a?oiie?iaeie ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae ii eo yeii. niaea?aeaieth. Ii iiaie eeanneoeeaoeee auaeaeaiu enoi/ieee iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, na?oiie?iaaiiua ia aioo?. e aiaoiea: e?aaeeou OeA ?O (eioeyoeeiiiue enoi/iee, naycaiiue n yienneae aeaiaa), auione e ?aciauaiea ain. oe. aoiaa a no?aia e ca?oaaaeii, caeiu o eiii. aaieia, eiino?aiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa e iaaeae. oei. i?aaiecaoeee (IAO, IA??). Iiaay eeanneoeeaoeey auaeaeyao ain. aeiea, a ninoaaa eioi?iai ana aeieaiaua iayc-aa a?oiie?othony ia aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea. Ooaa?aeaeaiiue eee eniieiaiiue athaeaeao n/eoaaony naaeaine?iaaiiui, anee aai aeioiaeu iieiinoueth niiaaonoaotho ?anoiaeai. Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann eae aeaaiay oi?ia athaeaeaoiiai ieaie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiioth cae-aii aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia aeanoe ii ninoaaeaieth, ?anniio?aieth, ooaa?aeaeaieth e eniieiaieth oeaio?aeueiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai/ianoiuo athaeaeaoia. Aai niaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony ain. e athaeaeaoiui ono?ienoaii no?aiu, athaeaeaoiuie i?aaie niioa i?aaiia aeanoe e th?eae. eeoe. Aai ninoaaiie /anoueth yae. athaeaeaoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, o.a. /anoe/iia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oei. ?ano?nia iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie ?aciuo o?iaiae. Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann ioaaouaaao /aou?a yoaia athaeaeaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe: 1. Ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoa athaeaeaoa inou-ny eniieieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe. Aio i?aaeoanoaoao ?ac?aaioea ieaiia-i?iaiicia ?acaeoey oa??eoi?ee e oeaeaauo i?ia?aii, ia iniiaa eioi?uo nicaeaaony naiaeiue oei. aaeain ain-aa ii oa??. ?innee (NOA). A aeai. oi?ia ii au?aaeaao nioe-yeii. ?acaeoea no?aiu, iicaieyao iieiaa aiaeece?iaaoue aeaeaeaiea noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e iaoe. aeioiaea, o/eouaaoue ana oei. ?ano?nu, ii?aaeaeyy eo iauai e iai?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey. Iaaeaeo NOA e oaae. athaeaeaoii nou-ao oaniay naycue: NOA au?aaeaao oei. i?ia?aiio a iauai aeaea, a athaeaeao - eiie?aoii, ?acaa?iooi; NOA io?aaeaao o?aaiaaiea oei. iie-ee, a athaeaeao iaania/eaaao i?iaaaeaiea aa a aeeciue; no?oeoo?a aeioiaea e ?anoiaeia NOA i?eaeeaeaaony e athaeaeaoo. Aianoa n i?iaeoii Oaae. caeiia “I oaae. athaeaeaoa” I?aa-ai ?O aiineo a Ain.Aeoio i?iaeou oaae. caeiiia i athaeaeaoao ain. aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, a oaeaea i?aaeeiaeaiey i iiauoaiee iei. ?acia?a iainee e iei. ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea; 2. ?anniio?aiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea athaeaeaoia a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiao - Oaae. Nia?aiee (Ia?eaiaioa) ?O, i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiao noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e ianoiuo naiioi?aaeaieyo. I?iaeo oaaeth. Athaeaeaoa e aeieoiaiou, iieo/aiiua Niaaoii Ain. Aeoiu, iai?aaeythony a aai Eiieoao ii athaeaeaoo, iaeiaai, aaieiai e oeiainai aeey caeeth/aiey. Ia iniiaaiee caeeth/aiey Eiieoao ?aoaao aii?in i i?eiyoee i?iaeoa oaae. caeiia “I oaae. athaeaeaoa” e ?anniio?aieth a Ain.Aeoia. Ana iaoa?eaeu ia?aaeathony I?aceaeaioo ?O, Niaaoo Oaaea?aoeee, eiieoaoai Aeoiu aeey aianaiey caia/aiee e i?aaeeiaeaiee, a oaeaea a N/aoioth iaeaoo ia caeeth/aiea. Iieo/ea caeeth/aiea io eaaeaeiai eiieoaoa, Eiieoao Ain Aeoiu ii athaeaeaoo, iaeiaai, aaieai e oeiainai ninoaaeyao naiaeiia caeeth/aiea ii i?iaeoo oaae. athaeaeaoo e i?aaenoaaeyao aai ia ?aniio?aiea a Ain. Aeoio, eioi?ay ia/eiaao ?anniio?aiea athaeaeaoa a ianeieueeeo /oaieyo. I?e ?anniio?aiee oaae. athaeaeaoa a ia?aii /oaiee Ain. Aeoia ianoaeaeaao eiioeaioeeth e i?iaiic nioe.-yeii. ?acaeoey ?O, iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey athaeaeaoiie e iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, ini. i?eioeeiu acaeiiioiioaiee oaae. athaeaeaoa n athaeaeaoaie noauaeoai oaaea?aoeee. E?iia oiai, ?anniao?eaathony ini. oa?-ee oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae. Ii eoiaai ?anniio?aiey i?iaeoa oaae. athaeaeoa a ia?aii /oaiee i?eieiaaony iinoaiiaeaiea Ai. Aeoiu i oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae a ia?aii /oaiee e ia ini. oa?-eao yoiai athaeaeaoa. I?e ?anniio?aiee i?iaeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa ai aoi?ii /oaiee Ain. aeoia ooaa?aeaeaao ?anoiaeu oaae. athaeaeaoa ii ?acaeaeai athaeaeaoiie ooieoeeiiaeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee a i?aaeaeao iauaai iauaia ?anoiaeia oaae. athaeaeaoa, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai a ia?aii /oaiee. A o?aoueai /oaiee Ain. Aeoia ianoaeaeaao ?anoiaeu oaae. athaeaeaoa ii iiae?acaeaeai ooieoeeiiaeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee, anai o?iaiyi aaaeiineaaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee, oaae. oeaeaaui i?ia?aiiai. A /aoaa?oii /oaiee Ain. Aeoia ?anniao?eaaao iii?aaee e caeiiii?iaeoo, a oaeaea iieaa?oaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeaeia, ?anoiaeia e aeaoeoeeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa. Ia ieaia?iii canaaeaiee Ain. Aeoiu caeiiii?iaeo i oaae. athaeaeaoa noaaeony ia aieiniaaiey a oeaeii. I?eiyoue Aeoiie caeii “I oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae” a oa/aiea iyoe aeiae ni aeey i?eiyoey ia?aaeaaony ia ?anniio?aiea Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee. I?eiyoue Oaae. caeii i athaeaeaoa a oa/. Iyoe aeiae iai?aaeyaony I?aceaeaioo ?O aeey iiaeienaiey e iaia?iaeiaaiey. 3. Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa ia/eiaaony iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey athaeaeaoa caeiiiaeao-ie i?aaiaie e iiaeiene I?aceaeaioii ?O. Yoa noaaeey aeeth/aao auiieiaiea aeioiaeiie e ?anoiaeiie /anoae athaeaeaoia. Aaaeiaeoay caaea/a eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa - iaania/aiea iieiiai e naiaa?aiaiiiai iinooieaiey iaeiaia e ae?oaeo ieaoaaeae e aeioiaeia a oeaeii e ii eaaeaeiio enoi/ieeo, a oaeae oeiaine?iaaiea ia?ii?eyoee a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo a athaeaeaoa noii. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay ?aaioa ii eniieiaieth oaae. athaeaeaoa i?iaiaeeony Ieioeiii ?O, aai iiae?acaeaeaieyie e i?aaiaie, a aoeaea Ainiaeianeoaeaie ?O e Ain. oaiiae. eiieoaoii ?O e eo i?aaiaie ia ianoao. I?e eniieiaiee athaeaeaoa aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao i?aaeeueiia e yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea anao aeaeia ieaoaaeae e anneaiiaaiee ooaa?aeaeaiiiai oaae. athaeaeaoa, inou-iia ii athaeaeaoiie ?iniene aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. I?aaiecaoeey eniieiaiey athaeaeaoia e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia aiceiaeaia ia iiaoth no?oeoo?o Ieioeia ?O - Oaae. eacia/aenoai ?O. 4. Ninoaaeaiea io/aoa ia eniieiaiee athaeaeaoa e ooaa?aeaeaiea aai a cae-iuc i?aaiao aeanoe. Any ?aaioa ii nioaaeaieth io/aoia aiceiaeaia ia Iei-ai oeiainia ?O e aai oei. i?aaiu, Ainiaeianeoaeao e aa iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee, Ain. oaiiae. eiieoao e aai i?aaiu. Yoe io/aou iai?aaeythony niioa. i?aaiaie ain. aeanoe. Io/ao i oaae. athaeaeaoa ?O aeieeaaeuaaaony Oaae. Nia?aieth ?O, eioi?ia aai ooaa?aeaeaao. Aeey inou-y eiio?iey ca eniieiaieai oaae. athaeaeaoa Niaao Oaaea?aoeee e Ain. Aeoia ia?acotho N/aoioth iaeaoo, ninoaa e ii?yaeie aeayo-oe eioi?ie ii?aaeaeytho oaae. caeiiii. ***Ana noaaeee athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu e acaeiinaycaiu e yae. i?yiui io?aaeaieai ia oieueei yeii. aeecie iau-aa, ii e iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna: aieaa aiaea ia?aay e aoi?ay noaaeee; aiae (n 1 yiaa?y aei 31 aeaeaa?y) - eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa; ieiei iieoaiaea - ninoaaeaiea io/aoa ia eniieiaiee athaeaeaoa e aai ooaa?aeaeaiea. ? 35. Nayce iaaeaeo aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie e ae?oaeie caaiueyie oeiainiaie nenoaiu. Aaaeiui caaiii oei. nenoaiu yae. aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu ain-aa - niaieoiiinoue oei. ?ano?nia, iaoiaeyueony a ?anii?yaeaiee oeaio?. eee ?aaeiiaeueiuo ianoiuo i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey e eiathueo oeaeaaia iacia/aiea. Ii?yaeie eo ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiey ?aaeaiaioe?oaony oei. i?aaii. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu - iaeei ec iaoiaeia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoe. aeioiaea i?aaiaie aeanoe a iieueco ii?aae. nioe. a?oii ianaeaiey. Ain-ai iiaeeecoao a oiiaeu /anoue aeioiaeia ianaeaiey aeey oeiaine?iaaiey naieo ia?ii?eyoee. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu ?aoatho aeaa aaaeiaeoea caaea/e: iaania/aiea aeiiieieo. n?-aaie i?ei?eoaoiuo noa? ye-ee e ?anoe?aiea nioe. oneoa ianaeaiey. Ia?aiia/aeueii aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iiyaeeenue a aeaea niaoe. oiiaeia eee iniauo n/aoia caaeieai aei aicieeiiaaiey aaeeiiai oeaio?aeueiiai aeai. oiiaea ain-aa - athaeaeaoa. A nia?. oneiaeyo ia?yaeo n athaeaeaoii iiauoaaony cia/aiea aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, oaaee/eaathony eie-ai e iauai yoeo oiiaeia. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu nicaeathony aeaoiy iooyie. Iaeei - yoi auaeaeaiea ec athaeaeaoa ii?aae. ?anoiaeia, eiathueo iniai aaaeiia cia/aiea, a ae?oaie - oi?ie?iaaiea aiaathaeaeaoiiai oiiaea n nianoa. enoi/ieeaie aeioiaeia aeey ii?aae. oeaeae. Niaoe. aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oeaeaaiai eniieueciaaiey. Iaoa?eaeueiui enoi/ieeii aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, eae e ae?oaeo caaiueaa oei. nenoaiu, yae. iaoe. aeioiae. Ini. iaoiaeu iiaeeecaoeee iaoe. aeioiaea a i?ioeanna aai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey i?e oi?ie?iaaiee oiiaeia - niaoe. iaeiae e nai?u, n?-aa ec athaeaeaoa e caeiu. ?aciiia?acea aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iaoneiaeeaaao neiaeiua iiiainooiai/aoua nayce iaaeaeo yoeie oiiaeaie e ae?oaeie caaiueyie oei. nenoaiu. ?acee/atho iaeiinoi?iiiea, aeaonoi?iiiea e iiiainoi?iiiea oei. nayce. I?e iaeiinoi?iiieo naycyo aeai. n?-aa eaeoo a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee: io oei. caaiueaa e aiaathaeaeaoiiio oiiaeo. Oaeay naycue iiyaeyaony i?e oi?ie?iaaiee oiiaeia eee i?e eniieueciaaiee eie n?aaenoa. Iai?eia?, aaethoiua oiiaeu iiiaeo no?ai ia?acothony ca n/ao n?aaenoa oeaio?. athaeaeaoa a oi?ia aacaica?aoiuo noaneaeee. Iaeiinoi?iiiyy naycue iiyaeyaony e a oii neo/aa, eiaaea aiaathaeaeaoiue oiiae ia?a/eneyao /anoue naieo ?ano?nia ae?oaei oei. caaiueyi. I?e aeaonoi?iiieo naycyo aeai. iioie aeaeaeaony iaaeaeo aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie e ae?oaeie caaiueyie oei. nenoaiu a aeaoo iai?aaeaieo. Oae, oiiaeu nioe. no?aoiaaiey ia?acothony ia oieueei ca n/ao no?aoiauo aciinia, ii e n?aaenoa oeaio?. athaeaeaoa. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?e iaee/ee aeoeaiiai naeueaei iie i?eia?aoatho ain. oe. aoiaae e noaiiayony e?aaeeoi?ii athaeaeaoa. I?e iiiainoi?iiieo naycyo iaeei aiaathaeaeaoiue oiiae iaeiia?aiaiii i?eoiaeeo a nii?eeiniiaaiea n ?aciuie oei. caaiueyie e ae?oaeie aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie, o.a. aeaiueae aeaeaeoony a ?aciuo iai?aaeaieyo iaaeaeo ieie. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu a oei. nenoaia ?innee nicaeaiu a niioa-e n Caeiiii ?NON? “Ia iniiaao athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa e athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna a ?NON?” (io 17 ieoya?y 1991 a.). Aeaaiay i?e/eia eo nicaeaiey - iaiaoiaeeiinoue auaeaeaiey /?acau/aeii aaaeiuo aeey iau-aa ?anoiaeia e iaania/aiea eo naiino. enoi/ieeaie aeioiaea. ?aoaiea ia ia?aciaaiee aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia i?eieiaao Oaae. Nia?aiea ?O, a oaeaea ain. i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua i?aaiu noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Oiiaeu aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue niaoe. oei. ?ano?naie aaaeiaeoea io?anee e noa?u ia?iaeiiai oic-aa (iai?eia?, oiiaeu IEIE?), a oaeaea ieacuaaoue nioe. iiiiuue a?aaeaeaiai ?O (ca n/ao ?acee/ii nicaeaaaaiuo nioe. oiiaeia). Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iaoiaeyony a nianoaaiiinoe ain-aa, ii yae. aaoiiiiiuie. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n 1992 a. ia/aei aeaenoaiaaoue aieaa aeaoo aeanyoeia aiaathaeaeaoiuo nioe. e yeii. oiiaeia, a oii /enea: nioeeaeueiua: Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O, Oiiae nioe. no?aoiaaiey, Ain. oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ?O, oiiaeu iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey, Oiiae iaycaoaeueiie nioe. iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey e ae?.; yeiiiie/aneea - Oaaea?aeueiue e oa??eoi?eaeueiua aei?iaeiua oiiaeu, Oiiae aini?iecaiaenoaa ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu ?O, oiiaeu oei. ?aaoee?iaaiey. ? 36. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e ioieoeeiaeueiua oeaiiua aoiaae (oe.a.). Eo ?ieue a iie?uoee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Ain. oe.a. - yoi aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa yieoaioa (ainoaea?noaa, /aua anaai a eeoea eacia/aenoaa) i?aae i?eia?aoaoaeai aeaiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa a oii, /oi yieoaio iaycoaony a n?ie e a iieiie ia?a iiaaneoue oeaiiua aoiaae, auiea/eaaoue i?e/eoathueany %-u, anee oaeiaua neaaeotho ec aeiaiai?a i iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, a oaeaea auiieiyoue i?i/ea iaycaoaeuenoaa, eio. iaiai?aiu a aeiaiai?a. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae i?eiyoi aeaeeoue ia ?uii/iua e ia?uii/iua a caaeneiinoe oi oiai, ia?auathony ee iie ia naiaiaeiii ?uiea (ia?ae/iii e aoi?e/iii) eee ia aoiaeyo ai aoi?e/iia ia?auaiea ia ae?aeao e naiaiaeii aica?auathony yieoaioo aei enoa/aiey n?iea eo aeaenoaey. Iniiaioth /anoue ain. oe.a. ninoaaeytho ?uii/iua. Aeaeu: iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia (aeey th?eae. eeoe). N?ie ia?auaiea aieaa 1 aiaea, aacaoiaaeiay oi?ia auionea; ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (AEI); iaeeaaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia (AENC), oi?ia - aoiaaeiay, n?ie ia?auaiey 1 aiae; iaeeaaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?anioaeeeaineiai aioo?aiiaai caeia ?NON? 1991a. , eiaioaiua ain. aeieaiauie iaeeaaoeeyie (AAeI), n?ie ia?. - 30 eao. Aunieee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee e iiiaia ae?oaia naeaeaee iaecaaaeiui auione ainoaea?noaii oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aeey ainoaea?noaa iie noaee eino?oiaioii aeey iieo/aiey eaieoaea /a?ac oiiaeiaue ?uiie. 1. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aoein?i/iua iaeeaaoeee. Aeaaiie caaea/ae yoe oe.a. yaeyaony oeiaine?iaaiea aeaoeoeeoa ain. athaeaeaoa ii ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiie oeaia. Yieoaioii aunooiaao Ieioei. Yienney i?iecaiaeeony ia n?ie 3, 6, 12 ianyoeaa a aacaoiaaeiie oi?ia. 2. Eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa. Aicieeiiaaiea eo naycaii n ?inoii caaeieaeaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa i?aaei?eyoeyi ?acee/iuo io?aneae oicyenoaa e oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. EI auioneathony n?ieii ia 1 aiae a aacaoiaaeiie oi?ia - a aeaea caienae ia n/aoao “aeaii” a oiieiiii/aiiuo aeaiiceoa?eyo. Aeioiae ninoaaeyao 40% aiaeiauo. Aeaaeaeueoeu a i?aaa i?iecaiaeeoue n ieie neaaeothuea iia?aoeee; iiaaoaoue e?aaeeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue, iiea/eaaoue aac ia?aie/aiee oiaa?u e oneoae, i?iaeaaaoue eo th?eaee/aneei e oece/aneei eeoeai, niaa?oaoue caeiaiaua iia?aoeee, iiaaoaoue n iieo/aieai i?ioeaioia. 3. Iaeeaaoeee aioo?aiiaai aaethoiiai caeia. Yieoaio - Ieioei. Eoiiiiay noaaea - 3% aiaeiauo, auiea/eaaaony 14 iay eaaeaeiai aiaea. 4. Iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia n ia?aiaiiui eoiiiiui i?ioeaioii. Yieoaio - Ieioei. Aaee/eia eoiiiiiai aeioiaea ?ann/eouaaaony ioaeaeueii aeey eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea aai auieaou e iauyaeyaony ii ia?aiio eoiiio ca 7 aeiae aei aeaou ia/aea ?aciauaiey. 5. Ainoaea?noaaiiue naa?aaaoaeueiue caei. ANC auioneaaony a aeieoiaioa?iie oi?ia, a aeaea iaeeaaoeee ia i?aaeuyaeoaey, n i?ioeaioiui aeioiaeii, eioi?ue aeey ia?aiai eo auionea ?aaai 102.7% aiaeiauo. Iaeeaaoeee caeia naiaiaeiu a ia?auaiee, eo aeaaeaeueoeaie iiaoo auoue eae th?eaee/aneea, oae e oece/aneea eeoea. Iiieiae iaeeaaoeee - 100 e 500 ?oa. ?uiie oe.a. a ?innee anaaaea aoaeao iiaeaeaeiui, io?aaeay nouanoaothuea a no?aia yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea ?aaeee. A 1992 a. a ?innee ia/aeinue ainnoaiiaeaiea ?uiea ioieoeeiaeueiuo oe.a. E?oiiua caeiu naeaeaiu Iineaie, Othiaiueth, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aii. Auione iaeeaaoeee i?aaiaie aeanoe noauaeoia ?O , a oaeaea i?aaiaie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ?aaoee?oaony ia niaoeeaeueiuie, a iaueie aeey auionea anao oeaiiuo aoiaa ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie. IA aeaeyony: aeey iauaai iie?uoey e aeioiaeiua iaeeaaoeee (oeaeaaua). Ia?aua i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e oeiaine?iaaiey oaeoueo ?anoiaeia. I?aiaeaaeatho oeaeaaua caeiu. Iaeaieueooth a?oiio n?aaee yoeo caeiia ninoaaeytho aeeeeuiua caeiu, a oaeaea caeiu, eiathuea nioeeaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Ioieoeeiaeueiua iaeeaaoeee yieoe?othony a oi?ia eeai e?aoein?i/iuo (1-12 ian.), eeai n?aaeian?i/iuo (1-3, iaeneioi 10 eao) iaycaoaeuenoa. Ii/oe ai anao neo/ayo aa?aioaie aunooiatho naie yieoaiou. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho aeeeeuiua caeiu, aa?aioaie eioi?uo aunooiaao ?aaeiiaeueiay aaeieieno?aoeey, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo - eiiia?/aneea aaiee. ? 37. Iniiaiua aeaeu iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Eiii. aaiee ninaoaeytho einoye e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu ethaie no?aiu n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie e eiioeaio?e?otho iniiaioth /anoue aa e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia. Naaiaeiy eiii. aaie niiniaai i?aaeeiaeeoue eeeaioo aei 200 aeaeia ?aciiia?aciuo aaieianeeo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa. Aaaeiaeoeie ooieoeeyie eiii. aaieia yae.: *aeeoioeyoeey a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeai. n?aaenoa, naa?aaeaiee, iaeiieaiee; *e?aaeeoiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee, ain-aa e ianaeaiey; *i?aaiecaoeey e inou-a ?an/aoia a oic-aa; *o/ao aaenaeae e iia?aoeee n ieie; *iia?aoeee n oe. aoiaaaie; *o?aiaiea oei. e iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae; *oi?aaeaiea eiouanoaii eeeaioia ii aeiaa?aiiinoe (o?anoiaua iia?aoeee). Iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia aeaeyony ia aeoeaiua e ianneaiua. Ianneaiua iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia - yoi iia?aoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa, ?ano?nia aaiea, eioi?ua io?aaeathony a ianneaa aai aaeaina. Nooue eo ninoieo a i?eaea/aiee ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeeaaeia, iieo/aiee e?aaeeoia io ae?oaeo aaieia, yiennee nianoa. oe/a e i?iaaaeaiee ae?oaeo iia?aoeee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo oaaee/eaathony aaieianeea ?ano?nu. ?ano?nu eiii. aaieia ia?acothony ec aeaoo enoi/ieeia: 1. Nianoa. eaieoae e i?e?aaiaiiua e iaio ?ano?u; 2. I?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth aaieianeiai aeciana yae. oi, /oi ii ?aaioaao i?aeiouanoaaiii ia /oaeii eaieoaea. Nianoa. eaieoae iau/ii ninoaaeyao iaiaa 10% ?ano?nia eiii. aaiea, i?eaea/aiiua n?-aa - aieaa 90%. Nianoa. eaieoae aaiea ninoieo ec aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea e ?aca?aia. Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae aeeth/aao: i?inoua aeoeee, i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua aeoeee, ecauoi/iue eaieoae (?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie eo?niaie oeaiu aeoeee e eo iiieiaeii) e ia?ani?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue. ?aca?au aeeth/atho: ?aca?a ia neo/ae iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, ?aca?a ia auieaoo aeeaeaeaiaeia, ?aca?a ia iie?uoea iioa?ue io iaiiaaoaiiuo nnoae eee eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. I?eaea/aiiua n?-aa aaiea ninoaaeytho iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue ?ano?nia eiii. aaiea; iniiaioth /anoue yoeo n?-a ninoaaeytho aeaiiceou, o.a. aeaiueae, aianaiiua a aaie eeeaioaie. E ianneaiui iia?aoeeyi ioiinyony: *i?eai aeeaaeia, *ioe?uoea e aaaeaiea n/aoia eeeaioia, *auione nianoa. oe/a (aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee), oei. eino?oiaioia (aaenaeae, aeaiiceoiuo naa?aaaoaeueiuo na?oeoeeaoia), *iieo/aiea iaaeaaieianeeo e?aaeeoia e e?aaeeoia io ae?oaeo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a o./. e?aaeeou Oeaio?. aaiea ii noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey. Aeaeu aeaiiceoiuo n/aoia a ie?iaie i?aeoeea i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu e /enei eo auno?i ?anoao. Iniiaiia aeaeaiea caaeneo io n?iea aeaiiceoa. Aeaa aaaeiaeoea ?aciiaeaeiinoe: aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey e aeaiiceou ia n?ie (n?i/iua). Aeeaaeu aei aino?aaiaaiey aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aeaaeaeueoeai iieo/aoue aeaiueae a ethaia a?aiy ii ia?aiio o?aaiaaieth e i?iecaiaeeoue ?an/aou n iiiiuueth auienee n/aoa eee yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu ieaoaaeae. N?i/iua aeaiiceou eiatho aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe: n?i/iua aeeaaeu e naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu. Iie iiaoo auoue ecuyou oieueei a niioa-e ni n?ieii o?aiaiey, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa eeeaio eeoaaony i?ioeaioia eee oiea/eaaao aaieo oo?ao. Auno?ue ?ino aeeaaeia ianeieueei nieaeaao aeioiaeiinoue aaiea, ii iiauoaao o?iaaiue eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina. Naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu a ?innee iiae?acaeaeythony ia n?i/iua, oeaeaaua, iaeiieoaeueiua, n?i/iua aeaiiceou, aeaiaaeii-aauaaua, auea?uoiua e ae?. N ia/aea 1993 a. oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee iia?aoeee ii i?eaea/aieth n?aaenoa iooai auionea aaieianeeo aaenaeae. Iiiaea aaiee ia/aee auioneaoue nianoaaiiua i?inoua aaenaey, eee, eae eo iacuaatho - “niei-aaenaeue”. Ii Caeiio i iaeiaa ia iia?aoeee n oe/a iia?aoeee n i?inouie aaenaeyie ia iaeaaathony iaeiaii. ?aciauaiea iiaeeeciaaiiuo ?ano?nia aaiea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey aeioiaea e iaania/aiey eeeaeaeiinoe ii?aaeaeyao niaea?aeaiea aai aeoeaiuo iia?aoeee.Aeoeaiua iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 4 aieueoea a?oiiu: 1. E?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee (nnoaeu, oaeoi?eiaiaua e eeceiaiaua naeaeee), 2. Eiaanoeoee a oe/a, 3. Eanniuaa iia?aoeee, 4. Iin?aaeie/aneea e aeiaa?eoaeueiua iia?aoeee. Aaaeiaeoei iai?aaeaieai aeoeaiuo iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia anaaaea auei e inoaaony aei neo ii? e?aaeeoiaaiea, o.a. auaea/a nnoae eeeaioai. Eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayo-oue - a i?ioeanna eioi?ie aaiee aunooiatho a ea/-aa eiaanoi?a, aeeaaeuaay ?ano?nu a oe/a eee i?eia?aoay i?aaa ii niaianoiie oic. aeayo-oe (aeoeee). Aaiee iaycaiu iaania/eoue /aoeia eanniaia ianeoaeeaaiea naieo eeeaioia, auiieiyy eanniaua iia?aoeee. Niaea?aeaiea eanniauo iia?aoee - i?eai, auaea/a e o?aiaiea aeai. n?-a. ? 38. Aaeieieno?aoeaiua e oeiainiaua naieoeee iaeiaiauo i?aaiia a ioiioaiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee aicieeaao i?e nie?uoee (caieaeaiee) i?eauee (aeioiaea), nie?uoee iauaeoia io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?e ianaiaa?aiaiiii ia?a/eneaiee iaeiaia (ieaoaaeae) a niioaaonoaothuea o?iaie athaeaeaoa, i?e iaeni?aaiii (iaoi/iii) aaaeaiee o/aoa cao?ao e ae?. Ainoaea?noaaiiui iaeiaiaui einiaeoeeyi e eo aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai i?eiaiyoue e i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?aaiecaoeeyi e o/?aaeaeaieyi onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii naieoeee. a) oeiainiaua naieoeee. Oeiainiaua naieoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiua iiaeioieoii “a” i.1 no.13 Caeiia ?O io 27.12.91 a. “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O”, i?eiaiythony ca onoaiiaeaiiua yoie noaoueae ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa, aeiiouaiiua n iiiaioa aaaaeaiey caeiia a aeaenoaea, o.a. n 01.01.92 a. Yoe naieoeee i?eiaiythony a oii neo/aa, anee i?e i?iaa?ea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa, aeiiouaiiua eie i?e ninoaaeaiee aiaeiaiai io/aoa i oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie eee ae?oaie aeayoaeueiinoe ca 1991 a., o.a. a ia?eiae aeaenoaey iacaaiiiai caeiia. Iniiaaieai aeey i?eiaiaiey naieoeee yaeyaony iaeniieiaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii naieo iaycaiiinoae, aicieeathueo i?e iaee/ee o iaai iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e a i?aaeoniio?aiiuo noaoueae 8 caeiia “I ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeaa ?O” e no.13 Caeiia ?O “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O” a neo/ayo ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa. Oeiainiaua naieoeee i?eiaiythony oieueei ii ?acoeueoaoai aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea: 1. Ca nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea aeioiaea (i?eauee) iaeiaiaui i?aaiii acuneeaaaony any noiia nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea e oo?ao a ?acia?a oie aea noiiu; 2. Ca eiie nie?uoue eee iao/oaiiue iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (e?iia nie?uoey aeioiaea) n i?aaei?eyoey acuneeaaaony noiia iaeiaa e oo?ao a ?acia?a oaeie aea noiiu; 3. Ca iiaoi?iia ia?ooaiea, aeiiouaiiia i?aaei?eyoeai a oa/aiea aiaea n iiiaioa i?eiaiaiey naieoeee ca aiaeiae/iia ia?ooaiea e i?aaei?eyoeth i?eiaiythony iaeiaiaua naieoeee a aeaea acuneaiey anae noiiu nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea, eeai noiiu iaeiaa ca eiie nie?uoue eee iao/oaiiue iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e oo?aoa a aeaoe?aoiii ?acia?a yoie noiiu; 4. Ca ionoonoaea aaaeaiey o/aoa iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e ninoaaeaiea io/aoia i oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n ia?ooaieai onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?yaeea, /oi aea/ao ca niaie nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea aeioiaea ca i?iaa?yaiue ia?eiae, i?aaei?eyoea oiea/eaaao oo?ao ca eaaeaeia ia?ooaiea a ?acia?a 10% aeiia/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaa; 5. Ca iai?aaenoaaeaiea eee ianaiaa?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai a iaeiaiaue i?aai aeieoiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey en/eneaiey, a oaeaea oieaou iaeiaia; 6. Ca iaaianaiea eni?aaeaiee a aoo. io/aoiinoue a ?acia?a noiiu nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea, auyaeaiiiai i?iaa?eaie iaeiaiauo i?aaiia; 7. Anee i?aaei?eyoea, inouanoaeythuaa oic. aeayoaeueiinoue, ia iiaeao oieaoeoue onoaiiaeaiiua cae-aii iaeiae e ae?oaea ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, iaeiaiaue i?aai a niioa-e n cae-aii eiaao i?aai ia?aoeoueny a a?aeo?aaeiue noae i i?eciaiey i?aaei?eyoey ianinoiyoaeueiui (aaie?ioii). Cae-aii onoaiiaeaia nenoaia naieoeee e oic. noauaeoai ca ianaiaa?aiaiiinoue io/eneaiey aeai. n?-a a ain. aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. Anee i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaei?eieiaoaee ia niaethaeatho oneiaey ?aaiou n aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoueth, a oaeaea ii?yaeie aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee a ?O, oi e iei i?eiaiythony neaae. aeaeu oei. naieoeee (oo?aou): 1) ca inou-a ?an/aoia iaee/iuie aeai. n?-ie n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaeaeueiuo noii; 2) ca iaii?eoiaeiaaiea a eanno aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe; 3) ca ianiaethaeaiea aeaenoaothuaai ii?yaeea o?aiaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea ca iaeiieaiea a eannao iaee/iuo aeaiaa naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia. Auoaiacaaiiua naieoeee e iaaeieiee n i?aaei?eyoee acuneeaathony a aannii?iii ii?yaeea. I?aaiu Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O iaycaiu inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue e i?eiaiyoue naieoeee ca iaoieaoo ieaoaaeae eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue ieaoaeueueeia onoaiiaeaia caeiiii eee ae?oaeie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie ?O. Ca eaaeaeia a ioaeaeueiinoe ia?ooaiea i?eiaiythony oo?aoiua naieoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiua ii.a i.1 caeiia ?O “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O”. a) aaeieieno?aoeaiua naieoeee. I?aaa iaeiaiauo i?aaiia ii i?eiaiaieth naieoeee a aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea i?aaeoniio?aiu no.7 caeiia ?O “I ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeaa ?O” io 25.02.93a. iaeiie ec oi?i i?iyaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony ecuyoea aeieoiaioia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i ia?ooaiee. A niioa-e n aeaenoaothueie iieiaeaieyie a iauai e ninoaa aeieoiaioia, iiaeeaaeaueo ecuyoeth o i?aaei?eyoey, aoiaeyo neaaeothuea: ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, aeai. aeieoiaiou, ieaiu, niaou, aeaeea?aoeee, ni?aai/iua iaoa?eaeu, ?an/aou, a oaeaea eiua aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n ia/eneaieai e oieaoie iaeiaia e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo io/eneaiee a athaeaeao. Aaeieieno?aoeaiua oo?aou i?eiaiythony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaa?ee i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeee e oec. eeoe auyaeaiu ia?ooaiey a: 1) nie?uoee (caieaeaiee) aeioiaea (i?eauee) eee nie?uoee (iao/oaiee) eiuo iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey; 2) ionoonoaee aoo. o/aoa eee aaaeaiee aai n ia?ooaieyie onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?yaeea, a oaeaea eneaaeaiee aoo. io/aoia, aaeainia; 3) iai?aaenoaaeaiee, ianaiaa?aiaiiii i?aaenoaaeaiee eee i?aaenoaaeaiee ii iaonoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia aoo. io/aoia, aaeainia e o.ae.; 4) ia?ooaiee a?aaeaeaiaie cae-aa i i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayo-oe, a ioiioaiee eioi?ie eiaaony niaoe. cai?auaiea; 5) iai?aaenoaaeaiea aeaeea?aoeee i aeioiaeao, a oaeaea a i?aaenoaaeaiee aa n eneaaeaiiuie aeaiiuie. ?oeiaiaeeoaee aaieia e e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ianoo aaeieieno?aoeaioth ioa-oue ca ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa, aeiiouaiiua a aeayo-oe aaieia a niioaaonoaee: *ioe?uoey ?an/aoiiai eee eiiai n/aoa iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii aac i?aaeuyaeaiey aeieoiaioa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai iinoaiiaeo ia o/ao a iaeiaiaii i?aaia, a oaeaea ca ianiiauaiea iaeiaiaiio i?aaio ia ioe?uoee oeacaiiuo n/aoia; *nie?uoea (caieaeaiea) aeioiaeia aaiea; *caaea?aeeo eniieiaiey ii?o/aiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo ii ia?a/eneaieth iaeiaia a athaeaeao eee ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e eniieueciaaiea iaia?a/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaia a ea/anoaa e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia. ? 39. Iaeia ia i?eaueue: ii?iaoeaiay aaca, ieaoaeueueee, iauaeo iaeiaeaiey. Ii?iaoeaiie aacie aeey iaeiaa ia i?eaueue yaeyaony Eino?oeoeey Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O “I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee” io 10 aaaonoa 1995 a. ?37, ecaeaiiay ia iniiaaiee: Caeiia ?O io 27 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”; Caeiia ?O io 27 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O”; Caeiia ?NON? io 21 ia?oa 1991 a. “I Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeaa ?NON?”. Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa yaeythony: 1. I?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee (a oii /enea athaeaeaoiua), yaeythueany th?eae. eeoeaie ii cae-ao ?O, aeeth/ay nicaeaiiua ia oa??eoi?ee ?O i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie, a oaeaea iaaeae. iauaaeeiaiey e i?aaiecaoeee, inouanoaeythuea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue; 2. Oeeeaeu e ae?oaea iainiaeaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, eiathuea ioaeaeueiue aaeain e ?an/aoiue (oaeouee) n/ao; 3. Eiii. aaiee ?ace. aeaeia, aeeth/ay aaiee n o/anoeai eiino?. Eaieoaea, iieo/eaoea eeoeaiceth OeA ?O; Aaie aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?O; Oeaio?. Aaie ?O e aai o/?aaeaeaiey a /anoe i?eauee, iieo/aiiie io aeayoaeueiinoe, ia naycaiiie n ?aaoee?iaaieai aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa; 4. Oeeeaeu aaieia e e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, eiathuea ioae. aaeain e ei??aniiiaeaioneee noan/ao, aeeth/ay oeeeaeu eiino?. aaieia-ia?aceaeaioia, iieo/eaoea eeoeaiceth OeA ia i?iaaaeaiea aaie. iia?aoeee, ca eneeth/aieai oeeeaeia (ioaeaeaiee) Naa?. aaiea ?O; 5. I?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiey, caieiathueany no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth (eiathuea eeoeaiceth ia inou-a yoie aeayo-oe), a oaeaea eo oeeeaeu, eiathuea aaeain n eiia/iui oei. ?acoeueoaoii aeayo-oe e ioae. ?an/aoiue n/ao. Ia yaeythony ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue: 1) i?aaei?eyoey ethauo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i ii i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie eie n/o e ioioioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ca eneeth/aieai n/o i?aaei?eyoee eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia, ii?aaeaeyaiuo ii ia?a/ith, ooaa?aeaeaaiiio caeiiiaeao. i?aaiaie noauaeoia ?O; 2) Oeaio?. aaie ?O e aai o/?aaeaeaiey ii i?eauee, iieo/aiiie io aeayo-oe, naycaiiie n ?aaoee?iaaieai aeai. ia?auaiey; 3) iaeua i?aaei?eyoey (/eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo aei 15 /aeiaae), i?eiaiythuea oi?iuaiioth nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe e o.ae. Iauaeoii iaeiaeaiey yae. aaeiaay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey (e?aaeeoiaia naeueaei ii n/aoo 80 “I?eauee e oauoee”). Aaeiaay i?eaueue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio i?eauee (oauoea) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), iniiaiuo oiiaeia (aeeth/ay caiaeueiua o/anoee) eiiai eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey e aeioiaeia io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee, oiaiueoaiiuo ia noiio ?anoiaeia ii yoei iia?aoeeyi. I?eaueue (oauoie) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee aac IAeN e aeoeecia e cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth, aeeth/aaiuie a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. Cao?aou, ia?acothuea naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) a?oiie?othony a niioa-e n eo yeii. niaea?aeaieai ii neaaeothuei yeaiaioai: *iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (ca au/aoii noieiinoe aica?aoiuo iooiaeia). E iei ioiinyony cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, eniieuecoaiuo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa; oiieeaa e yia?aee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa; iieaoo ?aaio e oneoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?-?a, auiieiyaiuo noi?iiieie i?aaei?eyoeyie e o.ae.; *cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea, eioi?ua aeeth/atho cao?aou ia iieaoo iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea, aeeth/ay i?aiee ?aai/ei e neoaeauei ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou, noeioee?othuea e eiiiaine?othuea auieaou; *io/eneaiey ia nioe. ioaeaeu, io?aaeathuea iaycaoaeueiua io/eneaiey ii onoaiiaeaiiui cae-aii ii?iai i?aaiai ain. nioe. no?aoiaaiey, Iaineiiiiai oiiaea, ain. oiiaea caiyoinoe e iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey io cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea ?aaioieeia; *aii?oecaoeey ini. oiiaeia io?aaeaao noiio aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea ini. i?ieca. oiiaeia, en/eneaiiay enoiaey ec aaeainiaie noieiinoe e ooaa?aeaeaiiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea ii?i, aeeth/ay e onei?aiioth aii?oecaoeeth eo aeoeaiie /anoe, i?iecaiaeeioth a niioa-e n cae-aii; *i?i/ea cao?aou, e eioi?ui ioiinyony iaeiae, nai?u, ieaoaaee, io/eneaiey a no?ao. oiiaeu e ae?. iaycao. io/eneaiey, ieaoaaee ca aua?inu caa?yciythueo aauanoa, cao?aou ia eiiaiaee?iaee, cao?aou ia i?aaiecaoeeiiioth io?aio, ca iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia, aii?oecaoeey ii iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai e o.ae. A oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aaeiaay i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony ia noiiu: *aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi e eiui oe. aoiaaai e i?ioeaioia ii ain. oe. aoiaaai, i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth; *aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo io aeieaaiai o/anoey a ae?. i?aaei?eyoeyo; *?acieoeu iaaeaeo au?o/eie e ?anoiaeaie, aeeth/ay ?anoiaeu ia iieaoo o?oaea, io oneoa (aeeth/ay aeioiaeu io a?aiaeu e ae?. aeaeia eniieueciaaiey) eaceii, ae?oaiai eai?iiai aeciana, aeaeainaeiiia, aeaeaiiieaca e o.ae.; *i?eauee io iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee; *i?eauee io no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe; *i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie n/o e ioioioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e o.ae. N 1 ai?aey 1999 aiaea noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, ca/eneyaiiai a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao, nieaeaia n 13 aei 11%. A ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaou iaeia ca/eneyaony ii noaaeai, onoaiaaeeaaaiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie (i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie) i?aaiaie noauaeoia ?O. Yoe noaaee oaia?ue ia iiaoo i?aauoaoue 19%. A iauae neiaeiinoe aaciaay noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue = 30% (19%+11%). Aeey i?aaei?eyoee, iieo/eaoeo i?eaueue io iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee e naeaeie, a oaeaea aeey no?aoiaueeia, ae?ae, a?iea?neeo eiioi?, aaieia e ae?. e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaeiiaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaia noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a ?acia?a, ia i?aauoathuai 27%. ? 40. Aeoeecu: yeiiiie/aneay nouiinoue, iauaeo e iioeau iaeiaeaiey. Aeoeecu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie einaaiiua iaeiae, aeeth/aaiua a oeaio oiaa?a e iiea/eaaaiua iieoiaoaeai. Aeoeecu onoaiaaeeaathony ia aeaoeoeeoioth, auniei?aioaaaeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth e ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oiaa?ia, ia eioi?ua nio?aiythony iiiiiieueiua i?aaa ainoaea?noaa, n oeaeueth ecuyoey a athaeaeao aicieeathuae i?e i?iecaiaenoaa yoeo oiaa?ia naa?oi?eauee. A ?inn. Oaaea?aoeee aeey oiaa?ia ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aeoeecu aaaaeaiu n 01.01.92a. Caeiiii ?O “Ia aeoeecao” io 06.12.91a. Iniiaiie ii?iaoeaiue aeieoiaio ii aeoeecai - Eino?oeoeey Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O “I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou aeoeecia” io 10 aaaonoa 1998a. ?47. Ieaoaeueueeaie aeoeecia yae. i?iecaiaeyuea e ?aaeecothuea iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e aaaeiinoaaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Aeoeecaie iaeaaathony neaae. oiaa?u: nie?o yoeeiaue ec anao aeaeia nu?uey (ca eneeth/aieai nie?oa eiiuey/iiai, nie?oa-nu?oea e nie?oa aeaiaoo?e?iaaiiiai), nie?oiniaea?aeauay i?iaeoeoeey (ca eneeth/aieai aeaiaoo?e?iaaiiie), aeeiaieueiay i?iaeoeoeey (nie?o ieoueaaie, aiaeea, eeea?i-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey, eiiueyee, aeii), ieai, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, thaaee?iua ecaeaeey (a?eeeeaiou - 10%), a?ociaua aaoiiiaeee, aaicei aaoiiiaeeueiue, eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee (ca eneeth/aieai aaoiiiaeeae n ?o/iui oi?aaeaieai), iaoiaua ecaeaeey (35%), ecaeaeey ec o?onoaey (20%), iaeaaeaea ec iaoo?. eiaee (35%), iaooue, aeeth/ay aaoiaue eiiaeainao. Ia iaeaaathony aeoeecaie: nie?oiniaea?aeauea eaea?noaaiiua, ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneea, aeeaaiinoe/aneea n?aaenoaa; niie?oiniaea?aeauea i?aia?aou aaoa?eia?iiai iacia/aiey; ia?othia?ii-einiaoe/aneay i?iaeoeoeey; nie?oiniaea?aeauea iooiaeu, ia?acothueany i?e i?iecaiaenoaa nie?oa yoeeiaiai ec ieuaaiai nu?uey, aiaeie, iiaeeaaeauea aeaeueiaeoae ia?a?aaioea. A iano. a?aiy onoaiaaeeaathony neaae. eueaiou ii aeoeeciui ieaoaaeai. Aeoeecaie ia iaeaaathony iiaeaeoeeciua yenii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u (ca i?aaeaeu no?ai NIA), a oaeaea iiaeaeoeeciua a ?O oiaa?u, iinooieaoea n oa??. no?ai NIA, i?e aaica ia oa??eoi?eth ?O. Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii aeoeecai ?aiueoa yaeyeanue ioioneiay oeaia oiaa?ia, eoaea aoiaeeee aeoeecu. A iano. a?aiy iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yae. no-oue oiaa?ia aac aeoeecia. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa i?eieiaaony no-oue ?aaeecoaiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, en/eneaiiay ec oeai ?aaeecaoeee aac o/aoa IAeN. Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yae.: a) ii oiaa?ai, i?iecaiaeeiui ia oa??eoi?ee ?O: *aeey i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaeyueo e ?aaeecothueo iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u, ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu aaeaaei?iua (a %-oao) noaaee aeoeecia, ca eneeth/aieai iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, a oaeaea aeey i?aaiecaoeee, eniieuecothueo i?iecaaaeaiiua iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, ia iaeaaaaiuo aeoeecaie, e (eee) aeey nianoa. ioaeae, - no-oue iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeyaiay enoiaey ec ioioneiuo oeai aac o/aoa aeoeeca; *aeey i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaeyueo iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, aeey i?aaiecaoeee, inoucanoaeythueo ia?ae/ioth ?aaeecaoeeth eiioeneiaaiiuo e aanoicyeiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, a oaeaea oiaa?ia, eioi?ua aaacaiu ia oa??. ?O aac oaiiaeaiiiai ioi?ieaiey e ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu aaeaaei?iua noaaee aeoeecia, - no-oue yoeo oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeyaiay enoiaey ec ?ui. oeai aac o/aoa aeoeeca, neiaeeaoeony a aeaiiii ?aaeiia ia aiaeiae/iua oiaa?u a i?aaeuaeouai io/aoiii ia?eiaea; a) ii iiaeaeoeeciui oiaa?ai, ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu aaeaaei?iua noaaee aeoeecia e eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony ca i?aaeaeaie oa??eoi?ee ?O ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai i?aaiecaoeeyi-iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai a ?O, - no-oue ?aaeecoaiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeyaiay enoiaey ec ioioneiuo oeai aac o/aoa aeoeeca; a) ii iiaeaeoeeciui oiaa?ai, ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu oaa?aeua (niaoeeoe/aneea) noaaee aeoeecia (a aaniethoiie noiia ia aaeeieoeo iaeiaeaiey), aeey anao i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaeyuea e ?aaeecothuea iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, - iauai ?aaeeciaaiiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee. 2 ini. iioeaa iaeiaeaiey oiaa?ia aeoeecaie: *aunieay aeioiaeiinoue ii iiaeaeoeeciui oiaa?ai; *iiiiiieey ain-aa ia i?iecaiaenoai iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia. Ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo ii naiae i?e?iaea aeoeecu iaiiieiatho IAeN, iiyoiio eae e a ioiioaiee IAeN, oae e ii aeoeecai, aeaenoaoao i?eioeei ca/aoa ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao. Yoi icia/aao, /oi anee i?e i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia auee eniieueciaaiu nu?uea eee e-e ae?. oiaa?u (?ano?nu), ii eioi?ui aue oiea/ai aeoeec, oi noiia aeoeeca, iiaeeaaeauay aciino a athaeaeao, anoue ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie aeoeeca, iieo/aiiiai io iieoiaoaey, e noiiie aeoeeca, oiea/aiiiai i?iaeaaoeii. O/ao ?an/aoia n athaeaeaoii ii aeoeecai aeieaeai inou-ny ia n/aoa 68 “?an/aou n athaeaeaoii” ii ioae. noan/aoo “?an/aou ii aeoeecai”. Noiia aeoeeca, o/oaiiay ii n/aoo ?aaeecaoeee a ninoaaa au?o/ee, io?aaeaaony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 46 “?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)” e e?aaeeoo n/aoa 68. Ia?a/eneaiea aeoeeca a athaeaeao iieacuaaaony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 68 a ei??aniiiaeaioeee ni n/aoii 51 “?an/aoiue n/ao”. Ioa-oue ca i?aaeeueiinoue en/eneaiey e naiaa?aiaiiinoue oieaou aeoeecia a athaeaeao aiceaaaaony ia ieaoaeueueeia. ?an/aou ii aeoeecai ninoaaeythony ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo iaeiieoaeueiuo aaaeiiinoae ?aaeecaoeee iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia. A iaeiieoaeueiuo aaaeiiinoyo aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoueny aeaiiua i eie-aa ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia, eo no-oe ii ioioneiui oeaiai, aeeth/ay aeoeec, ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio iaeiaiiaaieth ia iniiaaiee ia?ae/iuo ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia. Iiaen/ao aaaeiiinoae ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeony a n?iee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oieaou aeoeeca ca ii?aae ia?eiae. Iaeiieoaeueiua aaaeiiinoe ?aaeecaoeee iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia aaaeoony ieaoaeueueeaie ii oiaa?ai e a?oiiai oiaa?ia a ?ac?aca onoaiiaeaiiuo noaaie. N?iee ieaoaaeae. I?aaei?eyoey, i?iecaiaeyuea e ?aaeecothuea nie?oiua iaieoee, eeea?i-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey, ieai, aao. aaicei, aeieaeiu oiea/eaaoue aeoeecu iiaeaeaaeii, a eiaiii: ca ia?aoth aeaeaaeo - aei 15 /enea oaeouaai ianyoea, ca aoi?oth - aei 25, ca o?aoueth aeaeaaeo - aei 5 /enea neaae. ianyoea. ? 41. Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe: ii?iaoeaiay aaca, ieaoaeueueee e iauaeou iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Ii?iaoeaiay aaca: iiaeioiaeiue iaeia aceiaaony ia iniiaaiee Caeiia ?O “I iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe”, i?eiyoiai Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii ?O 7 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. Iniiaiui ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioii ya-ny Eino?oeoeey Ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O ii i?eiaiaieth Caeiia ?O “I iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe” io 29 ethiy 1995 a. ?35. Ieaoaeueueeaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa yaeythony oece/aneea eeoea (a?aaeaeaia ?O, a?aaeaeaia ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa), eae eiathuea, oae e ia eiathuea iinoiyiiiai ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa a ?O. E a?aaeaeaiai, eio. ?anniao?eaathony eae eiathuea iinoiyiiia ianoiaeeoaeuenoai a ?O, ioiinyony a?aaeaeaia, iaoiaeyueany a ?O a iauae neiaeiinoe ia iaiaa 183 (iieaiaea) aeiae a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo. Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey o oece/aneeo eeoe, eiathueo iinoiyiiia ianoiaeeoaeuenoai a ?O, ya-ny niaieoiiue aeioiae, iieo/aiiue a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo eae ia oa??eoi?ee ?O, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie eae a aeaiaaeiie, oae e a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, a oii /enea a aeaea iaoa?eaeueiie auaiaeu. Aeaoie iieo/aiey aeioiaea a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo ya-ny aeaoa auieaou aeioiaea (aeeth/ay aaainiaua auieaou), aeaoa ia?a/eneaiey aeioiaea, eeai aeaoa ia?aaea/e aeioiaea a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia oece/aneiio eeoeo. Aeioiaeu oec. eeoe, ia eiathueo iinoiyiiiai ianoiaeeoaeuenoaa a ?O, iiaeeaaeao iaeiaeaiey iaeiaii, anee oieueei iie iieo/aiu ec enoi/ieeia ia oa??eoi?ee ?O a aeaiaaeiie e iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia. Iiieii iieaou o?oaea a aeaiaaeiie eee iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, a ninoaa niaieoiiiai aeioiaea oece/aneeo eeoe aeeth/aaony noieiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e nioeeaeueiuo aeaa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie, o/?aaeaeaieyie, i?aaiecaoeeyie e ae?. ?aaioiaeaoaeyie yoei eeoeai, a /anoiinoe: iieaoa eiiioiaeueii-auoiauo oneoa, aaiiaiaioia. Iiaeienee ia aacaou, aeo?iaeu, ieoaiey, i?iacaea e ianoo ?aaiou e ia?aoii, e?iia neo/aaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii; noiiu aaeeiia?aiaiiuo iiniaee oece/aneei eeoeai, ooiaeyuei ia iaineth; aianaiea (aiciauaiea) ieaou ca ?iaeeoaeae ia niaea?aeaiea aeaoae a aeaoneeo aeioeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, a oaeaea iieaou ca iao/aiea aeaoae a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo; ?acieoea a oeaia oiaa?ia, ?aaeeciaaiiuo oece/aneei eeoeai ii oeaia ieaea ?uii/iuo; anee i?aaei?eyoea eee i?aaiecaoeey ioioneaao oece/aneei eeoeai i?iaeoeoeeth nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aanieaoii, noiia noieiinoe oaeie i?iaeoeoeee aeieaeia auoue aeeth/aia a niaieoiiue aeioiae oece/aneeo eeoe enoiaey ec ?uii/iuo oeai ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth; noiiu iainee iacia/aaiuo e auiea/eaaaiuo ca n/ao n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee; noiiu io/eneaiee i?iecaiaeeiuo a iaainoaea?noaaiiua iaineiiiua oiiaeu; noieiinoue eiouanoaa, ?ani?aaeaeyaiiai a iieueco oece/aneeo eeoe i?e eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaiecaoeee e aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa eeeaeaee?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee. A niaieoiiue aiaeiaie aeioiae ia aeeth/athony: ainoaea?noaaiiua iiniaey (ii aac?aaioeoea, ii aa?aiaiiinoe e?iaeai e o.ae.), ca eneeth/aieai iiniaee ii a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe; ana aeaeu iainee, iacia/aaiua a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii iaineiiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, a oaeaea aeiiieieoaeueiua iainee, auiea/eaaaiua ia oneiaeyo aeia?iaieueiiai no?aoiaaiey; ana aeaeu onoaiiaeaiiuo a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eiiiainaoeeiiiuo auieao oece/aneei eeoeai a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i, naycaiiuo n auiieiaieai eie o?oaeiauo iaycaiiinoae, ia?aacaeii ia ?aaioo a ae?oaoth ianoiinoue, aiciauaieai eiiaiaee?iai/iuo ?anoiaeia, aiciauaieai a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai iia?aaeaeaieai caei?iauey, oaieueiaieai ?aaioieeia, aeaaeueth aiaiiineoaeaueo e o.ae. Noaaea iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa caaeneo io ?acia?a niaieoiiiai aeioiaea. Ieieiaeueiay noaaea - 12%. Aei 1 yiaa?y 1999a. , anee niaieoiiue aeioiae ia i?aauoae 20000 ?oaeae, ii iaeaaaeny ii noaaea 12%. N 1.01.99 i?iecioee eciaiaiey - ?acia? niaieoiiiai aeioiaea, iaeaaaaiiai ii ieieiaeueiie noaaea au?in aei 30000 ?oa. Aeey aeioiaeia nauoa 30000 ?oa. nouanoaoao i?ia?anneaiay oeaea noaaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa: Niaieoiiue aeioiaeNoaaea a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeaoNoaaea a athaeaeaou noauaeoia ?OAei 30000 ?oa.3%9%Io 30000 aei 600003%2700 (9% io 30000) +12% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 30000Io 60001 aei 900003%6300 (12% io 60000)+17% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 60000Io 90001 aei 1500003%11400+22% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 90000Io 150001 aei 3000003%24600+32% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 150000Io 3000003%72600 + 42% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 300000 ? 42. Yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey Iiae iiiyoeai “i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea” iiieiatho anth niaieoiiinoue i?ioeannia acaeiiioiioaiey i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaea. Iauaeo - eiiieaen acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, anoanoaaiiuie oneiaeyie aeecie iau-aa e aai nioe. - yeii. ?acaeoeai. I?aaeiaoii i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey yae. Iioeiecaoeey yoeo ioiioaiee, no?aieaiea e nio?aiaieth e aini?iecaiaenoao n?aaeu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. A aieaa oceii cia/aiee i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea iiieiatho eae niaieoiiinoue anao oi?i yenieoaoaoeee i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioeeaea e ia? ii aai nio?aiaieth. Yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci aace?oaony ia caeiia ?O “Ia io?aia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu”, i?eiyoii a 1992 aiaeo. A iniiaiii eiaaony a aeaeo 3 ?acaeae caeiia - yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci io?aiu ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Ana caaea/e caeiia iiaoo auoue ?acaeou ia 3 /anoe: io?aia ie?oaeathuae e i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, e /a?ac iaa - caei?iauey /aeiaaea i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey oicyenoaaiiie e ae?oaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia yeaiaiou yeinenoaiu; icaei?iaeaiea ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e oeo/oaiea aa ea/anoaa. Yeii. iao-i io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu eiaao naieie caaea/aie: ieaie?iaaiea e oeiaine?iaaiea i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee; onoaiiaeaiea eeieoia eniieueciaaiey i?e?. ?ano?nia, aua?inia e na?inia caa?yciythueo aauanoa a ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeo e ?aciauaiea iooiaeia; onoaiiaeaiea ii?iaoeaia ieaou e ?acia?ia ieaoaaeae ca eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia, aua?inu e na?inu caa?yciythueo aau-a a ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeo, ?aciauaiea iooiaeia e ae?. aeaeu a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey; i?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyi e a?aaeaeaiai iaeiaiauo, e?aaeeoiuo e eiuo eueaio i?e aiaae?aiee eie iaeiiooiaeiuo e ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee e iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeia yia?aee, inouanoaeaiee ae?oaeo yooaeoeaiuo ia? ii io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu; aiciauaiea a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaea e caei?iaueth /ae-ea. A aeaiiii ?acaeaea cae?aieaia no?oeoo?a yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia. Oae, no.16 iinayuaia o/aoo i?e?. ?ano?nia e aaaeaieth eo eaaeano?ia; a no.17 ?a/ue eaeao i ieaie?iaaiee i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ia naycaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii n yeii. aii?inaie, a eiaiii - n oeiaine?iaaieai i?e?iaeiio?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; nthaea aea aoiaeeo e iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. A no.18 aiai?eony i aeiaiai?a e eeoeaiceyo ia eiiieaeniia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea. A ninoaaa yeii. iaoaiecia io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiio iaania/aieth. A /enea ia?, oeo/oathueo aai, ia ia?aia ianoi auaeaeioou nicaeaiea e i?iecaiaenoai iiaaeoae aunieiyooaeoeaiie oaoieee, nii?oaeaiee, ono?ienoa, i?eai?ia, oaoiieiaee. A eniieueciaaiee e io?aia caiaeue - yoi iiaua oaoieea e niiniau aini?iecaiaenoaa ieiaei?iaeey ii/a, caueou eo io y?icee, iionouieaaiey, caa?yciaiey; a iaeanoe eniieueciaaiey e io?aiu aiae - i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aiaeinaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee, iaoiaeu i/enoee e iaacca?aaeeaaiey e o.i. A niaea?aeaiee e nenoaia ia? yeii. iao-ia aaaeiia ianoi caieiaao aeie ia?, naycaiiuo n i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieai. A Caeiia iii ?anniao?eaaaony oieueei ni noi?iiu aai yeieiaecaoeee, eioi?ay iaania/eaaaony oaeeie yeii. ia?aie, eae: a) ii?ie?iaaiea (eeieou) i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo, onoaiaaeeaaaiua a eeoeaiceyo e aeiaiai?ao; a) ieaoa ca i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea. I?e/ai aua?inu e na?inu a?aaeiuo aau-a a cae-aa oaeaea ?anniao?eaathony eae aeaeu i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey, eia/a ca ieo iaaiciiaeii auei au onoaiaaeeaaoue ieaoo. Eeieou i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey au?aaeathony a onoaiiaeaiee ?acia?ia caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, iauaiia auaiee ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia ec iaae?, aiaeu ec aiaeiaiia, ?an/aoiie eaninaee a eanicaaioiaeao, eaio a ioioa e ?uaieianoaa. /no.21/-Aeey ?aoaiey iaioeiaeiuo i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiuo caaea/, ainnoaiiaeaiey iioa?ue a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, eiiiainaoeee i?e/eiaiiiai a?aaea e ae?. i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiuo caaea/ nicaeaaony aaeeiay nenoaia aiaathaeaeaoiuo ain. yeieiae/aneeo oiiaeia, oiiaeu ia?acothony ec n?aaenoa, iinooiathueo io i?aaei?eyoee, a?aaeaeai, a oaeaea io eiino?. th?eae. eeoe e a?aaeaeai. /no.22/-Nicaeathony iauanoaaiiua oiiaeu io?aiu ie?oae. n?aaeu, oa aea oeaee. /no.23/-A ?O inou-ny aeia?iaieueiia e iaycaoaeueiia ain. yeieiae/aneia no?aoiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea a?aaeaeai, iauaeoia eo nianoaaiiinoe e aeioiaeia ia neo/ae yeieiae/aneiai e noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey, aaa?ee e eaoano?io. /no.24/-A ?O inou-ny noeioee?iaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu iooai: *onoaiiaeaiey iaeiaiauo e eiuo eueaio, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ain. e ae?oaei i?aaei?eyoeyi, a oii /enea i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiui, i?e aiaae?aiee iaeiiooiaeiuo e aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee e i?iecaiaenoa, eniieueciaaiee aoi?e/iuo ?ano?nia, inou-iee ae?oaie aeayo-oe, iaania/eaathuae i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiue yooaeo; *inaiaiaeaeaiey io i/iae. yeieiae/. oiiaeia; *onoaiiaeaiey iiauoaiiuo ii?i aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiuo oiiaeia; *i?eiaiaiey iiiu?eoaeueiuo oeai e iaaeaaaie ia yeieiae/anee /enooth i?iaeoeoeeth; *aaaaeaiey niaoeeaeueiiai i/iae. yeieiae/anee a?aaeiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea i?iaeoeoeee, auioneaaiie n i?eiaiaieai yeieiae/anee iianiuo oaoiieiaee; *i?eiaiaiey eueaioiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey i?aaei?eyoee iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, yooaeoeaii inouanoaeythueo io?aio ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee caeiia niaea?aeeo aeaa /anoe: noaoe/ioth e aeeiaie/aneoth. Noao. /anoue oeene?oaony a ii?iao e noaoueyo caeiia; aeeiaie/. /anoue ii?aaeaeyao iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee yoeo ii?i a aeeciue. ? 43. Aeaeu ieaoaaeae ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu Nenoaia yeii. ?aaoee?iaaiey i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey a ?innee noi?ie?iaaia Caeiiii “Ia io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu” (1992a.). Iniiaiui a yoie nenoaia yaeeinue neaaeothuaa: *iaee/ea ?ac?aoaiee ia aua?inu, auaeaaaaiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuie i?e?iaeiio?aiiuie eiieoaoaie; *iaee/ea aeiaiai?a eee eeoeaicee ia eiiieaeniia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea, a eioi?uo onoaiaaeeaathony aeiionoeiua iauaiu aua?inia, ieaiu i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, ii?iaoeau e ii?yaeie ?an/aoa e aianaiey ieaoaaeae ca caa?yciaiea ie?oae. n?aaeu; *aaaaeaiea ieaoaaeae ca caa?yciaiea; *nicaeaiea nenoaiu yeieiae/. oiiaeia; nicaeaiea nenoaiu iaeiaiauo eueaio. Nia?aiaiiay nenoaia ieaoaaeae ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny a 70-a aiaeu. Iiyaeeenue oaeea yeaiaiou, eae iiiaiiay ieaoa a eaniie i?ii-oe, ieaoa ca aiaeiua e caiaeueiua ?ano?nu, noaaee aiciauaiey cao?ao ia aaieiai-?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou. I?eiaiyeenue oaeaea oo?aoiua naieoeee ca ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia. A 1991a. i?eioeei “ieaoiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia” aue cae?aieai eae iniiaiiieaaathuee a Caeiia “Ia io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu” (no.20). Oeaeue aaaaeaiey ieaoiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey: *?aoeeiiaeueiia e eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia; *oeo/oaiea io?aiu ie?oae. n?aaeu; *au?aaieaaiea nioe.-yeii. oneiaee oicyenoaiaaiey i?e eniieueciaaiee i?e?. ?ano?nia; *oi?ie?iaaiea niaoe. oiiaeia oeiaine?iaaiey ii io?aia e aini?iecaiaenoao i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Nenoaia ieaoaaeae ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu: aeaeu ieaou, iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ieaou, ii?yaeie onoaiiaeaiey, ecuyoey e eniieueciaaiey ieaou. Auaeaeytho neaae. aeaeu ieaou ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu (caieth, iaae?a, aiaeo, ean, aeeaioiue ie?, ?ae?aaoeeiiiua e ae?. i?e?. ?ano?nu): ca i?aai iieueciaaiey i?e?. ?ano?naie a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia; ca naa?oeeieoiia e ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia; ca aini?iecaiaenoai e io?aio i?e?. ?ano?nia. Ieaoaeueueeaie yae. i?aaei?eyoey, iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, e-?ua eniieuecotho i?e?. ?ano?nu eee ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia ie?oae. n?aaeo, aia caaeneiinoe io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. Ieaoa ca iieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nii - yoi oeaia iio?aaeyaiiai eiee/anoaa ?ano?na eee oneoae, ieacuaaaiie i?e iieueciaaiee i?e?. ?ano?nii. Caeiiiaeaoaeueii aeaiiay ieaoa aeeth/aia a ninoaa iaeiaiaie nenoaiu (o.a. ieaoaaee ca i?e?. ?ano?nu yae. iaeiaaie). Ieaoa ca ia?aoeeii. eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia - yoi oi?ia yeii. ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ca oua?a, i?e/eiaiiue a ?acoeueoaoa ianiaethaeaiey ii?i e i?aaee io?aiu i?e?. ?ano?nia e eo ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey. Ieaoa ca aini?iecaiaenoai e io?aio i?e?. ?ano?nia - yoi eiiiainaoeey cao?ao i?aaiecaoeee e aaaeiinoa, e-?ua inou-tho aini?iecaiaenoai e io?aio ioae. Aeaeia i?e?. ?ano?nia. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee yoiai aeaea ieaoaaea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue: *cao?aou ca aini?iecaiaenoai i?e?. ?ano?na; *nenoaiu eiio?iey e iiieoi?eiaa ninoiyiey i?e?. ?ano?na; *iniaaiiinoe io?aiu eiie?aoiuo aeaeia i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia io io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoio aeae ieaoaaeae aeeth/aaony a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 2 aeaea ieaoaaeae, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho 2-i aeaeai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey: ieaoaaee ca ecuyoea i?e?iaeiiai aauanoaa (aeiau/a iaooe, eana); ieaoaaee ca na?inu (a aiaeiua nenoaiu), aua?inu (a aicaeoo) e ?aciauaiea iooiaeia (ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee e a iiaecaiiua ai?eciiou). Ieaoa ca caa?yciaiea ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu e ae?. aeaeu aicaeaenoaey aceiaaony ca: *aua?inu, na?inu caa?yciythueo aauanoa, ?aciauaiea iooiaeia e ae?. aeaeu caa?yciaiey a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia; *oi aea naiia naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia. Ia?aeeaeueii n aaaaeaieai ieaoaaeae ?acaeaaeanue nenoaia yeieiae/aneeo oiiaeia o?ao o?iaiae: ianoiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e oaaea?aeueiua. Ana ieaoaaee aeeoioee?othony a yeieiae/. oiiaeu. Ec anao nia?aiiuo ieaoaaeae ca caa?yciaiea 10% iinooiatho a aeioiae oaaea?. athaeaeaoa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aaiia ain. oi?aaeaiey a iaeanoe io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu, a inoaaoeany 90% ?ani?aaeaeythony neaaeothuei ia?acii: 10% - a oaaea?. yeieiae/. oiiae; 30% - a ?aaeiiaeueiue e 60% - a ianoiue. Ii?yaeie en/eneaiey e i?eiaiaiey ii?iaoeaia ieaou ca eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia ii?aaeaeyaony I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O /i.5 no.20/. Aianaiea ieaou ca eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia ia inaiaiaeaeaao i?e?iaeiiieueciaaoaey io auiieiaiey ia?ii?eyoee ii io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu e aiciauaiey a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai yeieiae/. i?aaiia?ooaieai /i.6 no.20/. ? 44. Iaycaoaeueiua ?aeaeceou aeoeee e eo na?oeoeeaoia Oeaiiie aoiaaie yaeyaony aeieoiaio, oaeinoiaa?ythuee n niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu e iaycaoaeueiuo ?aeaeceoia eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, inouanoaeaiea eee ia?aaea/a eioi?uo aiciiaeiu oieueei i?e aai i?aaeuyaeaiee. A niioa-e n caeiiii i ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, a ?innee nouanoaotho oieueei 2 oe. aoiaae - aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee. Aeoeey - yienneiiiay oeaiiay aoiaaa, cae?aieythuay i?aaa aa aeaaeaeueoea (aeoeeiia?a) ia iieo/aiea /anoe i?eauee a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee aeoeeiia?iui iau-aii e ia /anoue eiouanoaa, inoathuaainy iinea aai eeeaeaeaoeee (ii caeiio “I ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa”). Nouanoaoao oaeaea e ae?oaia ii?aaeaeaiea: Aeoeey - yoi oeaiiay aoiaaa, auioneaaiay aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii e oaeinoiaa?ythuay i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia aeieth a onoaaiii eaieoaea. Na-aa aeoeee: 1) aeoeey - yoi oeooe nianoaaiiinoe; 2) o aeoeee iao eiia/iiai n?iea iiaaoaiey; 3) ia?aie/aiiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue eiaanoi?a (oa?yao ia aieueoa, /ai aeiaeee); 4) aeey aeoeee oa?aeoa?ia iaaeaeeiinoue (niaianoiia aeaaeaiea aeoeeae ia naycaii n aeaeaieai i?aa iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeaie); 5) aeoeee iiaoo ?anuaieyoueny e eiinieeaee?iaaoueny. Aeoeey - yoi oi?iaeueiue aeieoiaio, iiyoiio niaeanii ii?aaeaeaieth oeaiiie aoiaae aeieaeia eiaoue iaycaoaeueiua ?aeaeceou. Niaeanii nouanoaothuei ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioai aeaiee aeoeee aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue neaaeothuea ?aeaeceou: 1. oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa e aai ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea; 2. iaeiaiiaaiea oeaiiie aoiaae - “aeoeey”; 3. aa ii?yaeeiaue iiia?; 4. aeaoo auionea; 5. aeae aeoeee (i?inoay eee i?eaeeaae?iaaiiay); 6. iiieiaeueioth noieiinoue; 7. eiy aea?aeaoaey; 8. ?acia? onoaaiiai oiiaea ia aeaiue auionea aeoeee; 9. eiee/anoai auioneaaiuo aeoeee; 10. n?ie auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia e noaaea aeeaeaeaiaea oieueei aeey i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee; 11. iiaeienue i?aaenaaeaoaey i?aaeaiey aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa; 12. ianoi ia/aoe, i?aaei?eyoea-ecaioiaeoaeue aeaieia oeaiiuo aoiaa. E?iia oiai, aiciiaeii oeacaiea ?aaeno?aoi?a e aai ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea e aaiea-aaaioa, i?iecaiaeyuaai auieaoo aeeaeaeaiaeia. Aeoeey iiaeao auoue auiouaia eae a aeieoiaioa?iie (aoiaaeiie, iaoa?eaeueiie) oi?ia, oae e a aacaeieoiaioa?iie oi?ia - a aeaea niioaaonoaothueo caienae ia n/aoao. I?e aeieoiaioa?iie oi?ia auionea aeoeee aiciiaeia caiaia aeoeee na?oeoeeaoii, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naeaeaoaeuenoai i aeaaeaiee iacaaiiui a iai eeoeii ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa aeoeee. I?e iieiie iieaoa aeoeee aeoeeiia? iieo/aao iaeei na?oeoeeao ia ana eiee/anoai i?eia?aoaiiuo ei aeoeee. Na?oeoeeao aeoeee aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue oa aea ?aeaeceou, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey aeoeee, a oaeaea oeacaiea ia eiee/anoai aeoeee, eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao aeaaeaeueoeo (aeoeeiia?o). A iaeioi?uo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioao na?oeoeeao aeoeee ioiinyo e oeaiiui aoiaaai, oioy yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea aeiaieueii nii?ii e iiaeao oneiaeieoue ia?auaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?eaanoe e iaeiia?aiaiiiio ia?auaieth eae aeoeee, oae e eo na?oeoeeaoia. ? 45. Aeaeu aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ain-aa e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe Aeieaiaua oe. aoiaae, iiin?aaeothuea e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey, eiaaea aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa i?aaeinoaaeythony a iieueciaaiea ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie, iiaeeaaeao aica?aoo n oieaou onoaiiaeaiiiai ca?aiaa %-oa ca iieueciaaiea caaiiuie n?aaenoaaie. Yoi iaeay oi?ia e?aaeeoa. Yoi: iaeeaaoeee, aaenaey, aeaiiceoiua e naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou e /aee. Iaeeaaoeey (ii caeiio “I ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa) - yienneiiiay oe. aoiaaa, cae?aieythuay i?aai aa aea?aeaoaey ia iieo/aiea io yieoaioa iaeeaaoeee a i?aaeoniio?aiiue ath n?ie aa iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe eee eiiai eiouanoaaiiiai yeaeaaeaioa. Iaeeaaoeey - oe. aoiaaa, oaeinoiaa?ythuay ioiioaiey caeia iaaeaeo aa aeaaeaeueoeai (e?aaeeoi?ii) e eeoeii, auionoeaoei aa (caaiueeii). Iaeeaaoeee, a ioee/ea io aeoeee, ia yae. oeooeii nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai, a oieueei oaeinoiaa?ytho caai. Iaeeaaoeee eiatho eiia/iue n?ie iiaaoaiey; iaeaaeatho noa?oeinoaii ia?aae aeoeeae i?e auieaoa %-oia e oaeiaeaoai?aiee ae?oaeo iaycaoaeuenoa; ia aeatho i?aaa a oi?aaeaiee AI. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae (AOeA) - yoi oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey ain. aioo?aiiaai aeieaa; yoi aeieaiaua oeaiiua aoiaae, yieoaioii eioi?uo aunooiaao ain-ai. Oioy ii naiae yeii. nooe ana aeaeu AOeA anoue aeieaiaua oeaiiua aoiaae, ia i?aeoeea eaaeaeay naiinoiyoaeueiay AOeA iieo/aao naia nianoaaiiia iacaaiea, iicaieythuaa ioee/aoue aa io ae?oaeo aeaeia iaeeaaoeee. Iau/ii e?iia oa?ieia “iaeeaaoeey” eniieuecothony oa?ieiu “eacia/aeneee aaenaeue”, “na?oeoeeao”, “caei”. Ooieoeee AOeA: - oeiaine?iaaiea aeaoeoeeoa ain. athaeaeaoa aac aeiiieieoaeueiiai auionea aeaiaa a ia?auaiea; - oeiaine?iaaiea oeaeaauo ain. i?ia?aii a iaeanoe aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, eio?ano?oeoo?u, nioe. iaania/aiey; - ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe: aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee, aicaeaenoaea ia oeaiu e eioeyoeeth, ia ?anoiaeu e iai?aaeaiey eiaanoe?iaaiey, yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, ieaoaaeiue aaeain e o.ae. I?aeiouanoaa AOeA: naiue aunieee ioiineoaeueiue o?iaaiue iaaeaaeiinoe aeey aeiaeaiiuo n?aaenoa e ieieiaeueiue ?ene iioa?e eaieoaea e aeioiaeia ii iaio; iaeaieaa eueaioiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea. AOeA, eae i?aaeei, caieiatho aaaeouaa ianoi ia ?uiea iaeeaaoeee, aaea eo aeiey aeioiaeeo aei 50%. Aeaeu AOeA Ii aeaeo yieoaioa: *oe. aoiaae oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa; *ioieoeeiaeueiua oe. aoiaae; *oe. aoiaae ain. o/?aaeaeaiee; *oe. aoiaae, eioi?ui i?eaeai noaoon ainoaea?noaaiiuo. Ii oi?ia ia?auaaiinoe: *?uii/iua (ia?ai?iaeathony iinea ia?ae/iiai ?aciauaiey); *ia?uii/iua (/a?ac ii?aae. n?ie aica?auathony yieoaioo). Ii n?ieai ia?auaiey: *e?aoein?i/iua -aei 1 aiaea; *n?aaeian?i/iua - io 1 aei 5-10 eao; *aeieain?i/iua - nauoa 10-15 eao. Ii niiniao auieaou aeioiaeia: *eoiiiiua (n ?aaoey?ii auiea/eaaaiui %-oii); *aaneoiiiiua (aeeneiioiua) - iaeeaaoeee, eioi?ua ?aciauathony ii oeaia ieaea iiieiaea, e yoa ?acieoea - aaeei eee aeeneiio - ia?acoao aeioiae ii iaeeaaoeee. ?inney N?ie ia?auaiey Yieoaiou E?aoein?i/iua N?aaeian?i/iua Aeieain?i/iua1. Oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu aeanoeAinoaea?noaaiiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (AEI) Eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa (EI) Iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia (IOC) Iaeeaaoeee naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia (INC)Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieai- n?i/iua iaeeaaoeee (AAeI) Iaeeaaoeee aioo?aiiaai aaethoiiai caeia2. Ioieoeeiaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoeIoieoeeiaeueiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (IEI) Ioieoeeiaeueiua aaenaeyIoieoeeiaeueiua n?aaeia- n?i/iua iaeeaaoeee Ioieoeeiaeueiua aeeeeuiua na?oeoeeaouIoieoeeiaeueiua oeaiiua aoiaae - yoi niinia i?eaea/aiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ianoiuie i?aaiaie ain. aeanoe a neo/aa aeaoeoeeoa ianoiiai athaeaeaoa eee ia aiaathaeaeaoiua oeaee iooai auionea aeieaiauo oe. aoiaa. Oeaee. Ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe iiaoo i?eaeaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa a i?eioeeia ia ethaua oeaee, eioi?ua a?oiie?othony neaae. ia?acii: *iie?uoea a?aiaiiiai aeaoeoeeoa ianoiiai athaeaeaoa; *oeiaine?iaaiea aani?eaueueiuo iauaeoia, o?aaothueo aaeeiia?aiaiiuo e?oiiuo n?aaenoa; *oeiaine?iaaiea i?eaueueiuo i?iaeoia, aeiaeaiea a eioi?ua ieoiaaony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao ca n/ao iieo/aaiie eie i?eauee; *oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia no?ieoaeuenoaa, eae i?aaeei, ia iniiaa eo naiiieoiaaiinoe, o.a. cao?aou eiiiaine?othony au?o/eie io i?iaeaaee anaai eee /anoe iino?iaiiiai aeeeiai oiiaea. Oi?iu ioieoeeiaeueiuo caeiia. 2 aeaaiua oi?iu: * auione ioieoeeiaeue- iuo oe. aoiaa; * nnoaeu. Ioieoeeiaeueiua oe. aoiaae iau/ii auioneathony a aeaea ioieoeeiaeueiuo iaeeaaoeee, ?aaea - aaenaeae. Ioieoeei. oe. aoiaae eiatho noaoon ain. oe. aoiaa n oi/ee c?aiey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeey th?eae. e oec. eeoe, a oaeaea ii?yaeea yiennee e ia?auaiey. Iniiaiua iieoiaoaee - ianoiia ianaeaiea, eiii. aaiee, no?aoiaua e iaineiiiua oiiaeu, ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee. Aeioiaeiinoue e iaaeaaeiinoue. I?eia?aoaiea oeacaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ieacuaaaony i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey eiaanoi?a ii aeaoi iniiaiui i?e/eiai: *aieaa aunieay iaaeaaeiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n ?aciauaieai naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a oe. aoiaae AI eee a aaie; *aieaa aunieay eiia/iay eo aeioiaeiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n aaieianeeie aeaiiceoaie ca n/ao iaeiaiauo eueaio. Aua aieueoae iaaeaaeiinoueth, /ai ioieoeei. oe. aoiaae, iaeaaeatho oieueei oe. aoiaae oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iau/ii ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee yae. Naiaiaeii ia?auaaiuie, o.a. eo aea?aeaoaee iiaoo naiaiaeii i?iaeaaaoue e iieoiaoue iaeeaaoeee ia ae?aeaaii eee aiaae?aeaaii ?uieao oe. aoiaa a oa/aiea anaai n?iea, ia eioi?ue auiouai iaeeaaoeeiiiue caei. Ii ieii/aiee n?iea iaeeaaoeee aueoiathony (iiaaoathony) yieoaioii ii eo ia?eoeaoaeueiie noieiinoe (n auieaoie niioaaonoaothuaai aeioiaea, anee yoi i?aaeoniio?aii oneiaeyie caeia). A oeaeii ia ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee ?ani?ino?aiythony oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey, eanathueany iaeeaaoeee aiiaua eae iaeiiai ec aeaaiuo aeaeia oeaiiuo aoiaa. ?inneeneay i?aeoeea. Iaania/eaatho iau/ii o?iaaiue aeioiaeiinoe, n?aaieiue n ain. iaeeaaoeeyie, ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiythony oa aea iaeiaiaua eueaiou. Aaaeiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth ?inn. ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee yae. aeeeeuiua iaeeaaoeee, oeaeue eioi?uo - oeiaine?iaaiea no?ieoaeuenoaa aeeeuey. Ioieoeeiaeueiua caeiu a iniiaiie naiae ianna auioneathony ia n?aaeian?i/iue (1-5 eao) e aeieain?i/iue ia?eiae (io 5 eao e auoa). Nauoa 1/3 ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee auiouaii ia i?aaeuyaeoaey; o ieo - oe?ieee niaeo? oeaeae. ? 46. Oaeoi?iue aiaeec oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia Oeiainiaue (yeii. aiaeec) anoue yeaiaio iaiaaeaeiaioa ia i?aaei?eyoee e aoaeeoa. Ini. aeiee oei. aiaeeca: 1 aeie - aiaeec oei. - yeii. iieacaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, iniiaiia aieiaiea ia?auaaony ia aiaeec oei. ?acoeueoaoia aeayo-oe i?aaei?eyoey; 2 aeie - aiaeec oei. ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey, aieiaiea ia aiaeec oei. onoie/eainoe e ia aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina e ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey; 3 aeie - aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe oic. aeayoaeueiinoe. Ini. enoi/ieeaie aeey oei. aiaeeca yae.: 1. Aaeain i?aaei?eyoey (oi?ia ?1), 2. Io/ao i oei. ?acoeueoaoao e eo eniieueciaaiee 9oi?ia ?2), 3. I?eeiaeaiea e aaeaino (oi?ia ?5). Caaea/e oei. aiaeeca: iieo/aiea ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoiai /enea iieacaoaeae, aeinoaoi/ii aaeaeaaoii oa?aeoa?ecothueo yeii. ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey, e, i?aaeaea anaai, aai i?eaueae e oauoeia, eciaiaiee a no?oeoo?a aeoeaia e ianneaia e eciaiaiee a ?an/aoao n aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie. Eiie?aoiua oeaee aiaeeca caaenyo io noauaeoa aiaeeca. Iaoiaeu oei. aiaeeca (iaoiaeu /oaiey oei. io/aoia): 1. Ai?eciioaeueiue iaoiae /oaiey aaeaina - iieacaoaeue ca io/. ia?eiae aaeaina n?aaieaatho n niioa. iieacaoaeai i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea; 2. Aa?oeeaeueiue aiaeec - ii?aaeaeytho no?oeoo?o ?acoeueoe?othuaai iieacaoaey, iau/ii ?ann/eouaatho oaeaeueiue aan yeaiaioa no?oeoo?u a eoiaiaii iieacaoaea; 3. O?aiaeiaue aiaeec - io/. iieacaoaeue n?aaieaaaony n aiaeiae/iuie iieacaoaeyie ca ?yae i?aaeoanoaothueo ia?eiaeia, ae. caaea/a - auyaeoue oaiaeaioeeth eciaiaiey aeaiiiai iieacaoaey; 4. Aiaeec ioiineoaeueiuo iieacaoaeae - ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo io/aoia ?ann/eouaathony ioiineoaeueiua iieacaoaee; 5. N?aaieoaeueiue (i?ino?ainoaaiiue) aiaeec - iieacaoaee aeaiiie oe?iu n?aaieaathony n niioa. iieacaoaeyie ii eiieo?e?othuei oe?iai; 6. Oaeoi?iue aiaeec. Aai oeaeue - ii?aaeaeaiea aeeyiey eiie?aoiuo oaeoi?ia ia eoiaiaue iieacaoaeue. Oaeoi?iue aiaeec auaaao: *aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiue (ii?aaeaeaiiue) - ii?aaeaeyaony oi/iia aeeyiea eiie?. oaeoi?a ia eoiaiaue iieacaoaeue, *noioanoe/aneee (aa?iyoiinoiue) - aeeyiea oaeoi?a ia ?acoeueoao ii?aaeaeyaony n ecaanoiie aeieae aa?iyoiinoe. ?acee/atho: i?yiie e ia?aoiue oaeoi?iue aiaeec. I?e i?yiii oaeoi?iii aiaeeca eciaiaiea eoiaiaiai iieacaoaey ?aceaaaaony ia /anoe, niioaaonoaothuea aeeyieth ioae. eiie?. oaeoi?ia ia yoio iieacaoaeue. I?e ia?aoiii oaeoi?iii aiaeeca ii eciaiaieth ioaeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony eciaiaiea eoiaiaiai iieacaoaey. Iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eauee, iniiaaiiay ia i/iae. i?eauee. (Aaeiaay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee eee iieiue iai?io) - (IAeN, aeoeecu, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu) = (au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a oeaiao i?iecaiaeeoaey eee /enoue iai?io) - (naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee) = (oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa) + (oei. ?acoeueoao io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee) = (oei. ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee) + (oei. ?acoeueoao io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee) = (aaeainiaay i?eaueue) ± (ei??aeoe?iaea aaeainiaie i?eauee aeey oeaeae i/iaeiaeaiey) = (iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue) - (iaeiae) = (/enoay i?eaueue); /enoay i?eaueue eaeao ia: *aeeaeaeaiaeu; *ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue; *?aca?aiue oiiaey + (onoaaiie eaieoae) = (nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey). Oaeoi?iue aiaeec i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (oei. ?acoeueoaoia). Ionoue eniieuecothony neaae. iaicia/aiey: ? - i?eaueue, D? - eciaiaiea i?eauee, ?1 - i?eaueue io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, ?0 - i?eaueue aaceniiai ia?eiaea, ? - oeaia, ?1 - oeaia io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, ?0 - oeaia aaceniiai ia?eiaea, q - eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, q1 - a io/aoiii ia?eiaea, q0 - a aaceniii ia?eiaea, N - iauai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (au?o/ea, noieiinoiie iauai), N1 - a io/. ia?eiaea, N2 - a aaceniii ia?eiaea, S - naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, S1 - a io/. ia?eiaea, S0 - a aaceniii ia?eiaea, E - eiyooeoeeaio eciaiaiey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee. N1.1. (ia?aue eiaeaen iieacuaaao ia?eiae, aoi?ie - oeaio (oneiaey)) - yoi au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a io/. ia?eiaea a oeaiao io/. ia?eiaea; N1.0. - ii oeaiai aaceniiai ia?eiaea, S1.1.- naaanoieiinoue io/. ia?eiaea ii oeaiai io/aoiiai, S1.0. - naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee io/. ia?eiaea ii oeaiai aaceniiai. Aeai?eoi ioeaiee (?an/aoia) aeeyiey eiie?aoiuo oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. D? /eciaiaiea i?eauee/ = ?1-?0 Ioeaieaaai aeeyiea eciaiaiey oeai ia eciaiaiea i?eauee: D?1 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey oeai, D?1 = N1.1.- N1.0. = p1q1 - p0q0 = (p1 - p0)*q1. Ii?aaeaeyai aeeyiea eciaiaiey iauaia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia eciaiaiea i?eauee: D?2 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey oece/. iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, D?2 = ?0*E1 - ?0 /E1-eiyooeoeeaio eciaiaiey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea ii n?aaiaieth n aaceniui, E1 = S1.0./S0.0.; S1.0. - eciaiaiea oec. iauaia ii eciaiaieth naaanoieiinoe). Ii?aaeaeyai aeeyiea no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee ia eciaiaiea i?eauee: D?3 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u anni?oeiaioa, D?3 = ?0*(E2 - E1), aaea E2 - eiyooeoeeaio eciaiaiey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, E2 = N1.0./N0.0. (enoiaey ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee). ?ann/eouaaai aeeyiea ia i?eaueue yeiiiiee io nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee: D?4 - aeeyiea nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe aneaaenoaea yeiiiiee iaoa?eaeia, nu?uey, D?4 = S1.0. - S1.ei??. aaea S1 ei??. - yoi oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nei??aeoe?iaaiiay ia eciaiaiea oeai e oa?eoia ?ann/eouaaai aeeyiea ia i?eaueue eciaiaiee a naaanoieiinoe ca n/ao no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a ninoaaa i?iaeoeoeee: D?5 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey naaanoieiinoe aneaaenoaea no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a ninoaaa i?iaeoeoeee, D?5 = S0.0.*K2 - S1.0. I?iaa?ea: SD?i = D?. I?eia? oaeoi?iiai aiaeeca ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ?acee/atho ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee e i?aaei?eyoey. ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee - yoi ioiioaiea i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e aa naaanoieiinoe. ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey - yoi ioiioaiea aaeainiaie i?eauee e n?aaeiaaiaeiaie noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu aeaeyony ia 2 a?oiiu: *iniiaiua n?aaenoaa (iai?oaeiaaiea), *iai?ioiua oiiaeu (IAI, nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, cao?aou aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia - /oi iaoiaeeony a i?iecaiaenoaa). Caaeaiea (aaceniia cia/aiea)Oaeoe/aneea cia/aiey (io/aoiua)1. I?eaueue, ?oa. 96 000 141 2502. N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue i?iec- aiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, ?oa. 800 000 882 8123. ?aioaaaeueiinoue, % (1/2*100) 12,0 16,0R = 16,0 - 12,0 = 4,0 (i?e?ino ?aioaaaeueiinoe). Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ninoaaeei 4 ioieoa, 1-e oaeoi? -oaaee/aiea i?eauee, 2-e oaeoi? - oaaee/aiea noieiinoe i?ieca. oiiaeia. Ioeaieoue, eaeiaa aeiey a 4% eciaiaiey i?eauee e eciaiaiey i?ieca. oiiaeia? Ii?aaeaeyai oae iacuaaaioth oneiaioth ?aioaaaeueiinoue, /oi anoue ioiioaiea R one.= 141250/800000 = 17,7 /iieo/eeanue ?aioaaaeueiinoue, eioi?ay auea au, anee au noieiinoue ia iaiyeanue/. ?ino ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao ?inoa aaeainiaie i?eauee: DR1 - 17,7 - 12,0 = +5,7 (ca n/ao oiai, /oi aaeainiaay i?eaueue aic?inea ?aioaaaeueiinoue oaaee/eeanue). Ii?aaeaeyai eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao aiaea/aiey a i?ieca. i?ioeann aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?ieca. oiiaeia: DR2 = 16,0 - 17,7 = -1,7. I?iaa?ea: +5,7 + (-1,7) = 4. ? 47. E?eoa?ee eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina oe?iu. Oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea oe?iu e ia?niaeoeau aai eciaiaiey iaoiaeyony iiae aeeyieai ia oieueei oaeoi?ia oeiainiaiai oa?aeoa?a, ii e iiiaeo ae?. , ia eiathueo noieiinoiie ioeaiee. Yoi iieeoe/aneea e iauayeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey, ia?ano?ieea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey io?aneueth eee i?aaei?eyoeai, niaia oi?i naaanoieiinoe e o.ae. Iiyoiio aoo. io/aoiinoue e aa aiaeec n/eoatho iaeiei ec ?acaeaeia eiiieaeniiai yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca, eniieuecothuaai ia oieueei oi?iaeeciaaiiua e?eoa?ee, ii e iaoi?iaeueiua ioeaiee. E?eoa?ee (E) iie?uoey - aea?o iauoth ioeaieo eeeaeaeiinoe aeoeaia. E. iie?uoey =( oaeouea aeoeau)/(oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa). E. auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe = (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, ?an/aou, i?i/ea aeoeau)/(oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa). E. aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe = (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa)/(oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa). Aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny n eniieueciaaieai aaniethoiuo e ioiineoaeueiuo aaee/ei. Aaniethoiua iieacaoaee ?ann/eouaathony n iiiiuueth (NIN - nianoaaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, NE - nianoaaiiue eaieoae, AeI - aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, NA - n?aaenoaa e aeiaeaiey eee oaeouea aeoeau, EOC - enoi/iee oi?ie?iaaiey caiania, CC - caianu e cao?aou) NIN=NE+AeI-NA, e EOC=NIN + nnoaeu aaieia e caeiu, eniieuecoaiua aeey iie?uoey caiania + ?an/aou n e?aaeeoi?aie ii oiaa?iui iia?aoeeyi. CCEOC – iaonoie/eaia
oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea, (CC + iaiiaaoaiiua e?aaeeou e caeiu +
i?in?i/aiiay e?aaeeoi?neay e aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoe)>EOC –
e?eoe/aneia iieiaeaiea. Ana aeaiiua aa?oony ec ?acaeaeia 2 e 3 oi?iu ?5.

? 48. Iaoiaeu n?aaiaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

A iniiaa i?ioeanna i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
oa?-?a eaaeao ioeaiea e n?aaiaiea iau?ia i?aaeiieaaaaiuo eiaanoeoeee e
aoaeoueo aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee. Aeaaiie i?iaeaiie ya-ny i?iaeaia eo
niiinoaaeiinoe. Iaoiaeu, eniieuecoaiua a aiaeeca eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayo-oe, iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia 2 a?oiiu: 1) iniiaaiiua ia
aeeneiioe?iaaiiuo ioeaieao; 2) iniiaaiiua ia o/aoiuo ioeaieao. *anoi
ia?aae iaiaaeaea?ii noaiiaeony i?iaeaia auai?a ec ianeieueeeo aiciiaeiuo
aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiaano. i?iaeoia. I?e/eia iiaoo auoue ?aciuie, a o./. e
ia?aie/aiiinoue a n?aaenoaao, o.a. iaaeinooiiinoue oei. ?ano?nia. A
caaeneiinoe io i?eiyoiai e?eoa?ey auai? aoaeao ?acee/iui. Ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie NPV(/enoue i?eaaae?iiue yooaeo), PI
(eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe), IRR (ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe), CC
(aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae, o.a. ioiineoaeueiue o?iaaiue ?anoiaeia)
eiathony i/aaeaeiua acaeiinayce: anee NPV>0, oi iaeiia?aiaiii IRR>CC e
PI>1; anee NPV? 49. Aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue (a/i). I?aaei?eyoea eae enoi/iee eioi?iaoeee aeey oeiainiai yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca. Aiaeec oei. oic. aeayo-oe ii aeaiiui a/i iiaeao auoue auiieiai n ?aciie noaiaiueth aeinoiaa?iinoe. Iniiaie aiaeeca ya-ny nenoaia iieacaoaeae e aiaeeoe/aneeo oaaeeoe, eiaeea ioai?a e ninoaaeaiea eioi?uo i?aaeiieaaaao aiaeec ninoiyiey e aeeiaieee yeiiii. iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoey, ?acoeueoaoia e yooaeoeaiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey. Ye-ee iioaioeeae oic. noauaeoa iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaai aeaiyei: n iiceoeee eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey e n iiceoeee aai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey. Iaa yoe noi?iiu oei.-oic. aeayo-oe acaeiinaycaiu - ia?aoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a eiouanoaa, aai iaea/anoaaiiue ninoaa iiaoo i?eaanoe e oooaeoaieth oei. iieiaeaiey e iaiai?io. Oae, iaii?aaaeaiiia iia?oaeaiea n?aaenoa a iaoiaeiauo oiaa?ao, aeaaeoi?neea caaeieaeaiiinoe iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia naiaa?aiaiiinoue oaeoueo ieaoaaeae, a iaii?aaaeaiiuo ?ino ca?iiuo n?aaenoa i?eaanoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe nie?aoeoue eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee aeey ?an/aoia n e?aaeeoi?aie. Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo yeaiaioia aiaeeca ya-ny oiaiea ?aaioaoue n aiaeiaie io/aoiinoueth e oeiainiaie io/aoiinoueth aoo. o/aoa. Iaoiaeeea aiaeeca oei. ninoiyiey caaeneo io iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae e o.ae. o.a. io a?aiaie, eioi?iaoeee oao. iaania/aiey. Eiaeea aiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou i?aaeiieaaaao aa i?aaiecaoeeth a aeaea aeaooiiaeoeueiie no?oeoo?u: yeni?ann aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey; aeaoaeece?iaaiiue aiaeec oei. ninoiyiey . aeaiiua aeey aiaeeca aa?oo a oi?iao io/aoiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. E iei ioiinyony: aiaeiaay a/i, o.a. aaeain i?aaei?eyoey; io/aoiinoue i oei. ?ac-oa, oi?ia ?2; ni?aaea e io/. i oei. ?ac-oa, oi?ia ?2 ni?aaea; i?eeiaeaiea e aaeaino, oi?ia ?5 e o.ae. ? 50. Aiaeec eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea - aaee/eia i?eauee, i?eoiaeyuayny ia 1 ?oaeue aeiaeaiiuo n?aaenoa. Aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea ninoieo ec neaaeothueo /anoae: aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa; -//- eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia; -//- iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia; -//- eaieoaea a oeaeii. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony, i?aaeaea anaai, eo iai?a/eaaaiinoueth. Iai?a/eaaaiinoue - i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioiaeaeaiey n?aaenoaaie ioaeaeueiuo noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey. Ia?eiae iai?ioa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa - a?aiy, a oa/aiea eioi?iai n?aaenoaa iaoiaeyony a iai?ioa, o.a. iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia?aoiaeeo ec iaeiie noaaeee a ae?oaoth. Iieacaoaee iai?a/eaaaiinoe: 1) i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaeiiai iai?ioa Z=O*t/T: I - n?aaeiee inoaoie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae, t - /enei aeiae aiaeece?oaiiai ia?eiaea, O - au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae. N?aaeiee inoaoie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea n?aaeiae o?iiieiae/aneie: a=(a1/2+a2+a3+…+an/2)/n-1; 2) eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe (?acia? iau?ia au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee a ?an/aoa ia 1 ?oaeue iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa) EI = O/I O - au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee, I - n?aaeiee inoaoie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe - oiiaeiioaea/a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Aa ?ino - iieiaeeoaeueiay oaiaeaioeey. Yoio eiyooeoeeaio iieacuaaao /enei iai?ioia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia oa?aeoa?ece?oaony ianeieueeeie iieacaoaeyie: oiiaeiioaea/a OI=O/N N - n?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia; oiiaei?ieinoue OA=1/OI=N/O, iieacuaaao neieueei iniiaiuo oiiaeia i?eoiaeeony ia ?oaeue au?o/ee. Nouanoaoao eiee/anoaaiiay naycue iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea e iieacaoaeai oiiaeiioaea/a n iaeiie noi?iiu e iieacaoaeai oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe n ae?oaie . IO=O/E, O-au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee, E-eiee/anoai ?aai/eo, IO-i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. OA=N/E NO- oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue, N- noieiinoue iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, IO/OA=O/N=OI. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony iieacaoaeyie oiiaeiioaea/e e oiiaeiaieinoe. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea a oeaeii eo/oa anaai oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?aioaaaeueiinoueth. ?aioaaaeueiinoue - ioiioaiea aaeainiaie i?eauee e aaee/eia eaieoaea. Nouanoaoao oi?ioea, eio. naycuaaao i?eaueue, au?o/eo, oiiaeiioaea/o iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Rent = (?2*100%/O)*(1/(1/RI+1/OI(IN)+OI(IIA))). Yoa oi?ioea aea?o aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeeyiea yoeo oaeoi?ia ia o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Yoio aiaeec i?iaiaeeony n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaea oeaiiuo iiaenoaiiaie. Aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea a aiaeeca e ae?oaeo iieacaoaeae. A /anoiinoe, iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ioiioaiea noiiu i?iaeaae e noiia aeoeaia. Iiaeao auoue ?ann/eoai eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe caiania. Yoi ioiioaiea noiiu i?iaeaae e iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiui aeoeaai. Aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao ioiioaiea noii i?iaeaae e aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe. Yoio eiyooeoeeaio iieacuaaao n?aaeiee n?ie eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai i?aaei?eyoeyi naiei eeeaioai. ? 51. Iioeiecaoeey cao?ao oe?iu a oneiaeyo yeieiaecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iiae yeieiae/aneeie cao?aoaie iiieiathony neaaeothuea: yeieiae/aneea ieaoaaee ca caa?yciaiea ie?. n?aaeu; cao?aou ia ?aeoeueoeaaoeeth caiaeue; ieaoaaee ca iaae?a, aiaeo, eaniua e caiaeueiua ?ano?nu; cao?aou ia ia?u ii yia?ainaa?aaeaieth; c-u, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai aiaeu a oaoiieiae/aneii i?ioeanna; c-u ia i?iaaaeaiea i?aaaioeaiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii nieaeaieth yeieiae/aneeo ?eneia; ioeiaeaiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa (c-u ia ooeeecaoeeth iooiaeia i?ioeuo eao, ia?anaeaiea e o.ae.); i?i/ea ?acii oeaeaaua cao?aou (ia eeeaeaeaoeeth aaa?ee, iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe, oo?aoiua naieoeee e o.ae.). aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei ?acia? cao?ao ia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea, yaeyaony nioeeaeueiue. I?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee e eiiiaiee ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia nioeeaeueiua yeaiaiou ie?. n?aaeu, a oii /enea e ia /aeiaaea. Iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia ieo a i?aaeaeao, i?aauoathueo ioeoeeaeueii aeiionoeiua ii?iaoeau, iaiineo eiiiaiee i?yiie e einaaiiue iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a. I?yiie oua?a au?aaeaaony a oo?aoao e ieaoaaeao ca naa?oii?iaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea, cao?aoao ia eeeaeaeaoeeth iineaaenoaee e eiiiainaoeeiiiua ieaoaaee, iioa?yo i?e ia?aie/aiee e cae?uoee i?iecaiaenoa. Einaaiiue oua?a aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa nieaeaiey i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe eiaanoeoeee a i?aaei?eyoey, eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe eo i?iaeoeoeee, eeoaiey i?aaei?eyoee eueaio e i?eaeeaaee aneaaenoaea oi?ie?iaaiey iaaaoeaiiai iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, i?eno?anoiiai ioiioaiey oiieiiii/aiiuo i?aaiia eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey e a ?yaea ae?oaeo neo/aaa. Yoe i?iaeaiu ?aoathony i?e iiiiue nenoaiu oeaeaauo ia?ii?eyoee: io?aiu e ainnoaiiaeaiey oiiiauo i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia iooai ieieiecaoeee aicaeaenoaey ia ieo e ?aeoeueoeaaoeee ia?ooaiiuo eaiaeoaooia; -//- yeaiaioia oei?u e oaoiu n iniaui ?aaeeiii io?aiu a?aaeia iaeoaiey yiaeaie/iuo aeaeia; inouanoaeaiea iniaiai ?aaeeia inaiaiey e eniieueciaaiey ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia; iaania/aiey oaoieee aaciianiinoe e naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo ii?i aeey ia?niiaea eiiiaiee; -//- aaciianiinoe ia?niiaea eiiiaiee i?e aicieeiiaaiee aiaooaoiuo neooaoeee e aaa?ee i?e?iaeiiai e oaoiiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a; -//- o?iaiy aeecie ia?niiaea eiiiaiee ia ieaea niioaaonoaothuaai n?aaeiaai o?iaiy aeecie a ?aaeiia; ?aoaiey i?iaeai e iaania/aiea i?aa ei?aiiuo ia?iaeia a ciia inaiaiey ianoi?iaeaeaiee ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey; iaania/aiey ii?iaeueiiai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ciiao eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiey ianaeaiey a onoaiiaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaii i?aaeaeao; -//- ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiie ainoaea?noaii iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee a ciia aeeyiey eiiiaiee ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo e ieieiecaoeee ?enea aeey /aeiaaea. Aieueoay /anoue nioeeaeueiuo aniaeoia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey ?aaeaiaioe?iaaia niioaaonoaothueie ioeoeeaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie, a ia?ii?eyoey ii iaania/aieth ?aaeaiaioa i?aaeoniio?aiu a i?iaeoao i?aaei?eyoee, inaiaiey ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ioaeaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo onoaiiaie. A ?aieao ?acaeoey eiiiaiee ia ia?eiae aei 2000 a. iaeaieueoea oauoee e cao?aou neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue a ?acoeueoaoa iaaaoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia yeaiaiou eaiaeoaooa e caiaeueiua ?ano?nu, iaania/aiey ii?iaoeaiiai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ciiao eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiey ianaeaiey ii?iaoeaiie ieieiecaoeee yeieiae/aneiai ?enea aeey caei?iauey e aeecie ianaeaiey a ciia aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee. Iaania/aiea ii?iaeueiiai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ciiao eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiey ianaeaiey ?aoaaony o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoiaeaie a ?aieao iaaeiiouaiey aaa?eeiiai aicaeaenoaey ia yeaiaiou n?aaeu e niaethaeaiey ii?iaoeaia IAeA e IAeN. Cao?aou ia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea a yoii neo/aa o?oaeii ioaeaeeoue io yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo cao?ao e eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee oaoiieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Oi aea ioiineony e e ioeaiea cao?ao ia ?aaeecaoeeth iaoaiecia aeiaaaeaiey aei ii?iaoeaiuo cia/aiee yeieiae/aneiai ?enea aeey aeecie e caei?iauey ianaeaiey. Yoe cao?aou a iniiaiii iioaioeeaeueiua iaeiaei io?aaeatho iaycaoaeuenoaa eiiiaiee ca i?ioeue, oaeouee e aoaeouee ia?eiaeu. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii iaycaoaeuenoaai i?ioeuo ia?eiaeia eiaeeony ia eiiiaiee eae i?aaii?aaiieeia iaycaoaeuenoa aoiaeyueo a ieo i?aaei?eyoee. 52. Iniiaiua oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Ie?iaua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey - oicyenoaaiiua e yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noauaeoaie ie?iaiai oicyenoaa, ii?aaeaeyaiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiui ?acaeaeaieai o?oaea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaiauie ii?iaie. IYI - ioiioaiey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iauaiea, niinia e oa?aeoa? aicaeaenoaee e acaeiiaeaenoaee anao no?ai ie?a a noa?a yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, ?acaeoey e ia?aieaoaiey oi?aiauo, i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneeo, eiiia?aoeeiiiuo naycae. Ie?iaua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey io?aaeatho ea/anoai IY naycae ia eaaeaeii yoaia iieeoeei-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, oa?aeoa?ecoao noaiaiue acaeiiaeaenoaey, eioaa?e?iaaiiinoe iiaenenoai. Oi?iu IYI: iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey oiaa?aie e oneoaaie (ia aa iniiaa i?ienoiaeeo noaiiaeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie yeiiiieee); iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aaethoii-oeiainiaay nenoaia e aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey aeayoaeueiinoue e?oiiuo eiiiaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiia yeiiiie/aneia nio?oaeie/anoai iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iaiai aeayoaeueiinoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee (nenoaia III) niaianoiia o/anoea a nenoaia ?aoaiey aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai ( yeiiiie/aneeo, aaaeiinoe, i?iaeiaieuenoaey) 6.iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu. Ie?iaay oi?aiaey-iiea/eaaaiue niaieoiiue aiaoiaoi?aiaue iai?io anao no?ai ie?a. Ie?iaay oi?aiaey - oi?ia nayce iaaeaeo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie ?aciuo no?ai, aicieeathuay ia iniiaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo niaeaoaiee. (+)A ianoiyuaa a?aiy noaiiaeony iaeiei ec aaaeoueo oaeoi?ia aeiaaeecaoeee ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Aa no?oeoo?a noaiiaeony ana aieaa ?aciiia?aciie (oi?aiaey oneoaaie i?eia?aea aieueoie ?aciao, ia?iiiia ?aciiia?acey oiaa?ia). I?iyaeythony oaiaeaioeee e eeaa?aeecaoeee (ia?aoiaea e iaiaa ?aaoee?oaiie oi?aiaea). (--) iaonoie/eainoue oi?aiaee iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ?aaeiiaie e no?aiaie (i?iyaeyaony a aeeiaieea oeai); aeey ?acaeaathueony no?ai nio?aiythony iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey oi?aiaee ( niioiioaiea yenii?oiuo e eiii?oiuo eiaeaenia oeai ia oiaa?u); ana aua nouanoaotho yeaiaiou i?ioaeoeeiiecia a oi?aiaea ioaeaeueiuo no?ai. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey - yoi naeeaeaiea e acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee ia iniiaa iauiinoe ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa (aeeth/ay ?aai/oth neeo), iauaaeeiaiey eaieoaeia e i?iaaaeaiey niaeaniaaiiie iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee. I?eia?-Aa?iiaeneee nithc. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana aieaa aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao aeayoaeueiinoue e?oiiuo eiiiaiee. Nae/an ia aeieth OIE i?eoiaeeony 50% ie?iaie oi?aiaee e 40% ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaenoaotho i?aeoe/anee ai anao io?aneyo yeiiiieee. Yoi iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiua eee iaoeeiiaeueiua ii eaieoaeo e eiio?ieth eiiiaiee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ii noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, iaeaaeathuea aeoeaaie ca ?oaaaeii ia iniiaa i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee. ? 53. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey: aeeiaieea e no?oeoo?a. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey-iiea/eaaaiue niaieoiiue aiaoiaoi?aiaue iai?io anao no?ai ie?a. IO-oi?ia nayce iaaeaeo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie ?acee/iuo no?ai, aicieeathuay ia iniiaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo niaeaoaiee. Aeeiaieea: 250 eao iacaae oi?aiaue iai?io ninoaaeye 100 iei. aeieea?ia ( oi?aiaey iaaeaeo e?oiiuie eieiieaeueiuie aea?aeaaaie); 150 eao iacaae (a ?acaa? i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee) - 1 ie?ae. 200 iei. 1950 aiae-115 ie?ae. aeiee. Naaiaeiy - 4-4.5 o?ei. aeiee. (A oi?aiaeth aeeeieeanue noa?a oneoa): oaoie/aneea eioi?iaoeeiiiua aaieianeea e o.ae. Iniiaiuie oi?aiauie ia?oia?aie yaeythony ieiei 100 no?ai (100 eao iacaae): 1.Aiaeey19% Aa?iaiey10% NOA9,5% O?aioeey9,5% Ieaea?eaiaeu5% ?inney5% 1995 aiae (aieaa 200 aaaeoueo no?ai) 1.NOA14% 2.Aa?iaiey12% 3.ssiiiey12% 4.Aiaeey5% 5.O?aioeey;% 6.Eoaeey3% 7.Eaiaaea56. Yeieiae/aneee oaeoi? a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaie iieeoeea. 1986-1994aa. Ai a?aiy o?oaaaeneiai ?aoiaea Anaie?iay oi?aiaay i?aaiecaoeey i?eiyea ?yae niaeaoaiee ii yeieiae/aneei aniaeoai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea. Niaeanii aeaiiui niaeaoaieyi i?iaeaaaaiua oiaa?u aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue: ecaea?aeee ia io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ii aiciiaeiinoe naia i?iaeoeoeey eee oiaeiai/iue iaoa?eae aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue ia?a?aaioaiiia aoi?e/iia nu?uea. Oieueei oiaa?u, niaea?aeauea aeaiiua ecaea?aeee yaeythony eiieo?aioiniiniaiuie 2.aeieaeia auoue ia?aie/aia i?iaeaaea n?aaenoa, caa?yciythueo ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, iaiinyueo a?aae iciiiaiio neith aoiinoa?u (iai?eia? o?eii) 3.aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony oi?aiaey iiauie yeieiae/anee /enouie oaoiieiaeyie, /oi i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth iiaie oi?aiaie ia?ee - “yeieiae/anee /enoue i?iaeoeo”. ana no?aiu eiatho eaiou ia caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ?acoeueoaoa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; i?aauoaiea ii?i i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie eiioeaio?aoeee aaaeao e iaeiaeaieth oo?aoia. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aauae i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth ?aiea oi?aiaee yoeie eaioaie. A neo/aa, anee iaeia no?aia ia i?aauneea naith ii?io caa?yciaiey, iia iiaeao i?iaeaoue naie eaiou ae?oaie no?aia, /oiau oa niiaea ecaaaeaoue oieaou oo?aoia. 57. Oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey eaioaea. Eaieoae - yoi noieiinoue, e-?ay eiaao ?uii/ioth oeaio e ni?in, yoi ?aaeecoaiay noieiinoue. Eaieoae i?iyaeyaony a aauanoaaiiie (nie?iaeua, iaaeaeaeeiinoue) e a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia. Ieaoaaeiue aaeain o/eouaaao aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea. Eaieoae eiaao 3 oi?iu aeaeaeaiey eaieoaea: 1. i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay (auaaao 2 aeaeia: i?yiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a i?iecaiaenoai; einaaiiua eiaanoeoeee (ii?ooaeueiua eiaanoeoeee, o.a. aeiaeaiey a oeaiiua aoiaae)) 2. nnoaeiay 3. e?aaeeoii-nnoaeiay oi?ia. Anoue aeaa iiaeoiaea e o?aeoiaea nouiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey eaieoaea. ?acee/ey a iniiaa yoeo aeaoo iiaeoiaeia a naith i/a?aaeue iauyniythony aeaoiy i?e/eiaie: ai-ia?auo, ?acaeoeai ?uiea e ninoaaeythueo aai oi?i oicyenoaaiiuo naycae; ai-aoi?uo, iaiythueiny iiieiaieai nouiinoe, ?iee e cia/aiey ioaeaeueiuo oi?i oaeeo naycae a ?acaeoee e niaa?oainoaiaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee, oa?aeoa?a caaea/, yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai aeaaiiieo/ey. Aeey yeiiiienoia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea - yoi aeaeaeaiea iaeiiai ec oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, iniiaaiiia ia aai enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoainy eee i?eia?aoaiiui nin?aaeioi/aiee a ?acee/iuo no?aiao, yeiiiie/aneay i?aaeiinueea i?iecaiaenoaa eie ioaeaeueiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa aieaa yooaeoeaii, /ai a ae?oaeo no?aiao. A oeaio?a aieiaiey caeanue ?uiie a ea/anoaa oieaa?naeueiie oeaiiinoe n i?eciaieai iaoeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao, ii i?e yoii - n i?eciaieai aua iaeiiai yeaiaioa oieaa?naeueiinoe - i?aaee ea?u ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia, a iinoaiaiii oaeaea e ia iaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia. Aeey iieeoyeiiiiia - yoi iiiauaiea ioiineoaeueii ecauoi/iuo i?aeiouanoaaiii oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ca a?aieoeae ?aaee nenoaiaoe/aneiai iieo/aiey aieaa aunieie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, i?iecaaaeaiiie o?oaeyueieny no?aiu, a eioi?oth iiiauai eaieoae. I?e yoii iiaeoiaea ?uiie oaea ia noauaeo, a iauaeo, n?aaenoai aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae ia iaoeeiiaeueiii, ?aaeiiaeueiii eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia. A ?aaeueiii (yeiiiie/aneii) niaea?aeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea yaeyaony ii?aaeaeythuei yeaiaioii a ooieoeeiie?iaaiee ie?iaie yeiiiieee, ?acaeoee oi?i e oneiaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae anao aeaeia. Ii oa?aeoa?o e oi?iai iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey iiaoo auoue ?aciuie. Ii enoi/ieeai i?ienoiaeaeaiey - yoi ainoaea?noaaiiue e /anoiue eaieoae. Ainoaea?noaaiiue eaieoae a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii iaeoiaea iacuaatho aua ioeoeeaeueiui; ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie n?aaenoaa ec ainathaeaeaoa, eioi?ua ooiaeyo ca ?oaaae eee i?eieiathony ioooaea ii ?aoaieth eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaeoaeuenoa, eeai iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Ii oi?iai - yoi ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu, nnoaeu, a?aiou (aea?u), iiiiuue, iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie niaeaoaieyie. Nthaea aea ioiinyo e?aaeeou e eiua n?aaenoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee. *anoiue eaieoae - yoi n?aaenoaa iaainoae-iuo enoi/ieeia, iiiauaaiua ca ?oaaae eee i?eieiaaiua ec-ca ?oaaaea /anoiuie eeoeaie (th?. eee oec.). Nthaea ioiinyo eiaanoeoeee, oi?aiaua e?aaeeou, iaaeaaieianeia e?aaeeoiaaiea; iie ia naycaiu iai?yioth n ainathaeaeaoii, ii i?aaeoaeuenoai aea?aeeo eo ia?aiauaiey a iiea c?aiey e iiaeao a i?aaeaeao naieo iieiiii/ee eo eiio?iee?iaaoue e ?aaoee?iaaoue. Ii oa?aeoa?o eniieueciaaiey iaaeae-iua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey iiaoo auoue: i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeie e nnoaeiuie. Ia?aua i?yii eee einaaiii aeeaaeuaathony a i?iecaiaenoai e naycaiu n iieo/aieai oiai eee eiiai iauaia i?aa ia iieo/aiea i?eauee a oi?ia aeeaeaeaiaea. *aua anaai caeanue aunooiaao /anoiue eaieoae. Aoi?ua icia/atho i?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa acaeiu ?aaee iieo/aiey i?ioeaioa. Caeanue eaieoae, aeaaiui ia?acii, eaeao ec ainoaea?noaaiiuo enoi/ieeia, ii /anoiua enoi/ieee oaeaea aanueia cia/eoaeueiu. Ii n?ieai iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey aeaeyony ia n?aaeian?i/iua e aeieain?i/iua, a oaeaea e?aoein?i/iua. E ia?aui ioiinyo aeiaeaiey aieaa /ai ia iaeei aiae. A aeaiioth a?oiio aoiaeyo iaeaieaa cia/eiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey. o.e. e aeieain?i/iui ioiinyony ana aeiaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai eaieoaea a oi?ia i?yiuo e ii?ooaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee (i?aeiouanoaaiii /anoiua), a oaeaea nnoaeiue eaieoae (ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeou). Ii oeaeyi iaaeae-iua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey aeaeyony ia i?yiua e ii?ooaeueiua eiaanoeoeee. Ia?aua yaeythony aeiaeaieai eaieoaea ai eiy iieo/aiey aeieain?i/iiai eioa?ana e iaania/eaatho aai n iiiiuueth i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe eee ?aoathueo i?aa a oi?aaeaiee. A iniiaiii i?yiua eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee yaeythony /anoiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei eaieoaeii. Aoi?ua ia aeatho i?aaa eiio?iey ca iauaeoii aeiaeaiey, a anaai eeoue i?aeiouanoaaiiia aeieain?i/iia i?aai ia aeioiae (a niunea i/a?aaeiinoe a iieo/aiee oaeiai aeioiaea). 58 I?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeciana. ?ieue OIE. Oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee aeciana ?acee/athony ii aeaeai nianoaaiiinoe. Iie iiaoo iaoiaeeony a: ain. nianoaaiiinoe (ain. o?anou, eiiiaiee), a /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea eiaoue niaoaiiua oi?iu. Ii iaoe. i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eaieoaea iiaoo auoue: iaoeeiiaeueiuie, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie e niaianoiuie. Ii oi?iai eaieoaea (iaeeee, n?aaeiee, e?oiiue) iiaoo eiaoue oi?io: AI; iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa ioe?uoiai oeia (oi?aiaua, i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?euanoaa); ?acee/iuo oi?i oiaa?euanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth; ea?oaee - iauaaeeiaiey, o/anoieee eioi?iai caeeth/atho iaaeaeo niaie niaeaoaiea i ?aaoee?iaaiee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, ecauoea i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea i iaeia ?aa. neeu. I?eia?ii oaeiai iauaaeeiaiey neoaeeo IIAE; neiaeeeaoa - iauaaeeiaiey n iaueie niaianoiuie ooieoeeyie, eanathueony caeoiee nu?uey e ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee. Neiaeeeao iaania/eaaao i?iecaiaenoaaiioth caaeneiinoue; eiioea?ia - oi?iu iauaaeeiaiey eiiiaiee, eioi?ua niaoeeaeece?othony a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo aeayoaeueiinoe. A eiioea?ia nouanoaoao aaeeinoai oi?aaeaiey e oeiainia; o?anoa - oi?iu, iauaaeeiythuae i?iecaiaenoai, nauo e oeiainu a iniiaiii a iaeiie ec noa? iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (/aua anaai a i?iiuoeaiiinoe). O/anoieee o?anoa oa?ytho oicyenoaaiioth, eiiaa?/aneoth e oeiainiaoth iacaaeneiinoue (yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee oa?aeoa?iu eae aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai, oae e aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeciana) o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee (OIE) eee iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee (IIE); ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieie ninoieo a oii, /oi iaoe. i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue yae?a eiiiaiee ae?oaay. OIE yae-ny iaaeae. iiiiiieeae, onoaiiaeaoae ainiiaenoai a i?iecaiaenoaa oiai eee eiiai i?iaeoeoa, e o/anoaothuae ia yoie iniiaa a aeaeaaea noa? i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea, ?uieia e enoi/ieeia nu?uey. Yoi iaoeeiiaeueiua eee iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiua eiiiaiee ii eaieoaeo e eiio?ieth e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ii noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho aeoeaaie ca?oaaaeii ia iniiaa i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee. III onoaiiaeea iaeioi?ua e?eoa?ee, i?enouea OIE. Ii III-ei e?eoa?eyi - yoi: eiiiaiey, eiathuay aei/a?iee eiiiaiee a iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo no?aiao, eiiiaiey, eiathuay nenoaio i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ec oeaio?a, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao niaeaniaaiioth iieeoeeo e oi?aiai-yeii. no?aoaaeth; eiiiaiey, aei/a?iea eiiiaiee e oeeeaeu eioi?ie naycaiu n oeaio?ii (aieiaiie eiiiaieae) /a?ac nenoaio oeiainiaiai e oaoiieiae/aneiai eiio?iey e nianoaaiiinoe. OIE ?aaioatho ai anao noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe: e iaoa?eaeueiie, e noa?a oneoa, oo?ecia, o?ainii?oa, ?aciauaiey oneoa e o.ae. A ie?a nouanoaoao aieaa 35000 e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo OIE e IIE, eiathueo aieaa 170000 ?acee/iuo oeeeaeia. A ia?auo 50-oe i?aiaeaaeatho aia?eeaineea, yiiineea e aa?iiaeneea OIE. aeio?ainniueii”~ueiuy ei?ii?uoeey. Oi?iu iaaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee aeciana ii aeaeai nianaaaiiinoe: ain. nianoaaiiinoue (ain. o?anou, eiiiaiee); /anoiay niano-noue; niaoaiiua. ! 1i iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eaieoaea: iu-ua, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua; niaianoiua. Oi?iu eyieoyea: ia./eea e n?aaeiea: AI: iieiia oiaa?euanoai ioe?uoiai oeia n iaia?aie- /a~~iie ioan~ ~~ a~ii~n~-uee”. Ea?oaeue -iauaaeeiaiea, o/anoieee eioi?iai, caeeth/atho i/o niaie niaeaoaiea i ?aaoee?iaaiee iauaia ~ [?ie ~aiaenoaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea i iaeia ?aai/ae neeu. (i?eia?:IIYE-13 no?.) Neiaeeeao - iauaaeeiaiea n iauei niaianoiuie ooie-ie a caeoiea nu?uey e ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeiie ~ ~?iaeoeoeee (ii neiaeeeao iaania/eaaao i?iecaiaenoaaiioe~ iacaaeneiinoue). Ei~i~a?i- oi?ia iauaaeeiaiea eiiiaiee, eioi?ua niaoee-thony a ?ace”aeuo noa?ao oic. aeayoaeueiinoe. Aaeeieai oi?aaeaiey e oeiainia. 1'?ano - iauaaeeiyao i?-ai, nauo, oeiainu a iniiaiii a iaeiie ec iaoa?eaeueiuo noa? i?i-aa (n~~ieoaeuenoai. i?ii-inou. O/anoieee oa?ytho oic.-th, eiiia?-oth e oeiainiaoth iacaaeneiinoue. I AE- ie oiiaeueiua: IIE- iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiieaiee. ~'1~~ - inae;~-uy iiiiii.~ey eiiiaiee, iiiaiiaoeeiiiueiua eee iaoeeiiaeueiua ii eaieoaeo eeiio?ieth e .~~naeae~ e ~?i,au~ ii ~oa?a aenyoaiueiinoe, iaeaaeathuea aeoeaaie ca ?oaaaeii ia iniiaa i?yiuo eia~~"aeoeee.( oai ii?aaeaeaiea ioiineony e noa?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie) 11?e ~iaee OIE ii e?eoa?eyi III: 1 1'1A - eiiiaiey, ?uniieuaiiui oeiainaie, aei/a?ieie eiieaieyie a iaeiie eee iane-eeo ca?oa-~ ~~~);ie~. 2 Ee eiueieiee eiae)o nenoaio i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ec oeaio?a (aieiaiie eiiiaiee) iaania/eaathu/i niaeaniaaiioth iieeoeeo e oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneoth no?aoaaeth ~.Ei/a?~ia eiiiaiee e i?a-oeee naycaiu n oeaio?ii /a?ac nenoaio oei. e oaoiieiae/aneiai eiio?iey e niA~noaniiinoe. Noa?u ?aaiou OIE - ana iaoa?eaeueiua noa?u e noa?u oneoa: eioi?iaoeeiiiay, ~'~,~ie~~ineay: e:?eei: ?a ~iauaiea oa~oa.(A ie?a i?eia?ii 35 000 OIE e IIE) ') ae 35()(1() eiatho ”17000 oeiainia i?aiaeaaeatho Aia?eeaineea, ssiiineea, Aa?iiaeneea OIE. ~)niiaiiinoe(oaiaeaioeee) ?acaeoey OIE: 1.?anoe?aiea OIE a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao(i?aiaeaaeatho a noa?a ?uaeouo no?ai 80i~ ~ 2.?anoe?yaony noa?a ae“yoaeueiinoe OIE ii io?aneyi oic-aa e noa?u oneoa 3.'I1E aeayo-oe a oi?aiaea ia aeieth OIE i?eoiaeeony 50% ie?iaie oi?aiaee (40% ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa). 11io-~?e 1'IE aeaenoaoao naie iao-ci iaiaia i?iaeoeoeee, iinoaaie nu?uey e iaoa?-ia ii aioo?eoe?iaiiui oeiinoa?~ iui oeaiui (aeae oeai, eniieuecoaiuo a iaaeae, oiaa?iiai?ioa i?e iaiaia i?iaeoeuae e oneoaaie a ?uieae 'I[E e IIE o?anoia iniiaai ia eiiia?-eo i?eioeeiao acaeiiioiioaiee oeeeaeia e aieiaiie ~~~e?iu 1[aeue OIE - ca?oa-ay aeauieueiinoue (aeiey ca?oa-ai aeoeaa a iauai aeoeaa 50-80%.) ~“?e~ a?ee eioa?anoeioeea OIE i?e ?aoaiee i ooieoeeiie?iaaiee OIE a oie eee eiie no?aia: -ia~e/ea e oeaii ianoiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey ?aai/ae neeu.. ninoiyiea yeiiii. ?aca-y [ ~ e,e ~aeaniiniaiue ne?in)'. i?ion-a aeaeaeaiea (aai o?iaie); eiaaniiaeiiiue eeeiao; iieeo-ee eeeiao', ?u ~aeoen -~~aeinii?oiie e aaieianeie eio?ano?oeoo?u 11i~:~n,~n ~aey ae/y ie?iaiai ?ecaeoey eioi?ua eiaao aeayoaeueiinoue OIE: -ii~o?eoe?iaiiue iA~iai (aeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa aioo?e OIE) noaeeaaao noa?o iaaeae. oi?aiaee ~i~,~in~ey aa iA~u/iui aoo?e oe?iaiiui iaiaiii. -ae“oaaeueiinoue OIE eaieoaee iineo iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? e i?eia?aoeao iacaa-noue a aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia no?ai. - i?ienoiaeeo -~eiiiie-ee i?aaeae ie?iaiai oicyeaoaa i/o noa?aie aeeyiey ?ace-o OIE (e?oiiaeoeo) O1%- eena./a?aoi? iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, Aic?anoathuay aeiey OIE a ie?iaii i?iecaiaenoaa e i~~a~aa~N Iniiaiua aii?inu niaeaoaiey i/o OIE e no?aiaie i?eieiathuea OIE: 1 i./aoaaee e ia/iae a 6thaeaeao 2.,'1eaeaeaiaeu n ?uciauaiiuo aeuO ~1iauoaiea eaaeeoeeuoeee ianoiuo ethaeae iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?aaiou a OIE 4. ! 1a?naeu/a oaoiieiaee io OIE ianoiiio oicyenoao. Iniiaiua e?eoa?ee a aeayoaeueiinoe OIE: · eauni i?iaeaae ia ie?iaii ?uiea · IN!'EAUe1 ~n3'5INI(NIIUe1~ '5U~OA1NAEII · e~e~~~eaeae“eo~, ”(annoaoeO =i?eaueue ia aeiaeaiiue eaieoae ';1,~E~'~~.!n~,~E1U~11!'A(Ue1N AeUeEEE A.10AENIEss EUIAAUEI Ae1ss OAAE: · ?/iie aeaeiauo on./oa e eiiiuioa?iie oaoieee · ~~uiie aunieeo oaoiiiiaee e oa?iuaaoeea, ioeniia iai?oaeiaaiea. ? 59. IEN - iauaa e iniaaiiia a yeiiiieea ?acaeaathueony no?ai. IEN - ?anioaeeea Ei?ay, Neiaaio?, Iaeaecey, Oaeeaiae, A?aceeey, Iaeneea, A?aaioeia, Oaeaaiue. A Acee iaaethaeathony naiua aunieea a ie?a oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, iiauoaaony o?iaaiue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, ?anoao o?iaaiue aeioiaea ia aeooo ianaeaiey, nieaeaaony o?iaaiue ieuaou e oeo/oathony ae?oaea nioeeaeueiua iieacaoaee. Yoe no?aiu aeaeatho noaaeo ia ?anoe?aiea eniieueciaaiey ie?iaiai ?uiea e i?eoie i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee n niioonoaothuei aio ?anoe?aieai i?eoiea eaieoaea, ia?aaea/e oaoiieiaee e oi?aiaee e a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ni cia/eoaeueiie ?ieueth ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea i?e iaee/ee aeoeaiiai /anoiiai naeoi?a. I?iaaaeaiea iieeoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia ?acaeoea aiaoieo naycae, aaaeao e oneeaieth caaeneiinoe io ie?iaiai ?uiea. E?iia oiai i?iecioee eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u yenii?oa yoeo no?ai: IEN ia?aoee io yenii?oa i?inouo i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia e yenii?oo aieaa eaieoaeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii ia?a ?inoa caaeneiinoe yoeo no?ai io aiaoiaai ie?a iie noaiiayony iaiaa caueuaiiuie io noeoeeiiai ?acaeoey ie?iaie yeiiiieee. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea yoeo no?ai: 1)aeieain?i/iia ieaie?iaaiea 2)noeioee?iaaiea ?acaeoey naiaiaeiiai ?uiea e /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa 3)eniieueciaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eioa?aaioeee. I?ienoiaeeo eiioeaio?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e eaieoaea, neeaaeuaaaony oe?ieay iiiiiieenoe/aneay no?oeoo?a, aeayoaeueiinoue OIE i?eieiaao iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oa?aeoa?. I?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ca n/ao iioeiaeueiiai caaeaenoaiaaiey anaai eiiieaena aioo?aiia yeiiiie/aneiai, nu?ueaaiai, ethaeneiai iioaioeeaea. I?ienoiaeeo aeoeaiay eioaa?aoeey n ?acaeouie no?aiaie. Iauea /a?ou ?acaeaathueony no?ai: 1)caaeneiia iieiaeaiea a nenoaia ie?iaiai oicyenoaa 2)ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa? aioo?aiieo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo?, oioy iauaa ?acaeoea yoeo no?ai aeanyoeeaoeyie i?eaioe?iaaii ia oi?ie?iaaiea ?acaeouo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee 3) ana aua ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, ionoaeinoue i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneiai oicyenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u ii n?aaiaieth n eiaeono?eaeueiuie no?aiaie, ?aaeiiaeueiua aeeni?iii?oeee. 60. Oai?ey niioiioaiey e ?aciauaiey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa (Oaeoa?-Ieei, Eaiioueaa). A ia/aea 19a. oaaaeneea yeiiiienou Oaeoa? e Ieei i?aaeiieiaeeee, /oi no?aiu aoaeoo eiaoue n?aaieoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa a i?iecaiaenoaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii aoaeoo yenii?oe?iaaoue oa oiaa?u e oneoae, i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo o?aaoao eioaineaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oao oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua eiathony a no?aia a ecaueaaea, i?e oneiaee aeeth/aiey a aiaeec n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa eaieoaea ia?yaeo n o?oaeii. Oae no?aia, eiathuay ioiineoaeueiue ecauoie o?oaea ii ioiioaieth e eaieoaeo aoaeao eiaoue n?aaieoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, yenii?oe?iaaoue oa oiaa?u, eioi?ua o?aaotho a aieueoae ia?a i?eiaiaiey o?oaea, /ai eaieoaea, e, iaiai?io, no?aia, eiathuay a ioiineoaeueiii ecauoea eaieoae, aoaeao yenii?oe?iaaoue oa oiaa?u, eioi?ua o?aaotho aieueoaai i?eiaiaiey eaieoaea /ai o?oaea. Ii neiaai Ieeia, niune oai?ee a oii, /oi oiaa?u, o?aaothuea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa cia/eo. cao?ao (ecauoi/iuo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa) e iaaieueoeo cao?ao (aeaoeoeeoiuo oaeoi?ia), yenii?oe?othony a iaiai ia oiaa?u, i?iecaiaeeiua n eniieueciaaieai oaeoi?ia a ia?aoiie i?iii?oeee. Oae a ne?uoii aeaea yenii?oe?othony ecauoi/iua oiaa?u e eiii?oe?othony aeaoeoeeoiua oiaa?u i?iecaiaenoaa, no?aiu yenii?oe?otho i?iaeoeou eioaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey ecauoi/iuo oaeoi?ia e eiii?oe?otho i?iaeoeou eioaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey aeaoeoeeoiuo aeey ieo oaeoi?ia. Oai?ey Oaeoa?a-Ieeia, iauyniythuay no?oeoo?o iaaeae. oi?aiaee, ia/eiaao ni niaoe. ?acaeaea, iinayuaiiiai i?e/eiai iaaeae. ?acee/ee a oeaiao, ia eiathuei i?yiie nayce n aiaoiae oi?aiaeae. I?e/ei iiaeao auoue iiiaeanoai: eeeiaoe/aneea, enoi?e/aneea, o?aaeeoeeiiiua, ii?iaeaeathuea aieaa aunieee ni?in ia ii?aae. oiaa?. ?acee/ey a oeaiao iiaoo auoue naycaiu n iniaaiiinoyie oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a, eniieuecoaiuo eeoue a iaoe. ?aieao I?e yoii Oaeoa? e Ieei n/eoaee, /oi yoe e eiua iaoe. iniaaiiinoe ia iauyniytho a iieiii iauaia iaaeae. ?acee/ey a oeaiao. Iie ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi enoi/ieeii ?aciiai o?iaiy n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae yae-ny niioiioaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. Yeiiiienou iiaeaa?aatho ?anniao?eaaaioth oai?eth naiui ?aciiia?aciui i?iaa?eai. A 1954a. auea iioaeeeiaaia noaouey aia?ee. yeiiiienoa Aaneeey Eaiioueaaa, aaea auea naeaeaia iiiuoea i?iaa?eoue oai?eth Oaeoa?a-Ieeia ia iniiaa ?an/aoa iieiuo cao?ao o?oaea e eaieoaea ia yenii?o e eiii?o NOA, eioi?ua a oi a?aiy n/eoaeenue eaieoaeiecauoi/iie no?aiie. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi NOA yenii?oe?oao eaieoaeiaieea oiaa?u, a eiii?oe?oao o?oaeiaieea. ?acoeueoao ieacaeny ia?aoiui e iieo/ee iacaaiea "ia?aaeien Eaiioueaaa". Auaiaeu, iieo/aiiua ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey iaoiaea "cao?ao-auione " ii aeaoi oaeoi?ai - eaieoaeo e o?oaeo, ieacaeenue i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie. ?ac?aoaiea "ia?aaeiena Eaiioueaaa" caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ei??aeoiia enneaaeiaaiea o?aaoao ia aeaoooaeoi?iie, a iiiaioaeoi?iie iiaeaee aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Ieacaeinue, /oi ioiineoaeueiue ecauoie eaieoaea a NOA ia io?aaeaaony ia aia?. aiaoiae oi?aiaea. NOA yenii?oe?iaaee aieaa o?oaeiaieoth e iaiaa eaieoaeiaieoth i?iaeoeoeeth, /ai eiii?oe?iaaee. A. Eaiioueaa i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi a ethaie eiiaeiaoeee n aeaiiui eiee/anoaii eaieoaea 1 /aeiaaei-aiae aia?. o?oaea yeaeaaeaioai 3 /aeiaaei-aiaeai eiino?. o?oaea, o.a. aieueoay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aia?. o?oaea naycaia n aieaa aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeeae aia?. ?aai/eo. ? 61. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ?innee A niaaoneee ia?eiae a ?innee nouanoaiaaea ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey aiaoiae oi?aiaee, e caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ainoaea?noai i?enaaeaaao naaa eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai inouanoaeyoue aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea nayce. I?aai ia aiaoiaoi?aiaua iia?aoeee /anoiiio naeoi?o aeaaaei ainoaea?noai. Oaeei ia?acii, oieueei oiieiiii/aiiua eiiiaiee iiaee caieiaoueny aiaoiae oi?aiaeae. Aicieeatho aiaoiaoi?aiaua iauaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua aunooiatho a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea e caieiathony yenii?oii-eiii?oiie oi?aiaeae. Iie nicaeaaaeenue ii aeaoi i?eciaeai: 1. iauaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue ia eaeie-oi a?oiia oiaa?a; 2.iauaaeeiaiey, e-ua nicaeaaaeenue ii i?eioeeio aaia?aoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee n eai oi?aiaaoue. Aiaoiaoi?aiaua iauaaeeiaiey aoiaeeee a no?oeoo?o Ieienoa?noaa aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Aia/aea nouanoaiaae Ia?iaeiue eiienna?eao aiaoiae oi?aiaee, caoai Ieienoa?noai aiaoiae oi?aiaee (IAO) caoai neeoi n Ainoaea?noaaiiui eiieoaoii ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei naycyi (AEYN) e ia?aciaaeinue Ieienoa?noai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae (IAYN).?acaeae iaaeaeo AEYN e IAO i?ioiaeeei ii e?eoa?eth niaoeeaeecaoeee a AYAe. IAO- /enoi oi?aiaay aeayoaeueiinoue; AEYN- aeaeaeaiea eai-ea a oi?ia eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oeaiiinoae. A ninoaaa AEYN auei oaeaea aiaiiia iiae?acaeaeaiea. A 88 aiaeo IAO e AEYN auee iauaaeeiaiu, /oiau iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue AYAe. Ia yoio ia?eiae aa?ao ia/aei eeaa?aeecaoeey, o.a. iooiae io aeanoeie iiiiiieee ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a. N ia/aea 92 a. ia/ae aeaenoaiaaoue i?eeac "I eeaa?aeecaoeee aiaoiae oi?aiaee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee ?NON?". Yoio oeac ioiaiye iaycaoaeueioth ?aaeno?aoeeth ?inneeneeo oe?i a ea/anoaa o/anoieeia AYAe; ?ac?aoae i?aaei?eyoeyi inoaaeyoue o naay 50% aaethoiie au?o/ee; ioiaiaiu e nieaeaiu iaeioi?ua oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu; ?anoe?aiea eniieueciaaiey naiaiaeiie oeaiu ?oaey; nieaeaiea eie-aa oiaa?ia, yenii?o eioi?uo eeoeaice?iaaeny e eaioe?iaaeny. Eciaieeanue no?oeoo?a aiaoiae oi?aiaee. ?aiueoa iniiaiay aeiey - eiii?o iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey, nu?uey, iieooaa?eeaoia, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia. Nae/an ?aceee ?ino eiii?oa i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, nieaeaiea aeiee iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey e aua aieueoa aeiee nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia. Aaia?aoe/aneea eciaiaiey: ia i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeoua no?aiu -i?eia?ii 1/2 aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa(niaaoneee ia?eiae),cia/eoaeueiay aeiey ?acaeaathueony no?ai. Nae/an iauai yenii?oa a ?acaeoua no?aiu oaaee/eeny, aeiey nioe. no?ai oiaiueoeeanue, aeiey ?acaeaathueony no?ai nieceeanue. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiua ia?oia?u -?acaeoua no?aiu, aeaeaa eaeoo auaoea nioe. no?aiu, iaoiaeyueany ia iaoae a?aieoea, a n ?acaeaathueieny no?aiaie nio?aiythony ioiioaiey n Eiaeeae, Ne?eae, Aaeioii, E?aiii, Iaeaceae. Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? ?yae caaea/: -AYAe iai?aaeaia ia i?aiaeieaiea o?oaeiinoae, naycaiiuo n iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth e oeo/oaiea iieiaeaiey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea; -no?aoaae/aneea oeaee ?acaeoey AYN: 1.ainnoaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea ?innee oeo/oaiea no?oeoo?u yenii?oa; 2.?aoeeiiaeecaoeey eiii?oa: iaania/aiea oaeie no?oeoo?u eiii?oa i?e e-ie aaicyony oiaa?u, eioi?uo ia oaaoaao e eioi?ua ioaeiu aeey ?acaeoey no?aiu; 3.iiauoaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?ia ?O ia ie?iaii ?uiea; 4.i?aiaeieaiea oao o?oaeiinoae, eioi?ua iaoatho i?aiaeieaieth iacaaiiuo caaea/, iai?eia? ia eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, iaee/ea ia?iiiiai aiaoiaai aeieaa, ia?acaeoinoue oeiainiaie, oaoie/aneie, eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Yoe caaea/e ainoaea?noai iuoaeinue ?aoeoue ia iooyo eeaa?aeecaoeee. Eoia: i/aiue aeoeaiia aiaea/aiea ?O a AYAe e i/aiue aieueoay caaeneiinoue ?O io aiaoiaai ?uiea. Oaeaea a 98 a auei eeeaeaee?iaaii Ieienoa?noai aiaoieo naycae e neeyiea aai n Ieienoa?noaii i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee. ? 62. E?aaeeoiay aeayoaeueiinoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaea IAO- iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie-/eaiaie e ieacaiey ei oeiainiaie iiiiue i?e aaethoiuo cao?oaeiaieyo, aucuaaaiuo aeaoeoeeoii ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aoei- e n?aaeian?i/iuo e?aaeeoia a eiino?aiiie aaethoa. Oiiae - niaoeeaeece?iaaiiia o/?aaeaeaiea III - i?aeoe/anee neoaeeo einoooeeiiaeueiie iniiaie ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu. IAO aue o/?aaeaeai ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaethoii-oeiainiaie eiioa?aioeee III a A?aooii- Aoaena (1-22 ethey 1944 ). A Onoaaa Oiiaea aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee aai e?aaeeoiie aeayoaeueiinoe eniieuecothony 2 iiiyoey: 1. naeaeea- i?aaeinoaaeaiea aaethoiuo n?aaenoa no?aiai ec aai ?ano?nia 2.iia?aoeey- ieacaiea iin?aaeie/aneeo oeiainiauo e oaoie/aneeo oneoa ca n/ao caaiiuo n?aaenoa. IAO inouanoaeyao e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee oieueei n ioeoeeaeueiuie i?aaiaie - eacia/aenoaaie, OeA, noaaeeecaoeeiiiuie oiiaeaie. ?acee/athony e?aaeeou ia iie?uoea aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina e ia iiaeaea?aeeo no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee no?ai- /eaiia. Aeinooi no?ai-/eaiia e e?aaeeoiui ?ano?nai IAO ia?aie/ai ii?aaeaeaiiuie oneiaeyie: 1. noiia aaethou, iieo/aiiie no?aiie- /eaiii ca 12 ianyoeaa, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo aai iiaiio ia?auaieth a Oiiae, aeeth/ay o?aaoaioth noiio, ia aeieaeia auea i?aauoaoue 25% aaee/eiu eaiou no?aiu; 2. iauay noiia aaethou aeaiiie no?aiu a aeoeaao IAO ia iiaea i?aauoaoue 200% aaee/eiu aa eaiou. A ia?aniio?aiiii a 1978 aiaeo onoaaa ia?aia ia?aie/aiea auei ono?aiaii. Yoi iicaieyao no?aiai-/eaiai eniieueciaaoue eo aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aaethou a IAO a oa/aiee aieaa ei?ioeiai n?iea, /ai 5 eao, eio. ioaeiu auee aeey yoiai i?aaeaea. IAO aceiaao ni no?ai-caaiueoe ?aciaue eiienneiiiue nai? a ?acia?a 0.5% io noiiu naeaeee e ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo, eee %-ioth noaaeo ca i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ei e?aaeeou. Ii enoa/aiee onoaiiaeaiiiai ia?eiaea no?aia-/eai iaycaia i?iecaanoe ia?aoioth iia?aoeeth- aueoieoue iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo o oiiaea, aa?ioa aio n?aaenoaa a NAe?( niaoe. i?aaa caeinoaiaaiey) eee eiino?aiiuo aaethoao. Iiieii oiai, no?aia-caaiuee iaycaia aein?i/ii i?iecaiaeeoue aueoi naiae eceeoiae aeey oiiaea aaethou ii ia?a oeo/oaiey aa ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina e oaaee/aiey aaethoiuo ?aca?aia. I?eia?aoaaiay no?aiie-/eaiii a IAO ia?aay ii?oeey eiino?. aaethou a ?acia?a aei 25% eaiou iacuaaaony ?aca?aiie aeieae. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony eae i?aauoaiea aaee/eiu eaiou no?aiu-/eaia iaae noiiie iaoiaeyuaainy a ?anii?yaeaiee oiiaea caiana iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou aeaiiie no?aiu. Noiia caeiia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo no?aiie-/eaiii oiiaeo a ?aieao aeiiieieoaeueiuo e?aaeeoiuo niaeaoaiee, ia?acoao aa e?aaeeoioth iiceoeeth. ?aca?aiay aeiey e e?aaeeoiay iiceoeey aianoa ninoaaeytho ?aca?aioth iiceoeeth no?aiu-/eaia a oiiaea. Eniieueciaaiea yoie iiceoeee ia o?aaoao i no?aiu %-iuo e eiienneiiiuo ieaoaaeae e ia iaeaaaao ia iaa iaycaoaeuenoaa aa?iooue iieo/aiiua aaethoiua n?aaenoaa. Iaoaieci e?aaeeoiuo aeieae. N?aaenoaa a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, eio iiaoo auoue i?eia?aoaiu no?aiie-/eaiii naa?o ?aca?aiie aeiee aeaeyony ia 4 e?aaeeoiua aeiee (o?aioe) ii 15% eaiou. I?aaeaeueiay noiia e?aaeeoa, eio. no?aia iiaeao i?eia?anoe o IAO a ?acoeueoaoa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey ?aca?aiie e e?aaeeoiuo aeieae nino. 125% ?acia?a aa eaiou. Eniieueciaaiea ia?aie e?aaeeoiie aeiee i.a. inouanoaeaii eae a oi?ia i?yiie iieoiee eiino?aiioth aaethou, i?e eioi?ie no?aia iieo/aao anth noiio iaiaaeeaiii iinea iaeia?aiey oiiaea aa cai?ina, oae e iooai caeeth/aiey n IAO niaeaoaiey i ?aca?aiii e?aaeeoa. Niaeaoaiea i ?aca?aiii e?aaeeoa, eee niaeaoaiea noyiae-aae, iaania/eaatho no?aia-/eaio aa?aioeth oiai, /oi iia niiaeao iieo/eoue eiino?aiioth aaethoo io IAO a iaiai ia iaoeeiiaeueioth a niioaaonoaea n aeiaiai?aiiinoueth a ethaia a?aiy i?e niaethaeaiee no?aiie iaiai?aiiuo oneiaee. Aeaaiui iacia/aieai e?aaeeoia noyiae-aae yaeyaony e?aaeeoiaaiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee i?ia?aii no?ai-/eaiia IAO. Aaethoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiay oiiaeii a aeaea ?aca?aiiai e?aaeeoa a ?aieao aa?oieo e?aaeeoiuo aeieae, auaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiuie ii?oeeyie (o?aioaie) /a?ac onoaiiaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie a oa/aiee n?iea niaeaoaiey. Iniiaaieai aeey ia?auaiey no?aiu e IAO i i?aaeinoaaeaiee e?aaeeoa a ?aieao nenoaiu ?anoe?aiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey i. a. na?ueaciia ia?ooaiea ?aaiiaaney ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, aucaaiiia no?oeoo?iuie ?anno?ienoaaie a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa, oi?aiaee eee oeaiiaiai iaoaiecia. N iiya?y 1992 aiaea aeaenoaotho neaaeothuea eeieou aeinooia no?ai-/eaiia e ?ano?nai IAO: i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea- aei 68% eaiou no?aiu-/eaia; eoioeyoeaiay, aeeth/athuay caaeieaeaiiinoue no?aiu ii ?aiaa iieo/aiiui e?aaeeoai, i?aaeaeueiay aaee/eia-300% eaio ? 63. Oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee. Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee: ?aaoee?oaiua oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee 1.niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo noauaeoaie oi?aiaee - iaaeainoaea?noaaiiue oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneea niaeaoaiey 2.ano?a/iua oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee: aa?oa? (aacaaethoiue, ii naaeaine?iaaiiue ii noieiinoe iaiai oiaa?aie; i?iecaiaeeony ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?iui oeaiai) eiiiainaoeeiiiua niaeaoaiey (niaeaoaiey i aiciauaiee e?aaeeoia e oneoa a ii?aaeaeaiiua n?iee e ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo); 1)eiiia?/aneay eiiiainaoeey - eiiiainaoeey oiaa?aie; 2)i?iiuoeaiiay eiiiainaoeey -ieacaiea no?ieoaeueiuo e ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo oneoa, iinoaaea iai?oaeiaaiey. eee?eia (nenoaia aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia ca oiaa?u e oneoae) 3.oiaa?iia niaeaoaiea-anooiatho no?aiu, oi?aothuea ia ie?iaii ?uiea iaeiioeiiui nu?ueai. Iniiaiua aii?inu: neieueei eaaeaeay no?aia aeieaeia yenii?oe?iaaoue eaiou ia yenii?o eaiou ia i?iecaiaenoai eiaanoeoeee a ?acaeoea yenii?oiuo io?aneae nai? eioi?iaoeee Oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, naiaiaeiua io ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oi?ae (eiieo?niay oi?ia ?aciauaiey caeacia ia caeoieo oiaa?a e ia ?aciauaiea ). Ii?yaeie oi?aia: no?aia iauyaeyao oaiaea?, a eioi?ii o/anoaotho ana no?aiu (eiiiaiee). No?aiu aeaeatho oaiaea?iua i?aaeeiaeaiey. ?aaioaao eiienney, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyo iiaaaeeoaey. ?ieue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea: 20-40% oi?aiaee inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aia (oiaa?aie e oneoaaie) aoeoeeiiu (iii/a?aaeiay i?iaeaaea ?aaeueiiai oiaa?a ia iniiaa eiieo?na iieoiaoaeae). Iie iiaoo auoue: ?aaeiiaeueiua e aoeoeeiiu niaoeeoe/aneeo oiaa?ia. ae?aea - eiiia?/aneee, ?aaoey?ii ooieoeeiie?othuee ?uiie oiaa?ia n ii?aaeaeaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. a)naeaeee n ?aaeueiuie oiaa?aie ia ae?aea (oeiiie, ca?ii) -5-7% io anao ae?aeaauo naeaeie a)iniiaiua naeaeee ii i?aaai nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa?u (niaeoeyoeee eiio?aeoaie ia i?aai nianoaaiiinoe); Oueth/a?niay oi?aiaey= n?i/iua naeaeee ii oeene?iaaiiie a iiiaio naeaeee oeaia n eniieiaieai /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy a) no?aoiaua iia?aoeee (oaaeaee?iaaiea) 64. ?ieue Anaie?iiai aaiea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii e?aaeeoa. A iiaeaea?aeaiee noaaeeueiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia aaaeiaeoaa ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaaeae. oei-e?aaeeoiui einoeoooai. E?oiiaeoei niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui iaaeae. oei-e?aaeeoiui einoeoooii yae-ny Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey (Anaie?iue aaie), nicaeaiiue ia iniiaa A?aooii-aoaenneeo niaeaoaiee a 1945a. Yoi iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay oei. i?aaiecaoeey, iniiaiie caaea/ae eioi?ie yae-ny noeioee?iaaiea yeii. ?acaeoey no?ai-/eaiia IA?? (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaaiui ia?acii ?acaeaathueony no?ai), niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth iaaeae. oi?aiaee e iiaeaea?aeaieth ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia, noeioee?iaaiea no?oeoo?iuo oic. ?aoi?i a no?aiao. Iniiaiie aeayo-oueth IA?? yae-ny i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeieain?i/iuo caeiia iiae aeinoaoi/ii aunieee i?ioeaio (6-7%). E?aaeeou auaeathony oeaeaaua, n eueaioiui ia?eiaeii iiaaoaiey (aei 20 eao). Caeiu i?aaeinoaaeythony eae ain-iui, oae e /anoiui i?aaei?eyoeyi i?e iaee/ee aa?aioee eo i?aaeoaeuenoa. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue e?aaeeoia iai?aaeyaony a ianoiua (?aaeiiaeueiua) aaiee ?acaeoey, eioi?ua ia?a?ani?aaeaeytho iieo/aiiua io IA?? n?aaenoaa. Ca naia nouanoaiaaiea IA?? auaeaeee 300 ie?ae. aeieea?ia (a aiae auaeaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 15 ie?ae. aeieea?ia). *eaiaie IA?? iiaoo auoue oieueei no?aiu-/eaiu IAO. Enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?iaaiey yaeythony: onoaaiue eaieoae aaiea (165 ie?ae. aeieea?ia); caaiiua n?aaenoaa; auione oeaiiuo aoiaa. N ia/aea 70-o aa. a ?acaeoee IA?? (e IAO) iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa yoaia. Aeaei a oii, /oi a yoeo i?aaiecaoeeyo aan no?aiu i?e aieiniaaiee caaeneo io aa oei. eaiou a IAO eee aeiee aeoeeiia?iiai o/anoey a eaieoaea IA??. A oi aea a?aiy e eiioeo 80-o aa. caeanue i?iecioee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a noi?iio aieaa naaeaine?iaaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aieinia: aeiey NOA nie?aoeeanue n 30% a 1984a. aei 19% a 1988a., a oaeaeueiue aan ca yoio aea ia?eiae n 19% aei 34%. O.i. IA?? yae-ny iaeiei ec oeaio?aeueiuo caaiueaa aaeeiie iauaie?iaie nenoaiu aaaeiaeoeo iaeanoae ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae. I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i i?aaeinoaaeaiee n?aaenoa aaie o?aaoao oe?ieie eioi?iaoeee ia yeii. e oei. iieiaeaiee yoeo no?ai, iai?aaeyao ooaea naie yeii. iennee. Oaeea iennee, nioiyuea a iniiaiii ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai, i?iaiaeeo inaeaaeiaaiea ye-ee e oeiainia no?ai-/eaiia, aeeytho ia ninoaaeaiea e auiieiaiea iaoe. i?ia?aii eo yeii. ?acaeoey. A ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo iennee IA?? i?ei?eoao ioaeaaony ?acaeoeth /anoiiai naeoi?a ye-ee e i?eaea/aieth eiino?. eai-ea a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. Iauay noiia e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aaieii ca 47 eao aai aeayo-oe, aeinoeaea 235 ie?ae. aeiee. Ini. caaea/a IA?? - e?aaeeoiaaiea eiie?aoiuo iauaeoia (i?aeiouanoaaiii eio?ano?oeoo?iuo - o?ainii?o, naycue, yia?aaoeea) ia iniiaa eo ouaoaeueiiai ioai?a. N na?aaeeiu 70-o aa. a e?aaeeoao aaiea ana aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho nioe. aniaeou ?acaeoey, iniaaiii ai?ueaa n aaaeiinoueth. Oaaee/eaathony e?aaeeou ia ?acaeoea cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey naiuee, ?acaeoey n/o, iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony io?aia ie?oae. n?aaeu e i?eaaoecaoeee. Iiaui yaeaieai n 80-o aa. noae naeaea a e?aaeeoiie no?aoaaee IA??, eioi?ue, eae e IAO, noae i?aaeinoaaeyoue e?aaeeo ia no?oeoo?ioth aaeaioaoeeth a niioa-e n i?ia?aiiie yeii. ?aoi?i e ia?aoiaea no?aiu-caaiueea e ?ui. ye-ea. I?e yoii auaeaeyaiua aaieii e?aaeeou ia i?eaycaiu e eiie?aoiui iauaeoai, e no?aiu-caaiueee iiaoo naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny caaiiuie n?-ie. IA?? noae e?aaeeoiaaoue e ain. i?aaei?eyoey a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, ii eeoue i?e iaee/ee aa?aioee eo i?aaeoaeuenoa e anee ?oe-ai aaiea oaaaeeony, /oi /anoiue eaieoae ionoonoaoao, a o/anoea i?aa-aa ia iaianao oua?aa ?anoe?aieth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a aeaiiie no?aia. Aeey ?acaeoey n/o aaie auaeaeyao ieiei 1/5 naieo e?aaeeoiuo anneaiiaaiee, aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe anneaiiaaii ia aieaa 1/5 e?aaeeoia IA??, eioi?ue no?aieony i?aa?aoeoue yoio aaaeiaeoee naeoi? ?acaeaathuaeny ye-ee a eeth/aaie iauaeo i?eeiaeaiey /anoiiai eai-ea. Aieueoeinoai e?aaeeoia IA?? auaeaaony ia n?ie 15-20 eao (eueaioiue ia?eiae 5 eao), i?e/ai iaeiaiueoea n?iee oa?aeoa?iu aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey i?ii-oe. E na?. 1993 a. iniiaiay noaaea IA?? ?aaiyeanue 7,43% aiaeiauo, iiyoiio e?aaeeoaie IA?? iiaoo iieueciaaoueny ia ana ?acaeaathueany no?aiu, e eeoue e?oiiua eee iaeaieaa ?acaeoeua ec ieo: Iaeneea, A?aceeey, Eiaeey, Eiaeiiacey, Oo?oeey, Eeoae, Oeeeiieiu, A?aaioeia, THaeiay Ei?ay, Eieoiaey. Eiaiii yoe 10 no?ai iieo/eee iaeaieueooth noiio e?aaeeoia - aieaa 7 ie?ae. aeiee. Eaaeaeay, a anaai 137 ie?ae. aeiee. eee ieiei 60% anao e?aaeeoia IA?? e na?aaeeia 1993 aiaea. Iniaaiii aeooaeueiie iiaay e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea IA?? noaea a ioiioaiee ?aoi?ie?oaiuo oic. no?oeoo? ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai e ?anioaeee auaoaai NNN?: aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey e?aeia iaiaoiaeeiiai eiii?oa, ?aeiino?oeoeee iaooaaeiauaathueo iaeanoae (Cai. Neae?ue), iiaeaea?aeea i?eaaoecaoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu, ?acaeoey neoaea caiyoinoe e neoaiu nioe. caueou. 65. Ia?eaeneee e Eiiaeiineee eeoau. Einoeoooeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee aeeth/. e iaoi?iaeueiua iaaeaeoia?iaei. i?aaiecaoeee, oaeea eae Ia?eaeneee e Eiiaeiineea eeoau. Ia?eaeneee eeoa no?ai-e?aaeeoi?ia - iaoi?iaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai, aaea ianoaeaeathony i?iaeaiu o?aaoee?iaaiey, ion?i/ee ieaoaaeae ii ainoae. aeieao no?ai. Aeey ecaaaeaiey iaeiinoi?iiiaai ii?aoi?ey ( ion?i/ee ieaoaaea) e?aaeeoi?u aaaeoo ia?aaiai?u n aeieaeieeaie eeoeii e eeoeo ia oneiaeyo ia?aniio?a aiaoieo caeiia. Ia/aei aai aeayoaeueiinoe ioiineony e 1956 aiaeo, eiaaea e?aaeeoi?u A?aaioeiu auee i?eaeaoaiu a Ia?eae ia ia?aaiai?u n aeieaeieeaie. Ia?eiaee/aneea canaaeaiey Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa a 70-o aiaeao niaieeenue aeoeaiie ?aaioie a 80-90-o aiaeao a nayce n iaino?aieai i?iaeaiu iiaaoaiey ainoae. aeieaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai, a caoai no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e ?innee. Ia canaaeaieyo Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa i?enoonoaotho iaaethaeaoaee ec IAO, IA??(iaaeaeoia?. aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey), THIEOAAe e iau/ii ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in i oie /anoe aiaoiaai aeieaa, eio. aeieaeia auoue iiaaoaia a oaeouai aiaeo. Ia?eaeneee eeoa ii ae?oaiio iacuaaaony Aeaee 10 eee A?oiia aeanyoe. A ia?eaeneee eeoa aoiaeyo: Aaeueaey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aa?iaiey, Eoaeey, Eaiaaea, Ieaea?eaiaeu, O?aioeey, Oaaoeey, NOA, ssiiiey e ae?. Ia?eaeneee eeoa i?aaeinoaaeyao e?aaeeou ainoae. no?oeoo?ai. Ia?eaeneee eeoa oeiaine?oao i?ia?aiio IO? (ioeoeeaeueiia oeiaine?iaaiea ?acaeoey). Aeey ?acaeaathueony no?ai iaoaieci IO? eiaao o?e aeaea: 1. 58% anao n?-a IO? iinooiaao io Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa 2. iiiainoi?iiiaa nio?oaeia/anoai ia iniiaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oeiainiauo i?aaiecaoeee 3. iieo/aiea e?aaeeoa io no?ai ca i?aaeaeaie Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa ( A?aaneea no?aiu e ae?. ) IO? aeeth/aao 2 aeaea e?aaeeoa: 1. ioeoeeaeueiay iiiiuue ?acaeoey (II?) 2. i?i/ea IO? N?-aa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua a ea/anoaa II? aei 25% aeieaeiu auoue aacaiciacaeiuie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiey aacaiciacaeiinoe ?anoao e aeey iaeioi?uo no?ai nino. oaea 70%. I?i/ea IO? ia i?aaeinoaaeythony ia aacaiciacaeiie iniiaa e eiatho aieaa aeanoeea %-iua noaaee NIaeanii ?anii?yaeaiey i?aceaeaioa ?O N 378 ?O io 16.19.97 " I i?eniaaeeiaiea ?O e aeayoaeueiinoe Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa e?aaeeoi?ia a ea/anoaa ain- aa o/anoieea". A oeaeyo aeaeueiaeo. eioaa?aoeee ?O a iaaeaeoia?iaeioth aaethoii oeiain. nen-io, iaania/aiea yeiiii. e iieeo. eioa?ania ?O, iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?inn. aiaoieo oei. aeoeaia e a ?acaeoea aeiaiai?aiiinoae, aeinoeaioouo ia ano?a/a 8 aaaeoueo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai ie?a a ethia 97 a. ( a. Aeaiaa? NOA ): 1. i?eciaoue oeaeaniia?aciui i?eniaaeeiaiea ?O e aeayo-oe Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa e?aaeeoi?ia a ea/anoaa ainoaea?noaa-o/anoieea. 2. I?aaeoaeuenoao ?O iaania/eoue a 97 a. i?eniaaeeiaiea ?O e aeayoaeueiinoe Ia?eaeneiai eeoaa e?aaeeoi?ia a ea/anoaa iieiii?aaiiai o/anoieea. Eiiaeiineee eeoa nicaeai a 50-o aiaeao. A Eiiaeiineii eeoaa, eio. iauaaeeiyao i?eia?ii 600 eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, ianoaeaeathony i?iaeaiu o?aaoee?iaaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe /anoiui e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaui einoeoooai. Eiiaeiineee eeoa i?aaeinoaaeyao e?aaeeou eae ainoae, oae e /anoiui i?aaei?eyoeyi. Eiiaeiineee eeoa ia iaaeinoaaeyao e?aaeeou ia eueaioiie e aacaiciacaeiie iniiaa, o.e. yoi /anoiua eiiia?/aneea aaiee. A Eiiaeiineee eeoa aoiaeyo aaiee ssiiiee, NOA e Aa?iiu. N na?aaeeiu 70-o aiaeia ?ac?aaioea i?iaeai iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai o?aaoee?iaaiey ia?aianaia ia o?iaaiue niaauaiey aeaa ainoaea?noa e i?aaeoaeuenoa naia?ee e a?oiiu aeanyoe, eioi?ay e?iia naia?ee aeeth/aao Aaeueaeth, Ieaea?eaiaeu, Oaaeoea?eth e Oaaoeeth ( Oaaeoea?ey, oioy iia e ia yae. /eaiii IAO noaea /eaiii iauaai niaeaoaiey i caeiao IAO, caeeth/aiiiai no?aiaie Aeaee 10 aeey ?anoe?aiey e?aaeeoiuo aiciiaeiinoae oiiaea). Ia yoeo niaauaieyo aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aaethoii-e?aaeeoiui i?iaeaiai. E eaaeaeue ?ac iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony i?eioeei eeaa?aeecia e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a i?ioeaiaan oeio?iaaaeiui oaiaeaioeeyi " eaaeaeue ca naay". ? 66. AN: yoaiu ?acaeoey e ia?niaeoeau eioaa?aoeee. I?ioeann naeeaeaiey acaeiiia?aieeoaiey iaoe. ye-e, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ia?aciaaiea aaeeiiai oic. eiiieaena a ?aieao a?oiie?iaie, iaoae au?aaeaiea a AYN. Aa?iiaeneia yeiiiie/aneia niiauanoai (AYN) - iaeaieaa ?acaeoia ?aaeiiaeueiia eioaa?aoeeiiiay a?oiie?iaea no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu; ooieoeeiie?oao n 1 yiaa?y 58 a. ia iniiaa ?eineiai aeiaiai?a, iiaeienaiiiai a ia?oa 57 a. 6-th no?aiaie: O?A, o?aioeeae, Eoaeeae, Aaeueaeae, Ieaea?eaiaeaie, Ethenaiao?aii. Oeaeue AN: 1. nicaeaoue yeii. e iie. nithc ia aaca iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oic. aeecie; i?aa?aoeoue AN a noia? ain.; 2. oe?aieoue iiceoeee caiiaeiiaa?iiaeneiai oeaio?a aeey i?ioeaiai?noaa n NOA e ssiiieae ia ie?iaii ?uiea; 3. eieeaeoeaiuie oneeeyie oaea?aeaoue a noa?a naiaai aeeyiey ?acaeaathueany no?aiu - auaoea eieiiee caiiaeiiaa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa. Iniiaiua ye-ou aaethoiie eioaa?aoeee: 1. ?aaeei niaianoii ieaaathueo aaethoi. eo?nia; 2. aaethoi. eioa?aaioeey, a o. /. eieeaeoeaiay, aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?uii/iuo eo?nia aaetho a i?aaeaeao niaeaniaaiiiai ioeeiiaiey io oeaio?aeueiiai eo?na; 3. nicaeaiea eieeaeoeaiie aaethou eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ieaoaaeii-?aca?aiiai n?-aa; 4. niaianoiua oiiaeu acaeiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey no?ai- /eaiia aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey eo?nia aaetho; 5. iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?aaeiiaeueiua aaethoii-e?aaeeoiua e oei-ua i?aaiecaoeee aeey aaethoiiai e e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Caiiaeiiaa?iiaeneie eioaa?aoeee i?aaeoanoaiaaee niaeaoaiey i iiiainoi?iiieo aaethoiuo eiiiainaoeeyo iaaeaeo O?aioeeae, Eoaeeae, Aaeueaeae, Ieaea?eaiaeaie, Ethenaiao?aii e i?eniaaeeieaoeieny e iei n 1947 a. caiaaeiuie ieoiaoeeiiiuie ciiaie Aa?iaiee;niaeaoaiey 1947-49 aa. i aioo?eaa?iiaeneeo ieaoaaeao e eiiiainaoeeyo iaaeaeo 17 no?aiaie: Aa?iiaeneee ieaoaaeiue nithc (AIN)- iiiainoi?iiiee eee?eia 50-58aa.; aaaaeaiea eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaetho 58-61aa. I?ioeann eioaa?aoeee aeeth/. ianeieueei yoaiia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia nicaeaiea aaeeiiai ?uiea e ia yoie aaca ye-iai e aaethoiiai nithca. A 58-68 aa. ("ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae") aue ia?aciaai oaiiaeaiiue nithc. Auee ioiaiaiu oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu e ia?aie/aiey ai acaeiiie oi?aiaea, aaaaeai aaeeiue oaiiaeaiiue oa?eo ia aaic oiaa?ia ec o?aoueeo no?ai a oeaeyo ia?aaeaeaiey AYN io eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee. E 1967 a. neiaeeeny aa?a?iue iauee ?uiie. Aaaaeai iniaue ?aaeei ?aaoee?iaaiey n-o oeai.Oaiiaeaiiue nithc aeiiieiyeny yeaiaioaie iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai niaeaniaaiey yeiiii. e aaethoiie iie-ee. Auee niyou iiiaea ia?aie/aiey aeey aeaeaeaiey eai-ea e ?aai/ae neeu. No?aiu AN i?eiyee a 1971 a. i?ia?aiio iiyoaiiiai nicaeaiey yeiiii. e aaethoiiai nithca e 1980 a. I?e ?ac?aaioea aa i?iaeoa noieeioeenue iiceoeee "iiieoi?enoia " (ai aeaaa n O?aioeeae), eio. n/eoaee, /oi a ia/aea iaaei nicaeaoue aaethoiue nithc ia aaca oeene?iaaiiuo aaethoiuo eo?nia e "yeiiii-ia " (a iniiaiii i?aaenoaaeoaeae O?A), eio. i?aaeeaaaee ia/aoue oi?ie?iaaiea yeiiii. nithca e i?aaeii/eoaee ?aaeei ieaaathueo aaethoiuo eo?nia. Yoio nii? caaa?oeeny eiii?iienniui ?aoaieai aeaa i?aaeoaeuenoa AYN a 1969 a. a Aaaaa i ia?aeeaeueiii nicaeaiee yeiiiie/. e aaethoiiai nithca. Iiyoaiiue "ieai Aa?ia?a", i?eiyoue 22.03.71 aiaea niaaoii ieieno?ia AYN, aue ?an/eoai ia 10 eao. Ia ia?aii yoaia (1971-1974) i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue noaeaiey i?aaeaeia eieaaaiee aaethoiuo eo?nia, aaaaeaiea iieiie acaeiiie ia?aoeiinoe aaetho, niaeaniaaiea yeiiiie/aneie, oeiainiaiee aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Ia aoi?ii yoaia (1975-1976) iaia/aeinue caaa?oaiea yoeo ia?ii?eyoee. Ia o?aoueai yoaia (77-79aa.) i?aaeiieaaaeinue ia?aaeaoue iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaiai "Iauaai ?uiea" iaeioi?ua iieiiii/ey, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea iaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaeoaeuenoaai, nicaeaoue aa?iiaeneoth aaethoo a oeaeyo au?aaieaaiey aaethoiuo eo?nia e oeai. Ieaie?iaaeenue nicaeaiea aaeeiie athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu, aa?iiiecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe aaieia. I?ioeann aaethoiie eioaa?aoeee a yoio ia?eiae ?acaeaaeny ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi: * iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua eiinoeueoaoeee a oeaeyo eii?aeeiaoeee aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee; * niaianoiia ieaaaiea eo?nia ?yaea aaetho AYN a noaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao ("aa?iiaeneay aaethoiay ciay"); * aaethoiay eioa?aaioeey ia oieueei a aeieea?ao, ii e a aa?iiaeneeo aaethoao; * oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo acaeiiuo e?aaeeoia; * nicaeaiea athaeaeaoa AYN; * aaaaeaiea nenoaiu eiiiainaoeeiiiuo aaethoiuo noii- iaeiaia e noaneaeee a oi?ia iaaeaaaee eee neeaeee e aaeeiie oeaia ia aa?a?iua oiaa?u; * o/?aaeaeaiea iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo e oeiainiauo einoeoooia- Aa?iiaeneiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai aaiea, Aa?iiaeneiai oiiaea ?acaeoey, Aa?iiaeneiai oiiaea aaethoiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa e ae?. A eiioea 1970-o aiaeia aeoeaece?iaaeenue iienee iooae nicaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai e aaethoiiai nithca. 13 ia?oa 1979 aiaea auea nicaeaia Aa?iiaeneay aaethoiay nenoaia (AAN). Aa oeaee neaaeothuea: iaania/eoue aeinoeaeaiea yeiiiie/. eioaa?aoeee; nicaeaoue ciio aa?iiaeneie noaaeeueiinoe n nianoaaiiie aaethoie a i?ioeaiaan ssiaeneie aaethoiie nenoaia, iniiaaiiie ia aeieea?iaii noaiaea?oa; ia?aaeeoue iauee ?uiie io yeniainee aeieea?a. No?oeoo?iua i?eioeeiu AYN: * AAN aace?oaony ia yeth- aa?iiaeneie aaethoiie aaeeieoea. Oneiaiay noieiinoue yeth ii?aae. ii iaoiaeo aaethoiie ei?ceiu. Aeiey aaetho a ea?ceia yeth caaeneo io oaeaeueiiai aana no?ai a niaieoiiii AII ainoaea?noa-/eaiia AN, eo acaeiiii oiaa?iiai?ioa e o/anoea a e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoao iiaeaea?aeee. * AAN eniieuecoao cieioi a ea/anoaa ?aaeueiuo ?aca?aiuo aeoeaia. * ?aaeei aaethoiuo eo?nia iniiaai ia niaianoiii ieaaaiee aaetho a oi?ia "aa?iiaeneie aaethoiie ciae" a onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao acaeiiuo eieaaaiee. * AAN inouanoae. aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey oeaio?aeueiui aaieai e?aaeeoia aeey iie?uoey a?aiaiiiai aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia e ?an/aoia, naycaiiuo n aaethoiie eioa?aaioeeae. Aaaeiie aaoie a ?acaeoee aaethoiie eioaa?aoeee a AYN yaeeny aaeeiue aa?iiaeneee aeo, i?eiyoue a iaa 1987 aiaea. Iiaue yoai- i?ia?aiia nicaeaiey aaethoiiai yeiiiie/aneiai nithca, ?ac?aaioaiiay eiieoaoii AE. Aeaei?a a ai?aea 1989a. Ieai Aeaei?a i?aaeoniao?eaae: * nicaeaiea iauaai ?uiea, iiiu?aiea eiieo?aioeee a AN aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia ai ecaaaeaiea ceioiio?aaeaiee iiiiiieueiui iieiaeaieai, iieeoeeie niaeaoaiey, neeyieai, ainoae. noaneaeee; * nooeoo?iia au?aaieaaiea ionoaeuo cii e ?aaeiiia; * eii?aeeiaoeeth yeiiiie/aneie, athaeaeaoiie, iaeiaiaie iieeoeee a oeaeyo naea?aeeaaiey eioeyoeee, noaaeeecaoeee oeai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, ia?aie/aiea aeaoeoeeoa ain. athaeaeaoa; * o/?aaeaeaiea iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai einoeoooa. E?iia oiai, iinoaaeaia caaea/a ia?aciaaiey iieeoe/aneiai nithca AN e 2000 a. Aeey aaethoiiai nithca iaiaoiaeeii: 1. o/anoea anao aaetho a aa?iiaeneie ciaa; 2. niaethaeaiea no?aiaie aaeeiuo i?aaeaeia eieaaaiee eo?na aaethou; 3. niaaeeiaiea ioeoeeaeueiiai e /anoiiai naeoi?ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeth; 4. ono?aiaiea ainiiaenoaa ia?ee O?A a aaethoiie eioa?aaioeee. Ia iniiaa ieaia Aeaei?a e aeaeaa?th 1991a. aue au?aaioai Iaano?eooneee aeiaiai? i AN, i?aaeoniao?eaathuee, a /anoiinoe, iiyoaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneiai nithca. Aeiaiai? anooiee a neeo n 1.11.93 a. Ia?aue yoai oaeoe/anee ia/aeny a ethea 1990a. iaeiia?aiaiii n iieiie ioiaiiie aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee ii aeaeaeaeth eaieoaea a AN. Iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii naeeaeaieth o?iaiae yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, nieaeaieth oaiia eioeyoeee e nie?auaieth athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa (iniaaiii oaeeo no?ai n ioiineoaeueii neaaie ye-eie, eae Ii?ooaaeey e A?aoeey). Aoi?ie yoai ia/aeny n yiaa?y 1994 a. nicaeaieai Aa?iiaeneiai aaethoiiai einoeoooa a ninoaaa oi?aaeythueo oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie no?ai-/eaiia. Aai caaea/a - iiaeaioiaea e i?aaiecaoeee Aa?iiaeneie nenoaiu oeaio?. aaieia e yiennee aaieiio a yeth. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeaii eii?aeeiaoeee yeiiiie/aneie e aeaiaaeii e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee no?ai-/eaiia AN. I?aaeoniio?aiu naieoeee e ia?ooaieyi yeiiiie/aneie, i?aaeaea anaai athaeaeaoiie aeenoeeieeiu. I?aaeoniio?aia iiiiuue AN ii icaei?iaeaieth iaoe. yeiiiieee a iniiaiii ca n/ao no?oeoo?iuo oiiaeia, oi?ie?oaiuo ec niaianoiiai athaeaeaoa, e?aaeeoia. E?aaeeoiay iieeoeea IA?? e oa?aeoa?enoeea aai aeoeaiuo iia?aoeee I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i i?aaeinoaaeaiee n?aaenoa aaie o?aaoao oe?ieie eioi?iaoeee ia yeii. e oei. iieiaeaiee yoeo no?ai, iai?aaeyao ooaea naie yeii. iennee. Oaeea iennee, nioiyuea a iniiaiii ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai, i?iaiaeeo inaeaaeiaaiea ye-ee e oeiainia no?ai-/eaiia, aeeytho ia ninoaaeaiea e auiieiaiea iaoe. i?ia?aii eo yeii. ?acaeoey. A ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo iennee IA?? i?ei?eoao ioaeaaony ?acaeoeth /anoiiai naeoi?a ye-ee e i?eaea/aieth eiino?. eai-ea a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. Iauay noiia e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aaieii ca 47 eao aai aeayo-oe, aeinoeaea 235 ie?ae. aeiee. Ini. caaea/a IA?? - e?aaeeoiaaiea eiie?aoiuo iauaeoia (i?aeiouanoaaiii eio?ano?oeoo?iuo - o?ainii?o, naycue, yia?aaoeea) ia iniiaa eo ouaoaeueiiai ioai?a. N na?aaeeiu 70-o aa. a e?aaeeoao aaiea ana aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho nioe. aniaeou ?acaeoey, iniaaiii ai?ueaa n aaaeiinoueth. Oaaee/eaathony e?aaeeou ia ?acaeoea cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey naiuee, ?acaeoey n/o, iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony io?aia ie?oae. n?aaeu e i?eaaoecaoeee. Iiaui yaeaieai n 80-o aa. noae naeaea a e?aaeeoiie no?aoaaee IA??, eioi?ue, eae e IAO, noae i?aaeinoaaeyoue e?aaeeo ia no?oeoo?ioth aaeaioaoeeth a niioa-e n i?ia?aiiie yeii. ?aoi?i e ia?aoiaea no?aiu-caaiueea e ?ui. ye-ea. I?e yoii auaeaeyaiua aaieii e?aaeeou ia i?eaycaiu e eiie?aoiui iauaeoai, e no?aiu-caaiueee iiaoo naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny caaiiuie n?-ie. IA?? noae e?aaeeoiaaoue e ain. i?aaei?eyoey a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, ii eeoue i?e iaee/ee aa?aioee eo i?aaeoaeuenoa e anee ?oe-ai aaiea oaaaeeony, /oi /anoiue eaieoae ionoonoaoao, a o/anoea i?aa-aa ia iaianao oua?aa ?anoe?aieth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a aeaiiie no?aia. Aeey ?acaeoey n/o aaie auaeaeyao ieiei 1/5 naieo e?aaeeoiuo anneaiiaaiee, aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe anneaiiaaii ia aieaa 1/5 e?aaeeoia IA??, eioi?ue no?aieony i?aa?aoeoue yoio aaaeiaeoee naeoi? ?acaeaathuaeny ye-ee a eeth/aaie iauaeo i?eeiaeaiey /anoiiai eai-ea. Aieueoeinoai e?aaeeoia IA?? auaeaaony ia n?ie 15-20 eao (eueaioiue ia?eiae 5 eao), i?e/ai iaeiaiueoea n?iee oa?aeoa?iu aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey i?ii-oe. E na?. 1993 a. iniiaiay noaaea IA?? ?aaiyeanue 7,43% aiaeiauo, iiyoiio e?aaeeoaie IA?? iiaoo iieueciaaoueny ia ana ?acaeaathueany no?aiu, e eeoue e?oiiua eee iaeaieaa ?acaeoeua ec ieo: Iaeneea, A?aceeey, Eiaeey, Eiaeiiacey, Oo?oeey, Eeoae, Oeeeiieiu, A?aaioeia, THaeiay Ei?ay, Eieoiaey. Eiaiii yoe 10 no?ai iieo/eee iaeaieueooth noiio e?aaeeoia - aieaa 7 ie?ae. aeiee. Eaaeaeay, a anaai 137 ie?ae. aeiee. eee ieiei 60% anao e?aaeeoia IA?? e na?aaeeia 1993 aiaea. Iniaaiii aeooaeueiie iiaay e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea IA?? noaea a ioiioaiee ?aoi?ie?oaiuo oic. no?oeoo? ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai e ?anioaeee auaoaai NNN?: aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey e?aeia iaiaoiaeeiiai eiii?oa, ?aeiino?oeoeee iaooaaeiauaathueo iaeanoae (Cai. Neae?ue), iiaeaea?aeea i?eaaoecaoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu, ?acaeoey neoaea caiyoinoe e neoaiu nioe. caueou. 67. Iiiyoey e iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ninoaaeaiey NIN NIN - yoi nenoaia acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iieacaoaeae, i?eiaiyaiay aeey iienaiey e aiaeeca iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeann?a a no?aia n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. NIN aicieeea a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee no?aiao a nayce n iio?aaiinoueth a eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiyoey ia? ii ?aaoee?iaaeth ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e oi?ie?iaaieth yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. NIN - yoi eoiaiaay /anoue anaai iaoe. n/aoiaiaenoaa,eae aaeeiay nenoaia ia?ae/iiai aooaaeoa?neiai, aaieianeiai o/aoa. NIN iniiaaia ia aaeeinoaa iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiia. NIN oieoeoee?iaaia ii iniiaiui iaoiaeieiae/aneei iieiaeaieyi n ieaoaaeiui aaeainii e iaaeio?aneaaui aaainai. Aeaiiua aa oe?iei eniiecothony iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie yeiiiie/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie. A ?ac?aaioeo eiioeaioeee iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca e?oiiue aeeaae aianee oaeea e?oiiua o/aiua eae Oeeueyi Iaooe, A?aai?e Eeia, O?ainoa Eaiia, Ea?e Ia?en. Cia/eoaeueiia oai?aoe/aneia aeeyiea ieacaee enneaaeiaaiey ia?aie iieiaeiu OO aaea. NIN - yoi eiioe. au?aaeaiea e iaiiuaiea oai?ee e i?aeoeee iaoe. n/aoiaiaenoaaa a ?acaeouo no?aiao. Ia?aay aa?ney NIN III ?ac?aaioaia a 1953 a Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iaoe. n/aoiaiaenoaa i?eaaei e nicaeaieth aa?nee NIN III 1968 a. Inoiyuay aa?ney NIN IIIaeaoe?iaaia 1993 a. Iaoiae iaoeeiiaeueiiai n/aoiaiaenoaa IIN - aaeain. Eaaeaeue n/ao NIN i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaainoai iaaeaeo iauaiii oao eee eiuo ?ano?nia e eo eniieueciaaiey, aeinoeaaaiay iooai ?an/aoa aaeaine?othuae noaouee. Aaeaine?othuay noaouey eaaeaeiai n/aoa eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea a oa?aeoa?enoeea ?acoeueoaoia eco/aaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia, a oaeaea eniieuecoaony aeey oaycee eaaeaeiai i?aaeuaeouaai n/aoa n iineaaeothuei. Oaeei ia?acii ia iniiaa acaeiinayce nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo a n/aoa e ninoaaeyaiuo a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe,niioaaonoaothuei yoaiai aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea, inoaaony iieo/eoue acaeiinaycaiioth eiiieaenioth eiee/anoaaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia e eo ?acoeueoaoia. A iaoe. n/aoiaiaenoaa oe?iei eniieuecoaony iaoiae eeanneoeeaoeee e a?oiie?iaie, iaania/eaathuea ananoi?iiithth ?aciianiaeoioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo eco/aaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia, no?oeoo?o yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae e yeiiiieee. Iniiaiua a?oiie?iaee e eeanneoeeaoeee yeiiiieee a IN A iniiaa iino?iaiey NIN a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea eaaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiea i iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, eae i nenoaia n ii?aaeaeaiiie no?oeoo?ie, n ii?aaeaeaiiui aicaeaenoaeai naycothueo caaiueaa e yeaiaioia. A IN eniieuecoaony ?acee/iua eeanneoeeaoeee: 1) Eeanneoeeaoeey yeiiiieee ii noa?ai aeayoaeueiinoe e io?aneyi; 2) Eeanneoeeaoeey einoeoooeeiiiuo aaeeieoe ii naeoi?ai; 3) Eeanneoeeaoeey anao aeaeia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe; 4) Eeanneoeeaoeey i?iaeoeoia e oneoa; 5) Eeanneoeeaoeey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoae. Naeoi? - niaieoiiinoue einoeoooeeiiiuo aaeeieoe (o.a. oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, eio iiaoo io naiaai eiaie aeaaeaoue aeoeaaie, i?eieiaoue iaycaoaeuenoaa, inouanoaeyoue yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue e iia?aoeee n ae?oaeie einoeoooeeiiiuie aaeeieoeaie) iaeii?iaeiuo n o. c?. auiieiyaiuo ooieoeee e enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey. Nouanoaoao 6 naeoi?a: I. Naeoi? iaoeiainiauo i?aaei?eyoee Ioaaouaaao einoeoooeeiiiua aaeeieoeu, iniiaiie ooieoeeae eioi?uo yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia e ia oeiainiauo oneoa aeey ?aaeecaoeee ii oeaiai, aiciauathueo ecaea?aeee i?iecainoaa, oioy a ?yaea neo/aaa /anoue ecaea?aeae iiaeao iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao noaneaeee e aeioaoeee ec athaeaeaoa. ?ano?nu yoeo aaeeieoe oi?ie?othony ca n/ao iinooieaiee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee II. Naeoi? oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee Ninoieo ec einoeoooeeiiiuo aaeeieoe, caiyouo oeiainiauie iia?aoeeyie ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa e iia?aoeeyie ii no?aoiaaieth iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. Iiae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth a aeaiiii naeoi?a iiieiaaony oeiainiaia iin?aaeie/anoai, no?aoiaay aeayoaeueiinoue. A yoio naeoi? aoiaeyo aaiee e no?aoiaua eiiiaiee. ?ano?nu yoeo aaeeieoe oi?ie?othony a iniiaiii ec oiiaeia, ia?acotheony a ?acoeueoaoa i?eiyouo ithycaoaeuenoa (aeaiiceou, na?oeoeeaoeey) e iieo/aiiuo i?ioeaioia. III. Naeoi? ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee Aeeth/aao einoeoooeeiiiua aaeeieoeu caiyouo i?aaeinoaaeaieai ia?uii/iuo oneoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey eieeaeoeaiiaai e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoe. aeioiaea. E naeoi?o ioiinyony ain. o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee a iniiaiii oeiaine?oaiua ec ain. athaeaeaoa, e caiyoua a iaeanoe iauaai oi?aaeaiey, ?aaoee?iaaiey e ieaie?iaaiey yeiiiieee e iaoee, caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iai?iiu, iiaeaea?aeee aioo?aiiaai ii?yaeea, ia?aciaaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey, eneonnoaa e o.ae. Eieeaeoeaiia iio?aaeaiea - iai?iia e ieeeoeey e o.ae. IV. Naeoi? iaeiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee, ianeoaeeaathuae aeiiaoiaa oicyenoai Ioaaouaaao einoeoooeeiiiua aaeeieoeu, caiyoua ieacaieai ia?uii/iuo oneoa aeey iniauo a?oii aeiiaoieo oicyenoa. Ii aeeth/aao iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, ianeoaeeaaiea, eae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iio?aaiinoe (aeii. oic-a, aeaaiui ia?acii a iaeanoe cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u, eneonnoaa e ioaeuoa, ?acaea/aiee e nioe. ianeoaeeaaiey), oae e eo eieeaeoeaiua iio?aaiinoe ( iieeo. ia?oee, i?io. i?aaiecaoeee). Eo ?ano?nu neeaaeuaathony a iniiaiii ec aeia?iaieueiuo aciinia e iiaea?oaiaaiee aeii. oic-a e eo aeioiaea io nianoaaiiinoe. V. Naeoi? aeiiaoieo oicyenoa Ioaaouaaao eiaeeaeaeu e eo a?oiiu, eae iio?aaeoaeae, a oaeaea i?aaei??eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue ianaeaiey ii i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, eioi?ua iaaiciiaeii ie n th?eaee/aneie, ie n yeiiiie/aneie o. c?. ioaeaeeoue io aeiiaoiaai oic-aa aai aeaaeaeueoea. VI. Naeoi? inoaeueiie ie? Ioaaouaaao ca?oaaaeiua yeiiiie/aneea aaeeieoeu a oie ia?a, a eaeie iie inou-tho iia?aoeee n ?aceaeaioaie aeaiiie no?aiu, o.a. caieiathony aiaoiae yeiiiie/aneie aeaoaeueiinoueth. AAI - noieiinoue anao eiia/iuo aeaa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo ca aiae. Anee iio?aaeyaony aieueoa, /ai i?iecaiaeeony, oi caeoiaaony ca a?aieoeae. 3 iaoiaea AAI: 1) AAI = Aaeiaue Auione - I?iiaaeooi/iia Iio?aaeaiea - iaeiae 2) AAI = Iieaoa O?oaea + Aaeiaay I?eaueue + iaeiae 3) AAI = Eiia/iia Iio?aaeaiea + Aaeiaia Iaeiieaiea + (yenii?o - eiii?o) 67, 68 Iiiyoey e iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ninoaaeaiey NIN, aaeaine?othuea noaouee naiaeiuo n/aoia. Iaoeeiiaeueiia n/aoiaiaenoai a oe?ieii niunea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie anaiauaiethuoth nenoaio aaaeaiey ia?ae/iiai, iia?aoeaiiai, aaieianeiai, aoo. o/aoa e noaoenoeee, iniiaaiioth ia aaeeinoaa iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiia e caaa?oaaioth ia iae?i o?iaia iino?iaieai nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia (NIN). NIN iniiaaia ia aaeainiaii iaoiaea acaeiinaycaiiiai eiiieaena eco/aiey yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia e eo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia iniiaa nenoaiu iieacaoaeae NIN oa?aeoa?ecoao yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu e eo ?acoeueoaou, io?aaeaao acaeiinayce iaaeaeo yoeie i?ioeannaie. Nooue NIN naiaeeony e oi?ie?iaaieth nenoaiu iaiauathueo iieacaoaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa e acaeiiie oaycee yoeo iieacaoaeae iaaeaeo niaie. A iniiaa NIN eaaeeo oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, a oaeaea nicaeaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey e eiiieaeniiai eniieueciaaiey aeioiaea a ?aieao ye. nenoaiu. Aacie aeey ?ac?aaioee NIN neoaeeo eiioeaioeey oicyenoaaiiiai e?oaiiai?ioa ia iniiaa aeanoeie oaycee iieacaoaeae, iaania/eaathueo aaeainiaia ?aaainoai niaieoiiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ii naeoi?ai e yeiiiieea a oeaeii. Eaaeaeie noaaeee aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea- i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia e oneoa e ia?aciaaieth aeioiaeia, ia?ae/iiio e aoi?e/iiio eo ?ani?aaeaeaieth e eniieueciaaieth - niioaaonoaoao n/ao eee a?oiia n/aoia. Eaaeaeue n/ao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeain, o.a. ?aaainoai iaaeaeo iauaiii ?ano?nia e eo eniieueciaaieai, aeinoeaaaiia iooai ?an/aoa aaeaine?othuae noaouee, ca eneeth/aieai n/aoia, naaeaine?iaaiiuo ii ii?aaeaeaieth. O. i:, ia iniiaa acaeiinaycaiiie nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo a n/aoa e ninoaaeyaiuo a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, oaeaaony iieo/eoue acaeiinaycaiioth, eiiieaenioth, eiee/anoaaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia e ?acoeueoaoia yeiiiieee. NIN aeeth/atho neaaeothuea iniiaiua eiinieeaee?iaaiiua n/aoa, ?ac?aaaouaaaiua a oaeoueo oeaiao: 1. n/aoa aioo?aiiae yeiiiieee: n/ao i?iecaiaenoai; n/aoa ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia (a o./. n/ao ia?aciaaiey aeioiaea, n/ao ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia, n/ao aoi?e/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia, n/ao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia a iaoo?, oi?ia); n/aoa eniieueciaaiey aeioiaeia ( a o./. n/ao eniieueciaaiey AI?Ae, n/ao eniieueciaaiey nei??aeoe?iaaiiiai ?Ae); n/aoa iaeiieaiey ( n/ao iia?aoeee n eaieoaeii, oeiainiaue n/ao); n/ao oiaa?ia e oneoa. 2. n/aoa inoaeueiiai ie?a ( noan/ao oaeoueo iia?aoeee, noan/ao eai. cao?ao) Aeey yeiiiieee a oeaeii i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ninoaaeaiea anao n/aoia. Iie ia?acotho naiaeiua n/aoa e io?aaeatho n iaeiie noi?iiu ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ye-eie no?aiu e inoaeueiui ie?ii, a n ae?. noi?iiu ioiioaiea iaaeaeo naeoi?aie aioo?aiiae yeiiiieee e acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie iieacaoaeyie nenoaiu. Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ninoaaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia: I?eioeei aoo. o/aoa, /oi au?aaeaaony a aeaieiii io?aaeaiee a NIN eaaeaeie iia?aoeee - iaeei ?ac a ?acaeaea "Eniieueciaaiea" i?aaeuaeouaai n/aoa e aoi?ie ?ac a ?acaeaea ?ano?nu iineaaeothuaai n/aoa. N/aoa ninoiyo ec aeaoo /anoae. " ?ano?nu" io?aaeathony n i?aaie noi?iiu, a eo eniieueciaaiea a eaaie /anoe a eieiiea "Eniieueciaaiea". Iaoeeiiaeueiua n/aoa no?iyony a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, niioaaonoaothuae aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiio oeeeeo. N/aoa yaeythony io?aaeaieai anao ye. iioieia a oi?ia aaeaina. Eoiae iia?aoeee ?ano?nia e eniieueciaaiey n/aoa aaeaine?othony eee ii ii?aaeaeaieth, eee n iiiiuueth aaeaine?othuae noaouee. Aaeaine?othuea noaouee n/aoia iaania/eaathuea ?aaainoai i?aaie e eaaie /anoae ?ann/eouaathony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noiiie iieacaoaeae ?ano?nia e eo eniieueciaaiey. Aaeaine?othuay noaouey i?aaeuaeouaai n/aoa, io?aaeaiiay a ?acaeaea "Eniieueciaaiea", yaeyaony enoiaeiui iieacaoaeai ?acaeaea "?ano?nu" iineaaeothuaai n/aoa. Yoei aeinoeaaaony oaycea n/aoia iaaeaeo niaie e ia?aciaaiea nenoaiu. Aaeaine?othuea noaouee - ia iia?aoeee, eio. iiaeii iaaethaeaoue, a ?an/aoiua eaoaai?ee, i?aaeiacia/aiiua ia oieueei aeey iaania/aiey aaeaina, ii e aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acoeueoaoia niioaaonoaothua) i yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeanna, io?aaeaaiiai aeaiiui n/aoii. Aaeaine?othuea noaouee n/aoia N/aoAaeaine?othuay noaouey1. I?iecaiaenoaiAAI2. Ia?aciaaiea aeioiaeiaAae. i?eaueue eee aae. niaoaiiue aeioiae3. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeiaAaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae4. Aoi?e/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeiaAaeiaie ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae5. Eniieueciaaiea aeioiaeiaAaeiaia naa?aaeaiea6. N/ao iia?aoeee n eaieoaeii*enoia e?aaeeoiaaiea (+), /enoia caeinoaiaaiea (-).69. Iaoiaeu en/eneaiey AAI AAI - aaaeiay yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey e iniiaiie iieacaoaeue ?acoeueoaoia ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, oa?aeoa?ecothuee eiia/iue ?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aceaeaioia e ia?aceaeaioia ia yeiiiie/aneie oa??eoi?ee no?aiu. AAI iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai ia ?aciuo noaaeeyo aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea o?aiy iaoiaeaie. Ana o?e iaoiaea aeatho iaeei e oio aea ?acoeueoao - iauai AAI, ii eaaeaeue eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea aeey yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca. 1. Ia noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa AAI ?ann/eouaaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iaoiaeii: a) eae noiia auionea i?iaeoeoia e oneoa anao io?aneae yeiiiieee a ?uii/iuo oeaiao ca ieionii iauaai iauaia II: AAI = SUM A - SUM II a) eae noiia aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe anao io?aneae yeiiiieee: AAI = SUM AAeNo a) eae noiia aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe anao naeoi?ia yeiiiieee: AAI = SUM AAeNc 2. Ia noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia AAI ?ann/eouaaaony ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiui iaoiaeii: eae noiia ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia, ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeie aaeeieoeaie-?aceaeaioaie iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oiaa?ia e oneoa: iieaou o?oaea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia (IO), /enouo iaeiaia ia i?iecaiaenoai (*HI) e eiii?o (*IE), aaeiaie i?eauee (AI) e aaeiauo niaoaiiuo aeioiaeia (io nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa) (ANAe) e iio?aaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea (A): AAI = IO + *II + *IE + AI + ANAe + A. AAI ia noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey io?aaeaao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, cao?aou oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa (iniiaiiai eaieoaea, ?aai/ae neeu), a n ae?oaie - ?ani?aaeaeaiea AAeN iaaeaeo aa i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. 3. Ia noaaeee eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey AAI ?ann/eouaaaony iaoiaeii eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey eae noiia eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey (EI), aaeiaiai naa?aaeaiey (AN) e aiaoiaoi?aiaiai naeueaei (Y-E): AAI = EI + AN + (Y - E) ?an/ao AAI ia noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa io?aaeaao enoi/ieee ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, o/eouaay ca io/aoiue ia?eiae auione i?iaeoeoia e oneoa anao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe a oeaiao i?iecaiaenoaa ca au/aoii noieiinoe eo II ii oeaiai iio?aaeaiey. AAI, en/eneaiiue ii enoi/ieeai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeiaoth aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ia yeiiiie/aneie oa??eoi?ee no?aiu a oeaiao i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoio iaoiae iicaieyao ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aeeaae eaaeaeiai naeoi?a, eaaeaeie io?anee yeiiiieee a nicaeaiea AAI, io?aceoue io?aneaaoth no?oeoo?o e oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. AAI, ?ann/eoaiiue ia noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey, io?aaeaao ninoaa e no?oeoo?o ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee e ain-aa. AAI, ?ann/eoaiiue ia noaaeee eniieueciaaiey, ?aaai noiia ?anoiaeia ia i?eia?aoaiea i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey i?iaeoeoia e oneoa e aaeiaiai naa?aaeaiey. Ii io?aaeaao no?oeoo?o eniieueciaaiey AAI, aai ?ieue a oaeiaeaoai?aiee iio?aaiinoae eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeae e a oaaee/aiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa no?aiu. ?an/ao AAI ia iniiaa ?aciuo ninoaaeythueo iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e ianiaiaaeaieth aai eiee/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie. A no?aiao n ?acaeoie noaoenoe/aneie neoaeaie iiaeiaiua ioeeiiaiey iacia/eoaeueiu e ii AAI, eae i?aaeei, ia i?aauoatho 1-2%. AAI a ?uii/iuo oeaiao - yoi ?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe anao ioa/anoaaiiuo einoeoooeeiiiuo aaeeieoe, o.a. i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Ii ?aaai iauaio iauaio auionea i?iaeoeoia e oneoa ei aioo?aiiae yeiiiieea (A) a iniiaiuo oeaiao ca au/aoii II, iethn IAeN ia i?iaeoeou e /enoua iaeiae ia eiii?o (aac IAeN) (*IE): AAI = A - II + IAeN + *IE Eee, o.e. AAeN = SUM B - SUM II, oi AAI = SUM AAeN + IAeN + *IE Aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue eae aaaeiaeoee iieacaoaeue ?acoeueoaoia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee iiaeao auoue en/eneaia ia aaeiaie e /enoie iniiaa, o.a. aei e iinea au/aoa iio?aaeaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia. A iiaie NIN iieacaoaeue aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe ioeaieaaaony a iniiaiuo oeaiao, o.a. a oeaiao, aeeth/athueo noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou, ca au/aoii iaeiaia ia ieo (iai?., IAeN, iaeia n i?iaeaae e ae?.). Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieyao aieaa oi/ii ecia?eoue aeeaae eaaeaeie io?anee a nicaeaiee AAI. Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo AAeN e AAI i?eieiaao neaaeothuee aeae: AeNj + Nj - Sj = AAI aaea: AAI - aae. aioo?. i?iaeoeo a ?ui. oeaiao; AeCj - aae. aeiaaae. no-oue a iniiaiuo oeaiao; N - iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou: S - noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou; j- io?aneue ia?. oic-aa. 70. Iieacaoaee ?acoeueoaoia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a NIN Aae. iaoe. aeioiae (AIAe), n 1968 aiaea eiaioaony aae. iaoe. i?iaeoeo (AII), a ?ui. oeaiao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo ?aceaeaioaie aeaiiie no?aiu a nayce n eo i?yiui eee einaaiiui o/anoeai a i?iecaiaenoaa AAI a naiae no?aia e a ae?oaeo no?aiao. O.i., AIAe aieueoa AAI ia noiio ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo ?aceaeaioaie aeaiiie no?aiu ec-ca a?aieoeu (ca au/aoii ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia, auiea/aiiuo ia?aceaeaioai). E ia?ae/iui aeioiaeai ioiinyony iieaoa o?oaea, i?eaueue, iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai aeioiaeu io nianoaaiiinoe (%-ou, aeeaeaeaiaeu, ?aioa e ae?.) AIAe ?aaai noiia AAI a ?ui. oeaiao iethn noiia iieaou o?oaea (IO), aeioiaeia io nianoaaiiinoe (AeN), i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeioiaea IAe), iieo/aiiuo io inoaeueiiai ie?a ieion niioa. iioiee, auiea/aiiua inoaeueiiio ie?o (Inoaeueiie ie? - ca?oaaaeiua einoeoooeeiiaeueiua aaeeieoeu-ia?aceaeaiou, eio. anooiatho a naeaeee n aaeeieoeaie-?aceaeaioaie aeaiiie no?aiu eee eiatho n ieie ae?. yeiiiie/. nayce.) Aeioiaeu io nianoaaiiinoe aeeth/. aeioiaeu, iieo/aaiua eee auiea/eaaaiua einoeoooeeiiiuie aaeeieoeaie a nayce n i?aaeinoaaeaieai a iieueciaaiea oeiainiauo aeoeaia, caiee e ae?. iaoeiainiauo, iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aeoeaia (iaoaiou, eeoeaicee, iaae?a e o.ae.) *enoue iaoe. aeioiae (*IAe) a ?uii/i. oeaiao iieo/aaony a ?acoeueoaoa au/eoaiey iio?aaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea (IIE) ec AIAe: *IAe=AIAe-IIE IIE i?aaenoaae. niaie oiaiueoaiea no-oe iniiaiiai eaieoaea a oa/aiee io/aoiiai ia?eiaea a ?acoeueoaoa aai oece/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai eciina e neo/aeiuo iia?aaeaeaiee. A ioa/anoa, i?aeoeea aianoi IIE eniieuec. iauai aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee (A). Aaeiaay i?eaueue yeiiiieee (AIY) a oeaeii ?aaia noiia aaeiaie i?eauee anao io?aneae eee naeoi?ia. Aaeiaay i?eaueue (AI) i?aaenoaae. niaie oo /anoue aeiaaae. no-oe, eio. inoaaony o i?iecaiaeeoaeae iinea au/aoa ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n iieaoie o?oaea e auieaou /enouo iaeiaia ia i?iecaiaenoai e eiii?o. Yoa noaouey ecia?yao i?eaueue (eee oauoie), iieo/aiioth io i?iecaiaenoaa, aei o/aoa aeioiaeia io nianoaaiiinoe. *enoay i?eaueue a yeiiiieee (*IY) a NIN - yoi iieacaoaeue iae?iyeiiiie/. i?eauee, ?ann/eouaaaiua eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo AIY e IIE: *IY = AIY - IIE *IY i.a, ?ann/eoaia, e?iia oiai, eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo AAeN ( ii?aaeaeaiiie eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo A e II) e noiiie iieaou o?oaea, aeeth/. io/eneaiey ia nioeno?ao, /enouo iaeiaia e IIE: *IY = (SUM AA - SUM II) - ( IO + *I + IIE) Aeey iaei?ii?aoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee (o.a. i?aaei?eyoee, ia yaeythu. ioaeaeueiie io naiaai aeaaeaeueoea oic. aaeeieoeae), i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeiiaoiei oic-aai, a eio. /eaiu aeiiaoi. oic-a iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue iaiiea/eaaaiua o?oaeiaua cao?aou, yoa noaouey niaea?aeeo yeaiaio aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ?aaioo, eio. ia iiaeao auoue ioaeaeai io aeioiaea aeaaeaeueoea eee i?aaei?eieiaoaey. A yoii neo/aa iia iacuaaaony niaoaiiui aeioiaeii. ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae (?Ae) i?aaenoaae. niaie aeioiae, eioi?ui einoeoooeeiiiay aaeeieoea ?aniieaaaao aeey eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey e naa?aaeaiey. Ii ?aaai naeueaei ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia ieion aeioiaeu, ia?aaeaiiua a ea/anoaa oaeoueo o?ainoa?oia iethn iieo/aiiua oaeouea o?ainoa?ou. Noiia ?aniieaaaaiuo aeioiaeia anao einoeoooeeiiiuo aaeeieoe-?aceaeaioia ?aaia aaeiaiio iaoe. ?aniieaaaaiiio aeioiaeo (AI?Ae). Iaoe. ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae (I?Ae) a ?ui. oeaiao i?aaenoaae. niaie *IAe iethn /enoua oaeouea o?ainoa?ou ec-ca a?aieoeu (*OO) (o. a. aea?aiey, iiaea?oaiaaiey, aoiaieoa?i. iiiiuue, a oaeaea aiaeiae/iua ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua iinooieaiey ec-ca a?aieoeu ce au/aoii aiaeiae/iuo o?ainoa?oia, ia?aaeaiiuo ca a?aieoeo: I?Ae = *IAe + *OO I?Ae ecia?yao noiio aeioiaeia, eioi?ua ?aceaeaiou no?aiu iiaoo eniieueciaaoue eeai aeey eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey (EI), eeai aeey naa?aaeaiey. EI aeeth/. ?anoiaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa aeiiaoieie oic-aaie. Nthaea aoiaeyo oaeaea EI i?aaiia ain. oi?aaeaiey e /anoiuo iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, ianeoaeeaathueo aeiiaoiaa oic-ai. AI?Ae ?aaai AAI a ?ui. oeaiao iethn/ieion /enoia naeueaei iaaeaeo iaoe. yeiiiieeie e inoaeueiui ie?ii ii iaeiaai ia i?ieca-ai e eiii?o, noaneaeeyi, IO, aeioiaeai io nianoa-oe e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuene. aeioiaeo, iia?aoeeyi no?aoiaaiey io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa e ae?. oaeouei o?ainoa?oai. AI?Ae ecia?yao ?aaeueiue aeioiae, eio. eniieuecoaony aeey EI e naa?aaeaiey iaoeee, o.a. yaeyaony enoi/ieeii anao aeioiaeia, iio?aaeaiey e naa?aaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee e oaaee/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa. AI?Ae ?aaai noiia aaeiauo ?aniieaaaaiuo aeioiaeia anao naeoi?ia. *enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue ?aniieaaaaiue aeioiae (*I?Ae) ?aaai AI?Ae ieion IIE *I?Ae = AI?Ae - IIE Naa?aaeaiea- /anoue ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea, eio-ay ia ec?anoiaeiaaia ia EI oiaa?ia e oneoa. Naa?aaeaiey - enoi/iee oeiaine?iaaiey eai. cao?ao: eai. no?ieoaeuenoai, i?eia?aoaiea ini. oiiaeia, iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia- iaoaioia, eeoeaicee e ae?., i?e?inoa oei. aeoeaia. Aaeiaia naa?aaeaiea- naa?aaeaiea aei au/aoa iio?aaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea. Aaeiaia iaoeeiiaeueiia naa?aaeaiea (AIN) - /anoue AI?Ae, eioi?ay ia aoiaeeo a EI. A AIN oaeaea aoiaeeo /enoia naeueaei (iieiaeeoaeueiia eee io?eoeaoaeueiia), eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo eciaiaieyie no?ao, ?aca?aia a iaineiiiuo oiiaeao ioa/anoaaiiuo aeiiaoieo oic, iaoiaeyu. a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ao, i?aaiecaoeeyo, e eciaiaieyie no?ao, ?aca?aiuo oiiaeia eiino?aioeaa, iaoiae. a ioa/anoaaiiuo no?ao, i?aaiecaoeeyo. AIN ?aaii noiia aaeiauo naa?aaeaiee anao naeoi?ia. *enoia iaoeeiiaeueiia naa?aaeaiea (*IN) ?aaii ?aciinoe iaaeaeo AIN e IIE *IN= AIN-IIE. Naa?aaeaiea (Na )- yoi /anoue ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea, eio. ia auea ec?anoiaeiaaia ia EI. Eaoaai?ey, oeao?e?othuay a n/aoao aeioiaeia e eai. cao?ao. Naa?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeythony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noiiie oaeoueo aeioiaeia (Aeo) e noiiie oaeoueo ?anoiaeia (?o): Na= Aeo - ?o. Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iieacuaaao /enoia i?eia?aoaiea ?aceaeaioiuie aaeeieoeaie oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo a oaeouai ia?eiaea. ii ia iio?aaeaiiuo a iai. A iiaie iaoiaeieiaee NIN 1993 aiaea a ninoaa aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey aeeth/aia iiaay noaouey, ?aiaa ia o/eouaaaiay i?e ?an/aoa yoiai iieacaoaey: cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea oeaiiinoae. Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaeaiea ?aceaeaioiuie aaeeieoeaie n?aaenoa a iauaeou iniiaiiai eaieoaea aeey nicaeaiey iiaiai aeioiaea a aoaeouai iooai eniieueciaaiey eo a i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea aeeth/aao neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou: i?eia?aoaiea ca au/aoii auauoey iiauo e nouanoaothueo iniiaiuo oiiaeia; cao?aou ia oeo/oaiea iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia; ?anoiaeu a nayce n ia?aaea/ae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua aeoeau. Eaoaai?eth naa?aaeaiee, eio. a NIN ii?aaeaeaiu eae i?aauoaiea ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea iaae ?anoiaeaie iaae iio?aaeaieai, ia neaaeoao niaoeaaoue n i?e?inoii aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe e aeaiaaeiuo aeeaaeia, iacuaaaiui eiiaaea naa?aaeaieyie. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoio i?e?ino i.a. naycai eeoue n eciaiaieai oi?iu aeoeaia, iai?., i?iaeaaea aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee, iaoa?, aeoeaia iiaeao eiaoue naiei ?acoeueoaoii i?e?ino aeaiaa, iaeiaei, e naa?aaeaieth a iiieiaiee NIN yoi ia eiaao ieeaeiai ioiioaiey. Aaeiaia iaeiieaiea eae yeaiaio AAI aeeth/aao: aaeiaia iaeiieaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia: i?e?ino iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa: ?anoiaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea oeaiiinoae (thaaee?iua ecaeaeey, aioeeaa?eao, ea?oeiu e ae?.). Iaeiieaiea i.a. en/eneaii e ia /enoie iniiaa, o.a. ca au/aoii iio?aaeaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Aii?in 71. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaoiae en/eneaiey AAI. Iiiyoea i?iiaaeooi/iiai iio?aaeaiey e auionea. Ia noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa AAI ?ann/eouaaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iaoiaeii: 1.eae noiia auionea i?iaeoeoia e oneoa anao io?aneae yeiiiieee a ?uii/iuo oeaiao ca ieionii iauaai iauaia i?iiaaeooi/iiai iio?aaeaiey: AAI=aA-aII; 2.eae noiia aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe anao io?aneae yeiiiieee: AAI=aAAeN°; 3.eae noiia aaeiaie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe anao naeoi?ia yeiiiieee: AAI=aAAeNn. Iiiyoea aaeiaiai auionea Eniieueciaaiea?ano?nu6.I?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea 1. Auione i?iaeoeoia e oneoa a iniiaiuo oeaiao7.AAI a ?uii/iuo oeaiao2.Iaeiae ia i?iaeoeou3. noaneaeee ia i?iaeoeou4.*enoua iaeiae ia eiii?o7+65.Auione a ?uii/iuo oeaiao 5=1+2-3+4 AA - noieiinoue anao i?iaeoeoia e oneoa a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea, eioi?ue neeaaeuaaaony ec auionea i?iaeoeoia, auionea ?uii/iuo oneoa (ca eneeth/aieai oneiaii en/eneaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aaieia), oneiaii en/eneaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aaieia e auionea ia?uii/iuo oneoa, yaeythueony ?acoeueoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe-?aceaeaioia. A ninoaa AA aoiaeeo: a i?iiuoeaiiinoe :aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey, eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio naiaai iai?oaeiaaiey, ?aaiou i?iiuoeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, auiieiaiiua ii caeacai ni noi?iiu (aeeth/ay noieiinoue nu?uey caeac/eea) e eciaiaiea inoaoea iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea i?iaeoeoeey, ioiouaiiay naiaio i?ioeeaeoi?eth eee oiea/aiiay (iaoo?ie) a n/ao iieaou o?oaea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. a no?ieoaeuenoaa a)ii noaiaie aioiaiinoe: aioiaua iauaeou, naeaiiua ii aeoo; eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee; eciaiaiea inoaoeia iacaaa?oaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e eciaiaiea inoaoeia iacaaa?oaiiiai no?ieoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; a) ii yeaiaioai eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee: no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiua ?aaiou (aac noieiinoe no?ieoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey), i?iaeoii-ecuneaoaeueiua e aaieiai?acaaaei/iua e ao?iaua ?aaiou (naycaiiua n ii?aaeaeaiiui no?ieoaeueiui iauaeoii), a oaeaea eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee. a naeueneii oicyenoaa noiia auionea ?anoaieaaiaenoaa, aeeth/athuaai(aaeiaie o?iaeae, eciaiaiea cao?ao ia o?iaeae aoaeoueo eao, iiiaieaoiea ianaaeaeaiey) e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa (i?iaeoeoeey, iieo/aiiay i?e aeecie aeeaioiuo, i?eieiae, i?e?ino, i?eaan). ?uii/iua oneoae noieiinoue auionea ?uii/iuo (ieaoiuo oneoa ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia au?o/ee ca yoe oneoae. Oeiainiaua i?aaei?eyoey aeey aaieia-?acieoea iaaeaeo iieo/aiiie ieaoie ca e?aaeeo e i?ioeaioaie, auiea/aiiuie e?aaeeoi?ai, iethn noieiinoue oneoa, ieacuaaaiuo aaieaie naiei eeeaioai. Aeey no?aoiauo i?aaiecaoeee-?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie no?aoiauo aciinia e noiiie auiea/aiiuo no?aoiauo i?aiee ca au/aoii noii, iai?aaeyaiuo no?aoiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie ia iiiieiaiea ?aca?aiuo oiiaeia. auione ia?uii/iuo oneoa a naeoi?ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony ii noiia oaeoueo cao?ao ia ieacaiea yoeo oneoa: cao?aou ia i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea iieaoa o?oaea iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia iio?aaeaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea /enoua iaeiae ia i?iecaiaenoai I?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea II-noieiinoue i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, eioi?ua i?enaaeaatho, o?ainoi?ie?otho eee iieiinoueth iio?aaeytho eae cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai AAI a io/aoiii ia?eiaea. (IIE ia aoiaeeo a II). A ninoaa II aeeth/athony: iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou, i?iaeoeou e iaoa?eaeueiua oneoae; ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, inouanoaeyaiua a eioa?anao i?iecaiaenoaa; iieaoa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oneoa; ?anoiaeu ia eiiaiaee?iaee a /anoe iieaou i?iacaea e oneoa ainoeieoe; ae?oaea yeaiaiou. II aaieia ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo aaieianeeie %%, auiea/aiiuie e iieo/aiiuie. I?iiuoeaiiinoue: nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai, yeaeo?iyia?aey o.ae. Naeueneia oicyenoai : naiaia, ei?ia, iinaaei/iue iaoa?eae, ai?th/aa, yeaeo?iyia?aey, oaeia?aiey, yaeioeieeaou, iieaoa iaaiiiai o?ainii?oa, ii/oiai-oaeaa?aoiua ?anoiaeu. No?ieoaeuenoai: no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, eiino?oeoeee e aeaoaee, ?anoiaea ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth, ai?th/aa e ia?. 72 Iaoiaeu a?oiie?iaee e eo cia/aiea a oa?aeoa?enoeea eco/aaiiai i?ioeanna. A?oiie?iaea -yoi i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey iaeii?iaeiuo a?oii ia iniiaa ?an/eaiaiey noaoenoe/aneie niaieoiiinoe ia /anoe eee iauaaeeiaiea eco/aaiuo aaeeieoe a /anoiua niaieoiiinoe ii nouanoaaiiui aeey ieo i?eciaeai. N iiiiuueth a?oiie?iaee ?aoatho o?e iniiaiua caaea/e: auyaeaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oeiia yaeaiee; eco/aiea no?oeoo?u yaeaiey eee niaieoiiinoe e no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia i?ienoiaeyueo yaeaiee; enneaaeiaaiea acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo eco/aaiuie i?eciaeaie. A niioaaonoaee n auaeaeaiiuie caaea/aie ?acee/atho 3 aeaea noaoenoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie: oeiieiae/aneea; no?oeoo?iua; aiaeeoe/aneea. I?e iino?iaiee a?oiie?iaee iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue a?oiie?iai/iue i?eciae (ao?eaooeaiue e eiee/anoaaiiue) e ii?aaeaeeoue /enei auaeaeyaiuo a?oii. I?e oeiieiae/aneie a?oiie?iaea i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeaiea enneaaeoaiuo ea/anoaaiii ?acii?iaeiuo niaieoiiinoae ia eeannu niioaaonoaaiii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei oeiai yaeaiee. A eaaeaeii eeanna iauaaeeiythony iaeii?iaeiua aaeeieoeu. Oeiu i?aaei?eyoee/enei i?aaei?eyoeeaeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa8520eiioea?iu230eiini?oeeoiu112I?e no?oeoo?iie a?oiie?iaea i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeaiea iaeii?iaeiie niaieoiiinoe ia a?oiiu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea aa no?oeoo?o ii ii?aaeaeaiiui i?eciaeai. Iaeiie ec caaea/ no?oeoo?iie a?oiie?iaee yaeyaony eco/aiea ninoaaa e aioo?aiiaai no?iaiey auaeaeaiiuo a?oii. No?oeoo?iay a?oiie?iaea ioee/aaony io oeiieiae/aneie ii oeaee enneaaeiaaiey. Oeaeue no?oeoo?iie a?oiie?iaee caeeth/aaony a auyaeaiee ?ani?aaeaeaiey aaeeieoe iaeii?iaeiie niaieoiiinoe ii aaee/eia aa?uee?othuaai i?eciaea. A?oiiu ?aai/eo ii noaaeo/enei ?aai/eoa %% e eoiao0-67146-12 173412-18142818-2461224-e auoa612eoiai50100Aiaeeoe/aneea a?oiie?iaee iicaieytho naeaeaoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua auaiaeu i oa?aeoa?a acaeiinayce iaaeaeo eco/aaiuie yaeaieyie. A iniiao iino?iaiey aiaeeoe/aneie a?oiie?iaee aeieaeai auoue iieiaeai oaeoi?iue i?eciae (oio, eioi?ue ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ae?oaie i?eciae). A caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa i?eciaeia ?acee/atho i?inoua e eiiaeie?iaaiiua a?oiie?iaee. I?inoua ia?acothony ii iaeiiio i?eciaeo. Eiiaeie?iaaiiua a?oiie?iaee ia?acothony ii 2-i eee aieaa i?eciaeai, acyoui a ni/aoaiee Cia/aiea. Noaoenoe/aneay a?oiie?iaea eaaeeo a iniiaa anae aeaeueiaeoae ?aaiou n nia?aiiie eioi?iaoeeae. Ia iniiaa a?oiie?iaee ?ann/eouaathony naiaeiua iieacaoaee ii a?oiiai, iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue eo n?aaiaiey, aiaeeca i?e/ei ?acee/ee iaaeaeo a?oiiaie, eco/aiey acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo i?eciaeaie. Anee ?ann/eoaoue naiaeiua iieacaoaee oieueei a oeaeii ii niaieoiiinoe, oi iu ia niiaeai oeiaeoue aa no?oeoo?u, ?iee ioaeaeueiuo a?oii, eo niaoeeoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, cia/aiea a?oiie?iaee ninoieo a oii, /oi yoio iaoiae iaania/eaaao iaiauaiea aeaiiuo, i?aaenoaaeaiea eo a eiiiaeoiii, iaic?eiii aeaea; e?iia oiai, a?oiie?iaea nicaeaao iniiao aeey iineaaeothuae naiaeee e aiaeeca aeaiiuo. 73. Noaoenoe/aneea iieacaoaee, eniieuecoaiua aeey aiaeeca nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee. Noaoenoe/aneee iieacaoaeue-yoi iaiauathuay oa?aeoa?enoeea eaeiai-oi naienoaa niaieoiiinoe, a?oiiu. Io?aaeaao eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iio eco/aaiie niaieoiiinoe iauanoaaiiuo yaeaiee, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eo aaee/eio, au?aaeaiioth a niioaaonoaothuae aaeeieoea ecia?aiey. Yoe aaee/eiu oa?aeoa?ecotho iauaiu eco/aaiuo i?ioeannia, eo o?iaie, niioiioaiey. Noaoenoe/aneea iieacaoaee eiatho acaeiinaycaiiua eiee/anoaaiioth e ea/anoaaiioth noi?iiu. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay noaoenoeea eco/aao yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue i?e iiiiue nenoaiu acaeiinaycaiiuo yeiiiieei-noaoenoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae. Yeiiiieei-noaoenoe/aneee iieacaoaeue-yoi aaee/eia, eioi?ay ecia?yao eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iio nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee. Iieacaoaee iiaoo auoue: iaoo?aeueiua oneiaii-iaoo?aeueiua (ecia?ytho yaeaiey a oneiaiuo aaeeieoeao) noieiinoiua (a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee) caieiatho oeaio?aeueiia ianoi, o.e. iie iicaieytho aeaoue iaiauaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe (ioaeaeathony a ia?aioeaiea). Ia o?iaia yeiiiieee auaeaeytho ianeieueei a?oii iaiauathueo iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo i?aaeiinueee, oiae i?aaeiinueee e ?acoeueoaou yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. E iei ioiinyony: iieacaoaee iaee/ey e eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea; iieacaoaee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa, eioi?ia aeeth/aao a naay eae iaoa?eaeueiua, oae e iaiaoa?eaeueiua yeaiaiou. oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caieiaao a?oiia iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie yaeythony AAI e IAe. iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea oiiaeiioaea/a eaieoaeiaieinoue iieacaoaee aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey Ii?aaaey Oaaeoea?ey Oaaoeey ssiiiey iieacaoaee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae iieacaoaee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e cao?ao, iieacaoaee oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe. 74. Iieacaoaee caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu. Caiyoui a ?inneeneie noaoenoeea n/eoaaony eeoei, eioi?ia a iineaaeithth iaaeaeth ia?aae aeaoie o/aoa ?aaioae eee nio?aiye th?eaee/aneoth naycue n i?aaei?eyoeai (eiae aeiaiai?, eiio?aeo, /eneeeny a ooaoa). Ii ii?aaeaeaieth IIO caiyoui iacuaaaony /aeiaae, eioi?ue a iineaaeithth iaaeaeth io?aaioae oioy au iaeei /an ca ieaoo. A?iey n/eoaaony caiyoie a yeiiiieea. O/aueany n io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa noa?oa 16 eao n/eoathony caiyouie. Caeeth/aiiua ia n/eoathony caiyouie, iacaaeneii io oiai, ?aaioatho iie eee iao. Ia iniiaaiee /eneaiiinoe caiyouo ii?aaeaeytho eiyooeoeeaio caiyoinoe a 2-o aa?eaioao: Ec=Scai. \ Sian. (Anee ca aiae Ec =`Scai \`Sian) Ec= Scai. \ Saeo. ian. A niioaaonoaee n ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie IIO aac?aaioiui n/eoaaony eeoei, eioi?ia: a iineaaeithth iaaeaeth ia?aae o/aoii ia ?aaioaei e ia eiaei nayce n i?aaei?eyoeai aioiai iaiaaeeaiii i?enooieoue e ?aaioa ( a aeeaeaeoea aeaa iaaeaee). A?iey, caeeth/aiiua e o?iie/anee aieueiua ia iiaoo auoue aac?aaioiuie, o.e. iie ia iiaoo n?aco i?enooieoue e ?aaioa. eioi?ue euao ?aaioo. A niioaaonoaee n IIO: a iineaaeiee ianyoe yoi eeoei i?aaei?eiyei eaeie-eeai oaa n oeaeueth o?oaeiono?ienoaa /eneyueany ia ae?aea ia ae?aea o?oaea ioeeeeioaoeany ia iauyaeaiey a aacaoa iinaoeaoea i?aaei?eyoey i?aaiecothuea naia nianoaaiiia aeaei Aac?aaioeoea auaaao iieiie e /anoe/iie. *anoe/iay-/aeiaae caiyo ia aieaa 15 /ania a iaaeaeth eee aea o?iaaiue aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ieaea iieiaeiu ii?iaeueiiai o?iaiy. Iieiay-/aeiaae ia eiaao iiea/eaaaiie ?aaiou, ia eiaao i?aai iieo/aoue iiniaea eee /anoe/iie caiyoinoe. Ia iniiaaiee /eneaiiinoe aac?aaioiuo ii?aaeaeytho eiyooeoeeaiou aac?aaioeoeu. Ea=S aac \ S ian; a=S aac \ S aeo. ian; Anee eiyooeoeeaio caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu ii?aaeaeythony ii ioiioaieth e aeoeaiiio ianaeaieth, oi noiia eiyooeoeeaioia =1 eee 100%. ? 75. Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony niioiioaieai ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao, naycaiiuo n aeinoeaeaieai yoeo ?acoeueoaoia. A ea/anoaa ?acoeueoaoa aunooiatho: 1.Aaeiaue auione 2.AAI 3.IAe 4.I?eaueue ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey E iieacaoaeyi cao?ao ioiinyony: 1.naaanoieiinoue 2.iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou 3.i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea. E?eoa?eai yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe yaeyaony n iaeiie noi?iiu aeinoeaeaiea iaeneiaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia n iaeaieaa iieiui eniieueciaaieai eiathueony ?ano?nia (naaiaeiy yoi ia aiaeeony). N ae?oaie noi?iiu e?eoa?eai iiaeao auoue aeinoeaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia n ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie (oa?aeoa?ii aeey caiaaeiuo no?ai). Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiytho nenoaio iieacaoaeae, eioi?ua aeeth/atho a naay: 1.iaiauathuee iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe 2.iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe cao?ao aeeaiai o?oaea 3.iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea 4.iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee 1.Iaiauathuee iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe ia o?iaia yeiiiieee ?ann/eouaaaony a 2-o aa?eaioao: ?ano?niii cao?aoiii Yyo.?an.=AAI(eee IAe)\IO+IaO+O?, aaea IO-n?aaeiaaiaeiaua iniiaiua oiiaeu IAO-n?aaeiaaiaeiaua iai?ioiua oiiaeu O?-o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu Yyo. Cao.=AAI(IAe)\II+IIE+IO 2. Aaaeiaeoei iieacaoaeai yooaeoeaiinoe cao?ao aeeaiai o?oaea yaeyaony i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony a 3-o aa?eaioao: iaoo?aeueiii noieiinoiii o?oaeiaii I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea ?acoeueoaoa e n?aaeiae /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia (eee e oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie: W=q\T, aaea q - ?acoeueoao AAI eee IAe) O-n?aaeiyy /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia eee oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia a?aiy Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeiaieee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?eiaiytho nenoaio eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo e naiaeiuo eiaeaenia, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia iniiaa iaoo?aeueiuo, noieiinoiuo e o?oaeiauo iieacaoaeae. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aeeiaieee iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea i?eiaiytho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eiaeaenu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe: i= A oii neo/aa, anee ?a/ue eaeao i i?iecaiaenoaa aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, i?eiaiytho noieiinoiua eiaeaenu ia?aiaiiiai e iinoiyiiiai ninoaaa. Eiaeaen ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa eiaao aeae: Yoio eiaeaen io?aaeaao aeeyiea ia oieueei eciaiaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ii e eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u ?aaioieeia n ?aciie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea. Aeey oiai, /oiau eeeaeaee?iaaoue aeeyiea no?oeoo?u ?aaioieeia, ?ann/eouaatho eiaeaen iinoiyiiiai ninoaaa. Anee ?acaeaeeoue eiaeaen ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa ia eiaeaen iinoiyiiiai ninoaaa, oi iieo/ei eiaeaen no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia: Yoio eiaeaen io?aaeaao aeeyiea eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u ?aaioieeia n ?aciui o?iaiai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia iauee o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. A oii neo/aa, anee eiaaony ianeieueei a?oii ?aaioieeia eee i?aaei?eyoee n ?aciui o?iaiai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, oi i?eiaiytho acaaoaiiue naiaeiue eiaeaen i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe: 3.Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeiai eee iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea: oiiaeiioaea/a oiiaeiaieinoue iaoa?eaeiaieinoue iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e i?iecaiaenoaa iieacaoaee oaeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia (cao?ao). Oiiaeiioaea/a io?aaeaao aaee/eio ?acoeueoaoa ii ioiioaieth e n?aaeiaaiaeiaui iniiaiui oiiaeai: O ioae.=AAI(eee IAe)\IOn?.aiae. Oiiaeiioaea/a iieacuaaao neieueei AAI eee IAe i?eiineo aaeeieoea iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Oiiaeiaieinoue-iieacaoaeue ia?aoiue oiiaeiioaea/a: O ai.=IO\AAI(eee IAe). Oiiaeiaieinoue iieacuaaao neieueei iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo AAI eee IAe. Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao iauai iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao eee i?iiaaeooi/iiai iio?aaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aaeeieoeu AAI eee IAe. I ai.=IC (II)\AAI(IAe),aaea i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea-yoi iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou +iio?aaeaiea iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oneoa. ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee-ioiioaiea i?eauee io i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e naaanoieiinoe: ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee=i?eaueue \ naaanoieiinoue. ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa=i?eaueue \ ini. oiiaeu + iai?. oiiaeu. Iieacaoaee oaeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia io?aaeaao cao?aou ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee. Yoe cao?aou iiaoo auoue au?aaeaiu eeai a iaoo?aeueiii, eeai a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee. I?e eco/aiee aeeiaieee oaeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia eiatho ianoi 3 neo/ay: 1.Iaeei aeae iao ?ano?nia eniieuecoaony ia i?iecaiaenoai iaeiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee i=m1 \ m0, aaea m-oaeaeueiua ?anoiaeu. 2.ianeieueei aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia eniieuecothony ia i?iecaiaenoai iaeiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee: Im=Sm1q1 \ m0q1 3.ianeieueei aeaeia iaoa?eaeia eniieuecoaony ia i?iecaiaenoai ianeieueeeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee Im=Sm1q1p0\Sm0q1p0. A /eneeoaea -oaeoe/aneee ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia io/aoiiai ia?eiaea a aaceniuo oeaiao. A ciaiaiaoaea-?anoiae iaoa?eaeia ia i?iaeoeoeeth io/aoiiai ia?eiaea ii oaeaeueiui cao?aoai e oeaiai aaceniiai ia?eiaea. Aeey anao o?ao eiaeaenia ?acieoea iaaeaeo /eneeoaeai e ciaiaiaoaeai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yeiiiieth (anee ciae -) eee ia?a?anoiae (anee ciae +) iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey oaeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia. 4.E iieacaoaeyi yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ioiinyony: eaieoaeiaieinoue=eaieo. aeiaeaiey \ AAI (IAe) Eaieoaeiaieinoue iieacuaaao neieueei eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii aeey iieo/aiey AAI eee IAe. eaieoaeiioaea/a=AAI (IAe) \eaieo. aeiaeaiey. Eaieoaeiioaea/a iieacuaaao neieueei AAI eee IAe aeaao aaeeieoea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee n?ie ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee=eai. aeiaeai. \ /enoay aeiiieieoaeueiay i?eaueue. *enoay i?eaueue-i?eaueue iinea au/aoa iaeiaia e iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae Aeiiieieoaeueiay i?eaueue-i?eaueue, eioi?ay iieo/aaony eiaiii i?e iiiiue yoeo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee. N?ie ieoiaaiinoe-eiee/anoai eao, a oa/aiea eioi?uo eiaanoi? aica?auaao eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey. 76. ?ieue Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea a yeiiiieea OeA neoaeeo inueth e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu. OeA ?O yae-ny aeaaiui aaieii no?aiu. A naiae aeayo-oe ii ?oeiaiaenoaoaony Caeiiii io 02.12.1990. ?394-1 "I OeA ?O" a ?aaeaeoeee io 26.04.1995., a oaeaea ae?. caeiiaie ?O. OeA ?O - yeiiiie/anee naiinoiyoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea e inouanoaeyao naie ?anoiaeu ca n/ao nianoa. aeioiaeia. Onoaaiue eaieoae e eiia eiouanoai aaiea anoue oaaea?. niano-oue. Oi?aaeaiea OeA-ii ia aoiaeeo a ninoaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Oaeay noaiaiue caaeneiinoe yae-ny oneiaeai aai aeayo-oe, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii a ieaia ia?aie/aiey aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu OeA aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa. Ain-ai ia ioaa/aao ii iaycaoaeuenoaai OeA ?O, oaeaea eae e Oea ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii iaycaoaeuenoaai ain-aa, e?iia neo/aaa, eiaaea OeA i?eieiaao ia naay oaeea iaycaoaeuenoaa. Iniiaiuie oeaeyie OeA yae-ny: caueoa e iaania/aiea onoie/eainoe ?oaey, a o./. iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ii ioiioaieth e eiino?. aaethoa; ?acaeoea e oe?aieaiea aaieianeie nenoaiu; iaania/aiea aania?aaieiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu ?an/aoia a ianooaaa no?aiu; iieo/aiea i?eauee ia yae-ny oeaeueth OeA; OeA ?ac?aaaouaaao e i?iaiaeeo aaeeioth ain. aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeo; iiiiiieueii inouanoaeyao yienneth iaee/iuo aeaiaa e i?aaiecoao eo ia?auaiea; i?aaiecoao nenoaio ?aoeiaine?iaaiey eiii. aaieia; onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaeea ?an/aoia a ?in. e ae?. aaieianeeo iia?aoeeyo; ?aaeaiaioe?oao aoo. o/ao o io/aoiinoue eiii. aaieia; inouanoaeyao ain. ?aaeno?aoeeth aaieia, auaeaao e iocuaaao eeoeaicee ia aaieianeoth aeayoaeueiinoue; inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue e iaaeci? ca aaieaie; ?aaeno?e?oao yienneth Oea; inouanoaeyao aae. ?aaoee?iaaiea e aae. eiio?ieue iaiin?aaenoaaiii e /a?ac oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee; OeA yae-ny aaaeiaeoei i?oaeeai iae?iyeii. ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Yoi aunoee i?aai aaieianeiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e eiio?iey aeay-oe eiii. aaieia e ae?. e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. OeA no?aieony e iiaeaea?aeaieth onoie/eainoe anae aaieianeie nenoaiu e caueoa eioa?ania ianaeaiey e e?aaeeoia. Aeaaiay caaea/a OeA - iaania/eoue ii?iaeueiia ninoiyiea e yeii. ?acaeoea no?aiu, o.a. niioaaonoaea eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee iio?aaiinoyi nio?aiaiey noaaeeueiuo oeai, ?inoo caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa e iiauoaieth ea/anoaa i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciiia?aciie i?iaeoeoeee, ?anoe?aieth yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee. OeA auiieiyao ooieoeee aeaiiceoa?ey e oeneaeueiiai aaaioa i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee ii eanniaiio eniieiaieth athaeaeaoa e ianeoaeeaaieth ain. aeieaa ?innee, aeeth/ay inouanoaeaiea iia?aoeee ii ?aciauaieth ain. caeiia, eo iiaaoaieth e auieaoa i?ioeaioia. Aeey aicaeaenoaey ia eeeaeaeiinoue aaie. nenoaiu OeA ?aoeiaine?oao aaiee iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey ei e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia ii o/aoiie noaaea OeA e ii?aaeaeyao oneiaey i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aeeoia iiae caeia ?acee/iuo aeoeaia. OeA inouanoaeyao ?aaoee?iaaiea o?iaiy aaie. i?ioeaioiuo noaaie a ?innee ii e?aaeeoai, i?aaeinoaaeyaiui aaieai a niioaaonoaee n aaeeiie oaae. aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeeie. OeA yae-ny e?aaeeoi?ii iineaaeiae einoaioeee. 77.Aeaiiceoiua iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia Enoi?e/anee e o?aaeeoeeiiii aaaeiaeoei enoi/ieeii aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa eiiia?/aneiai aaiea yaeyeenue e yaeythony oae iacuaaaiua aeaiiceou -- aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa eee oeaiiua aoiaae (a iaee/iie eee aaciaee/iie oi?ia, a iaoeeiiaeueiie eee eiino?aiiie aaethoa), iiiauaiiua eo nianoaaiieeii aeey o?aiaiey a e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey (aaiee) e iiaeeaaeauea aica?aoo ii enoa/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea. Iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n i?eaea/aieai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ai aeeaaeu, iacuaathony aeaiiceoiuie. Aeey aaieia aeeaaeu -- yoi aeaaiue aeae eo ianneaiuo iia?aoeee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iniiaiie ?ano?n aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeoeaiuo e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua i?eciaee eeanneoeeaoeee aeeaaeia. A caaeneiinoe io aeeaae/eea aeaiiceou i?eiyoi ?acaeaeyoue ia aeaiiceou oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. A caaeneiinoe io n?iea e ii?yaeea ecuyoey aeeaaeu iiae?acaeaeythony ia n?i/iua aeaiiceou e aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey. A ninoaa iniiaiuo aeaiiceoia, ioe?uaaaiuo a eiiia?/aneeo aaieao, iiaoo aoiaeeoue neaaeothuea: *aeiaua aeaiiceou, eee "eeanne/aneea" /aeiaua eieaeee e ?an/aoiua /aee -- oeiainiaua aeieoiaiou, niaea?aeauea ii?o/aiea /aeiaeaoaey aaieo i ia?a/eneaiee n aai n/aoa ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu ia n/ao /aeiaea?aeaoaey. A naiae yeiiiie/aneie iniiaa /ae -- yoi aeae aaieianeie oeaiiie aoiaae, eiathuee aeaiiceoioth i?e?iaeo, iineieueeo auaea/a aaieii /aea eeeaioo aeieaeia auoue iaania/aia ni noi?iiu eeeaioa aaieianeei e?aaeeoii eeai aeaiiceoiui aeeaaeii, /oi aeaao i?aai aeeaae/eeo auienuaaoue /aee aeey niaa?oaiey ieaoaaeae (ionthaea e iacaaiea). Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua oi?iu /aeiauo aeaiiceoia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy -- aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey e Iao-n/aoa. Aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey -- yoi aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, inaaeathuea a aaiea a oa/aiea iaii?aaeaeaiiiai i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie, onoaiiaeoue eioi?ue a iiiaio iinooieaiey n?aaenoa ia aaieianeee n/ao ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. E oaeei n?aaenoaai iiaoo ioiineoueny n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e a?aaeaeai, caieiathueony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth, n?aaenoaa iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, i?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa ii oaeoi?eiao e ae?. Aeeaaeu aei aino?aaiaaiey ?aciauathony a aaieao ia ?acee/iuo n/aoao, ioe?uaaaiuo eeeaioai. Iie i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey inouanoaeaiey oaeoueo n/aoia e a ethaie iiiaio iiaoo auoue iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii aino?aaiaaiu. Ecuyoey aeeaaeia aiciiaeii eae iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie, oae e a oi?ia aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia. Aeeaaeu aei aino?aaiaaiey a naiae iniiaa ia noaaeeueiu, /oi ia?aie/eaaao noa?o eo eniieueciaaiey eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie. Ii yoie i?e/eia aeaaeaeueoeai n/aoia auiea/eaaaony ieceee i?ioeaio eee aiiaua ia auiea/eaaaony. A oneiaeyo aic?inoae eiieo?aioeee eiiia?/aneea aaiee no?aiyony i?eaea/ue eeeaioia e noeioee?iaaoue i?e?ino aeeaaeia aei aino?aaiaaiey iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneoa aeaaeaeueoeai n/aoia e iiauoaieai ea/anoaa eo ianeoaeeaaiey. O.i. aic?anoathuay eiieo?aioeey ia ?uiea aeaiiceoiuo oneoa niinianoaiaaea aicieeiiaaieth iiauo oeiia /aeiauo aeaiiceoia. Oae, a 80-o aa. iianaianoiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea i?aeoeea ioe?uoey aaieaie Iao-n/aoia (NOW icia/aao "ia?auathueany i?eeacu ia ecuyoee"), eioi?ua iaeaaeatho aeinoieinoaaie naa?aaaoaeueiiai e oaeouaai n/aoia e auiieiytho oaeea aea ooieoeee. Aiaeiae/ii naa?aaaoaeueiiio Iao-n/ao eiaao iiauoaiiue ?acia? i?ioeaioiuo auieao, aiaeiae/ii oaeouaio -- ?aaeei eniieueciaaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaathuee aiciiaeiinoue nieiaoue n?aaenoaa ni n/aoa. ?acia? i?ioeaioiuo auieao ii Iao-n/aoo ii?aaeaeyaony io noiiu ianieaeaaiiai e?aaeeoiaiai inoaoea ia n/aoa. I?ioeaiou ?ann/eouaathony aaeaiany/ii e a iineaaeiee ianyoe ca/eneythony ia n/ao eeeaioa. N/aoa oeia Iao-n/aoia, aia?aa a naay naienoaa oaeoueo e i?ioeaioiuo n/aoia, aaoiiaoe/anee ?aoatho i?iaeaio oi?aaeaiey iaee/iinoueth e inaiaiaeaeatho io i?eeiaeaiey oneeee a yoii iai?aaeaiee. Ae?oaie iiaie oi?iie /aeiauo aeaiiceoia aeey ?inneeneeo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia noae oae iacuaaaiue aaieianeee aaenaeue (oeiainiaue aaenaeue) -- aaieianeay oeaiiay aoiaaa ia aeaiiceoiie iniiaa a ioee/ea io e?aaeeoiie iniiau eeanne/aneeo eiiia?/aneeo aaenaeae. Aaieianeea aaenaey auaeathony aaieii-yieoaioii oieueei ia iniiaaiee aeaiiie?iaaiey eeeaioii ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e i?aaeoniao?eaatho aiciiaeiinoue eo ia?aonooiee -- eiaeinnaiaio. E i?aeoe/aneei i?aeiouanoaai aeaiiiai aeaea oeaiiie aoiaae eae eino?oiaioa aaiea ii i?eaea/aieth n?aaenoa iiaeii ioianoe: -- aiciiaeiinoue aa eniieueciaaiey eae oece/aneeie, oae e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie; -- aiciiaeiinoue aa eniieueciaaiey eae ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa, iaaeaaeiinoue eioi?iai aa?aioe?iaaia aaieii anaie aai iaycaoaeuenoaaie e iaania/aieai; -- iaania/aiea aeinoaoi/ii aunieie eeeaeaeiinoe e ia?auaaiinoe ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa; -- aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa aunieiaeioiaeiiai naa?aaaoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa, auiea/eaaaiiai aaieii a aeaea i?ioeaioia; -- ia/eneaiea i?ioeaioia ii aaenaeyi a ia?eiae eo ia?auaiey iicaieyao a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a iiaaneoue eioeyoeeiiiia iaania/aiea aaciaee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa; -- iaania/aiea a ei?ioeea n?iee o/aoa e iiaaoaiey aaenaeae aaieaie-yieoaioaie, iaeaaeathueie naoueth oeeeaeia e ei??aniiiaeaioneeo ioiioaiee n ae?oaeie aaieaie, onei?aiey i?iaaaeaiey ieaoaaeae iaaeaeo eeeaioaie e ono?aiaiey acaeiiuo iaieaoaaeae; -- aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aaenaey a iaania/aiea i?aaeiieaou ca iinoaaeyaiua oiaa?u e ieacuaaaiua oneoae; -- aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aaenaey a ea/anoaa caeiaa caaiueea i?e iieo/aiee ei aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa; -- eniieueciaaiea aaenaey i?e e?aaeeoiaaiee, eiaaea caaiuee naycai n aaieii-yieoaioii aaenaey oeiainiaie oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/eie, iicaieyao caaiueeo nieceoue noaaeo ca e?aaeeo, ia nieaeay i?e yoii iauoth aeioiaeiinoue aaiea. Ii aeaiiceoai aei aino?aaiaaiey aaiee iaycaiu o?aieoue ieieiaeueiue ?aca?a a OeA ?innee, ?acia? eioi?iai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii?aaeaeai a 22%. Naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu ianaeaiey -- aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a?aaeaeai (oece/aneeo eeoe), a?aiaiii o?aiyueany ia n/aoao aaieia. N?iee e oneiaey o?aiaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a aaiea onoaiaaeeaathony aeiaiai?iui niaeaoaieai iaaeaeo eeeaioii e aaieii i?e ioe?uoee n/aoia ii aeaiiiio aeaeo aeeaaeia. A ?inneeneie i?aeoeea naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu ianaeaiey a caaeneiinoe io n?ieia e oneiaee aeeaaeiuo iia?aoeee iiaoo auoue: -- n?i/iua; -- n?i/iua n aeiiieieoaeueiuie aciinaie; -- n?i/iua n aaeaiany/iie auieaoie i?ioeaioia ii aeeaaeai; -- auea?uoiua; -- aeaiaaeii-aauaaua auea?uoiua; -- ia i?aaeuyaeoaey; -- aei aino?aaiaaiey e i?. N?i/iua aeaiiceou -- yoi aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, ca/eneyaiua ia aeaiiceoiua n/aoa ia no?iai iaiai?aiiue n?ie eo iiaaoaiey n auieaoie i?ioeaioa (Aaiee iiaoo auioneaoue n?i/iua aeaiiceou ia ethaua noiiu n ethauie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A NOA, iai?eia?, nouanoaotho aeaa oeia n?i/iuo aeeaaeia: n?i/iua aeaiiceou iaeiai ?acia?a -- noiia n?i/iuo aeaiiceoia onoaiiaeaia a i?aaeaeao 100 oun. aeiee.-- e aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou e?oiiiai ?acia?a -- 100 oun. aeiee. e auoa). Noaaea i?ioeaioa ii iei caaeneo io ?acia?a e n?iea aeeaaea. Naeaeaoaeuenoaii i aeeaaea yaeyaony aeaiiceoiue na?oeoeeao -- ienueiaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoai aaiea i aianaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ia aeaao i?aai aeeaae/eeo ia iieo/aiea ii ieii/aiee onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea noiiu aeeaaea e i?ioeaioia ii iaio, niaea?aeauaa oneiaey aeaiiceoiiai aeiaiai?a (eiio?aeoa), oaeea, eae ?acia? aeeaaea, n?ie o?aiaiey, i?ioeaioiay noaaea e i?. A yoii e ninoieo iniiaiia ioee/ea n?i/iuo aeaiiceoia io naa?aaaoaeueiuo aeeaaeia. Aeaiiceoiue na?oeoeeao iauaaeeiyao aeey eeeaioa a iaeiii aeieoiaioa naienoaa n?i/iiai aeeaaea e oeaiiie aoiaae. Oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi aeaaeaeaoe n?i/iiai aeeaaea iiaeao ?anii?yaeaoueny ei oieueei ii enoa/aiee iaiai?aiiiai n?iea, ia eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoe aein?i/iiai iieo/aiey ei a aaiea naieo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Iaeiaei a yoii neo/aa o eeeaioa iiieaeaaony ?acia? i?ioeaioa ii aeeaaeo, o.a. eeeaio ieaoeo ii?aaeaeaiiue oo?ao. Aaie caeioa?aniaai a i?eaea/aiee n?i/iuo aeeaaeia, oae eae iie noaaeeueiu e iicaieytho aaieo ?aniieaaaoue n?aaenoaaie aeeaae/eeia a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie. Aeaiiceoiue na?oeoeeao auaeaaony oieueei th?eaee/aneei eeoeai. Ii iiaeao auoue eiaiiui e ia i?aaeuyaeoaey. I?aai ia iieo/aiea aeeaaea ii aeaiiceoiiio na?oeoeeaoo iiaeao auoue ia?aaeaii ae?oaiio eeoeo. Aeaiiceoiue na?oeoeeao auioneaaony aaieaie iiae ii?aaeaeaiiue a aeiaiai?a i?ioeaio eee aei aino?aaiaaiey. Aeaiiceou yaeythony aaaeiui enoi/ieeii ?ano?nia eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. No?oeoo?a eo a aaiea iiaeaeaeia e caaeneo io eiiuthieoo?u aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea. Ii yoiio enoi/ieeo oi?ie?iaaiey aaieianeeo ?ano?nia i?enoue iaeioi?ua iaaeinoaoee. ?a/ue eaeao i cia/eoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo cao?aoao aaiea i?e i?eaea/aiee n?aaenoa ai aeeaaeu, ia?aie/aiiinoe naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ?aieao ioaeaeueiiai ?aaeiia. E?iia oiai, iiaeeecaoeey n?aaenoa ai aeeaaeu caaeneo a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie io eeeaioia, a ia io naiiai aaiea. E oai ia iaiaa, eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo aaieaie ia ?uiea e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia canoaaeyao eo i?eieiaoue ia?u ii ?acaeoeth oneoa, niinianoaothueo i?eaea/aieth aeaiiceoia. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo eiiia?/aneea aaiee aeey iia?aoeaiiai i?eaea/aiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa eniieuecotho aiciiaeiinoe iaaeaaieianeiai ?uiea ?ano?nia, ia eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo i?iaeaaea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iiaeeeciaaiiuo ae?oaeie e?aaeeoiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie. Iaaeaaieianeee iaoaieci yaeyaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii caaiiuo e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, enoi/ieeii n?aaenoa aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe aaeaina e iaania/aiey aania?aaieiinoe auiieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa. A ie?iaie i?aeoeea aaieianeiai aeaea aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou iaoee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Oae, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Aa?iaiee, NOA, ssiiiee i?aeoeeoaony auione ia?auathueony n?i/iuo na?oeoeeaoia, eioi?ua ia oieueei iiaoo i?iaeaaaoueny aaieo-yieoaioo, ii e ia?ai?iaeaaaoueny ae?oaei noauaeoai aeaiiceoiuo iia?aoeee n iiiiuueth iaaeienae ia ieo, a oaeaea i?iaeaaaoueny, ia?acoy oai naiui ?uiie aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoia. A ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea aaieianeiai aeaea aaca i?eaea/aiiuo ?ano?nia oieaa?naeueiuo aaieia ii/oe ia o?aoue oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoia, yaeythueony iaeiei ec aeaeia e?aoein?i/iuo oeaiiuo aoiaa. A aeaiiii neo/aa aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou eiatho aeiaieueii aunieee iiieiae e n?ie eo ia?auaiey ninoaaeyao io iaeiiai aei oanoe ianyoeaa. I?iaeathony iie iau/ii ni neeaeeie io iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe (n aeeneiioii). Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu oaeaea ia?aaeaaaaiua aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou ia i?aaeuyaeoaey, naiaiaeii ia?auathueany ia aoi?e/iii ?uiea, eiathuea aunieoth eeeaeaeiinoue, aeiiieiythuea ooieoeee aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea aac oua?aa aeey nei?inoe e ianooaaia eo iai?ioa. N?aaee aaieianeeo n?i/iuo aeaiiceoia neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue aua iaeei iniaue oei aeaiiceoia -- yoi aeeaaeu ainoaea?noaa (iiuo NOA). Iie auaatho o?ao aeaeia: aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey, n?i/iua aeaiiceou e aeaiiceou Eacia/aenoaa. Aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey e n?i/iua aeaiiceou i?aaeoaeuenoaa ooaoia e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe a oeaeii aiaeiae/iu niioaaonoaothuei aeaiiceoai /anoiuo eeoe e aeaeiauo oe?i. Ii aeeaaeai Eacia/aenoaa aei aino?aaiaaiey a eiiia?/aneeo aaieao ioe?uaaaony oae iacuaaaiue iaeiaiaue caaiiue n/ao, eoaea ca/eneythony iinooiathuea iaeiae, a oaeaea au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee oeaiiuo aoiaa Eacia/aenoaa. Aeaeaa, eeai ana iinooieaiey aaeaaeiaaii ia?aaiaeyony ia n/ao Eacia/aenoaa a Oaaea?aeueiii ?aca?aiii aaiea e ?anniao?eaathony eae aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey. Eeai eiiia?/aneee aaie ia?aaiaeeo ana iinooieaiey ca i?ioeue aeaiue ia i?eiinyuea i?ioeaio aaenaey aei aino?aaiaaiey. A ethaii neo/aa Eacia/aenoai oiea/eaaao aaieo ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca ieacaiiua oneoae. Eae iieacuaaao ie?iaie iiuo i?aeoeee aaieianeiai aeaea, aeaiiceou e ?anniio?aiiay auoa eo ?aciiaeaeiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueii i?aaenoaaeytho aaaeiaeoee enoi/iee i?eaea/aiey aaieianeeo ?ano?nia a oeaeyo iaania/aiey eeeaeaeiinoe, aeioiaeiinoe e ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Iaeiaei yoio enoi/iee a oi aea a?aiy iaeaaeaao e ?yaeii i?eioeeieaeueiuo iaaeinoaoeia e i?aaeaea anaai a ieaia oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia ?aaoee?iaaiea eeeaeaeiinoe aaiea: i?eaea/aiea aeaiiceoia naycaii ni cia/eoaeueiuie ia?eaoeiaiauie oneeeyie eiiia?/aneeo aaieia; iniiaiui noauaeoii aeaiiceoiuo aaieianeeo iia?aoeee yaeyaony ia nai aaie, a aeeaae/ee naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Iiyoiio i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?eaea/aiey aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia i?e eo oece/aneii ionoonoaee ia aeaiiceoiii ?uiea aaie ieacuaaaony a aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiii iieiaeaiee; aeey ioaeaeueiiai ?aaeiia, a eioi?ii ooieoeeiie?oao eiie?aoiue eiiia?/aneee aaie, iauee iauai naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au i?eaea/ue ai aeeaaeu, -- aaee/eia aanueia iaonoie/eaay e a ?yaea neo/aaa ia?aie/aiiay; i?eaeaeay aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a aeaiiceou, aaiee iaycaiu aea?aeaoue niioaaonoaothuea ?aca?au e iiea/eaaoue eo no?aoiaaiea. Iineieueeo aaiee aeey iaania/aiey naiae eeeaeaeiinoe a oeaeyo naiaa?aiaiiiai iiaaoaiey aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e nieaeaiey ?enea iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe aeieaeiu anaaaea auoue a ninoiyiee iinoiyiiie aioiaiinoe e iai?aaeaeaeaiiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai - iaiaeeaeaiiiio iooieo aeaiiceoia, iaiaeeaeaiiui cayaeai ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa e o.ae. A ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea aaiee aeey oi?aaeaeaiey iiaeiaiuo neooaoeee iaania/eaatho naith eeeaeaeiinoue n iiiiuueth ii?ooaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e oi?aaeaieth aeoeaaie, iniiaaiiiai ia ia?aciaaiee oae iacuaaaiuo ?aca?aia. Aaiee, ioaeaeathueany a eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoaao aeey oiai, /oiau iiaaneoue naie iai?aaeaeaeaiiui aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, ia aeaeoo, /oi aeeaae/eee naie i?eaeoo a aaiee ni naieie aeeaaeaie, a aeoeaii aaaeoo iienee aeiiieieoaeueiuo enoi/ieeia iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa, ia ia?aie/eaaynue oceei ?aaeiiii e o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeaiiceoaie. O.i. yoi ii?aaeaeaiiua enoi/ieee aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua aaie a ninoiyiee i?eaea/ue naiinoiyoaeueii, iooai eniieueciaaiey niaieoiiinoe ?yaea oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia: aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoia e?oiiiai ?acia?a, caeiia o oaaea?aeueiie ?aca?aiie nenoaiu, iieoiee oaaea?aeueiuo oiiaeia, i?iaeaaee oeaiiuo aoiaa n niaeaoaieai ia ia?aoiii aueoia, a oaeaea aa?iaeieea?iauo caeiia. Aeaiiceoiua iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia Aeaiiceo - yoi ia?aaea/a n?aaenoa eeeaioa ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea aaieo. Aeaiiceo i?eiineo i?ioeaiou nianoaaiieeo aeaiaa. ?acieoea a i?ioeaioao, auiea/eaaaiuo eeeaioo e iieo/aaiuo io nnoaeiiieo/aoaeae, anoue i?eaueue aaiea. Aeaiiceou aeaeyony ia: aeaiiceou th?eaee/aneeo eeoe; aeaiiceou oece/aneeo eeoe; aeaiiceou “aei aino?aaiaaiey”; aeaiiceou n?i/iua; aeaiiceou oneiaiua, o.a. n?aaenoaa ecuiathony i?e iaee/ee ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee. Eeeaio, aiiny a aaie aeaiiceo, caeeth/aao aeiaiai? i aeaiiceoa. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo yoeie noi?iiaie ?aaoee?othony a?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenii e aeaiiui aeiaiai?ii. Na?oeoeeao yaeyaony ienueiaiiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii aaiea-yieoaioa i aeeaaea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, oaeinoiaa?ythuaa i?aai aeeaae/eea (aai i?aaii?aaiieea ia iieo/aiea ii enoa/aiee onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea noiiu aeeaaea e i?ioeaioa ii iaio). Na?oeoeeao yaeyaony oeaiiie aoiaaie. Nouanoaoao aeaa aeaea na?oeoeeaoia: aeaiiceoiue; naa?aaaoaeueiue Aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou auaeathony oieueei th?eaee/aneei eeoeai, ?aceaeaioai. Naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou auaeathony oieueei oece/aneei eeoeai, i?iaeeaathuei a ?O. N?ie ia?auaiey aeaiiceoiiai na?oeoeeaoa - aei 1 aiaea, a naa?aaaoaeueiiai - aei 3-o eao. Ia?aiia/aeueii th?eaee/aneea eeoea eiaee i?aai ?aniea/eaaoueny aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie ni naieie eiio?aaaioaie, iaeiaei anei?a yoi auei cai?auaii. I?aaeei auionea aeaiiceoiuo e naa?aaaoaeueiuo na?oeoeeaoia aeiioneaao aiciiaeiinoue aeey aaiea i?aaeoniio?aoue a oneiaeyo auionea na?oeoeeaoa auieaoo iiieaeaiiuo i?ioeaioia, anee na?oeoeeao i?aaeuyaeyaony e iiaaoaieth aein?i/ii. Na?oeoeeaou n/eoathony oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, iaeiaei aeey eo auionea ia o?aaoaony niaoeeaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey ni noi?iiu OeA ?innee. Iaeiaei aaie iaycai i?aaenoaaeoue a OeA ?innee oneiaey auionea e ia?auaiey na?oeoeeaoia, iienaiea eo aiaoiaai aeaea e ia?acaoe na?oeoeeaoa. Aeaaiia oa??eoi?eaeueiia oi?aaeaiea OeA ?innee iiaeao cai?aoeoue auione na?oeoeeaoia, anee aaie ia?ooaao aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Aeaiee na?oeoeeaoia aeieaeiu ecaioiaeyoueny iieea?aoe/aneeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, eiathueie ia yoi niaoeeaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaeoniio?aiu iaycaoaeueiua ?aeaeceou na?oeoeeaoia. Aiciiaeiu na?oeoeeaou ia i?aaeuyaeoaey e eiaiiua na?oeoeeaou. Na?oeoeeao ia i?aaeuyaeoaey iiaeao auoue ia?aonooieai ae?oaiio eeoeo iooai i?inoie ia?aaea/e. Eiaiiie na?oeoeeao ia?aaeaaony ii ia?aaeaoi/iie iiaeiene, eioi?ay iacuaaaony oeanney. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?yae i?aeiouanoa na?oeoeeaoia ia?aae n?i/iuie aeeaaeaie, ioi?ieaiiuie i?inouie aeaiiceoiuie aeieoiaioaie: aeey aaieia nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue oeiainiauo iin?aaeieeia a ?ani?ino?aiaiee e ia?auaiee na?oeoeeaoia. O.i. ?anoe?yaony e?oa iioaioeeaeueiuo eiaanoi?ia; anee na?oeoeeao aein?i/ii ia?aoiaeeo e ae?oaiio eeoeo, oi aaie ia oa?yao ?ano?nu, a auaoee aeaaeaeaoe (oeaaeaio - oio, eoi onooiaao na?oeoeeao), eae i?aaeei, iieo/aao i?e/eoathuothny aio /anoue i?ioeaioia; aeey eeeaioa i?aeiouanoai iiaeao ninoiyoue a oii, /oi na?oeoeeao iiaeao auoue ieaoaaeiui n?aaenoaii ii ?yaeo naeaeie. Aeaiiceoiua ?an/aou ii i?iaeaaeai n aeaiiceoiui na?oeoeeaoii iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny a aaciaee/iii ii?yaeea. Iiaaoaiiua aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou o?aiyony a aeieoiaioao eae iniiaaiea aeey ieaoaaea. Iiaaoaiea na?oeoeeaoa inouanoaeyaony i?inoaaeaieai ia na?oeoeeaoa ooaiia “iiaaoaii” e au?acaiey a na?aaeeia na?oeoeeaoa a aeaea ?iiaa ioaa?noey. 78. Iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia n oeiainiauie eino?oiaioaie. Iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia n oeiainiauie eino?oiaioaie (oeaiiuie aoiaaaie) ?acee/iu. Aaie iiaeao auioneaoue nianoaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae (aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee), oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou (na?oeoeeaou, aaenaey) aeey oaaee/aiey onoaaiiai oiiaea aeoeeiia?iiai aaiea, aeey i?eaea/aiey caaiiuo n?aaenoa e niaa?oaoue aeou eoiee-i?iaeaaee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee e aaieia. Aeoeey yaeyaony oeaiiie aoiaaie, a ia aeieaiaui iaycaoaeuenoaii, auioneaaiie a ia?auaiea, eioi?ay iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi aa aeaaeaeaoe aian ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio aeaiaa a eaieoae aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee e eiaao i?aai ia iieo/aiea aaeaaiaeiiai aeioiaea( a aeaea iaeiaai i?ioeaioa) ec aa i?eauee e i?aai ia o/anoea a aa oi?aaeaiee. Yoi oeaiiay aoiaaa, eioi?ay iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?aai nianoaaiiinoe, "oeooe nianoaaiiinoe". Yoi o?aaiaaiea nianoaaiieea ia aeoeau oe?iu. Iiuo ?aaiou n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie iio?aaiaae ooi/iaiey iiiaeo aii?inia, eioi?ua iaoee io?aaeaiea a aeieoiaioao Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ?O e OeA ?innee. Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo aeieoiaioia yaeyaony "Eino?oeoeey i i?aaeeao auionea e ?aaeno?aoeee Oea eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie ia oa??eoi?ee ?O" (i?eiyoa 11. 2.1994. ? 75). Yoio aeieoiaio ?aaeaiaioe?oao aii?inu, naycaiiua n i?aaeeaie auionea, ?aaeno?aoeee Oea. Aeaenoaea eino?oeoeee ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia aeoeee eiii. aaieia, nicaeaiiuo a aeaea AI, e iaeeaaoeee eiii. aaieia. Ain. ?aaeno?aoeee iiaeeaaeao ana auionee Oea iacaaeneii io aaee/eiu e eie-aa eiaanoi?ia. ?aaeno?aoeey auionea Oea aaieia aeeth/aao ?aaeno?aoeeth i?iniaeoia yiennee. Ana auioneaaiua aaieaie aeoeee yaeythony eiaiiuie. Iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue aeoeee aaieia au?aaeaaony a ?oaeyo. Anee aeoeee ?aaeecothony ca eiino?. aaethoo, oi e?iia ?oaeaaiai iiieiaea ia aeoeee iiaeao oeacuaaoueny aae. iiieiae (aae. oeaia). Anee e?iia iiieiaea, au?aaeaiiiai a ?oaeyo, aeoeey eiaao aae. iiieiae, oi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?oaeaaui e aae. iiieiaeii oeene?oaony aeey eaaeaeiai auionea e iiaeao auoue ia?aniio?aii a eaaeaeii iiaii auionea. Anee aeoeey eiaao aeaieiie iiieiae, oi ?aaeecaoeey oaeeo aeoeee eo ia?aui aeaaeaeueoeai iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny oieueei ca aaethoo. Aeoeee aaiea iacaaeneii io ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a e a?aiaie auionea aeieaeiu eiaoue iaeeiaeiaoth iiieiaeueioth noieiinoue (a ?oaeyo), anee iie i?aaeinoaaeytho i?aai aieina ia nia?aiee aeoeeiia?ia. I?e o/?aaeaeaiee aeoeeii. aaiea eee i?aia?aciaaiee aaiea ec iaaaiai a aeoeeiia?iue ana aai aeoeee (1-ue auione aeoeee) ?ani?aaeaeythony n?aaee o/?aaeeoaeae yoiai aaiea. A neo/aa, eiaaea i?aia?aciaaiea aaiea ec iaaaiai a aeoeeiia?iue nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaaee/aieai onoaaiiai oiiaea, ana yoi oaaee/aiea inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiuo aciinia o/?aaeeoaeae. Auione aeoeee aeey oaaee/aiey onoaaiiai oiiaea aeoeeii. aaiea (iiaoi?iue auione aeoeee), a oii /enea e ca n/ao eaieoaeecaoeee i?i/eo nianoa. n?aaenoa aaiea, iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eeoue iinea iieiie iieaou aeoeeiia?aie anao ?aiaa auiouaiiuo aaieii aeoeee. ?aaeno?aoeey iiaoi?iiai auionea aeoeee nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?aaeno?aoeeae i?iniaeoa yiennee. Iiaoi?iue auione aeoeee aaiea iiaeao aeeth/aoue auione eae iaueiiaaiiuo, oae e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee. Aaie iiaeao auioneaoue iaeeaaoeee aeey i?eaea/aiey caaiiuo n?aaenoa eeoue i?e oneiaee iieiie iieaou anao auiouaiiuo aaieii aeoeee (aeey aeoeeii. aaiea) eee iieiie iieaou iaeueeaie naieo aeieae a onoaaiii oiiaea aaiea (aeey iaaaiai aaiea). Iaeiia?aiaiiue auione aaieii aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee cai?auaaony. I?ioeaaeo?a auionea Oea aeeth/aao a naay neaae. yoaiu: i?eiyoea yieoaioia ?aoaiey i auioneo; iiaeaioiaea i?iniaeoa yiennee; ?aaeno?aoeey auionea Oea e i?iniaeoa yiennee (aeey yoiai aaie-yieoaio i?aaenoaaeyao a ?aaeno?e?othuee i?aai neaae. aeieoiaiou: cayaeaiea ia ?aaeno?aoeeth e i?iniaeo yiennee); ecaeaiea i?iniaeoa yiennee e ioaeeeaoeey niiauaiey a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee i auionea Oea; ?aaeecaoeey Oea; ?aaeno?aoeey eoiaia auionea; ioaeeeaoeey eoiaia auionea. Auiouaiiua aeoeee ia?auathony ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa (oiiaeiaii ?uiea). Eo noieiinoue ia iiaaoaaony, a ia?aaiaeeony a aeaiueae eeoue iooai i?iaeaaee. N i?iaeaaeae aeoeee i?ienoiaeeo niaia aeaaeaeueoea /anoe eaieoaea e aaee/eia ?aaeueiiai eaieoaea aeoeeiia?iiai i?aaei?eyoey ia oiaiueoaaony, a nai i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann ia ia?ooaaony. Aeoeee iiae?acaeaeythony ia: -- iaueiiaaiiua -- iie ia oieueei oaeinoiaa?ytho oaeo ia?aaea/e AI /anoe eaieoaea e aa?aioe?otho i?aai ia iieo/aiea ii eoiaai aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa aeeaeaeaiaea, ii e i?aaeinoaaeytho i?aai ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee AI; -- i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua -- iie aa?aioe?otho aeaaeaeueoeai oeene?iaaiiue aeeaeaeaiae, eioi?ue ia caaeneo io i?eauee iauanoaa, iaeiaei ia aeatho aio i?aai aieina i?e ?anniio?aiee iieiaeaiey aeae a AI. Ii yoie aeoeee aeeaeaeaiae auiea/eaaaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, a oaea iioii inoaaoayny noiia ?ani?aaeaeyaony ii ae?oaei aeoeeyi; -- eiaiiua -- a ieo oeacuaaaony eiy eee iaeiaiiaaiea aea?aeaoaey aeoeee, eioi?ia aiineony a ?aano? (eieao nianoaaiieeia) AI. I?iaeaaea oaeeo aeoeee aiciiaeia eeoue i?e ?aaeno?aoeee naeaeee a i?aaia oi?aaeaiey iauanoaii n io?aaeaieai a niioaaonoaothuai ?aano?a; -- ia i?aaeuyaeoaey -- aeaaeaeaoe aa ia ?aaeno?e?oaony, iia iiaeao naiaiaeii i?iaeaaaoueny e iieoiaoueny ethaeueie oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, i?e yoii ia o?aaoaony oeenaoeee naeaeee aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii. Aeoeee ae?ae, eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee ?ani?ino?aiythony a ii?yaeea ioe?uoie iiaeienee eee ?ani?aaeaeythony n?aaee o/?aaeeoaeae. N?aaee eino?oiaioia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa aaaeiia ianoi caieiatho iaeeaaoeee -- oeaiiua aoiaae, oaeinoiaa?ythuea ioiioaiea caeia iaaeaeo aeaaeaeueoeai iaeeaaoeee e aaieii-yieoaioii. Iaeeaaoeee iiaoo auoue ainoaea?noaaiiuie e ei?ii?aoeaiuie. Ii ainoaea?noaaiiui iaycaoaeuenoaai aeieaeieeii aunooiaao ainoaea?noai, e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianao i?aaeoaeuenoai, Ieienoa?noai Oeiainia, Eacia/aenoai. Iaeeaaoeey n/eoaaony ei?ii?aoeaiie, anee eiiiaiey, auionoeaoay aa, ainoaea?noaaiiay, e anee iia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue a ?acia?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea oe?iu, aa aeoeaia. A ioee/ee io aeioiaeia aeaaeaeueoeaa aeoeee, aeioiae aeaaeaeueoea iaeeaaoeee iaiai?ai e oeene?iaai. Aeioiae iieo/atho a aeaea i?ioeaioia, e ii enoa/aiee n?iea caeia auiea/eaaaony iniiaiay noiia aeieaa. Iaeeaaoeee iiaoo iaania/eaaoueny eiie?aoiui caeiaii (iai?eia?, iaaeaeaeeiinoueth) eee auoue ia iaania/aiiuie (o.a. i?aaiecaoeey ioaa/aao anai naiei eiouanoaii ii aeaiiui iaycaoaeuenoaai). Iaeeaaoeee auioneathony ia n?ie ia iaiueoa aiaea (a NOA n?ie ei?ii?aoeaiuo iaycaoaeuenoa io 5 aei 30 eao, o ian oaeeo n?ieia iao). I?e eeeaeaeaoeee aaiea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iiaeeaaeao oaeiaeaoai?aieth o?aaiaaiey aeaaeaeueoeaa iaeeaaoeee. Aaieo, auioneathuaio iaeeaaoeee, i?aaeuyaeythony oaeoe/anee oaeea aea o?aaiaaiey, eae e e aaieo, auioneathuaio aeoeee: -- iieiay iieaoa iaaa a oi?aaeaiee OeA ?O, iieiay iieaoa auiouaiiuo aeoeee; -- ?aaeno?aoeey auionea iaeeaaoeee a oi?aaeaiee OeA ?O, anee iauai yiennee aieueoa 5 iei. ?oa.; -- auione iaeeaaoeee aiciiaeai ia ?aiaa 3-ai aiaea nouanoaiaaiey aaiea e iinea iaaeeaaeauaai ooaa?aeaeaiey 2-o aiaeiauo aaeainia aaiea. Anee iaeeaaoeee auioneathony ?aiaa 3-ai aiaea , oi aanue auione aeieaeai eiaoue iaania/aiea ni noi?iiu 3-o eeoe; -- auione iaeeaaoeee aiciiaeai oieueei ia noiio, ia i?aauoathuoth onoaaiue eaieoae aaiea. Iaeeaaoeee auaatho: aeeneiioiua e i?ioeaioiua (i?inoua) Yienney iaeeaaoeee iiaeeaaeeo ?aaeno?aoeee a oi?aaeaiee oeaiiuie aoiaaaie OeA ?O eee a niioaaonoaothuai aeaaiii oa??eoi?eaeueiii oi?aaeaiee OeA. Yienney iaeeaaoeee ia aiciiaeia, anee a aaiea ia iiea/aia /anoue onoaaiiai eaieoaea. I?aaeea yiennee nianoaaiiuo aaenaeae aaiea ai iiiaii aiaeiae/iu yiennee aeaiiceoiuo e naa?aaaoaeueiuo na?oeoeeaoia (ni. 77 aii?in). I?e yiennee aaenaeae ioaeii neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau noiia ii aaenaeyi ia i?aauoaea nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa aaiea. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aaiee eiatho i?aai i?iaiaeeoue iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n iieoieie-i?iaeaaeae ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aaeaea anaai aeoeee (aeoeee ae?oaeo yieoaioia). I?e ia?aoiaea i?eia?aoaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ii oeaia auoa noieiinoe i?eia?aoaiey aaie iieo/aao aeioiae. A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothueie i?aaeeaie oeaiiua aoiaae ae?oaeo yieoaioia o/eouaathony ii aaeaino aaiea ii oeaia i?eia?aoaiey, aeeth/ay ?aciiai ?iaea iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu, a oi a?aiy eae nianoaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae o/eouaathony ii aaeaino aaiea ii iiieiaeo. Iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony oaeaea oi, /oi ii i?eia?aoaiiie oeaiiie aoiaaa aaie iaycai nicaeaaaoue ?aca?a ia aiciiaeiua iioa?e ii oeaiiui aoiaaai. Iaeaieaa ?eneiauie yaeythony iia?aoeee aaieia n aaenaeyie ae?oaeo yieoaioia. Aaie iiaeao i?eia?anoe aaenaeue aeey ia?ai?iaeaaee eee aea aeey iieo/aiey ii iaio aeioiaea io ieaoaeueueea. I?eia?aoay aaenaeue, aaiee aeieaeiu ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia n?ie ieaoaaea ii aaenaeth. N?ie ieaoaaea -- iaeei ec naiuo neiaeiuo e ioaaonoaaiiuo ?aeaeceoia aaenaey. Ii caeiio aiciiaeiu oieueei 4 n?iea ieaoaaea. Ethaua eiiaeiaoeee yoeo n?ieia, a oaeaea ae?oaea n?iee eeoatho aeieoiaio neeu aaenaey. Ni n?ieaie ieaoaaea naycaia aiciiaeiinoue ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioia. I?eia?aoay aaenaeue, aaie ianao ?ene iaieaoaaea eee aeoeaioa ii aaenaeth a neo/aa iaieaoaaea eee iaaeoeaioa ii aaenaeth, a oaeaea a neo/aa ioeaca a i?inoaaeaiee ia aaenaeyo ni n?ieii. N?ie ieaoaaea Oneiaey ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioia -- ii i?aaeuyaeaieth i?ioeaiou iiaoo auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu (eo i?eaeaony ieaoeoue) -- ai noieueei-oi aeiae io i?aaeuyaeaiey i?ioeaiou iiaoo auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu -- ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo oneiaea i ia/eneaiee i?ioeaioia n/eoaaony iaiaienaiiui (aeaaea anee i?ioeaio iaienai) -- ai noieueei aeiae io ninoaaeaiey aaenaey oneiaey i ia/eneaiee i?ioeaioia n/eoathony iaiaienaiiuie "Ai noieueei-oi a?aiaie io i?aaeuyaeaiey" aeaoie i?aaeuyaeaiey aaenaey e ieaoaaeo aaie aeieaeai niaa?oeoue iioa?eaeueii oaeinoiaa?aiiue i?ioano aaenaey. I?ioano a iaieaoaaea aeieaeai auoue inouanoaeai a oa/aiea 2-o ?aai/eo aeiae iinea enoa/aiey n?iea ieaoaaea. I?ioano a iaaeoeaioa aeieaeai auoue inouanoaeai ia iicaeiaa aeiy, neaaeothuaai ca aeiai enoa/aiey n?iea i?aaeuyaeaiey e aeoeaioo. I?ioano a ioeaca iinoaaeoue ioiaoeo, aeaoe?othuoth i?aaeuyaeaiea aaenaey e iieaoa, iiaeao auoue niaa?oai a oa/aiea anaai n?iea i?aaeuyaeaiey, ii aeiai i?aaeuyaeaiey aoaeao n/eoaoueny aeaiue niaa?oaiey i?ioanoa. Aaenaeaaeaoaeue, naiaa?aiaiii ia niaa?oeaoee i?ioano, oa?yao iiiaea naie aaaeiaeoea i?aaa ii yoiio aaenaeth. Eniieiaiea ii aaenaeth a ii?yaeea noaeaaiiai i?eeaca aiciiaeii oieueei ii ii?ioanoiaaiiui aaenaeyi. A neo/aa ianiaa?oaiey i?ioanoa ?anniio?aiea nii?ia i?iecaiaeeony a ii?yaeea iau/iiai eneiaiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Aaie aeieaeai iicaaioeoueny i oii, /oiau aaenaey, i?eia?aoaaiua aaieii, auee aio i?aaeeueii ia?aaeaiu. Aiciiaeiu 2 niiniaa ia?aaea/e aaenaey: -- a ii?yaeea oeannee -- oeanney ioi?ieyaony aeaonoi?iiiei niaeaoaieai. I?e yoii aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeue, onooiathuee naie i?aaa ii aaenaeth, ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue oieueei ca iiaeeeiiinoue aaenaey, ii ia ca niaa?oaiea ii iaio ieaoaaea; -- eiaeinne?iaaiea aaenaey (eeoei ia?aaeathuaa -- eiaeinnaio, eeoei i?eieiathuaa -- eiaeinnao) Ecaanoiu ianeieueei aeaeia eiaeinnaiaioa (ia?aaeaoi/iie iiaeiene): -- iieiue -- eiaeinnaio ieoao ia aaenaea "Ieaoeoa ii i?eeaco" e oeacuaaao iaeiaiiaaiea eiaeinnaoa. A yoii neo/aa eiaeinnao i?eia?aoaao ana i?aaa nianoaaiieea ii aaenaeth, a oii /enea ia aeaeueiaeoee eiaeinnaiaio; -- aeaieiaue -- eiaeinnao a aaenaea ia oeacuaaaony, a noaaeony eeoue iaeia iiaeienue eiaeinnaioa. A yoii neo/aa eiaeinnao iiaeao naeaeaoue eiaeinnaiaio iieiui, i?inoaaea a niioaaonoaothuai ianoa naia eee /uea-eeai iaeiaiiaaiea. Ii oaeaea iiaeao ia?aaeaoue aaenaeue, ia niaa?oay eiaeinnaiaioa; -- ia?aii?o/eoaeueiue -- eiaeinnaio ieoao ia aaenaea "ia eieanni" e noaaeo naith iiaeienue e oeacuaaao iaeiaiiaaiea eiaeinnaoa. Ii yoiio aaenaeth eiaeinnao iieo/aao ana i?aaa ?anii?yaeaiey, ii ia?aaeaoue aaenaeue iiaeao oieueei a ii?yaeea ia?aii?o/aiey. Eiaeinnao, iieo/eaoee aaenaeue ii aeaieiaiio eiaeinnaiaioo, ia?aaeaaoee, ia caiieiyy aai, ia eiaao nieeaea?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe n ae?oaeie iiaeienyie. Iiyoiio aaie, iieoiathuee aaenaey, iau/ii o?aaoao, /oiau aaenaeue aue ia?aaeai ii aeaieiaiio eiaeinnaiaioo. A ia?aaiaeiii aaenaea iiaeao auoue i?aaeoniio?aia iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aaeuyaeaiey aai eae aeoeaio. Aeoeaio -- yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea, niaeanea ieaoaeueueea iieaoeoue noiio ii aaenaeth iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii. Aeoeaio ia ioaeai, anee aaenaeaaeaoaeue e ieaoaeueuee -- iaeii e oi aea eeoei. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeoeaioa nieaeaao iaaeaaeiinoue aaenaey. Aaiee oaeaea ?aaioatho n ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeaiiuie aoiaaaie. Iniiaiuie aeaeaie ain. Oea, n eioi?uie ?aaioatho aaiee, yaeythony: -- AEI (ain. e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee); -- IOC (iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia); -- IANC (iaeeaaoeee ain. naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia); -- IAAC (iaeeaaoeee aioo?aiiaai aae. caeia). Yieoaioii AEI e IOC yaeyaony Ieienoa?noai Oeiainia, aaie ?innee aunooiaao aa?aioii eo iiaaoaiey. Iaeeaaoeee auioneathony a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea, a eo o/ao inouanoaeyaony ia n/aoao "Aeaii". I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia iaeeaaoeee oaeinoiaa?yao caienue ii n/aoo "Aeaii", a ia?aoiae i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia iaeeaaoeee aicieeaao a iiiaio iiyaeaiey i?eoiaeiie caiene ii n/aoo "Aeaii". AEI e IOC yieoe?othony a oi?ia ioaeaeueiuo auioneia. Iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue eaaeaeie iaeeaaoeee ninoaaeyao 1.000 ?oa. Aeioiaeii ii AEI yaeyaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo oeaiie ?aaeecaoeee (iiaaoaiey) e oeaiie iieoiee, o.a. aeeneiio. Ii IOC aeioiaeii yaeyaony eae aeeneiio, oae e eoiiiiue aeioiae (aeeaeaeaiae). Iiaaoaiea iaeeaaoeee i?iecaiaeeony a aaciaee/iie oi?ia iooai ia?a/eneaiey eo aeaaeaeueoeai iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe AEI ia iiiaio iiaaoaiey. Iaeeaaoeee, auiouaiiua a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea, eoieaiiua aaieii e i?iaeathueany a oeaio?ao i?aaieciaaiiiai ?uiea Oea, iiaeeaaeao ia?eiaee/aneie ia?aioeaiea. Iiae yoie ia?aioeaieie iiieiaaony ii?aaeaeaiea aaeainiaie noieiinoe iaeeaaoeee, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a ii?ooaea aaiea ii ninoiyieth ia eiiaoe niioaaonoaothuaai ?aai/aai aeiy. Ia?aioeaiea AEI (aei 1 aiaea) e IOC inouanoaeyaony aaieaie-aeeea?aie a aeaiue iia?aoeee n ain. iaeeaaoeeyie, iacaaeneii io oiai, i?iaiaeee ee aaie nai iia?aoeee eee iao, ii n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie oeaia. Aaiee, ia yaeythueany aeeea?aie, inouanoaeytho ia?aioeaieo ain. iaeeaaoeee oieueei a oio aeaiue, eiaaea aaie i?iaiaeee eaeea-eeai iia?aoeee ain. iaeeaaoeee, i?e/ai ia?aioeaieaathony ana ain. iaeeaaoeee a ii?ooaea aaiea, iacaaeneii io oiai, /oi iia?aoeee i?iaiaeeeenue eeoue n iaeioi?uie ec ieo. Aaiee-iaaeeea?u i?iecaiaeyo ia?aioeaieo naieo iaeeaaoeee ia iniiaaiee io/aoia aeeea?ia. Ii IOC (aei 2 eao) ia?aioeaiea iiaeeaaeeo oieueei iniiaiay noiia aeieaa aac o/aoa iaeiieaiiiai eoiiiiiai aeioiaea. I?e i?eia?aoaiee IOC, eiathueo eoiiiu, eiiia?/aneea aaiee oiea/eaatho i?iaeaaoeo e?iia oeaiu IOC aua e iaeiieaiiue eoiiiiue aeioiae, a i?e i?iaeaaea IOC aaie iieo/aao oeaio IOC e iaeiieaiiue eoiiiiue aeioiae. IANC auioneathony Ieienoa?noaii Oeiainia ?innee. Iie auioneathony a aeieoiaioa?iie oi?ia e yaeythony i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeie aoiaaaie. Iie eiatho eoiiiu e aeioiae ii iei ia/eneyaony aaeaeaa?oaeueii. Aeioiae ii eoiiio i?eaycuaaaony e iineaaeiae iauyaeyaiie noaaea ii IOC. N?ie ia?auaiey -- 1 aiae. Iieoiatho e i?iaeatho IANC a iniiaiii oece/aneea eeoea. A ioee/ea io IOC IANC ia?aioeaiea ia iiaeeaaeao. Ii IAAC caaiueeii yaeyaony Ieienoa?noai Oeiainia. Caai auiouai a 1993a.; aoiaae, iiieie?iaaiiua a eiino?. aaethoa, ia?auathony a aeieoiaioa?iii aeaea. Iiieiae iaeeaaoeee ninoaaeyao 1.000, 10.000, 100.000 aeieea?ia. Iaeeaaoeee auioneathony n eoiiiaie, i?ioeaioiue aeioiae ii eoiiiai auioneaaony eaaeaeue aiae, enoiaey ec 3% aiaeiauo. Iaeeaaoeee yaeythony aae. oeaiiinoyie e iiaeeaaeao ia?aioeaiea. 79. Aaethoiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e aaethoiue eiio?ieue a ?innee. ?inneeneee aaethoiue ?uiie aeinoaoi/ii iieiae. ?aaeueii eae ?uiie nouanoaoao n 1991 aiaea, eae naiaiaeiue ?uiie - n eiioea 1992 aiaea. A niaaoneee ia?eiae nouanoaiaaea ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey ia i?iaaaeaiea anao aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, aaethoioth aeayoaeueiinoue inouanoaeyee OeA e Aiaoyeiiiiaaie NNN?. Oaeaea eiaeinue aieueoia /enei ?aaoee?othueo i?aaiia, caieiathueony oi?ie?iaaieai aaethoiie iieeoeee - Ainieai, Ainaaie e Ieienoa?noai oeiainia. I?e Ai?aa/aaa oi?inoeeny oa?aeoa? aaethoiuo ioiioaiee, eiaee ianoi iaeioi?ua iineaaeaiey aeey i?aaei?eyoee: auei ?ac?aoaii inoaaeyoue /anoue aaethoiie au?o/ee ia n/aoao. A ia?eiae n 1988-1991 aa. Ia auei /aoeie eeiee ?aoi?i aaethoiiai ?uiea, /oi aianei ii?aaeaeaiioth noiyoeoeo a aaethoiua ioiioaiey. Ana inouanoaeyeinue a ii?yaeea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey aaethoiuo ioiioaiee, aeaaiuie auee ia yeiiiie/aneea, a eaeaieiae/aneea ?aoaiey. E eiioeo nouanoaiaaiey Niaaoneiai Nithca - 1990-1991 aa. - oi?iaeueii i?iaeieaeaea nouanoaiaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey, ii iaeiia?aiaiii nouanoaiaaee iiiai/eneaiiua aaethoiua eo?nu (60 eii. ca aeieea? - ioeoeeaeueiue eo?n, 3-4 ?oa. - oo?enoe/aneee eo?n, a oaeaea iiieaeathuea eee iiauoathuea eiyooeoeeaiou n ?acee/iuie no?aiaie a caaeneiinoe io oeia naeaeie). O.i. neiaeeeenue i?aaeiinueee ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aaethoiie nenoaiu (nouanoaiaaea iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aaethoiuo eo?nia, aue ianeieueei ineaaeai aaethoiue eiio?ieue, a oaeaea nouanoaiaaee e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua i?aaeiinueee ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aaethoiie nenoaiu - ?aoi?ie?iaaiea aaieianeie nenoaiu NNN?). A eiioea 1980-o aa. Noaee iiyaeyoueny ia?aua iaainoaea?noaaiiua (eiiia?/aneea) aaiee. Caeii i aaieao aaae aeaooo?iaiaaoth aaieianeoth nenoaio, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaea niioaaonoaaiii iaee/ea OeA (aa?oiee o?iaaiue) e iiiaeanoaa eiiia?/aneeo aaieia (ieaeiee o?iaaiue). Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? (a niioaaonoaaiii - e Ainaaiea NNN?) ia/aee i?aaieciauaaoueny iiaua aaethoiua ae?aee ia ?aaeiiaeueiie iniiaa, a /anoiinoe, Iineianeay iaaeaaieianeay aaethoiay ae?aea, nicaeaiiay a yiaa?a 1992 aiaea. Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? (a eiioea 1991 aiaea) ia/aeanue ?ac?aaioea ii?iaoeaiie i?aaiaie aacu, ?aaoee?othuae aeayoaeueiinoue o/anoieeia aaethoiiai ?uiea. Nouanoaiaaei ianeieueei yoaiia eeaa?aeecaoeee aaethoiiai ?uiea a ?innee: n 1990 aiaea noaee i?aaieciauaaoueny aaethoiua aoeoeeiiu (ai Aiaoyeiiiiaaiea (AYA)) - ia?aue a iiya?a 1989 aiaea. Oi?a i?iaiaeeeny cai/ii, iiaeaaaeenue cayaee ia eoieth-i?iaeaaeo aaethou. E o/anoeth a yoeo oi?aao nouanoaiaaee aeanoeea ia?aie/aiey - oieueei oa i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua eiaee aaethoiua n/aoa a AYA. Nooue iia?aoeee caeeth/aeanue a ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee aaethou iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie aoeoeeiia. Ni n/aoa ia n/ao a AYA aaciaee/ii ia?aaiaeeeenue iaeea noiiu, a naeueaei ii ei??aniiiaeaioneei n/aoai ia eniieueciaaeinue. Aoeoeeiiu i?iaiaeeeenue a oa/aiea 1,5 eao - anaai auei 19 aoeoeeiiia. Oi?aiaaee a iniiaiii aeieea?ii NOA e ?oaeyie. E eiioeo nouanoaiaaiey aoeoeeiia - 10,7 ?oa. ca aeieea? (e 90-91 a.). 4 aaaonoa 90 a. - Iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? i ia?ao ii oi?ie?iaaieth aioo?aiiaai aaethoiiai ?uiea (eee 776 iinoaiiaeaiea) - ia?aue ii?iaoeaiue aeo aeeceeo e ?uii/iui ioiioaiee: auea iaia/aia oeaeue aeinoeaeaiey eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe ?oaey; nicaeaaaeenue aaethoiua ae?aee (aeey ?aceaeaioia); ?anoe?eeny e?oa aae. iia?aoeee e ianooaau ieaoaaeae; yoei iinoaiiaeaieai caeiaeaiu iniiau aeieea?ecaoeee iaoae yeiiiieee. N 01.01.1991. ioiaiyeenue oae iacuaaaiua aaethoiua eiyooeoeeaiou (n eaaeaeie no?aiie a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a iia?aoeee). Aia?aua aue onoaiiaeai eiiia?/aneee eo?n ?oaey - 1?oa. 80eii. ca aeieea? (oi?iaeueii inoaaaeny 66eii.). Iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aae. Eo?nia nio?aieeanue aei 01.07.1992. A 1991a. nouanoaiaaei 3 aeaea aae. eo?nia ?oaey: ioeoeeaeueiue eo?n eiiia?/aneee eo?n niaoeeaeueiue eo?n, eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaaeny ?aoaieai ain. i?aaiia aeey niaa?oaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo naeaeie eo?n aoeoeeiia AYA /a?iue eo?n, eo?n /a?iiai ?uiea Ainoaea?noai i?eciaaaei oieueei ia?auo 3 eo?na. I?iaeaaea aae. au?o/ee iiaea inouanoaeyoueny a oneiaeyo, eiaaea /anoue au?o/ee i?aaei?eyoeyi ?ac?aoaeinue inoaaeyoue naaa. Auei ?aoaii nicaeaoue ?anioaeeeaineee aae. ?aca?a ?O. Aaaaeaia iaycaoaeueiay i?iaeaaea aaethou a aae. ?aca?a i?aaei?eyoee, /oi iiiiaei au oii?yaei/eoue aae. ioiioaiey. I?iaeaaeo aaethou a aae. ?aca?a ?aoeee ?aaoee?iaaoue - aaaee niaoeeaeueiue eiiia?/aneee aae. eo?n - on?aaeiaiiue, i?iecaiaeiue io ?uii/iiai eo?na. ?uii/iue eo?n ii?aaeaeyeny a oiaea oi?aia ia aae. ae?aea - io iaai auaiaeeee eiiia?/aneee eo?n ( a 1992a. niaoe. eo?n - 50% io ?uii/iiai). Aaethoa o i?aaei?eyoee iieoiaeanue ainoaea?noaii, yenii?o i?iaeoeoeee ia noeioee?iaaeny, o.e. ieaoaaee iieo/aeenue ii iiieaeaiiiio eo?no, /oi auei iaauaiaeii yenii?oa?ai e nu?ueaaeeai. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iaoneiaeei iiyaeaiea 629 Oeaca I?aceaeaioa “I /anoe/iii eciaiaiee ii?yaeea iaycaoaeueiie i?iaeaaee aaethou”. N 01.07.1992. niaoeeaeueiue eo?n ioiaiyeny e i?iaeaaea /anoe au?o/ee a ?anioaeeeaineee aae. ?aca?a auea ioiaiaia. Naia i?iaeaaea aaethou ia auea ioiaiaia, ii aue aaaaeai iiaue ii?yaeie: aia caaeneiinoe io oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ana i?aaei?eyoey, iieo/athuea aaethoo, aeieaeiu auee i?iaeaaaoue 50% io yenii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa ia aioo?aiiai aae. ?uiea /a?ac oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee. N aaaaeaieai aeaooo?iaiaaie nenoaiu neooaoeey eciaieeanue. OeA noae aaieii aaieia e aaieii i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a eiiia?/aneea aaiee iieo/eee i?aai aanoe aae. n/aoa, niaa?oaoue naeaeee n aae. oeaiiinoyie e aanoe aae. ianeoaeeaaiea anao i?aaei?eyoee, eiathueo aaethoo. *oiau inouanoaeyoue aae. iia?aoeee aaiee aeieaeiu iieo/eoue aae. eeoeaiceth, eioi?oth auaeaao ainoaea?noai. Nouanoaoao 2 aeaea eeoeaicee: ia?aie/aiiay iieiay, ?anoe?aiiay, aaia?aeueiay Aaia?aeueiay eeoeaicey aeaaaea i?aai ioe?uaaoue n/aoa a eiino?aiiuo aaieao, inouanoaeyoue oi?aiaeth aaethoie. Naaiaeiy aaia?aeueiay eeoeaicey i?aaeinoaaeyao naiua oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aaaeaiey aae. iia?aoeee. ?anoe?aiiay eeoeaicey naaiaeiy i?e?aaieaaaony e aaia?aeueiie eeoeaicee, ii ecia/aeueii a iaa caeeaaeuaaeny eiie niune. ?anoe?aiioth eeoeaiceth iieo/aee oa aaiee, eioi?ua eiaee i?aai ioe?uaaoue ei??aniiiaeaioneea n/aoa n 6-th caa?aie/iuie aaieaie Niaaoneiai Nithca (Eiiaeii, Neiaaio?, Ia?eae, O?aieoo?o, Aaia, Ethenaiao?a, Oeth?eo). Yoe aaiee yaeyeenue th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie oao no?ai, a eioi?uo iie iaoiaeeeenue, ii ii/oe 100% eaieoaea oei ec AYA. Aaiee, eioi?ua ioe?uaaee ei??aniiiaeaioneea n/aoa a caa?aie/iuo aaieao, iieo/aee ?anoe?aiioth eeoeaiceth. Iecoee o?iaaiue eeoeaice?iaaiey - aioo?aiiyy aae. eeoeaicey aeaaaea i?aai ioe?uaaoue e cae?uaaoue eo?nu iaiaia, aanoe aeiionoeiua iia?aoeee ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea, ia aiaoiee ?uiie iiaeii auoiaeeoue oieueei /a?ac ei??aniiiaeaioneea n/aoa AYA. A ?innee iinoaiaiii ia/eiaao noi?ie?iauaaoueny aioo?aiiee aae. ?uiie (iioiaue), ia eioi?ii neeaaeuaathony naie oeaiu, eo?n aaethou. Eae neaaenoaea iiyaeyaony iioiaue aae. ?uiie, nicaeathony i?aaeiinueee aeey ?icie/iiai aae. ?uiea (oi?aiaey iaaeaeo aaieaie e eeeaioo?ie - eiiiaieyie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie), eiaao ianoi aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey aae. ?uiea (a ia?aua aiaeu inoaaaeny oeaio?aeeciaaiiui - oeaio? Iineaa). aicieeiiaaiea aae. ae?ae A ai?aea 1991a. nicaeaia aae. ae?aea OeA NNN?, ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeyony oi?aiaua nannee (?ac a iaaeaeth). Nicaeaiea aae. ae?ae eiaei 3 oeaee: nicaeaiea oaeie ae?aee aeeoioee?iaaei ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia aae. ?ano?nu; iicaieeei noi?ie?iaaoue aaeeiue ?uii/iue aae. eo?n ?oaey e aeieea?o - yoi aue aaciaee/iue eo?n, ii aaciaee/iui iaaeaaieianeei naeaeeai; i?e iiyaeaiee oaeie ae?aee nicaeaaaeenue aeiiieieoaeueiua aa?aioee. Ae?aee ii/oe n?aco neiaeeeenue eae ianoi ?aaiou aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aaieia (26 aaieia). A ia/aea 90-o aa. *a?ac ae?aeo i?ioiaeeei i?eaeeceoaeueii 80% aaethou. Iiea nouanoaiaae Niaaoneee Nithc, yoa ae?aea auea ain. o/?aaeaeaieai (i?eiaaeeaaeaea OeA). A yiaa?a 1992a. iiyaeeanue Iineianeay Iaaeaaieianeay Aaethoiay Ae?aea (IIAA). Aa eaieoae ninoaaee 249 iei. ?oa., a aa ?aaioa o/anoaiaaee 32 e?oiiaeoeo aaiea no?aiu, aeeth/ay OeA (ia ia?aii yoaia). 01.07.1992. - oaea 51 o/anoieea. Aei eiioea 1992a. nicaeaiea iuiaoiae aae. nenoaiu caaa?oeeinue. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie aeieoiaioaie, ?aaoee?othueie aae. ?uiie a ?innee, yaeythony: -- caeii ?O io 09.10.1992. "I aae. ?aaoee?iaaiee e aae. eiio?iea"; -- oeac I?aceaeaioa io 30.12.1991."I oi?ie?iaaiee ?anioaeeeaineiai aae. ?aca?aa"; -- 629 oeac I?aceaeaioa 1992a. "I /anoe/iie i?iaeaaea /anoe aae. au?o/ee e aceiaiey yenii?oiuo iioeei"; -- eino?oeoeey OeA ?7 1992a. "I ii?yaeea iaycaoaeueiie i?iaeaaee i?aaei?eyoeyie /anoe aae. au?o/ee /a?ac oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee". Caeii "I aae. ?aaoee?iaaiee e aae. eiio?iea": -- onoaiaaeeaaao i?eioeeiu inouanoaeaiey aae. iia?aoeee; -- aeaao oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaeia aaethou e aae. oeaiiinoae, eniieuecoaiuo a ?O; -- ?aaoee?oao i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ?aceaeaioia e ia?aceaeaioia a ioiioaiee aae. oeaiiinoae; -- onoaiaaeeaaao iieiiii/ey e ooieoeee ain. i?aaiia ii aae. ?aaoee?iaaieth e eiio?ieth. Caeii aiai?eo, /oi aaieianeea iia?aoeee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny /a?ac oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee, eioi?ua iieo/eee eeoeaiceth OeA ia i?iaaaeaiea aae. iia?aoeee; eaeea aeaeu aae. iia?aoeee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny. 80. ?an/?oiua iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Aaaeiaeoae ooieoeeae aaieianeie nenoaiu yaeyaony iaania/aiea aania?aaieiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu ?an/?oia. Aeey inouanoaeaiey yoie ooieoeee aaie auiieiyao ?an/aoiua iia?aoeee, eioi?ua aeeth/atho a naay o?aiaiea n?aaenoa eeeaioa, aeaeaeaiea, ia?aiauaiea eo n iiiiuueth ia?auaiey ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioia (ii ?anii?yaeaieth aea?aeaoaeae aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa). Aeey inouanoaeaiey yoeo iia?aoeee eeeaio ioe?uaaao a aaiea n/ao (?an/aoiue, aeaiiceoiue, eiioiei??aioiue e o.ae.). Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea iaycaii ioe?uoue ii e?aeiae ia?a 1 n/?o a aaiea. Iniiaiui aeieoiaioii, eioi?ui ?oeiaiaenoaothony eiiia?/aneea aaiee i?e ioe?uoee n/aoia eeeaioia, yaeyaony Eino?oeoeey "I ?an/?oiuo, oaeoueo e athaeaeaoiuo n/aoao" ? 28 io 30 ieoya?y 1986 aiaea. A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei ii?yaeeii aeey ioe?uoey n/?oa a aaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony neaaeothuee eiiieaeo aeieoiaioia, eioi?ua caaa?ythony o iioa?eona: Cayaeaiea ia ioe?uoee n/?oa ia aeaiea onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu; 2 yecaiiey?a onoaaa oe?iu, iaeei ec eioi?uo - i?eaeiae, a ae?oaie - iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiay eiiey (ia iaeiii yecaiiey?a onoaaa aaie aeaeaao caienue ia ioe?uoee ?an/?oiiai n/?oa e aica?auaao aai eeeaioo); eiiey o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a; eiiey naeaeaoaeuenoaa i ?aaeno?aoeee; ni?aaea ec i?aaia noaoenoeee i i?enaiaiee eiaea; ni?aaea ec iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee; ni?aaea ec iaineiiiiai oiiaea; ni?aaea ec oiiaea iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey; ea?oi/ea n ia?acoeaie iiaeienae eeoe, oiieiiii/aiiuo ?anii?yaeaoueny n?aaenoaaie n/?oa, e ia?acoeii iooenea ia/aoe. Nouanoaoao 3 iniiaiua ?aciiaeaeiinoe n/aoia: ?an/?oiua. Ii yoei n/aoai aiciiaeiu ethaua iia?aoeee ii ca/eneaieth ia?aaiaea e auaea/a n?aaenoa, ia cai?au?iiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. oaeouea. Ii yoei n/aoai aiciiaeai ia?aie/aiiue e?oa iia?aoeee (iieo/aiea n?aaenoa ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo, iieaoa eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa). athaeaeaoiua. Ii yoei n/aoai inouanoaeyaony oeiaine?iaaiea ec athaeaeaoa aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee. N?aaenoaa iiaeeaaeao ouaoaeueiiio eiio?ieth. Niaeanii Eino?oeoeee ? 28 ?an/?oiue n/?o ioe?uaaaony th/eeoeii, aeaenoaothuei ia i?eioeeiao oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/?oa (o.a. eiiia?/aneei no?oeoo?ai), eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui e naiaeiui i?aaei?eyoeyi, a?aiaeiui eieeaeoeaai e a?aiaeaoi?ai, ioaeaeueiui oicyenoaai. Oaeouee n/?o ioe?uaaaony i?aaiecaoeeyi e o/?aaeaeaieyi, eioi?ua ia ioiinyony e oai, eiio ioe?uaaaony ?an/?oiue n/?o. Oaeouee n/?o ioe?uaaaony ii oiaeaoaenoao aieiaiie i?aaiecaoeee iiae?acaeaeaieyi i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, ia eiathuei iainiaeaiiiai aaeaina. Anee aea iiae?acaeaeaiea eiaao iainiaeaiiue aaeain, oi aio iiaeao auoue ioe?uo ?an/?oiue n/?o. ?an/?ou ieao?aeiuie ii?o/aieyie (II) ?aaeaiaioe?othony a?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenii, a oaeaea I?aaeeaie "Aaciaee/iuo ?an/?oia a ?O" io 1992a. Niaeanii a?aaeaeaineiio eiaeaeno ?an/?ou II-yie yaeythony iau/iie oi?iie ?an/?oia iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie (th/) e oece/aneeie (o/) eeoeaie. Noaia aeieoiaioiiai?ioa i?e ?an/?oao II-yie. Ieaoaeueuee 1 Iieo/aoaeue-iinoaauee 3 4 2 6 Aaie ieaoaeueueea 5 Aaie iieo/aoaey 1-ay no?aeea icia/aao, /oi iaaeaeo ieaoaeueueeii e iinoaaueeii caeeth/?i aeiaiai? ia iinoaaeo oiaa?a, oneoae. 2-ay: ioa?ocea i?iaeoeoeee, ieacaiea oneoa, naea/a ?aaio. 3-ay: ieaoaeueuee ia?aaea?o a naie aaie II-ea ia i?aai nienaiey noiiu ieaoaaea. 4-ay: aaie ieaoaeueueea nienuaaao n ?an/?oiiai n/?oa ieaoaeueueea n?aaenoaa e i?aaeinoaaeyao ieaoaeueueeo auieneo ec aai ?an/?oiiai n/?oa. 5-ay: aaie ieaoaeueueea iai?aaeyao a aaie iieo/aoaey yecaiiey?u II-ey aeey ca/eneaiey n?aaenoa iinoaaueeo. Iaeiia?aiaiii n ei??aniiiaeaioneiai n/?oa aaiea ieaoaeueueea nienuaaaony noiia, eioi?ay ca/eneyaony ia ei??aniiiaeaioneee n/?o aaiea iieo/aoaey. 6-ay: aaie iieo/aoaey ca/eneyao ia ?an/?oiue n/?o iieo/aoaey iinooieaooth noiio e iai?aaeyao aio auieneo ec aai ?an/?oiiai n/?oa. II-ea ioi?ieyaony ia aeaiea onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu a 4-o yecaiiey?ao (a 3-o, anee iieo/aoaeue e ieaoaeueuee ianeoaeeaathony a iaeiii aaiea). Iaeei yecaiiey? caaa?yaony iiaeienyie eeoe, oiieiiii/aiiuo ?anii?yaeaoueny n?aaenoaaie ii n/?oo, e ia/aoueth oe?iu (iiaeiene yoeo eeoe aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue ia?acoeai iiaeienae a aaiea: 1-ay iiaeienue - i?aceaeaioa oe?iu, 2-ay - aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a). Ia iineaaeiai yecaiiey?a II-ey aaie aeaeaao ioiaoeo i i?e?ia yoiai ii?o/aiey e eniieiaieth. 1-ue yecaiiey? II-ey yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey nienaiey aaieii n?aaenoa ni n/?oa eeeaioa e iiiauaaony a aeieoiaiou aeiy. 2-ie e 3-ee yecaiiey?u ioi?aaeythony a aaie iinoaaueea. 2-ie yecaiiey? a aaiea iinoaaueea yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey ca/eneaiey n?aaenoa ia n/?o iinoaaueea e iiiauaaony a aeieoiaiou aeiy aaiea iinoaaueea. 3-ee yecaiiey? yaeyaony i?eeiaeaieai e auienea ni n/?oa iinoaaueea, eioi?oth aaie iinoaaueea oi?ie?oao iinea ca/eneaiey n?aaenoa ia n/?o iinoaaueea. Ii iaeiei aeieoiaioai aaie ia aeieaeai i?eieiaoue io eeeaioa II-ey i? iaaeinoaoea ia n/?oa eeeaioa n?aaenoa ia eo eniieiaiea. Ii ae?oaei aeieoiaioai aeieaeai. Aannii?iui yaeyaony oi, /oi aaie iaycai i?eiyoue II-ey ia ia?a/eneaiea n?aaenoa a athaeaeao e aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. Yoe aeieoiaiou ii aeieaeai iiianoeoue a ea?oioaeo ? 2 "?an/?oiua aeieoiaiou, ia iiea/aiiua a n?ie ec-ca ionoonoaey n?aaenoa ia n/?oa eeeaioa". I?e iinooieaiee ia ?an/?oiue n/?o n?aaenoa aaie iaycai iaiaaeeaiii eniieieoue yoe ?an/?ou (II-ey aeaenoaeoaeueiu a oa/aiea 10 eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae ni aeiy ninoaaeaiey, ia n/eoay aeiy ninoaaeaiey). Iniaua neooaoeee iiaoo aicieeaoue i?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe n?aaenoa ia ?an/?oiii n/?oa i?aaei?eyoey aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey anao o?aaiaaiee n/?oa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana ieaoaaee aeaeyony ii noaiaie eo i/a??aeiinoe ia 6 a?oii: ieaoaaee ii eniieieoaeueiui aeieoiaioai, naycaiiui n oaeiaeaoai?aieai o?aaiaaiee i aiciauaiee a?aaea, i?e/ei?iiiai caei?iaueth e aeecie, a oaeaea o?aaiaaiey i acuneaiee aeeiaioia; ieaoaaee ii eniieieoaeueiui aeieoiaioai, naycaiiui n auaea/ae (ia?a/eneaieai n?aaenoa ii auieaoa auoiaeiuo iiniaee, iieaoa o?oaea, ii aaoi?neei aeiaiai?ai e o.i.); ii ieao?aeiui aeieoiaioai ia ia?a/eneaiea/ auaea/o aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa aeey ?an/?oia ii iieaoa o?oaea, a oaeaea ii ?an/?oai a aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie; ii ieao?aeiui aeieoiaioai ia ia?a/eneaiea n?aaenoa a athaeaeao; ii eniieieoaeueiui aeieoiaioai, i?aaeoniao?eaathuei oaeiaeaoai?aiea ae?oaeo aeaiaaeiuo o?aaiaaiee; ii ae?oaei ieao?aeiui aeieoiaioai a ii?yaeea eaeaiaea?iie i/a??aeiinoe. ?an/?ou ieao?aeiuie o?aaiaaieyie-ii?o/aieyie (IOI). Noaia ?an/?oia IOI-yie: 1 Iinoaauee 2 Iieoiaoaeue 7 3 5 4 Aaie iinoaaueea 6 Aaie iieoiaoaey 1-ay no?aeea. Iinoaauee e iieoiaoaeue caeeth/atho aeiaiai? n oeacaieai oi?iu ?an/?oa IOI-yie. 2-ay: iinoaauee ioa?oaeaao iieoiaoaeth i?iaeoeoeeth. 3-ay: iinoaauee ioi?aaeyao iieoiaoaeth /a?ac naie aaie eee eiui ioo?i IOI-ey e aeieoiaiou ia ioa?oceo; 4-ay: iieoiaoaeue aeiioi?iee (aeoeaioiaae) aeieoiaiou e naeae a naie aaie ia iieaoo. 5-ay: aaie iieoiaoaey nienae ni n/?oa iieoiaoaey n?aaenoaa e ia?aaeae iieoiaoaeth auieneo ec aai ?an/?oiiai n/?oa. 6-ay: aeieoiaiou i ca/eneaiee ieaoaaea iinooiatho a aaie iinoaaueea. Iaeiia?aiaiii io aaiea iieoiaoaey ia ei??aniiiaeaioneee n/?o aaiea iinoaaueea iinooiaao noiia ieaoaaea. 7-ay: aaie iinoaaueea ca/eneyao noiio ieaoaaea ia ?an/?oiue n/?o iinoaaueea e ia?aaea?o iinoaaueeo auieneo ec aai ?an/?oiiai n/?oa. IOI-ey i?aaenoaaeythony iinoaaueeii a naie aaie a 4-o yecaiiey?ao. Aeieoiaioiiai?io oaeie aea, eae e II-ee. I?e iinooieaiee a aaie ieaoaeueueea, IOI-ey i?eoiaeothony a ea?oioaeo ?1 "?an/?oiua aeieoiaiou, iaeeaeathuea aeoeaioa aeey iieaou". Aaie ia?aaea?o ieaoaeueueeo 1 yecaiiey? iinooieaoeo aeieoiaioia aeey aeoeaioa. Aeoeaio ioi?ieyaony ieaoaeueueeii aeaoiy iiaeienyie ia IOI-ee e iooeneii ia/aoe. Aeoeaioiaaiiia IOI-ea i?aaenoaaeyaony a oa/aiea 3-o aaieianeeo aeiae, e aaie nienuaaao ni n/?oa ieaoaeueueea noiio ieaoaaea. I?e iaiinooieaiee a oa/aiea 3-o aeiae aeoeaioa IOI-ey a aaie, IOI-ey aica?auathony a aaie iinoaaueea n ioiaoeie "ia aeoeaioiaaii". E?iia oiai, ieaoaeueuee iiaeao ioeacaoueny io aeoeaioa, i?aaenoaaea cayaeaiea ia ioeaca io aeoeaioa ii onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia. Iienaiiay i?ioeaaeo?a iacuaaaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aeoeaioii. ?an/?ou /aeaie. *ae - yoi aeieoiaio onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu, niaea?aeauee ii?o/aiea /aeiaeaoaey ieaoaeueueeo i?iecaanoe ieao?ae /aeiaea?aeaoaeth oeacaiiie a i?i noiiu. *aeiaeaoaeue - eeoei, auienuaathuaa /ae. *aeiaea?aeaoaeue - eeoei, aeaaeathuaa auienaiiui /aeii. Ieaoaeueuee - aaie. Iie?uoeai /aeii iiaoo auoue: n?aaenoaa, aeaiiie?iaaiiua ia iniaii n/?oa; n?aaenoaa ia ?an/?oiii n/?oa eeeaioa; a ?yaea neo/aaa aaie aa?aioe?oao eeeaioo iieaoo aai /aeia aeaaea i?e ionoonoaee n?aaenoa ia ?an/?oiii n/?oa eeeaioa ca n/?o niaoeeaeueiiai e?aaeeoa. Noaia aeieoiaioiiai?ioa i?e ?an/?oao /aeaie. Iinoaauee 3 Iieoiaoaeue 5 6 4 1 2 8 Aaie iinoaaueea 7 Aaie iieoiaoaey 9 1-ay no?aeea: iieoiaoaeue i?aaenoaaeyao a naie aaie cayaeaiea ia iieoieo /aeiaie eieaeee. 2-ay: aaie auaea?o iieoiaoaeth /aeiaoth eieaeeo e aeaiiie?oao noiio eeieoa ia iniaii n/?oa. 3-ay: iinoaauee ioa?oaeaao i?iaeoeoeeth iieoiaoaeth. 4-ay: iieoiaoaeue ia?aaea?o iinoaaueeo /ae a iieaoo i?iaeoeoeee. 5-ay: iinoaauee i?aaenoaaeyao a naie aaie /ae i?e ?aano?a. 6-ay: aaie iinoaaueea ca/eneyao n?aaenoaa ia ?an/?oiue n/?o iinoaaueea. 7-ay: aaie iinoaaueea ia?aaea?o aeieoiaiou a aaie iieoiaoaey. 8-ay: aaie iieoiaoaey ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo aeieoiaioia nienuaaao ni n/?oa aeaiiie?iaaiioth noiio e ia?aaea?o iieoiaoaeth auieneo n yoiai n/?oa. 9-ay: aaie iieoiaoaey ia?aaiaeeo n?aaenoaa a aaie iinoaaueea. ?an/?ou aee?aaeeoeaaie. ?an/aou aee?aaeeoeaaie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa oe?iei eniieuecothony a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/?oao. Iaeiaei aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie iie auee aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiu e a i?aeoeea aioo?aiieo ?an/?oia ia oa??eoi?ee ?O. A neo/aa eniieueciaaiey yoie oi?iu aaie-yieoaio iaycoaony ii ii?o/aieth ieaoaeueueea i?iecaanoe ieao?ae aaiaoeoeea?o (iinoaaueeo) eee oiieiiii/eoue ae?oaie aaie (eniieiythuee aaie) i?iecaanoe oaeie ieao?ae i?ioea aeieoiaioia iinoaaueea, oeacaiiuo a cayaeaiee ia aee?aaeeoea. Oaeei ia?acii, a aee?aaeeoeaiie iia?aoeee o/anoaotho: ieaoaeueuee; aaie-yieoaio (aaie ieaoaeueueea), eioi?ue ioe?uaaao aee?aaeeoea; eniieiythuee aaie (ei iiaeao auoue e aaie-yieoaio); aaiaoeoeea? (iinoaauee). Aee?aaeeoeaiay oi?ia ?an/?oia eniieuecoaony, eiaaea iaaeaeo iinoaaueeii e iieoiaoaeai anoue iaaeiaa?ea. I?e oaeie oi?ia ?an/?oa iieoiaoaeue ia?aaiaeeo n?aaenoaa a aaie iinoaaueea, ii iieo/eoue yoe n?aaenoaa ia naie ?an/?oiue n/?o iinoaauee iiaeao, oieueei i?aaeinoaaea a eniieiythuee aaie aeieoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea ioa?oceo i?iaeoeoeee. Iniiaiuie aeaeaie aee?aaeeoeaia yaeythony: iie?uoua eee aeaiiie?iaaiiua; iaiie?uoua, o.a. aa?aioe?iaaiiua. ?acee/atho oaeaea aee?aaeeoeau iocuaiua e aaciocuaiua. Aee?aaeeoeau auaatho o?ainoa?aaaeueiua e ?aaieueaa?iua. A neo/aa iie?uoiai eee aeaiiie?iaaiiiai aee?aaeeoeaa aaie-yieoaio nienuaaao ni n/?oa aee?aaeeoeaiaeaoaey (ieaoaeueueea) noiio aee?aaeeoeaa e ia?aaiaeeo a? a eniieiythuee aaie. Aiciiaeia neooaoeey, eiaaea a eniieiythuee aaie ia?aaiaeeony noiia e?aaeeoa, i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai aaieii-yieoaioii aeey iie?uoey aee?aaeeoeaa. Iaiie?uoue aee?aaeeoea eiaao ianoi oiaaea, eiaaea noiia aee?aaeeoeaa ia aeaiiie?oaony ia niaoeeaeueiii n/?oa (e ia ia?aaiaeeony a eniieiythuee aaie). A yoii neo/aa iau/ii ieaoaaee ii aee?aaeeoeao inouanoaeythony ca n/?o n?aaenoa, eiathueony ia ei??aniiiaeaioneii n/?oa aaiea-yieoaioa, ioe?uoiai a eniieiythuai aaiea. Iocuaiie aee?aaeeoea - aee?aaeeoea, eioi?ue iiaeii ioicaaoue aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey n iinoaaueeii. Aaciocuaiie aee?aaeeoea ia iiaeao auoue eciai?i eee aiioee?iaai aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey n iinoaaueeii. Ii o?ainoa?aaaeueiiio aee?aaeeoeao iinoaauee iiaeao aeaoue oeacaiey eniieiythuaio aaieo, /oiau aee?aaeeoeaii iiaee iieueciaaoueny o?aouee eeoea (iai?eia? oa, eiio aeieaeai iinoaauee). Iinoaauee iiaeao aeaoue oeacaiey eniieiythuaio aaieo ia?aaanoe aee?aaeeoea a ae?oaie aaie. Ia?aaiae iaiie?uoiai, o.a. aa?aioe?iaaiiiai aee?aaeeoeaa aiciiaeai oieueei iaeei ?ac e n niaeaney aaiea-yieoaioa. ?aaieueaa?iue aee?aaeeoea - yoi aiciaiiaeyaiue aee?aaeeoea, o.a. oaeie, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao aaoiiaoe/aneia ainnoaiiaeaiea aaieii noiiu aee?aaeeoeaa ni n/?oa ieaoaeueueea iinea eaaeaeie auieaou ii aee?aaeeoeao eee /a?ac eaeea-oi ia?eiaeu a?aiaie. Iniiaaieai aeey ioe?uoey ethaiai aee?aaeeoeaa yaeyaony cayaeaiea ia aeaiea onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu. A cayaeaiee oeacuaathony neaaeothuea aeaiiua: iiia? aeiaiai?a, ii eioi?iio ioe?uaaaony aee?aaeeoea; /enei e ianyoe cae?uoey aee?aaeeoeaa; iaeiaiiaaiea iinoaaueea; iaeiaiiaaiea eniieiythuaai aaiea; ianoi eniieiaiey aee?aaeeoeaa (ai?iae); iieiia e oi/iia iaeiaiiaaiea aeieoiaioia, i?ioea eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyony auieaou ii aee?aaeeoeao; aeae aee?aaeeoeaa (iocuaiie, aaciocuaiie); noiia aee?aaeeoeaa. Aeey iieo/aiey n?aaenoa ii aee?aaeeoeao iinoaauee i?aaenoaaeyao a eniieiythuee aaie aeieoiaiou, oeacaiiua a cayaeaiee ia aee?aaeeoea. Iau/ii yoi ioa?oci/iua aeieoiaiou; anee a eniieiythuee aaie ?aiaa auee ia?aaaaeaiu n?aaenoaa ii aee?aaeeoeao, oi eniieiythuee aaie nienuaaao ni n/?oa aee?aaeeoeaa niioaaonoaothuoth noiio e ca/eneyao a? ia n/?o iinoaaueea. Anee aee?aaeeoea iaaeaiiie?iaaiiue, o.a. aa?aioe?iaaiiue, oi eniieiythuee aaie, iiea/eaay aee?aaeeoea, iai?aaeyao aaieo-yieoaioo i?aaeuyaeaiiua aeieoiaiou (eiiee) i?e aeaaaoiaii aaeci. Aeaaaoiaia aaeci -yoi oaaaeiieaiea i nienaiee n?aaenoa. E?aaeeoiaia aaeci - oaaaeiieaiea i ca/eneaiee n?aaenoa. Auieaoa n?aaenoa iaee/iuie ii aee?aaeeoeao cai?auaia. Aaie, eoaea iinooiee aee?aaeeoea, ioe?uaaao ia eaaeaeue aee?aaeeoea aeinuea (any aeieoiaioaoeey ii aee?aaeeoeao). ?an/?ou n eniieueciaaieai aaenaeae. Aaenaeue - oeaiiay aoiaaa, oaeinoiaa?ythuay aaconeiaiia aeaiaaeiia iaycaoaeuenoai aaenaeaaeaoaey oieaoeoue ii ianooieaiee n?iea ii?aaeae?iioth noiio aeaiaa aeaaeaeueoeo aaenaey. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ?aciiaeaeiinoae aaenaey: i?inoie, ia?aaiaeiie (o?aooa), i?ioeaioiue, aeeneiioiue. A neo/aa i?inoiai aaenaey a iia?aoeee o/anoaotho: aaenaeaaeaoaeue, aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeue (ii aea iieo/aao ieao?ae). A neo/aa o?aoou -- aaenaeaaeaoaeue (o?annaio), aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeue e ieaoaeueuee (o?annao). A neo/aa i?ioeaioiiai aaenaey (niei) aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeue iieo/aao ii yoiio aaenaeth aaenaeueioth noiio + %-u ii yoie noiia. Ii aeeneiioiiio aaenaeth aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeue iieo/aao aaenaeueioth noiio, a aeioiaeii yaeyaony aeeneiio. Aaenaey aeoeaii eniieuecothony a ?an/?oiuo iia?aoeeyo. I?e ?aaioa n aaenaeyie eniieuecotho oaeoth oaoieeo, eae eiaeinne?iaaiea aaenaeae, aaaee?iaaiea aaenaeae. Eiaeinne?iaaiea aaenaeae - yoi ia?aaea/a aaenaey ae?oaiio aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeth ii ia?aaeaoi/iie iaaeiene, eioi?ay iacuaaaony eiaeinnaiaioii (ia iai?ioa aaenaey; aeiiieieoaeueiue eenoie). Ii aeaiiiio aaenaeth ianoo nieeaea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ana eiaeinnaiou e aaenaeaaeaoaeue. Anee ia iai?ioa aaenaey ieoaony "aac iai?ioa ia iaiy", au ecaaaaaoa ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Aaaeue - aa?aioey aaenaey. Aaaee?iaaiea aaenaey - auaea/a aa?aioee. Iieoiaoaeue iiaeao ?anieaoeoueny n iinoaaueeii ia aeaiueaaie, a aaenaeai. Iinoaauee, iieo/ea aaenaeue a iieaoo, iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue ianeieueeeie niiniaaie: aeiaeaeaoueny n?iea ieaoaaea e iieo/eoue n aaenaeaaeaoaey i?e/eoathuothny noiio; ?anieaoeoueny aeaiiui aaenaeai ni naiei eiio?aaaioii (iinoaaueeii); i?aaeuyaeoue aaenaeue aeey o/?oa a aaie. O/?o aaenaeae a aaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iia?aoeeth iieoiee aaieii aaenaey (aeeneiioe?iaaiea aaenaeae). Aeey aaiea yoa iia?aoeey yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth e?aaeeoiie iia?aoeee, iineieueeo n?aaenoaa ii yoiio aaenaeth aaie iieo/eo eeoue iicaea, eiaaea ianooieo n?ie iiaaoaiey aaenaey, a auaea?o n?aaenoaa ii aaenaeth a iiiaio aai o/?oa. Ieaoa ca i?aaeinoaaeaiiue e?aaeeo yaeyaony aeeneiio. Aaee/eia aeeneiioa caaeneo io o?iaiy nnoaeiiai %-oa, io n?iea iaaeaeo iiiaioii o/?oa aaenaey e iiiaioii aai iiaaoaiey (/ai aieueoa n?ie, oai aieueoa aeeneiio) e io aaenaeueiie noiiu. E?iia oiai, aaie iau/ii aceiaao eiienneth ii o/?oo aaenaeae. A ?aieao ?an/?oiuo iia?aoeee aaie iiaeao i?eieiaoue aaenaey ia eieanni. Aaenaey i?eieiathony ia eieanni aeey iieo/aiey ieaoaaeae ii aaenaeth i?e ianooieaiee n?iea aai iiaaoaiey. Aaie a yoii neo/aa aa??o ia naay iaycaiiinoue i?aaeuyaeoue aaenaey a n?ie ieaoaeueueeo e iieo/eoue i?e/eoathuothny noiio ii yoei aaenaeyi. I?e iaieaoaaea aaenaey aaie aica?auaao aaenaeue aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeth, ii n i?ioanoii ii iaieaoaaeo. Aaie ioaa/aao ca iineaaenoaey, aicieeoea aneaaenoaea oiouaiey i?ioanoa. *oi eanaaony eanniauo iia?aoeee, oi aaiee iaycaiu iaania/eoue /aoeia e naiaa?aiaiiia eanniaia ianeoaeeaaiea naieo eeeaioia, auiieiyy eanniaua iia?aoeee. Niaea?aeaiea eanniauo iia?aoeee: i?eai e auaea/a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oeaiiinoae eeeaioai aaiea /a?ac iia?aoeeiiioth eanno aaiea. Aaaeaiea eanniauo iia?aoeee ?aaoee?oaony I?aaeeaie, onoaiaaeeaaaiuie OeA ?innee. Aeey i?eaia e auaea/e aeaiaa a aaiea nicaeaaony niaoeeaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea (eanna aaiea), a eioi?ii iiaoo auoue i?eoiaeiua, ?anoiaeiua, aa/a?iea eannu, a oaeaea eannu ia?a?an/aoa. Eiee/anoai eann caaeneo io iauaia e oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe aaiea. Inouanoaeyy eanniaia ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioia, aaiee caeeth/atho n ieie aeiaiai?a. Ana i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee aaaeoo naie eanniaua iia?aoeee a niioaaonoaee n "Ii?yaeeii aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee a ?O". Eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai yoiai ii?yaeea aiceaaaaony ia aaiee. I?e i?iaa?ea aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia i?aaeeueiinoue aaaeaiey eanniaie eieae, oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea iaee/iuo aeaiaa, iieo/aiiuo a aaiea, niaethaeaiea eeieoia inoaoeia iaee/iuo aeaiaa a eanna, ii?i ?anoiaeiaaiey ec au?o/ee e ae?. Eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai OeA ia inouanoaeaiea yiennee iaee/iuo aeaiaa i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaiecaoeeth ei eanniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Iii i?iaiaeeony /a?ac ?an/aoii-eanniaua oeaio?u OeA ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa. Iaeiei ec ioieoia aeiaiai?a yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea i?aaeaeueiiai inoaoea aeaiaa a iia?aoeeiiiie eanna aaiea. Ii ii?aaeaeyaony n o/aoii iauaiia aeaiaaeiuo iai?ioia, oneiaee nio?aiiinoe aeaiaa. Iineieueeo eanna ia i?eiineo aieueoeo aeioiaeia, aaie no?aieony e ieieiecaoeee eanniaie iaee/iinoe. ? 82.Iaee/iua e n?i/iua naeaeee n aaethoie I?iaaaeaiea ?an/aoia ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei iia?aoeeyi, eiaanoe?iaaiea eaieoaea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?iaeou, niaeoeyoeaiua iia?aoeee, no?aoiaaiea io aiciiaeiuo oauoeia - ana yoi i?aaeiieaaaao naeaeee ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea ei.aaethou. Oi?aiaey aaethoie inouanoaeyaony a aeaea eanniaie naeaeee, eee naeaeee n iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaeie, e n?i/iie aaethoiie naeaeee. Aaethoiua naeaeee n iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaeie (iia?aoeee niio). Eanniaay naeaeea (naeaeea n iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaeie) inouanoaeyaony ia oneiaeyo niio. Eo?n niio io?aaeaao, ianeieueei auniei ioeaieaaaony iaoe. aaethoa ca i?aaeaeaie aeaiiie no?aiu a iiiaio i?iaaaeaiey iia?aoeee. Nouiinoue aaethoiie iia?aoeee niio caeeth/aaony a eoiea-i?iaeaaea aaethou ia oneiaeyo aa iinoaaee aaieaie eii?aaaioaie ia aoi?ie ?aai/ee aeaiue ni aeiy caeeth/aiey naeaeee ii eo?no, caoeene?iaaiiiio a iiiaio aa caeeth/aiey. N?ie iinoaaee aaethou iacuaaaony “aeaoa aaethoe?iaaiey”, oi anoue yoi aeaoa, eiaaea niioaaonoaothuea n?aaenoaa oaeoe/anee aeieaeiu iinooieoue a ?anii?yaeaiea noi?ii ii naeaeea. Eaeeo-eeai oaa?aeuo oneiaee i?e oaeouae ?uii/iie i?iaeaaea aaethou ia nocuanoaoao. Iauaiu naeaeie ia oneiaeyo niio ie/ai ia ?aaeaiaioe?othony, ii ii neiaeeaoaeny i?aeoeea iaaeaeo ia?eaoiaeea?aie eo ?acia?u nioaaeytho 5iei$. Ia ?inneeneii aaethoiii ?uiea ?acia?u naeaeie caaenyo io aiciiaeiinoae eiie?aoiuo aaieia-o/anoieeia, iaeaieaa e?oiiua ec eioi?uo caeeth/atho naeaaeee eae ni n?aaeieie, oae e n e?oiiuie caiaaeiuie aaieaie. Eanniaua iia?aoeee oe?iei i?eiaiythony ie aaethoiuo?uieao aeey oiai, /oiau iaiaaeeaiii iieo/eoue aaethoo aeey aiaoiaoi?aiauo ?an/aoia, e ninoaaeytho aieaa 60% io iauaai iauaia iaaeaaieianeiai ?uiea. Eanniaua naeaeee iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny e aeey iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiiai aeioiaea ec-ca eieaaaiey aaethoiuo eo?nia. Iai?eia?, eiii?oa?, iaeeaeay iiauoaiey eo?na aaethou ieaoaaea, no?aieony auno?aa iieaoeoue n/ao yenii?oa?a, a i?e oaiaeaioeee e iiieaeaieth eo?na aaethou ieaoaaea eiii?oa? aoaeao no?aieony caaea?aeaoue naie ieaoaae e o.i. iieo/eoue eo?niaoth i?eaueue ia ?acieoea aaethoiuo eo?nia. N?i/iua naeaeee. N?i/iay oi?aiaey a iineaaeiea aiaeu yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei naaiaioii ?acaeoey oeiainiauo ?uieia. I?e oa?aeoa?enoeea n?i/iuo ?uieia iiaeii auaeaeeoue: 1) ?uiie oi?aa?aeiuo eiio?aeoia; 2) ?uiie oueth/a?nia; 3)?uiie iioeeiiia. Oi?aa?aeiua naeaeee yaeythony iaeiie ec ia?auo oi?in?i/iiai eiio?aeoa. eioi?ua aicieeee eae ?aaeoeey ia cia/eoaeueioth eciai/eainoue oeai. Naaiaeiy iia?aoeey oi?aa?ae caeeth/aaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a iaaeaaieianeie oi?aiaea ei. aaethoie. Oi?aa?aeiue eiio?aeo - yoi niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy noi?iiaie i aoaeouae iinoaaea i?aaeiaoa eiio?aeoa, eioi?ia caeeth/aii aia ae?aee. Oi?aa?aeiue eiio?aeo - yoi oaa?aeay naeaee, oi anoue naeaeea, iaycaoaeueiay aeey eniieiaiey. I?aaaeiaoii niaeaoaiey iiaoo aunooiaoue ia oieueei aaethoa, ii e ae?oaea aeoeau, iai?eia?, oiaa?u, aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee e o.i. Oi?aa?aeiue eiio?aeo caeeth/aaony a oeaeyo inouanoaeaiey ?aaeueiie i?iaeaaee eee iieoiee niioaaonoaothuaai aeoeaa, a oii /enea a oeaeyo no?aoiaaiey iinoaaueea eee iieoiaoaey io aiciiaeiiai iaaeaaii?eyoiiai eciaiaiey oeai. Oi?aa?aeiay naeaeea ii i?iaeaaea (iieoiea) aaethou aeeth/aao neaae. oneiaey: 1) eo?n naeaeee oeene?oaony a iiiaio aa caeeth/aiey; 2) ia?aaea/e aaethou inouanoaeyaony /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae (1,2,3,6 ianyoeaa, 1aiae); 3) a iiiaio caeeth/aiey naeaeee ieeaeea caaeaoee eee ae?oaea noiiu iau/ii ia ia?aaiaeyony. Oi?aa?aeiue eo?n neaaaaony ec eo?na niio ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey naeaeee e i?aiee (?aii?oa) eee aeeneiioa (aeaii?oa), oi anoue iaaeaaeaee eee neeaeee a caaeneiinoe io % noaaie ia aeaiiue ia?eiae. Anee eo?n ii n?i/iie naeaeea ieaea, /ai eo?n ii eanniaie, oi ec eo?na niio au/eoaaony aeeneiio. Anee eo?n ii n?i/iie naeaeea auoa, /ai ii iaee/iie iia?aoeee, oi e eo?no niio i?eaaaeyaony i?aiey. O.i., aeaenoaey eiii?oa?a aoaeoo anaaaea iai?aaeaiu ia nieaeaiea aaethoiiai ?enea, iianaynue iiauoaiey eo?na aaethou ieaoaaea, ii ai?aaa ia?aoeoueny a aaiee eoieoue yoo aaethoo ni n?ieii iinoaaee, i?eaeeaeaiiui e n?ieo ieaoaaea. Naeaeea aoaeao niaa?oaia ii eo?no oi?aa?ae, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue auoa eo?na niio. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca auiieiaiea oi?aa?aeiuo naeaeie eaaeeo ia ia?oia?ao ii naeaeea. Oueth/a?niue eiio?aeo - yoi th?eaee/anoe iainiiaaiiia niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy noi?iiaie i iinoaaea eee iieo/aiee oiai eee eiiai oiaa?a ii?aaeaeaiiiai iueuaia e ea/anoaa ii ca?aiaa niaeaniaaiiie oeaia a ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a aoaeouai. Oeiainiaue oueth/a?n - yoi niaeaoaiea i iieoiea eee i?iaeaaea oiai eee eiiai oei. eino?oiaioa ii ca?aiaa niaeaniaaiiie oeaia a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ianyoea a aoaeouai.Oeiainiaua oueth/a?nu oi?aothony oieueei ia ae?aeao n niaethaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee, oi?aiaey inouanoaeyaony ia no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua eino?oiaiou n iinoaaeie a no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua ianyoeu, anee eeeaeaeiinoue ?uiea oiai eee eiiaioueth/a?na iaea, oi oueth/a?n ia?anoaao nouanoaiaaoue. ?uiie oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia neoaeeo 2i iniiaiui oeaeyi: 1)ii iicaieyao eiaanoi?ai no?aoiaaoue naay io iaaeaaii?eyoiiai eciaiaiey oeai ia ?uiea niio a aoaeouai (iia?aoeee oaaeaea?ia); 2) ii iicaieyao niaeoeyioai ioe?uaaoue iiceoeee ia aieueoea noiiu iiae iacia/eoaeueiia iaania/aiea. *ai neeueiaa eieaaethony oeaiu ia oei. eino?oiaio, eaaeauee a iniiaa oueth/a?niiai eioi?aeoa, oai aieueoa iauai ni?ina ia yoe oueth/a?nu ni no?iiu oaaeaea?ia. Ia oueth/a?niii ?uiea aeaenoaotho neaae. o/anoieee: eeeaio, a?iea?, ae?aea, oaaeaea?, niaeoeyio, oiieiiii/aiiia eeoei, eee?eiaiaay-iaeaoa, oi?aiai-eiiia?/aneee oeaio?, aaie, ?an/aoiay oe?ia. Eeeaioii yaeyaony a?aaeaeaiei eee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, caeioa?aniaaiiue a caeeth/aiee eiio?aeoia n eiaeaenii eo?na iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie aaethou n ion?i/aiiui eni?ieiaieai oueth/a?niuo e iioeeiiiuo eiio?aeoia. A?iea? - yoi a?aaeaeaiei, aeiiouaiiue e o/anoeth a oi?aao n ?an/aoiie oe?iie e auiieiythuee o?aaiaaiey ae?aee a ?aieao I?aaee oi?aia. Oeaeue oaaeaee?iaaiey- nieaeaiea iaaeaaii?eyoiiai eciaiaiey o?iaiy % noaaie eee aaethoiuo eo?nia iin?aaenoaii ioe?uoey iiceoeee ia oueth/a?niie ae?aea a no?iio, i?ioeaiiieiaeioth eiathuaeny eee ieaie?oaiie iiceoeee ia ?uiea niio. E oaaeaea?ai ioiinyony:?icie/iua oi?aiaoeu, no?aiyueany iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueiue % aeioiae io naciiiiai ecauoea aeai. n?aaenoa, ei?ii?aoeee, iaineiiiua oiiaeu, yeniio?a?u, eioi?ui iaiaoiaeeii oeene?iaaiea a iaoe. aaethoa noii aoaeoueo iinooieaiee a ei. aaethoa, eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee. Oeaeue iia?aoeee oaaeaea?a caueoeoue naay io iaaeaaii?eyoiuo eciaiaiee a oeaia oao eee eiuo eioa?anothueo eo oiaa?ia. Iie nicaeatho iiceoeee ai oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoao, n oai, /oiau oiaiueoeoue ?ene eciaiaiey oeai. Niaeoeyiou, iaiai?io, oaaee/eaatho naie ?ene, ioe?uaay iiceoeeth, n oai, /oiau iieo/eoue i?eaueue io eciaiaiey oeai. Oeaeue niaeoee?iaaiey - iieo/aiea i?eauee iooai ioe?uoey iiceoeee a oii eee eiii oueth/a?niii eiio?aeoa a iaeeaeaiee aeaaii?eyoiiai aeey niaeoeyioa eciaiaiey oeai yoiai eiio?aeoa a aoaeouai. Niaeoeyio - eeoei, no?aiyuaany iieo/eoue i?eaueue ca n/ao ?acieoeu a eo?nao oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia, eioi?ay iiaeao aicieeoioue ai a?aiaie. Iioeeii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaoonoi?iiiee aeiaiai? i ia?aaea/a i?aa (aeey iieoiaoaey iioeeiia) e iaycaoaeuenoaa (aeey i?iaeaaoea ioeeiia) eoieoue eee i?iaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue aeoea ii onoaiiaeaiiie oeaia a ca?aiaa niaeaniaaiioth aeaoo eee a oa/aiea niaeaniaaiiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. 3 oeia: iioeeii ia iieoieo (call) - icia/aao i?aai iieoiaoaey iioeeiia eoieoue aaethoo aeey caueou io iioaioeeaeueiiai iiauoaiey aa eo?na; iioeeii ia i?iaeaaeo (put) - i?aai iieoiaoaey iioeeiia i?iaeaoue aaethoo aeey caueou aa io iioaioeeaeueiiai iaanoeaiaiey; iioeeii aeaieiie (put-call) eee iioeeii noaeeaae - i?aai iieoiaoaey iioeeiia eeai eoieoue, eeai i?iaeaoue aaethoo ii aaceniie oeaia. ? 84. Eioaa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a nia?aiaiiie ie?iaie yeiiiieea. Nia?aiaiiue yoai ?acaeoey ie?iaie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai ananoi?iiieo acaeiinaycae e acaeiicaaeneiinoae iaaeaeo iaoeeiiaeueiuie oicyenoaaie, ana aieaa i/aaeaeiui noaiiaeony i?aa?auaiea eaaeaeiai ec ieo a i?aaie/aneoth ninoaaeythuoth ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey - naeeaeaiea e acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee ia iniiaa iauiinoe ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa (aeeth/ay ?aai/oth neeo), iauaaeeiaiea eaieoaeia e i?iaaaeaiea niaeaniaaiiie iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee. Iniiaiua oaeoi?u ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeee: 1) eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey; 2)?acaeoea ie?iaie eio?ano?oeoo?u; 3)iioeiecaoeey ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa; 4)oi?ie?iaaiea ia ie?iaii ?uiea n?aaeiaie?iauo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa; 5)iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea. Oaeoaeaiea ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. IO? onei?eea i?ioeann oaeoaeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. A oa/aiea aaeia i?aaeiaoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iaiaia auee eeai aioiaua ecaeaeey, eeai nu?uea e i?iaeiaieuenoaea, o.a. eiia/iue ?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna a ia?aaaouaathuae, aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe eee naeueneii oicyenoaa. Nai aea i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann i?ioaeae a iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?aieoeao. A iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea iieiaeaiea ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieeinue. Oaia?ue ana aieaa cia/eoaeueiay /anoue oiaa?ia, iinooiathueo a iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iai?io, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia eiia/iua ecaeaeey, a i?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou. ?ino iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iniiaaiiiai ia iiaeaoaeueiie e iiiia?aoeeiiiie niaoeeaeecaoeee, nicaeae oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee. ?a/ue eaeao i i?aa?auaiee no?ai a caaiuey iaeiiai e oiai aea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Oaeia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, oa?aeoa?iia a i?ioeii oieueei aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey, a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea ia?aoaaioei iaoeeiiaeueiua a?aieoeu e noaei ana aieaa aaaeioth ?ieue ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia. E?oiiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneea eiiieaenu oaea iiiai eao ooieoeeiie?otho a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e NOA. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea nayce. Ana aieaa oe?ieea ianooaau i?eia?aoatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iao/ii=oaoie/aneea nayce. ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiuo iaoeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoa o?aaoao i?iaaaeaiey nenoaiaoe/aneeo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio ii oe?ieiio e?oao i?iaeai. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiu eaai?aoi?ee, enneaaeiaaoaeueneea oeaio?u, iiaaeoaa iai?oaeiaaiea, a yoi ie iaeia no?aia ia iiaeao iaania/eoue iieiioeaiiua iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee ai anao iaiaoiaeeiuo iai?aaeaieyo. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiu oneeey iiiaeo no?ai. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai a yoie noa?a au?aaeaaony a ?anoouai iauaia oi?aiaee iaoaioaie e eeoeaiceyie. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?acee/iua no?aiu noaiiayony ana aieaa acaeiinaycaiiuie e acaeiicaaeneiuie a iao/ii-oaoie/aneii e i?iecaiaenoaaiiii ioiioaiee. A iiiyoea eioaa?aoeee oaeaea aoiaeyo naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu -yoi niaoeeaeueiua oa??eoi?ee n eueaioiui oeiainiai-aaethoiui e iaeiaiaui ?aaeeiii aeey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea. ? 85. No?oeoo?a ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. Ieaoaaeiue aaeain - aaeainiaue n/ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iia?aoeee - yoi noieiinoiia au?aaeaiea anaai eiiieaena ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae no?aiu a oi?ia niioiioaiey iinooieaiee e ieaoaaeae. Aaeainiaue n/ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iia?aoeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiee/anoaaiiia e ea/anoaaiiia noieiinoiia au?aaeaiea ianooaaia, no?oeoo?u e oa?aeoa?a aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo iia?aoeee no?aiu, aa o/anoea a ie?iaii oicyenoaa. Ia i?aeoeea i?eiyoi iieueciaaoueny oa?ieiii “ieaoaaeiue aaeain”, a iieacaoaee aaethoiuo iioieia ii anai iia?aoeeyi iaicia/eoue eae ieaoaaee e iinooieaiey. Ioaeeeoaiua ieaoaaeiua aaeainu iau/ii ioaaouaatho ia oieueei ieaoaaee e iinooieaiey, eioi?ua oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiu eee iiaeeaaeao iaiaaeeaiiiio eniieiaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo, ii e aoaeouea ieaoaaee ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui o?aaiaaieyi e iaycaoaeuenoaai. Ieaoaaeiue aaeain ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae (ianyoe, eaa?oae, aiae) ninoaaeyaony ia iniiaa noaoenoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae i niaa?oaiiuo ca yoio ia?eiae aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naeaeeao e iicaieyao aiaeece?iaaoue eciaiaiey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo no?aiu, ianooaaao e oa?aeoa?a aa o/anoey a ie?iaii oicyenoaa. No?oeoo?a ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. Ieaoaaeiue aaeain eiaao neaaeothuea ?acaeaeu: oi?aiaue aaeain, o.a. niioiioaiea iaaeaeo auaicii e aaicii oiaa?ia; aaeain oneoa e iaeiiia?/aneeo ieaoaaeae (aaeain iaaeaeeiuo iia?aoeee) aaeain aeaeaeaiey eaieoaeia e e?aaeeoia 1.Oi?aiaue aaeain. Enoi?e/anee aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aunooiaao enoiaeiie oi?iie IYI, naycuaathuae iaoeeiiaeueiua oicyenoaa a ie?iaia oicyenoai. Iieacaoaee aiaoiae oi?aiaee o?aaeeoeeiiii caieiatho aaaeiia ianoi a ieaoaaeiii aaeaina. Niioiioaiea noieiinoe yenii?oa e eiii?oa oiaa?ia ia?acoao oi?aiaue aaeain. Iineieueeo cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aiaoiae oi?aiaee inouanoaeyaony a e?aaeeo, nouanoaotho ?acee/ey iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie oi?aiaee, ieaoaaeae e iinooieaiee, oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo ca niioaaonoaothuee ia?eiae. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ?acee/eth a naia a?aiy aicieeei iiiyoea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina eae niioiioaiea i?iecaaaeaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo ieaoaaeae e oaeoe/aneeo iinooieaiee a ioee/ea io iauaai oi?aiaiai aaeaina, ii?iaeaeathuaai niioaaonoaothuea o?aaiaaiey e iaycaoaeuenoaa n ?acee/iuie n?ieaie iiaaoaiey. Yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea aeoeaa e aeaoeoeeoa oi?aiaiai aaeaina i?eiaieoaeueii e eiie?aoiie no?aia caaeneo io aa iieiaeaiey a ie?iaii oicyenoaa, oa?aeoa?a aa naycae n ia?oia?aie e iauayeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Ianneaiue oi?aiaue aaeain n/eoaaony iaaeaeaoaeueiui e iau/ii ioeaieaaaony eae i?eciae neaainoe ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo iiceoeee no?aiu. 2.Aaeain oneoa aeeth/aao ieaoaaee e iinooieaiey ii o?ainii?oiui ia?aaiceai, no?aoiaaieth, yeaeo?iiiie, oaea einie/aneie, oaeaa?aoiie, oaeaoiiiie, ii/oiaie e ae?oaeie aeaeaie nayce, iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio oo?ecio, iaiaio iao/ii-oaoie/aneei e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiuoii, yenia?oiui oneoaai, niaea?aeaieth aeeieiiaoe/aneeo, oi?aiauo e eiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa caa?aieoeae, ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee, eoeueoo?iui e iao/iui iaiaiai, ?acee/iui eiienneiiiui nai?ai, ?aeeaia, y?ia?eai e o.ae. e o.i. Oneoae i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueeny naeoi? ie?iauo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae; aai ?ieue e aeeyiea ia iauai e no?oeoo?o ieaoaaeae e iinooieaiee iinoiyiii aic?anoatho. O?aaeeoeeiiiua oneoae (o?ainii?o, no?aoiaaiea) ia?aaeeaatho i?ioeann e?oiiie ia?ano?ieee a nayce n ?inoii iauaia e iiiaiia?acey oi?aiauo iinoaaie, iiauoaieai a ieo oaeaeueiiai aana iieooaa?eeaoia, eiiieaeoothueo aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiia?aoeee e niaoeeaeecaoeee. N ?inoii o?iaiy aeaaininoiyiey a ?acaeouo no?aiao ?acei oaaee/eeenue ianooaau iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia, a ninoaaa eioi?iai cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ninoaaeytho aeaeiaua iiacaeee a nayce n eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae nia?aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii i?eiyoui a ie?iaie noaoenoeea i?aaeeai a ?acaeae “oneoae” aoiaeyo auieaou aeioiaeia ii eiaanoeoeeyi caa?aieoeae e i?ioeaioia ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui e?aaeeoai, oioy ii yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth iie aeeaea e aeaeaeaieth eaieoaeia e oneoa. A ieaoaaeiii aaeaina auaeaeytho noaouee: i?aaeinoaaeaiea aiaiiie iiiiue eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai, aiaiiua ?anoiaeu ca ?oaaaeii. Ii iaoiaeeea IAO i?eiyoi oaeaea iieacuaaoue iniaie iiceoeeae a ieaoaaeiii aaeaina iaeiinoi?iiiea ia?aaiaeu: ainoaea?noaaiiua iia?aoeee-noaneaeee ae?oaei no?aiai ii eeiee yeiiiie/aneie iiiiue, ainoaea?noaaiiua iainee, aciinu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaiecaoeee /anoiua iia?aoeee-ia?aaiaeu eiino?aiiuo ?aai/eo, niaoeeaeenoia, ?iaenoaaiieeia ia ?iaeeio. 3.Aaeain aeaeaeaiey eaieoaeia e e?aaeeoia au?aaeaao niioiioaiea auaica e aaica ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo eaieoaeia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo e iieo/aiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e?aaeeoia. Ii yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth yoe iia?aoeee aeaeyony ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai eaieoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eaieoae aeeth/aao i?yiua caa?aie/iua eiaanoeoeee e ii?ooaeueiua eiaanoeoeee. I?yiua eiaanoeoeee yaeythony aaaeiaeoae oi?iie auaica aeieain?i/iiai eaieoaea e ieacuaatho aieueoia aeeyiea ia ieaoaaeiue aaeain. A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo eiaanoeoeee ?acaeaaaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?iecaiaenoai, eioi?ia eioaa?e?oao iaoeeiiaeueiua yeiiiieee a ie?iaia oicyenoai ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia e i?i/iaa, /ai oi?aiaey. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea eeanneoeoee?oaony ii i?eciaeo n?i/iinoe. Aeieain?i/iua e n?aaeian?i/iua iia?aoeee aeeth/atho ainoaea?noaaiiua e /anoiua caeiu e e?aaeeou, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua ia n?ie aieaa 1 aiaea. Iieo/aoaee-ionoathuea a ?acaeoee no?aiu. e?aoein?i/iua iia?aoeee aeeth/atho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?aaeeou n?ieii aei 1 aiaea, oaeouea n/aoa iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaieia a eiino?aiiuo aaieao (aaoa?u), ia?aiauaiea aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea iaaeaeo aaieaie. Ei??aniiiaeaioneea ioiioaiey a aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe Ei??aniiiaeaioneea iaaeaaieianeea ioiioaiey - yoi ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo aaieaie, iniiaaiiua ia auiieiaiee acaeiiuo ii?o/aiee. Aaiee inouanoaeytho ?an/aou ae?oa n ae?oaii /a?ac ?an/aoioth nenoaio Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?innee, /a?ac eee?eiaiaua oeaio?u e ?an/aoiua iaeaou e eniieuecotho nenoaio ei??aniiiaeaioneeo n/aoia. Eaaeaeue aaie iaycai ioe?uoue ei??aniiiaeaioneee n/ao a ?EOe (o/?aaeaeaiea aaiea ?innee), e?iia oiai, ii aeaeaieth aaiee iiaoo ioe?uaaoue ei??aniiiaeaioneea n/aoa ae?oa o ae?oaa. Anee aaie A ioe?iao ei??aniiiaeaioneee n/ao a aaiea A, oi yoio ei??. n/ao aeey A - IINO?I, aeey A - EI?I. Iia?aoeee ii ei??.n/aoai inouanoaeythony ia iniiaa niaeaoaiey i ei??. n/aoao (aeiaiai? i ei??. ioiioaieyo), a oaeaea a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie, onoaiiaeaiiuie Aaieii ?innee. Anee aeaa aaiea naycuaaao ei??. n/ao, oi iaeei iacuaaaony ?aniiiaeaioii (A), a ae?oaie ei??aniiiaeaioii (A). Aaie, ia/eiathuee iia?aoeeth ii ia?aaiaeo ieaoaaea n ca/eneaieai aai ia ei??. n/ao EI?I iinueaao ae?oaiio aaieo aaeci (ecaauaiea) ia yoie iia?aoeee. Aaeci iiaeao auoue iineaii ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa, ii nenoaia NAEOO, ii oaeaa?aoo e o.ae. Iieo/ea aaeci, aaie-ei??aniiiaeaio io?aaeaao yoo iia?aoeeth ii naiaio ei??. n/aoo IINO?I. 87. Aee?aaeeoea eae oi?ia ieaoaaea ?an/aou aee?aaeeoeaaie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa oe?iei eniieuecothony a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/?oao. Iaeiaei aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie iie auee aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiu e a i?aeoeea aioo?aiieo ?an/?oia ia oa??eoi?ee ?O. A neo/aa eniieueciaaiey yoie oi?iu aaie-yieoaio iaycoaony ii ii?o/aieth ieaoaeueueea i?iecaanoe ieao?ae aaiaoeoeea?o (iinoaaueeo) eee oiieiiii/eoue ae?oaie aaie (eniieiythuee aaie) i?iecaanoe oaeie ieao?ae i?ioea aeieoiaioia iinoaaueea, oeacaiiuo a cayaeaiee ia aee?aaeeoea. Oaeei ia?acii, a aee?aaeeoeaiie iia?aoeee o/anoaotho: ieaoaeueuee; aaie-yieoaio (aaie ieaoaeueueea), eioi?ue ioe?uaaao aee?aaeeoea; eniieiythuee aaie (ei iiaeao auoue e aaie-yieoaio); aaiaoeoeea? (iinoaauee). Aee?aaeeoeaiay oi?ia ?an/?oia eniieuecoaony, eiaaea iaaeaeo iinoaaueeii e iieoiaoaeai anoue iaaeiaa?ea. I?e oaeie oi?ia ?an/?oa iieoiaoaeue ia?aaiaeeo n?aaenoaa a aaie iinoaaueea, ii iieo/eoue yoe n?aaenoaa ia naie ?an/?oiue n/?o iinoaauee iiaeao, oieueei i?aaeinoaaea a eniieiythuee aaie aeieoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea ioa?oceo i?iaeoeoeee. Iniiaiuie aeaeaie aee?aaeeoeaia yaeythony: iie?uoua eee aeaiiie?iaaiiua; iaiie?uoua, o.a. aa?aioe?iaaiiua. ?acee/atho oaeaea aee?aaeeoeau iocuaiua e aaciocuaiua. Aee?aaeeoeau auaatho o?ainoa?aaaeueiua e ?aaieueaa?iua. A neo/aa iie?uoiai eee aeaiiie?iaaiiiai aee?aaeeoeaa aaie-yieoaio nienuaaao ni n/?oa aee?aaeeoeaiaeaoaey (ieaoaeueueea) noiio aee?aaeeoeaa e ia?aaiaeeo a? a eniieiythuee aaie. Aiciiaeia neooaoeey, eiaaea a eniieiythuee aaie ia?aaiaeeony noiia e?aaeeoa, i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai aaieii-yieoaioii aeey iie?uoey aee?aaeeoeaa. Iaiie?uoue aee?aaeeoea eiaao ianoi oiaaea, eiaaea noiia aee?aaeeoeaa ia aeaiiie?oaony ia niaoeeaeueiii n/?oa (e ia ia?aaiaeeony a eniieiythuee aaie). A yoii neo/aa iau/ii ieaoaaee ii aee?aaeeoeao inouanoaeythony ca n/?o n?aaenoa, eiathueony ia ei??aniiiaeaioneii n/?oa aaiea-yieoaioa, ioe?uoiai a eniieiythuai aaiea. Iocuaiie aee?aaeeoea - aee?aaeeoea, eioi?ue iiaeii ioicaaoue aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey n iinoaaueeii. Aaciocuaiie aee?aaeeoea ia iiaeao auoue eciai?i eee aiioee?iaai aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey n iinoaaueeii. Ii o?ainoa?aaaeueiiio aee?aaeeoeao iinoaauee iiaeao aeaoue oeacaiey eniieiythuaio aaieo, /oiau aee?aaeeoeaii iiaee iieueciaaoueny o?aouee eeoea (iai?eia? oa, eiio aeieaeai iinoaauee). Iinoaauee iiaeao aeaoue oeacaiey eniieiythuaio aaieo ia?aaanoe aee?aaeeoea a ae?oaie aaie. Ia?aaiae iaiie?uoiai, o.a. aa?aioe?iaaiiiai aee?aaeeoeaa aiciiaeai oieueei iaeei ?ac e n niaeaney aaiea-yieoaioa. ?aaieueaa?iue aee?aaeeoea - yoi aiciaiiaeyaiue aee?aaeeoea, o.a. oaeie, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao aaoiiaoe/aneia ainnoaiiaeaiea aaieii noiiu aee?aaeeoeaa ni n/?oa ieaoaeueueea iinea eaaeaeie auieaou ii aee?aaeeoeao eee /a?ac eaeea-oi ia?eiaeu a?aiaie. Iniiaaieai aeey ioe?uoey ethaiai aee?aaeeoeaa yaeyaony cayaeaiea ia aeaiea onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu. A cayaeaiee oeacuaathony neaaeothuea aeaiiua: iiia? aeiaiai?a, ii eioi?iio ioe?uaaaony aee?aaeeoea; /enei e ianyoe cae?uoey aee?aaeeoeaa; iaeiaiiaaiea iinoaaueea; iaeiaiiaaiea eniieiythuaai aaiea; ianoi eniieiaiey aee?aaeeoeaa (ai?iae); iieiia e oi/iia iaeiaiiaaiea aeieoiaioia, i?ioea eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyony auieaou ii aee?aaeeoeao; aeae aee?aaeeoeaa (iocuaiie, aaciocuaiie); noiia aee?aaeeoeaa. Aeey iieo/aiey n?aaenoa ii aee?aaeeoeao iinoaauee i?aaenoaaeyao a eniieiythuee aaie aeieoiaiou, oeacaiiua a cayaeaiee ia aee?aaeeoea. Iau/ii yoi ioa?oci/iua aeieoiaiou; anee a eniieiythuee aaie ?aiaa auee ia?aaaaeaiu n?aaenoaa ii aee?aaeeoeao, oi eniieiythuee aaie nienuaaao ni n/?oa aee?aaeeoeaa niioaaonoaothuoth noiio e ca/eneyao a? ia n/?o iinoaaueea. Anee aee?aaeeoea iaaeaiiie?iaaiiue, o.a. aa?aioe?iaaiiue, oi eniieiythuee aaie, iiea/eaay aee?aaeeoea, iai?aaeyao aaieo-yieoaioo i?aaeuyaeaiiua aeieoiaiou (eiiee) i?e aeaaaoiaii aaeci. Aeaaaoiaia aaeci -yoi oaaaeiieaiea i nienaiee n?aaenoa. E?aaeeoiaia aaeci - oaaaeiieaiea i ca/eneaiee n?aaenoa. Auieaoa n?aaenoa iaee/iuie ii aee?aaeeoeao cai?auaia. Aaie, eoaea iinooiee aee?aaeeoea, ioe?uaaao ia eaaeaeue aee?aaeeoea aeinuea (any aeieoiaioaoeey ii aee?aaeeoeao). 88. Eieanni eae oi?ia ieaoaaee Aaenaeueiay oi?ia ?an/aoia i?aaeiieaaaao iaycaoaeueiia aa o/anoea a i?aaiecaoeee aaieianeeo o/?aaeaeaiee. A /anoiinoe, aaenaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniao?eaaao eieanne?iaaiea aaenaeae aaieaie, o.a. auiieiaiea eie ii?o/aiee aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeae ii iieo/aieth ieaoaaeae ii aaenaeyi a n?ie. Aaenaey, ia?aaeaaaaiua a aaie aeey eieanne?iaaiey, niaaaeathony aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeai i?aaeii?o/eoaeueiie iaaeienueth ia eiy aeaiiiai aaiea ni neiaaie: “aeey iieo/aiey ieaoaaea” eee “ia eieanni”. Eieanne?oy aaenaeue, aaie aa?ao ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii i?aaeuyaeaieth aaenaey a n?ie ieaoaeueueeo e ii iieo/aieth i?e/eoathuaainy ii iaio ieaoaaea. I?eiya aaenaeue ia eieanni, aaie iaycai naiaa?aiaiii ia?aneaoue aai a o/?aaeaeaiea aaiea ii ianoo ieaoaaea e iinoaaeoue a ecaanoiinoue ieaoaeueueea iiaanoeie i iinooieaiee aeieoiaioa ia eieanni. I?e iieo/aiee ieaoaaea aaie ca/eneyao aai ia n/ao eeeaioa e niiauaao aio ia eniieiaiee ii?o/aiey. Ca auiieiaiea ii?o/aiey ii eieanne?iaaieth aaenaeae aaie iieo/aao io eeeaioa eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a aeaea % n iieo/. noiiu ieaoaaea. E?iia oiai, aaie aceiaao n eeeaioa ana ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ionueeie e i?enueeie aeieoiaioia, a oaeaea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ii?ioanoiaaieai aaenaey a neo/aa ianiaeaney ieaoaeueueea ieaoeoue ii aeaiiiio aaenaeth eee a neo/aa aai iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Eiienneiiiia e eiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aaiea ca ianeoaeeaaiea aaenaeueiiai iai?ioa io?aaeaaony a aaieianeii o/aoa ii e?aaeeoo n/aoa ? 960 “Iia?aoeeiiiua e ?aciua aeioiaeu”. I?ioano aaenaey yae-ny ioaee/iui aeoii iioa?eaeueiie eiioi?u, eio-y ioeoeeaeueii oeene?oao ioeac io ieaoaaea ii aaenaeth. Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeao-ai i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aaeuyaeaiea aaenaey a iioa?eaeueioth eiioi?o aeey niaa?oaiey i?ioanoa a iaieaoaaea ia neaae. aeaiue iinea enoa/aiey aeaou ieaoaaea ii aaenaeth ia iicaeiaa 12 /ania aeiy. Aaie, eio-e ia auiieiyao ii?o/aiea eeeaioa ii eieanne?iaaieth aaenaeae, ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naiaa?aiaiiia eo ii?ioanoiaaiea. Aaenaeue, ia iiea/aiiue a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie, i?aaeuyaeyaony iioa?eaeueiie eiioi?a n iienueth, eio-y niaea?aeeo neaae. aeaiiua: iiae?iaiia iaeiaiiaaiea e aae?an aaenaeaaeaoaey, /ae aaenaeue iiaeeaaeeo i?ioanoo; n?ie ieaoaaea ii aaenaeth; noiia ieaoaaea; iiae?iaiia iaeiaiiaaiea anao eiaeinnaioia aaenaey e eo aae?ana; i?e/eia i?ioanoa; iacaaiea aaiea, io eiaie eio-ai niaa?oaaony i?ioano. Iioa?eaeueiay eiioi?a a aeaiue i?eiyoey aaenaey e i?ioanoo i?aaeuyaeyao aai ieaoaeueueeo n o?aaiaaieai i ieaoaaea. Anee ieaoaeueuee a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie naeaeaao ieaoaae ii aaenaeth, oi yoio aaenaeue aica?auaaony ieaoaeueueeo n iaaeienueth i iieo/aiee ieaoaaea. Anee ia o?aaiaaiea iioa?eaeueiie eiioi?u i?iecaanoe ieaoaae ii aaenaeth ieaoaeueuee ioaa/aao ioeacii, iioa?eonii ninoaaeyaony aeo i i?ioanoa aaenaey a iaieaoaaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii caiineo a niaoe. ?aano?, eio-e aaaeaony a eiioi?a, ana aeaiiua ii ii?ioanoiaaiiiio aaenaeth, a ia eeoeaaie noi?iia naiiai aaenaey noaaeo ioiaoeo i i?ioanoa (neiai “ii?ioanoiaaii”, aeaoo, iiaeienue, ia/aoue). Iinea niaa?oaiey i?ioeaaeo?u i?ioanoa aaenaeue /a?ac aaie aica?auaaony aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeth, eio-e iieo/aao i?aai ia acuneaiea noiiu ieaoaaea ii aaenaeth a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea. I?e/ai, anee ia aaenaea auee naeaeaiu eiaeinnaiaiou, iineaaeiee aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeue, eio-e ia iieo/ee ieaoaae, iiaeao i?aaeuyaeoue ene e ethaiio eiaeinnaioo. Aeey i?aaeuyaeaiey aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeai enea onoaiiaeaiu n?iee aaenaeueiie aeaaiinoe, eio-a ?acee/iu a caaen-e io oa?aeoa?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai o/anoieea aaenaey: e aeoeaioaioo ia?aaiaeiiai aaenaey - 3 (-) aiaea; e aaenaeaaeaoaeth i?inoiai aaenaey eee eiaeinnaioo ia?aaiaeiiai aaenaey - 1 (-) aiae; aeey eneiauo o?aaiaaiee eiaeinnaioia ae?oa e ae?oao - a ian. Iia?aoeee ii eieanne?iaaieth aaieaie aaenaeae auaiaeiu eae aeey eeeaioia, oae e aeey naiiai aaiea. Oae, eeeaio inaiaiaeaeaaony io iaiaoiaeeiinoe neaaeeoue ca n?ieaie i?aaeuyaeaiey aaenaeae e ieaoaaeo, a nai i?ioeann iieo/aiey ieaoaaea noaiiaeony aeey iaai aieaa auno?ui, aeaoaaui, iaaeaaeiui. Aeey aaiea - yoi iaeei ec enoi/ieeia iieo/aiey i?eauee. E?iia oiai, a i?ioeanna niaa?oaiey eieanniauo iia?aoeee ia ei??aniiiaeaioneii n/aoa eiiia?/aneiai aaiea nin?aaeioa/eaathony cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, eio-a ii iiaeao ionoeoue a iai?io. ? 89. Iiaanoea aeiy 2000 (?aoaiey yeieiae/aneiai naiieoa a ?ei-aea-AEaiae?i) e ie?iaay yeiiiieea. I?eciaaay eiiieaeniue e acaeiinaycaiiue oa?aeoa? Caiee -iaoaai aeiia-i?aaenoaaeoaee ainoaea?noa, nia?aaoeony ia ano?a/o ia aunoai o?iaia i?eiyee naiae i?eioeeiia aeey iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey. Yoe i?eioeeiu ii?aaeaeytho i?aaa ia?iaeia e eo iaycaiiinoe ii nio?aiaieth iaoae iauae ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Iie iniiaaiu ia eaeayo noieaieueineie aeaeea?aoeee, i?eiyoie ia eiioa?aioeee III ii ie?oaeathuae n?aaea 1972 aiaeo. A aeaeea?aoeee, i?eiyoie a ?ei cayaeyaony, /oi aaeeinoaaiiue iooue iaania/aiey aeieain?i/iiai yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna-yoi aai oaycea n io?aiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Yoi iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee no?aiu ia/ioo iiaia e ?aaiia nio?oaeie/anoai n o/anoeai i?aaeoaeuenoa, eo ia?iaeia e iniiaiuo iauanoaaiiuo a?oii. Iie aeieaeiu aoaeoo caeeth/eoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiia niaeaoaiey, eioi?ua caueoyo oeaeinoiinoue aeiaaeueiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e nenoaiu ?acaeoey. ?ei-aea-AEaiae?neea i?eioeeiu aeeth/atho neaaeothuea eaeae: ethaee eiatho i?aai ia caei?iaoth e ieiaeioai?ioth aeeciue a aa?iiiee n i?e?iaeie naaiaeiyoiaa ?acaeoea ia aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny ai a?aae eioa?anai ?acaeoey e io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia aeaai iuiaoiaai e aoaeoueo iieieaiee ainoaea?noaa eiatho noaa?aiiia i?aai ?ac?aaaouaaoue naie nianoaaiiua ?ano?nu, ii aac oua?aa ie?oaeathuae n?aaea ca i?aaeaeaie eo a?aieoe ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu ?ac?aaioaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i eiiiainaoeee ca oua?a, eioi?ue aeayoaeueiinoue, inouanoaeyaiay iiae eo eiio?ieai, iaiineo ca i?aaeaeaie eo oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoue i?eioeei i?eiyoey ia? i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A oao neo/ayo. Eiaaea nouanoaoao oa?ica na?ueaciiai eee iaia?aoeiiai oua?aa, ionoonoaea iao/iie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe ia eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa i?e/eiu aeey ion?i/ee i?eiyoey yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiuo ia? ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth oooaeoaiey ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aeey aeinoeaeaiey onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue iaiouaieaioth /anoue i?ioeanna ?acaeoey e ia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a io?uaa io iaai enei?aiaiea ieuaou e ia?aaainoaa a o?iaia aeecie a ?acee/iuo /anoyo ie?a iaiaoiaeeii aeey iaania/aiey onoie/eaiai ?inoa e oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey ainoaea?noaa nio?oaeie/atho a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey, caueou e ainnoaiiaeaiey oeaeinoiinoe yeinenoaiu Caiee ?acaeoua no?aiu i?eciatho ioaaonoaaiiinoue, eioi?oth iie ianoo a eiioaenoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oneeee ii iaania/aieth onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey n o/aoii no?anna, eioi?ue nicaeatho eo iauanoaa aeey aeiaaeueiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, oaoiieiaee e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, eioi?uie iie iaeaaeatho ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu ia?aie/eoue e eeeaeaee?iaaoue iaaeecianiiniaiua iiaeaee i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey e iiiu?youe niioaaonoaothuoth aeaiia?aoe/aneoth iieeoeeo yeieiae/aneea aii?inu ?aoathony iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui ia?acii i?e o/anoee anao caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?aaeaeai ainoaea?noaa ?acaeaatho e iiiu?ytho eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue e o/anoea ianaeaiey iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey oe?ieiai aeinooia e yeieiae/aneie eioi?iaoeee ainoaea?noaa i?eieiatho yooaeoeaiua caeiiu, ?ac?aaaouaatho iaoeeiiaeueiua caeiiu, eanathueany ioaaonoaaiiinoe e eiiiainaoeee aea?oaai caa?yciaiey e ae?oaiai yeieiae/aneiai oua?aa. A i?aaeaeao naiae th?enaeeeoeee ainoaea?noaa ioeaieaatho yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey i?aaeiieaaaaiuo aeaenoaee, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue cia/eoaeueiua io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu nio?oaeie/aoue a aeaea nicaeaiey ioe?uoie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?ay i?eaaaeao e yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo e onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth ai anao no?aiao. Yeieiae/aneay iieeoeea ia aeieaeia eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaii?aaaeaiiiai ia?aie/aiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee a i?eioeeia oio, eoi caa?yciyao ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo aeieaeai ianoe e oeiainiaoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoi caa?yciaiea ainoaea?noaa oaaaeiieytho ae?oa ae?oaa i noeoeeiuo aaaenoaeyo eee aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue a?aaeiua o?aina?aie/iua iineaaenoaey onoie/eaia ?acaeoea o?aaoao aieaa aeoaieiai iao/iiai iiieiaiey i?iaeai. Ainoaea?noaai neaaeoao aeaeeoueny ciaieyie e iiauie oaoiieiaeyie aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae onoie/eainoe aeey aeinoeaeaiey onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey iaiaoiaeeii ananoi?iiiaa o/anoea aeaiuei. Iaiaoiaeeiu oaeaea oai?/aneea neeu, eaeaaeu e ioaeanoai iieiaeaaee e ciaiey ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu i?eciaaaoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naiiauoiinoue, eoeueoo?o e eioa?anu ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey aieia iaecaaaeii ieacuaaao ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia i?ia?ann onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey, iiyoiio ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu oaaaeaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai, iaania/eaathuaa caueoo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ai a?aiy aii?oaeaiiuo eiioeeeoia, e aeieaeiu nio?oaeie/aoue a aeaea aai aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ie?, ?acaeoea e io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu acaeiicaaeneiu e ia?acaeaeeiu ? 90. Oi?aa?aeiua, oueth/a?niua e iioeeiiiua naeaeee a ae?aeaaie oi?aiaea. Oi?aa?aeiue eiio?aeo-yoi niaeaoaiea i auaea/a e iinoaaea i?aaeiaoa eiio?aeoa, ii caeeth/aaony aia ae?aee, ia yaeyaony noaiaea?oiui e, eae i?aaeei, i?aneaaeoao oeaeue - ?aaeueiay iinoaaea aeoeaa, e?iia oiai, n iiiiuueth oi?aa?aeiie naeaeee iieoiaoaeue (i?iaeaaaoe) iiaeao cano?aoiaaoue naay io iaaeaaii?eyoiiai eciaiaiey aoaeouae eiiuthieoo?u. Oi?aa?aeiue eiio?aeo - yoi oaa?aeay naeaeea, iaeiaei aa?aioee aai eniieiaiey a i?eioeeia ia nouanoaoao. Eeeaeaeiinoue aeaiiuo eiio?aeoia, eae i?aaeei ia auniea. Oi?aa?aeiue eiio?aeo iiaeao oaeaea caeeth/aoueny n oeaeueth ea?u ia ?acieoea eo?nia aeoeaia. Oeaia iinoaaee - oeaia ii eioi?ie iinoaaeyaony aeoea a ?aieao aeaiiiai OE(onoaiaaeeaaaony a iiiaio caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoa) Oi?aa?aeiay oeaia - yoi oeaia iinoaaee oiai aea aeoeaa e a oio aea n?ie eniieiaiey, anee au eiio?aeo aue caeeth/ai a aeaiiue iiiaio. Anee OE i?iaeaaony ia aoi?e/iii ?uiea, oi i?eia?aoaao iaeioi?oth oeaio, iineieueeo aicieeaao ?acieoea iaaeaeo oeaiie iinoaaee e oaeouae oi?aa?aeiie oeaiie. Oueth/a?niue eiio?aeo - yoi niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo eiio?aaaioaie i aoaeouae iinoaaea i?aaeiaoa eiio?aeoa, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony ia ae?aea. Oneiaey eiio?aeoa ia eaaeaeue aeoea ?ac?aaaouaathony ae?aeae e yaeythony noaiaea?oiuie. Ae?aea i?aaiecoao aoi?e/iue ?uiie eiio?aeoa e aa?aioe?oao eo eniieiaiea. Yoi auniei eeeaeaeiue oeiainiaue eino?oiaio. Caeeth/athony a iniiaiii n oeaeueth oaaeaee?iaaiey e ea?u ia eo?niaie ?acieoeu. Ioe?uaay iiceoeee eiio?aaaiou iaycaiu aianoe a ?an/aoioth iaeaoo aa?aioeeiua ieaoaaee. Noiia auea?uoa (i?iea?uoa) iineo iacaaiea aa?eaoeeiiiie ia?aee. A oeaeyo ia?aie/aiey ?enea aaie?ionoaa e niaeoeyoeee ae?aea onoaiaaeeaaao eeieo ioeeiiaiey oueth/a?niie oeaiu a oiaea oaeouae oi?aiaie nannee io eaoa?iai/iie oeaiu i?aaeuaeouaai oi?aiaiai aeiy e eeieo ioe?uouo iiceoeee aeey niaeoeyioia. Oueth/a?niay oeaia - oeaia ia aeoea, anee au eiio?aeo aue caeeth/ai nae/an. Iia io?aaeaao iaeeaeaiea eiaanoi?ia ioiineoaeueii aoaeouae oeaiu niio ia niioaaonoaothuee aeoea. A iiiaio caeeth/aiey oueth/a?niay oeaia iiaeao auoue auoa (eiioaiai) eee ieaea (ayeai?aeaeoi) oeaiu niio. E iiiaioo enoa/aiey n?iea eiio?aeoa oueth/a?niay oeaia aeieaeia ?iaiyoueny oeaia niio, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue a?aeo?aaea. Iioeeii - ioi?ieaiiia a aeaea eiio?aeoa i?aai eoieoue eee i?iaeaoue a oa/aiea aeiaiai?iiai n?iea (eee a eiioea yoiai n?iea) e ii aeiaiai?iie oeaia eio aeoeaa. Nooue iioeeiia ninoieo a oii, /oi ii i?aaenoaaeyao iaeiie ec noi?ii i?aai auai?a eniieieoue eiio?aeo eee ioeacaoueny io aai eniieiaiey. Iaeii eeoei i?eia?aoaao iioeeii e i?eia?aoaao i?aai auai?a, a aoi?ia eeoei i?iaeaao eee auienuaaao iioeeii, o.a. i?aaeinoaaeyao i?aai auai?a. Ca iieo/aiiia i?aai auai?a iieoiaoaeue iioeeiia auiea/eaaao i?iaeaaoeo i?aieth. Iieoiaoaeue eiaao i?aai eniieieoue iioeeii, o.a. eoieoue eee i?iaeaoue aeoea, oieueei ii oie oeaia, eioi?ay oeacaia a eiio?aeoa (oeaia eniieiaiey). Aia?eeaineee iioeeii - iioeeii, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue eniieiai a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie aei enoa/aiey eiio?aeoa eee a yoio aeaiue (eo aieueoa) Aa?iiaeneee iioeeii - eniieiyaony a aeaiue enoa/aiey eiio?aeoa. Auienuaay iioeeii i?iaeaaaoe ioe?uaaao ii naeaeea ei?ioeoth iiceoeeth, a iieoiaoaeue - aeeeiioth. Anee eiaanoi? ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei iieoieie eee i?iaeaaeae iioeeiia, oi oaeie iioeeii iacuaaaony iaiie?uoui. Nouanoaoao 2 aeaea iioeeiiia: Eiee - yoi iioeeii ia iieoieo. I?aaeinoaaeyao iieoiaoaeth iioeeiia i?aai eoieoue iaiai?aiiue a eiio?aeoa aeoea a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee o i?iaeaaoea iioeeiia ii oeaia eniieiaiey eee ioeacaoueny io yoie iieoiee. I?eia?aoay eiee eiaanoi? iaeeaeaao iiauoaiey eo?na aeoeaa. Ioo - yoi iioeeii ia i?iaeaaeo. Aeaao i?aai iieoiaoaeth iioeeiia i?iaeaoue iaiai?aiiue a eiio?aeoa aeoea a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie i?iaeaaoeo iioeeiia ii oeaia eniieiaiey eee ioeacaoueny. Eiaanoi? i?eia?aoaao ioo, eiaaea iaeeaeaao iaaeaiey eo?na aeoeaa. ?inney N?ie ia?auaiey Yieoaiou E?aoein?i/iua N?aaeian?i/iua Aeieain?i/iuaOaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu aeanoeAinoaea?noaaiiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (AEI) Eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa (EI) Iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia (IOC) Iaeeaaoeee naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia (INC)Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieai- n?i/iua iaeeaaoeee (AAeI) Iaeeaaoeee aioo?aiiaai aaethoiiai caeiaIoieoeeiaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoeIoieoeeiaeueiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (IEI) Ioieoeeiaeueiua aaenaeyIoieoeeiaeueiua n?aaeia- n?i/iua iaeeaaoeee Ioieoeeiaeueiua aeeeeuiua na?oeoeeaou

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