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Ответы на билеты к госэкзаменам (Международный независимый эколого-политологический университет)

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? 1.?uii/iue iaoaieci e aai yeaiaiou

?uiie – yoi iaiai oiaa?ia, i?aaieciaaiiue ii caeiiai oiaa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia?auaiey.

4 yoaia ?acaeoey ?uiea:

1) oi?ia iaiaia oiaa?a ia oiaa?;

2) oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiue iaiai;

3) aicieeiiaaiea eaieoaeecia e /anoiuo nianoaaiieeia;

4) aic?iaeaeaiea ?uiea ia anoanoaaiiuo ia/aeao a ?innee e ae?oaeo
no?aiao auaoaai NNN?.

?uii/iue iaoaieci – yoi iaoaieci acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia ?uiea: ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey, oeaiu e eiieo?aioeee.
Iniaaiiinoue ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia ninoieo a oii, /oi eaaeaeue aai yeaiaio
oaiiaeoei ia?acii naycai n oeaiie, eioi?ay neoaeeo iniiaiui
eino?oiaioii, aicaeaenoaothuei ia ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea. A /anoiinoe,
ni?in iaoiaeeony a ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe io oeaiu: n iiauoaieai oeaiu
oiaa?a ni?in ia iaai nie?auaaony e iaiai?io. Ni?in oaeaea aeeyao ia
i?aaeeiaeaiea, a i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ni?in. Iai?eia?, i?aaeeiaeaiea ia
?uiea iiauo ea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia anaaaea noeioee?oao ni?in ia ieo, a
?ino ni?ina ia ioaeaeueiua oiaa?u a eoiaa aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
oaaee/aiee i?aaeeiaeaiey yoeo oiaa?ia.

Oeaia. (i?eia?: no?. 105 “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey”). Eciaiaiea
ioiineoaeueiuo oeai neoaeeo i?eaioi?ii aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. Eciaiaiea
oeai aeeyao ia auai? oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Oeaiu a eiia/iii eoiaa
i?aaeii?aaeaeytho oi, eai i?e aeaiiii o?iaia aeioiaeia aoaeao iio?aaeai
i?iaeoeo.

Ni?in – yoi i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia ?uiea iio?aaiinoue a oiaa?ao,
ii?aaeaeyaiay eiee/anoaii oao eee eiuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iio?aaeoaee
iiaoo eoieoue i?e neiaeeaoeony oeaiao e aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeao.

I?aaeeiaeaiea – yoi eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia eiaaony a i?iaeaaea i?e
aeaiiie oeaia. Eciaiaiea niioiioaiey iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai
ii?iaeaeaao eieaaaiey ?uii/iuo oeai aie?oa oeaiu ?aaiiaaney. *a?ac yoe
eieaaaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony oio o?iaaiue oeai, i?e eioi?ii iaania/eaaaony
?aaiiaany ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e a eiia/iii eoiaa ?aaiiaanea
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey. Eiieo?aioeey. Oeaeue eaaeaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
?anoe?aiea ianooaaia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
acaeiiie ai?ueaa i?eaaei?eieiaoaeae ca ieaaieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa oiaa?ia, ?ino iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, e iie
aunooiatho ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao eae niia?ieee eee eiieo?aiou.
Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a aieueoa, /ai ni?in ia iaai, oi
oneeeaaaony eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie. Eaaeaeue ec ieo,
/oiau i?iaeaoue naie oiaa?, ca/anooth auioaeaeai nieaeaoue oeaio, /oi,
eae i?aaeei, aea/ao ca niaie nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a.
Anee ni?in aieueoa, /ai i?aaeeiaeaiea, oi eiieo?e?iaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii
auioaeaeaiu oaea iieoiaoaee. *oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?anoe
aeaoeoeeoiue oiaa?, eaaeaeue ec ieo noa?aaony i?aaeeiaeeoue ii
aiciiaeiinoe aieaa aunieoth oeaio, /ai yoi iiaoo naeaeaoue aai
niia?ieee. Oeaia iiauoaaony, e yoi noeioee?oao oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Eiieo?aioeey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia.

Ooieoeee ?uiea.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay ooieoeey: /a?ac iinoiyiii iaiythueany oeaiu, i?ioeaioiua
noaaee e ae?oaea eino?oiaiou iia auaeaeaao i?iecaiaenoao neaiae i
eiee/anoaa, ea/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth neaaeoao
iinoaaeoue a i?iaeaaeo. Yoa ooieoeey aaaeia,oae eae a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee i?iecaiaeeoue neaaeoao oi, /oi iiaeii i?iaeaoue.

Oeaiiia?acothuay ooieoeey: eiaiii a noa?a ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee i?ienoiaeeo
niiinoaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo cao?ao o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee e ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue iauanoaaiii-iaiaoiaeeiuo cao?ao, a
IICO – enoiaeiay aaca aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu oiaa?a.

Iin?aaeie/aneay ooieoeey: aia ioiioaiee iaiaia, eoiee-i?iaeaaee
i?iaeoeoeee oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaee a oneiaeyo iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia iiaoo aiciaiiaeyoue naie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee.

?aaoee?othuay ooieoeey ?uiea ?aaeecoaony /a?ac iaoaieci aeaenoaey
i?enoueo aio caeiiia (caeiia noieiinoe, eiieo?aioeee, i?eauee,
niioaaonoaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey).

Naie?othuay ooieoeey ?uiea. ?uiie aeanoie ii ioioaieth e iaeiyooaeoiui,
yeiiiie/anee iaonoie/eaui i?aaei?eyoeyi. Oa ec ieo, /uey i?iaeoeoeey ia
iieuecoaony ni?inii, eoi ia no?aieony e nieaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
cao?ao, iinoiyiiiio iaiiaeaieth anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee, a eiioea
eiioeia “auiuaathony” n ?uiea. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa a oeaeii, ?anoao aai iauay
yeiiiie/aneay onoie/eainoue.

Iaaaoeaiua noi?iiu ?uiea

ia niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth iaaini?iecaiaeeiuo ?ano?nia;

ia iiaeao ?aaoee?iaaoue eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo anaio
/aeiaa/anoao, iai?eia? ?uaiuo aiaaonoa ieaaia;

ia nicaeaao noeioeu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa eieeaeoeaiiai
iieueciaaiey;

iiaeaa?aeai ianoaaeeueiiio ?acaeoeth (eioeyoeey).

? 2. Eiieo?aioeey e iiiiiieee. Niaa?oaiiay e ianiaa?oaiiay
eiieo?aioeey. Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey

Eiieo?aioeey – iniaue oei acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie ii
iiaiaeo onoaiiaeaiey oeai e iauaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia ia ?uiea e
iniaue oei acaiioiioaiee iaaeaeo iio?aaeoaeyie ii iiaiaeo oi?ie?iaaiey
oeai e iauaia ni?ina ia ?uiea. Eiieo?aioeey niinianoaoao onoaiiaeaieth
?uii/iiai ?aaiaaney. Eiieo?aioeey auaaao: aioo?eio?aneaaay – aioo?e
iaeiie io?anee oe?iu eiieo?eotho ca noa?u i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea, ?uiee
nauoa, e iaaeio?aneaaay – eiieo?aioeey eaeao ii iiaiaeo aeiaeaiey
eaieoaea a ?aciua io?anee. Oeaeue eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey –
iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ?anoe?aiea ianooaaia
oacyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e acaeiiie ai?ueaa
i?eaaei?eieiaoaeae ca ieaaieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa
oiaa?ia, ?ino iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, e iie aunooiatho ii ioiioaieth
ae?oa e ae?oao eae niia?ieee eee eiieo?aiou. Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea
eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a aieueoa, /ai ni?in ia iaai, oi oneeeaaaony
eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie. Eaaeaeue ec ieo, /oiau
i?iaeaoue naie oiaa?, ca/anooth auioaeaeai nieaeaoue oeaio, /oi, eae
i?aaeei, aea/ao ca niaie nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Anee
ni?in aieueoa, /ai i?aaeeiaeaiea, oi eiieo?e?iaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii
auioaeaeaiu oaea iieoiaoaee. *oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?anoe
aeaoeoeeoiue oiaa?, eaaeaeue ec ieo noa?aaony i?aaeeiaeeoue ii
aiciiaeiinoe aieaa aunieoth oeaio, /ai yoi iiaoo naeaeaoue aai
niia?ieee. Oeaia iiauoaaony, e yoi noeioee?oao oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Eiieo?aioeey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia. Iia i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ia?aie/aiiua ?ano?nu eniieueothony
aieaa iieii e yooaeoeaii. Iie ono?aieythony a oa io?anee, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyo iaiaoiaeeioth aeey iio?aaeoaey e ?aioaaaeueioth aeey
i?iecaiaeeoaey i?iaeoeoeeth. Eiieo?aioeeth iacuaatho iniiaiie
?aaoee?othuae e eiio?iee?othuae neeie a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

2 iniiaiua a?oiiu iaoiaeia eiieo?aioeee: oeaiiaua e iaoeaiiaua.

Oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niia?ie/anoai i?aaei?eieiaoaee
ca ecaea/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee ia iniiaa oiaiueoaiey ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iia?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nieaeaiey oeai
ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth aac eciaiaiey aa anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa.

Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey aeeth/aao:

a) eciaiaiea naienoa i?iaeoeoeee;

a) i?eaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ea/anoaaiii iiauo naienoa;

a) nicaeaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey oao aea
iio?aaiinoae.

2 oi?iu eiieo?aioeee: niaa?oaiiay e ianiaa?oaiiay (/enoay iiiiiieey,
aeoiiieey, ieeaiiieey, iiiiiieene/aneay eiieo?aioeey).

Niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey: (naeueneia oicyenoai)

aieueoia /enei oe?i;

noaiaea?oece?iaaiiue oei i?iaeoeoa;

ionoonoaea eiio?iey iaae oeaiie;

eaaeea oneiaey anoieaiey a io?aneue;

ionoonoaea iaoeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee.

Iiaeaeue no?ieony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ie iaeei oicyenoaothuee noauaeo
ia iia ieacaoue ieeaeiai aeaaeaiey ia ?uiie. I?aaeiieaaaao, /oi oe?iu e
?ano?nu iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny iaaeaeo io?aneyie. A oaeie yeiiiieea
aeaenoaey no?aiyueony e i?eauee i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?eaaaeoo e oaeiio
?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia, eioi?ia iaeneiece?oao oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaeoaeae. Eiieo?aioiua oe?iu aoaeoo eniieueciaaoue iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaioth ec ecaanoiuo oaoiieiaee e iacia/aoue naioth ieceoth oeaio n
o/aoii naieo ecaea?aeai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii oai ia iaiaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia, naycaiiia n aeaenoaeyie
/enoi eiieo?aioie ?uii/iie nenoaiu iiaeao aanoe e i?iecaiaenoao ionoyeia
aeey aiaaouo, ioeacuaay aaaeiui a oaeiaeaoai?aiee eo iniiaiuo ioaeae.
Io?aneue n /enoie eiieo?aioeeae iiaeao iaoaoue i?eiaiaieth eo/oae ec
ecaanoiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoieee e aeaaii?eyonoaiaaoue iaaeeaiiiio
oaiio oaoie/aneiaii?ia?anna. Eiieo?aioiay nenoaia ia iaania/eaaao ie
oe?ieiai aeeaiaciia auai?a i?iaeoeoia, ie oneiaee aeey ?ac?aaioee iiauo
i?iaeoeoia, iia i?eaiaeeo e noaiaea?oecaoeee iiaeoeoia, oiaaea eae
ae?oaea ?uii/iua no?oeoo?u (ieeaiiieey e iiiiiieenoe/aneay
eiieo?aioeey) ii?iaeaeatho oe?ieee aeeaiacii oeiia, noeeae e iooaieia
ea/anoaa ethaiai i?iaeoeoa. Ieeaeiai i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey oaeay
iiaeaeue ia eiaao.

Iiiiiieey: (ianoiua i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey)

iaeia oe?ia;

oieeaeueiue oei i?iaeoeoa, iao aeeceeo caiaieoaeae;

aunieay noaiaiue eiio?iey iaae oeaiie;

anooieaiea ae?oaeo oe?i a io?aneue aeiee?iaaii;

iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey – aeaaiui ia?acii ?aeeaia nayce n iauanoaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie. Ia ?uiea nouanoaoao aaeeinoaaiiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue –
iiiiiieeno, oaeiaeaoai?ythuee ni?in anao iio?aaeoaeae. Ioaeaeueiua
iio?aaeoaee ia iiaoo ieacuaaoue aeeyiey ia oeaio e auioaeaeaiu
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia oeaio iiiiiieenoa, ni?in aoaeao iaiyoueny iiae
aeeyieai iiiiiieenoa. Ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiiiiieeno aoaeao noa?aoueny
i?aaieciaaoue ?uiie oaeei ia?acii, /oiau aanue aunoaaeaiiue ei ia ?uiie
oiaa? aue eoieai, oi anoue ?aaoee?oao oeaio, iiaeno?aeaay aa iiae iauai
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iiiiiieey auaaao: anoanoaaiiay – oicyenoaothuea noauaeou iaeaaeatho
?aaeeeie yeaiaioaie i?iecaiaenoaa, yoi – onoie/eaay iiiiiieey e
eneonnoaaiiay – ?uiie nin?aaeioi/ai a iaieo ?oeao, iiaeao auoue
neo/aeiie, iaonoie/eaa. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiiiiieey iaiineo oua?a
yeiiiieea a oeaeii e iio?aaeoaeth a /anoiinoe – iineaaeiee auioaeaeai
“ia?aiea/eaaoue” ca oiaa? ii n?aaiaieth n neooaoeeae “naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee”. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiaiii iiiiiieey iaania/eaaao
eiioeaio?aoeeth eaieoaea e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie a iaeieo ?oeao,
i?e yoii iauanoai iieo/aao cia/eoaeueioth yeiiiieth n?aaenoa ia aeaiiiua
oeaee.

Aeoiiieey – i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee nin?aaeioi/aii ia
aeaoo oe?iao, /anoe/iue eiio?ieue iaae oeaiaie.

Ieeaiiieey – i?iecaiaenoai noaee, aaoiiiaeeae, n/o eiaaioa?y, ye.
auoiauo i?eai?ia

ianeieueei oe?i;

noaiaea?oece?iaaiiue eee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue oei i?iaeoeoa;

/anoe/iue eiio?ieue iaae oeaiaie;

iaee/ea nouanoaaiiuo i?aiyonoaee i?e anooieaiee a io?aneue;

nouanoaoao iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey (anee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue oei
i?iaeoeoa). A yoii neo/aa ianeieueei iacaaeneiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
oaeiaeaoai?ytho ni?in aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iio?aaeoaeae. Ana
ieeaiiieenou oanii caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa.

Auaatho: /enoay ieeaiiieey – ieeaiiieee i?iecaiaeyo iaeii?iaeiue
i?iaeoeo, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiay ieeaiiieey – i?iecaiaeeiua oiaa?u,
aoaeo/e aiaoia iaeii?iaeiuie, ?acee/athony ii eeannai – eiiiuethoa?u
?aciie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. I?e eciaiaiee neooaoeee oe?iu-ieeaiiieenou
eciaiytho iauai auionea, a ia oeaiu eae i?e niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee.

Auaeaeythony: oaeiay ieeaiiieey – oe?iu iiaeno?aeaathony ae?oa iiae
ae?oaa, anooiay a naiai? e ieeaiiieey aeiieie?iaaiey – eiaaea ia ?uiea
nouanoaoao e?oiiay oe?ia, caieiathuay 60-80% ?uiea.

Iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey: (?icie/iay oi?aiaey, i?iecaiaenoai
iaeaaeaeu, iaoae)

iiiai oe?i;

aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue oei i?iaeoeoa;

neaaue eiio?ieue iaae oeaiie;

eaaeea oneiaey anooieaiey a io?aneue;

iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey – cia/eoaeueiue oii? ia ?aeeaio, oi?aiaua ciaee
e ia?ee. Eiaaony aieueoia /enei iio?aaeoaeae e i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
ieieiaeueiu aa?uea?u aeey aoiaea ia ?uiie e auoiaea ec iaai, ana oe?iu
?aaoee?otho oieueei oeaiu ia auioneaaiua eie oiaa?u, ia aeeyy ia oeaiu
eiieo?aioia. Ana oe?iu ia aeaiiii ?uiea auioneatho oiaa?u iaeiie
oiaa?iie a?oiiu, ii eaaeaeay ec ieo auioneaao naie iniaaiiue oiaa?,
oioue a /ai-oi ioee/iue io oiaa?ia ae?oaeo oe?i. Oe?ia iaeaaeaao
iiiiiieueiie aeanoueth, ii oaea ia iaae ?uieii, a iaae nianoaaiiui
oiaa?ii. Iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey noeioee?oao ni?in, iiauoaao
?aciiia?acea oiaa?ia e oneoa, ii oai ia iaiaa canoaaeyao i?iecaiaeeoaeae
ia?aoeeiiaeueii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu e noeioee?oao i?aauoaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eaeie-oi iaeiie a?oiia oneoa.

? 3.Oai?ey oeaiu oiaa?a. ?aaiiaaniua oeaiu

Oeaiu oiaa?ia neoaeao i?eaioe?aie, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue eioi?uie
i?aaei?eieiaoaee e iio?aaeoaee aeaeatho naie auai?, iaania/eaathuee
ee/iue eioa?an. Nouanoaotho 2 iiaeoiaea e oi?ie?iaaieth oeaiu oiaa?a. A
nia?aiaiiie ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eea eiioeaioeey oeaiu A. Ia?oaeea. Ii iuoaaony iauaaeeieoue 3
eiioeaioeee: i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey a iaeio oai?eth oeaiu. Ii n/eoaao, /oi oeaia eaeie-eeai
aaue i?aaenoaaeyao aa iaiiaoth noieiinoue (aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?aoaiey
ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia) ioiineoaeueii anao aauae aiiaua. Oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony
eae ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe, iieo/aaiia ca oiaa?.
Iaaeaeo ?uii/iie oeaiie e oai aai eiee/anoaii, ia eioi?ia i?aaeuyaeyaony
ni?in, anaaaea nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia niioiioaiea: /ai auoa oeaia, oai
iaiueoa /enei oao, eoi niaeaneony eoieoue aeaiiue oiaa?, e iaiai?io, /ai
ieaea oeaia, oai aieueoa /enei iieoiaoaeae e eiee/anoai i?eia?aoaaiiai
oiaa?a. Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie e aaee/eiie ni?ina – ia?aoiay.
Iieo/aiiay e?eaay eeethno?e?oao caeii iinoaiaiiiai oauaaiey ni?ina: anee
oeaia eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a iiauoaaony, oi ni?in aoaeao i?aaeuyaeyoueny ia
iaiueoaa eiee/anoai yoiai oiaa?a.

Ana i?iaeaaoeu no?aiyony iieo/eoue ia ?uiea naioth aunieoth oeaio, e
/ai auoa aoaeao oeaia, oai aeoeaiaa iie aoaeoo iuoaoueny i?iaeaoue
aieueoaa eiee/anoai oiaa?a, oi anoue oaaee/eoue i?aaeeiaeaiea. O
eaaeaeiai i?iaeaaoea iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey aoaeao iaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe
io oeaiu: /ai auoa oeaia, oai auoa ?acia? i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea
aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Aeey eaaeaeiai oiaa?a nouanoaotho naie e?eaua ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Nouanoaoo ?acieoea iaaeaeo aaee/eiie ni?ina e naieie
ni?inii. I?e nieaeaiee oeaiu oaaee/eaaaony aaee/eia ni?ina, nai ni?in
eae au?aaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a aeaiiii oiaa?a inoaaony iaeciaiiui.
Eciaiaiea aaee/eiu ni?ina – yoi ia?aaeaeaeaiea n iaeiie oi/ee ia
ae?oaoth ia iinoiyiiie e?eaie ni?ina. (io a e a’). Iiaeii aiai?eoue ia
oaaee/aiee ni?ina, anee i?e eaaeaeie oeaia iieoiaoaee aoaeoo
i?eia?aoaoue aieueoaa eiee/anoai oiaa?a. Oae, eaoii aic?anoaao ni?in ia
iaieoee e ii?iaeaiia. A yoii neo/aa aoaeai aeaeaaoueny ia ii e?eaie D1,
a i?iecieaeao naeaea e?eaie a iiaia iieiaeaiea D2. Ii ia aaee/eio
ni?ina, e?iia oeaiu, aeeytho o?iaaiue aeioiaeia, ?acia? ?uiea, oeaia e
iieaciinoue ae?oaeo oiaa?ia, eciaiaiea i?aaeii/oaiee e aeonia
iieoiaoaeae. Anee, iai?eia?, aeioiae iieoiaoaeae aic?anoaao, oi e?eaay
ni?ina D1 nianoeony ai?aai aaa?o (?en.3) e oiio aea o?iaith oeaiu P1
aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue aic?inoee o?iaaiue ni?ina Q2. Aeaaiue oaeoi?,
aicaeaenoaothuee ia i?aaeeiaeaiea – ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiyoiio, anee a ?acoeueoaoa aeinoeaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna
oaeaaony nieceoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey S1
niacaaony ai?aai aiec (?en. 4). Aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey i?e iaeciaiiie
oeaia P1 aic?anoaao n Q1 aei Q2 (eee n b aei b’ ?en.5). Ia i?aaeeiaeaiea
ieacuaatho aeeyiea: eciaiaiea oaoiieiaee, oeai ia ae?oaea oiaa?u, /enea
iinoaaueeia.

Anee iaeiaeeoue ae?oa ia ae?oaa aeaa a?aoeea. Ithicia/athuea
niaieoiiue ni?in e niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeiiai e oiai aea oiaa?a,
iieo/ei a?aoee, iieacuaathuee iaeiia?aiaiiia iiaaaeaiea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a. A eaeie-oi oi/ea aeaa e?eaua ia?anaeoony. A oi/ea
ano?a/e E (?en.5) ni?in eiee/anoaaiii ?aaai i?aaeeiaeaieth (Q1)

e oeaia P aunooiaao eae oeaia ?aaiiaaney. I?e aieaa aunieie oeaia P
aicieeaao ecauoie P1i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii (io?acie AB). Yoio
ecauoie a ?acoeueoaoa eiieo?aioeee i?iaeaaoeia aoaeao niinianoaiaiaaoue
nieaeaieth oeaiu. I?e oeaia ieaea o?aaiiaaoeaathuae (P3) ni?in P3
i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea (io?acie CF). A yoii neo/aa eceeoae ni?ina e
eiieo?aioeey iieoiaoaeae aoaeao oieeaoue oeaio aaa?o. Eeoue a oi/ea E
aeinoeaaaony ?aaiiaanea nee e onoie/eaay oeaia, eioi?ay iiaeao
nio?aiyoueny. I?e oeaia ?aaiiaaney onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaainoai ia iieoiie
e i?iaeaae – oaeia ?aaainoai nouanoaoao i?e ethaie oeaia. I?e oeaia
?aaiiaaney eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie iio?aaeoaee
iaia?aiu i?iaeieaeaoue aeaeaoue caeoiee, aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue oiio
eiee/anoao i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeoaee iaia?aiu i?iaeieaeaoue
iinoaaeyoue ia ?uiie. Oieueei i?e oaeie oeaia aoaeao ionoonoaiaaoue
oaiaeaioeey e iiauoaieth eee iiieaeaieth oeaiu.

Oai?ee oeaiu. A. Nieo: “Aeaenoaeoaeueiay oeaia anyeiai i?aaeiaoa, oi
anoue oi, /oi eaaeaeue i?aaeiao noieo a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oiio
/aeiaaeo, eioi?ue oi/ao i?eia?anoe aai, anoue o?oae e oneeey, eioi?ua ii
aeieaeai oiio?aaeoue, /oiau i?eia?anoe yoio i?aaeiao”. O?oae aue ia?aie
oeaiie, ia?aiia/aeueiuie aeaiueaaie,eioi?uie ieaoeee ca ana i?aaeiaou.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiay oeaia – yoi o?oae, a aeaiueae ninoaaeytho eeoue
iiieiaeueioth oeaio oiaa?ia.

? 4.Oai?ee oeaiiinoe. Noieiinoue e iieaciinoue

Iieaciinoue – yoi niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe.
“Iieaciinoue” e “iieueca” ia neiiieiu: ea?oeia Ieeanni iiaeao auoue
aaniieaciie n i?aeoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, e a oi aea a?aiy i?eiineoue
iieueco aeey ciaoiea eneonnoaa. Iieaciinoue – yoi noauaeoeaiia iiiyoea,
iieaciinoue iia?aaeaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa aoaeao ?acee/iie aeey ?aciuo
ethaeae. Ia?a i/eia eiaao ia?iiioth iieaciinoue aeey oiai, eoi no?aaeaao
aeeci?oeinoueth eee aeaeueiici?einoueth, ii niaa?oaiii aaniieacia aeey
/aeiaaea ni 100% c?aieai. Caeii oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe –
iineaaeothuea aaeeieoeu aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa i?eiinyo ana iaiueoa e
iaiueoa oaeiaeaoai?aiey, iio?aaeoaee iieoiatho aeii. aaeeieoeu
i?iaeoeoa, i?e oneiaee, /oi oeaia ia iaai nieaeaaony. Iiae i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoueth iu eiaai a aeaeo aeiaaai/ioth iieaciinoue, eee
oaeiaeaoai?aiea, ecaeaeaaiia iio?aaeoaeai ec iaeiie aeiiieieoaeueiie
aaeeieoeu eiie?aoiie i?iaeoeee. I?aaeei iaeneiecaoeee iieaciinoe
caeeth/aaony a oaeii ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiiai aeioiaea iio?aaeoaey,
i?e eioi?ii iineaaeiee aeieea?, cao?a/aiiue ia i?eia?aoaiea eaaeaeiai
aeaea i?iaeoeoia, i?eiinee au iaeeiaeiaoth aeiaaai/ioth (i?aaeaeueioth)
iieaciinoue.

Yooaeo aeioiaea – i?e aieaa ieceie oeaia /aeiaae iiaeao iicaiaeeoue naaa
eoieoue aieueoa aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, ia ioeacuaay naaa a i?eia?aoaiee
eaeeo-eeai aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoeoia, yooaeo caiauaiey – i?e aieaa
ieceie oeaia o /aeiaaea iiyaeyaony noeioe i?eia?anoe aeaoaaue oiaa?
aianoi aiaeiae/iuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua oaia?ue ioiineoaeueii aei?iaea,
iieoiaoaee neeiiiu caiaiyoue aei?iaea i?iaeoeou aieaa aeaoaauie.

A. Nieo: “Neiai “noieiinoue” eiaao 2 ?aciuo cia/aiey: eiiaaea iii
icia/aao iieaciinoue eaeiai-ieaoaeue ioaeaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa, a eiiaaea
iieoiaoaeueioth neeo ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei aaeaaai, eioi?oth aeaao
iaeaaeaaiea ei”. Ia?aoth iiaeii iacaaoue iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoueth,
aoi?oth – iaiiaie. Iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue eiatho oeaa, ianei,
ea?oioaeue, a oaeaea aiaea a enoi/ieea – iia oaeiaeaoai?yao ee/ioth
iio?aaiinoue /aeiaaea. Iaiiaay noieiinoue – yoi eiee/anoaaiiia
ioiioaiea, a eioi?ii iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe iaeiiai ?iaea
iaiaieaathony ia iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe ae?oaiai ?iaea, iai?eia?,
iaeei oiii? iaiaieaaaony ia 20ea ca?ia; a yoii eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee
iaiaieaaaiuo oiaa?ia e au?aaeaia eo iaiiaay noieiinoue. Aaue, eiathuea
aaee/aeooth iio?aaeoaeueneoth noieiinoue /anoi iaeaaeatho iaeie eee
aiiaua ia iaeaaeatho iaiiaie noieiinoueth, e iaiai?io. Iieaciinoue ia
yaeyaony ia?ie iaiiaie noieiinoe. Anee i?aaeiao ie ia /oi ia aiaeai, ii
aoaeao eeoai iaiiaie noieiinoe. Oiaa?u, iaeaaeathuea iieaciinoueth,
/a?iatho naith iaiiaoth noieiinoue ec 2 enoi/ieeia: naiae ?aaeeinoe e
eiee/anoaa o?oaea, o?aaothuaainy aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa. Nouanoaotho
iaeioi?ua oiaa?u, noieiinoue eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony eo ?aaeeinoueth
(?aaeeea noaooe, ea?oeiu). Noieiinoue eo niaa?oaiii ia caaeneo io
eiee/anoaa o?oaea, ia?aiia/aeueii iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ia noieiinoue oiaa?ia aeeyao ia oieueei o?oae, i?eiaiaiiue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iei, ii e o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia i?oaeey, eino?oiaiou
e caeaiey, niinianoaothuea yoiio o?oaeo.

Ae.?eea?aei: “Noieiinoue caaeneo ia io eciaeeey, a io o?oaeiinoe eee
eaaeinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Noieiinoue eaaeaeiai i?aaeiaoa iiauoaaony eee
iaaeaao i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eaaeinoe eee o?oaeiinoe aai i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia aai i?iecaiaenoaa,
noieiinoue oiaa?ia aic?anoaao aneaaenoaea eo ?aaeeinoe”.

Oai?ee oeaiiinoe (noieiinoe). A iniiaa eeanne/aneie ao?aeoaciie
iieeoyeiiiiee eaaeeo o?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe. Niaeanii yoie oai?ee,
anyeee oiaa? iaeaaeaao noieiinoueth, oae eae yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
/aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea, oi anoue noieiinoue – yoi aiieiuaiiue a oiaa?a
o?oae. O.Iaooe n/eoae, /oi enoi/ieeii noieiinoe yaeyaony o?oae, a
aaee/eia noieiinoe oiaa?ia ecia?yaony ?aai/ei a?aiaiai, cao?a/aiiui ia
eo i?iecaiaenoai. Ii Iaooe aeee a yiioo ainiiaenoaa ia?eaioeeenoe/aneeo
aicc?aiee, e ii ia auaeaeye noieiinoue a ea/anoaa aioo?aiiaai naienoaa
oiaa?a, ioiaeaeanoaeyy noieiinoue n eiee/anoaii iieo/aaiuo ca oiaa?
aeaiaa, oi anoue oaeoe/anee n aai oeaiie. Oieueei a ?aaioao A.Nieoa e
Ae.?eea?aei o?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe neiaeeeanue eae oeaeinoiay
iao/iay eiioeaioeey. A.Nieo n/eoae, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea noiiinoe
cao?a/aiiui ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a o?oaeii yaeyaony caeiiii e, aiai?ee,
/oi iaiai oiaa?ia inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n caeeth/aiiui a ieo
eiee/anoaii o?oaea. Eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui, neiaeiui o?oaeii nicaeathony
noieiinoe aieueoa, /ai o?oaeii i?inoui, iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui.
Ae.?eea?aei ?ac?aaioae iieiaeaiea i o?oaea eae aaeeinoaaiiii enoi/ieea
noieiinoe. Ii onoaiiaee caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo aaee/eiie noieiinoe oiaa?a
e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinueth o?oaea. E Ia?en /aoei ?aca?aie/ee
iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue e noieiinoue eae aeaa iniiaiua naienoaa
oiaa?a. Iaiiaay noieiinoue ?anniao?eaaaony ei a ea/anoaa oi?iu
au?aaeaiey noieiinoe. Ii n/eoae, /oi aaee/eia noieiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony
cao?aoaie iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aai/aai a?aiaie, oi anoue a?aiaie,
cao?a/eaaaiiai ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a. A eiioea 19 aaea yeiiiie/aneie
iaoeie auei nicaeaii o/aiea i noieiinoe, i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?iai auee
o/aiua iaieeanne/aneie aano?eeneie oeieu – E. Iaiaa?, O. oii Aeca?. Iie
n/eoaee, /oi noieiinoue eaeiai-eeai aeaaa ii?aaeaeyaony aai i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoueth. A ioee/ea io o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, oai?ey
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe noaaeo a oeaio? enneaaeiaaiey ia cao?a/aiiue
o?oae ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a, i ioeaieo iieaciinoe aeaiiiai oiaa?a
iio?aaeoaeai. Naii iiiyoea “noieiinoue” iiaeiaiyaony iiiyoeai
“oeaiiinoue” naycuaaaony n iieaciinoueth aeaaa. Aua iaeei iiaeoiae e
ii?aaeaeaieth noieiinoe oiaa?a aeaiiino?e?otho noi?iiieee oai?ee
i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (Ae.Eea?e e A.Ia?oaee). A i?ioeaiaan
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, ooaa?aeaeathuae, /oi enoi/ieeii noieiinoe
yaeyaony eeoue o?oae oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey, oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?eciaao niiniaiinoue nicaeaaaoue noieiinoue ca
anaie iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa (o?oaeii. eaieoaeii, caieae).
Niaieoiiay noieiinoue i?iaeoeoa aeieaeia i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie noiio
“aeeaaeia” anao oaeoi?ia, a ?acia? “aeeaaea” eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a
ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie aeioiaea io aai i?iaiaiey, oi anoue ca?aaioiie
ieaou, i?ioeaioa e ?aiou. Caeii noieiinoe: i?iecaiaenoai e iaiai oiaa?ia
aeieaeiu inouanoaeyoueny a niioaaonoaee n eo noieiinoueth, oi anoue
niaeanii o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiuie cao?aoaie
o?oaea.

? 5. Aeaiueae e eo ooieoeee

Aeaiueae – n?aaenoai iieaou ca oiaa?u e oneoae, iauai?eiyoia a aeaiiii
ieaoaaeiii niiauanoaa. Aeaiueae – yoi iniaue oiaa?, iie noaiiayony
aeaiueaaie oieueei iinea anaiauaai i?eciaiey eo a yoii ea/anoaa, a
ia?aoiii neo/aa iie ia?anoatho auoue aeaiueaaie. A iniiaa aeaiaa –
i?eau/ea ianniaiai i?eciaiey, a iniiaa i?eciaiey – aa?a, /oi aeaiiue
oiaa? aoaeao i?eciai /eaiaie aeaiiiai niiauanoaa. A eaaeaeie no?aia –
naia ieaoaaeiia niiauanoai (a NOA i?eciatho $), a ieo niaoeeaeueiua
oi?iu aeaiaa (/aee ?ani?ino?aiaiu n?aaeeiaeaaeaoaeae aieaa aunieeo
aeioiaeia). Aeaiueae – aaniethoii eeeaeaeiia n?aaenoai iaiaia.

Nouiinoue aeaiaa, eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, iaoiaeeo au?aaeaiea a
aaeeinoaa 3 eo naienoa:

anaiauay iaiin?aaenoaaiiay iaiaieaaaiinoue;

naiinoiyoaeueiay oi?ia iaiiaie noieiinoe (aniaeo, iicaieythuee
iaiaieaaoue aeaiueae ia oiaa?);

aiaoiyy aauiay ia?a o?oaea.

Ia?enenoneea yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee auaeaeytho 5 aeaiaaeiuo ooieoeee, a
nia?aiaiiua yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee – 3 (4) ooieoeee.

Ooieoeee aeaiaa (ii Ia?eno):

ia?a noieiinoe (aeaiueae eae anaiauee yeaeaaeaio ecia?ytho noieiinoue
oiaa?ia; aeaiueae eniieuecothony aeey niecia?aiey noieiinoe ae?oaeo
oiaa?ia /a?ac iin?aaenoai ianooaaa oeai);

n?aaenoai ia?auaiey (aeaiueae ianeoaeeaatho ia?auaiea:
oiaa?-aeaiueae-oiaa?);

n?aaenoai iaeiieaiey e naa?aaeaiey (iaeiieaiea a aeaea cieiouo iiiao e
neeoeia – nie?iaeu);

n?aaenoai ieaoaaea (ooieoeey ?aaeecoaony oiaaea, eiaaea aicieeatho
ioiioaiey e?aaeeoa; aeaiueae ianeoaeeaatho e?aaeeoii-oi?aiaua iia?aoeee,
oieaoo aeieaia, a?aiaeiie ieaou);

ooieoeey ie?iauo aeaiaa (ooieoeey aeaiaa i?e ?acee/iuo acaeiiioiioaieyo
iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie e no?aiaie – eiii?oa; aeaiueae a naiae
ia?ai?iaeiie oi?ia – cieioa – iiaoo aunooiaoue eae anaiauaa ieaoaaeiia
eee anaiauaa iieoiaoaeueiia n?aaenoai).

Ooieoeee aeaiaa (yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee):

ia?eei noieiinoe. Eiaaea-oi oiaa?u au?aaeaee naie iaiiaua noieiinoe a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaao na?aa?a e cieioa. Yoe eiee/anoaa aeaiaaeiiai
oiaa?a aeieaeiu auoue a naith i/a?aaeue ecia?aiu. Ionthaea auoaeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aaeeieoea ecia?aiey aeaiaa. Oaeie aaeeieoeae i?e
cieioii noaiaea?oa yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiia aaniaia eiee/anoai cieioa,
i?eiyoia ca aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo a oie eee eiie no?aia, oi anoue
ianooaa oeai. Ii onoaiaaeeaaaony ainoaea?noaii a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea e iieacuaaao, neieueei a?aiiia cieioa niaea?aeeony a iaeiie
aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ooieoeeth ia?u noieiinoe
auiieiytho aoiaaeiua aeaiueae aac anyeiai cieioiai iaania/aiey
(aeieea?u, ooiou, ia?ee, ?oaee.

n?aaenoai iaiaia. Yoa ooieoeey ninoieo a oii, /oi iie aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea a i?ioeanna iaiaia oiaa?ia.

n?aaenoai iaeiieaiey aiaaonoaa. Yoa ooieoeey ?aaeecoaony oiaaea, eiaaea
aeaiueae aunooiatho a aeaea oeiainiaiai aeoeaa, nio?aiythuaainy o
noauaeoa ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa iinea i?iaeaaee ei eaeeo-eeai oiaa?ia e
oneoa. Aea?aeaoue naia aiaaonoai a aeaea aeaiaa ethaee i?aaeii/eoatho
iioiio, /oi aeaiueae iaeaaeatho aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoueth.

n?aaenoai ieaoaaea. N ?acaeoeai oiaa?iiai iaiaia aicieeaao naiaia?aciay
aai oi?ia: io/oaeaeaiea oiaa?ia iiaeao auoue ioaeaeaii ii a?aiaie io
?aaeecaoeee aai oeaiu, oi anoue oiaa?u iiao auoue i?iaeaiu a e?aaeeo.
Ianiaiaaeaiea ai a?aiaie iieoiie e i?iaeaae e ii?iaeaeaao yoo ooieoeeth.
A eoiaa e?aaeeoiie naeaeee aicieeaao ?aciiaeaeiinoue aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa –
aaenaeue, eee aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai. A iiiaio iiaaoaiey
aeieaaaeaiueae aunooiatho eae n?aaenoai ieaoaaea.

Oi?iu aeaiaa:

aoiaaeiua aeaiueae (aaieiiou, eacia/aeneea aeeaou);

iiiaou;

cieioua aeaiueae;

e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae (aaenaeue – aeieaiaia ienueiaiiia iaycaoaeuenoai
iaeiiai eeoea ae?oaiio, ninoaaeaiiia ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia; aaieiiioa –
aaieianeia aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai, yaeythuaany aaenaeai, ii eioi?iio
i?aaeuyaeoaeue a ethaia a?aiy iiaeao iieo/eoue aeaiueae; /ae –
ienueiaiiia ?anii?yaeaiea aeaaeaeueoea oaeouaai n/aoa aaieo ai iieaoa
iaee/iuie eee ia?aaiaea ia oaeouee n/ao ae?oaiai eeoea ii?aaeaeaiiie
noiiu aeaiaa; iaeeaaoeee, aao/a?u).

Oai?ee aeaiaa:

1) i i?ienoiaeaeaiee e nouiinoe aeaiaa;

2)ia eo noieiinoe iieoiaoaeueiie neea

3) 3 oai?ee

Iaoaeeenoe/aneay oai?ey aeaiaa (Ae.Ii?n) – ioiaeaeanoaeyee aiaaonoai
ainoaea?noaa n aeaiueaaie, a naie aeaiueae n cieioii. Nouiinoue aeaiaa
iie naycuaaee n anoanoaaiiuie naienoaaie cieioa a ea/anoaa aeaai?iaeiiai
iaoaeea.

Eeanne/aneee iiieiaeeci (Aeae. Aa?eee) – n/eoaee, /oi aeaiueae – yoi
oieueei eaeaaeueiua n/aoiua aaeeieoeu, ianeoaeeaathuea iaiai oiaa?ia.

Oiaa?iay oai?ey aeaiaa (E.Ia?ena) – aeaiueae – yoi oiaa?.

Eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey aeaiaa (Aeae.Eiee, Ae.?eea?aei. A.Ia?oaee) –
oaaee/aiea aeaiaa a no?aia ia icia/aao aa aiaaonoaa, a niinianoaoao
eeoue ?inoo oeai. N/eoaee, /oi noieiinoue aeaiaa ii?aaeaeyaony eo
eiee/anoaii, iaoiaeyueiny a ia?auaiee. Oeaiu caaenyo io iannu aeaiaa.
Oeaiu eciaiythony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao aeaiaa, eciaiaiea
eiee/anoaa aeaiaa ieacuaaao iaeeiaeiaia aeeyiea ia oeaiu anao oiaa?ia.

? 6. Yaiethoeey aeaiaa. Iaoaeee/aneea e aoiaaeiua aeaiueae. E?aaeeoiua
aeaiueae. Yeaeo?iiiua aeaiueae

Aeaiueae – n?aaenoai iieaou ca oiaa?u e oneoae, iauai?eiyoia a aeaiiii
ieaoaaeiii iauanoaa. 2 iai?aaeaiey a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, eioi?ua
iinoiyiii i?enoonoaotho a aii?inao, eanathueony aeaiaa e aeaiaaeiie
oai?ee: eeanne/aneay oai?ey (A. Nieo – aeaiueae, yaeyynue oiaa?ii,
eiatho e naith aioo?aiithth noieiinoue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie
o?oaea, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa), eiee/anoaaiiay oai?ey
(Eiee, Aiaan, ?eea?aei – aeaiueae ia eiatho aioo?aiiae noieiinoe, yoi
ciae, neiaie, au?aaeaiea noieiinoe).

A. Nieo: “ Eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeeaao iaiaiii eee noaiiaeony oi?aiaoeai, a
naii iauanoai i?aa?auaaony a oi?aiaue nithc. Eaaeaeue ?acoiiue /aeiaae
ia ethaie nooiaie ?acaeoey iauanoaa iinea iiyaeaiey ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea
aeieaeai aue noa?aoueny oae ono?ieoue naie aeaea, /oiau iinoiyiii
ia?yaeo n iniauie i?iaeoeoaie naiaai nianoaaiiiai i?iiunea eiaoue
iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai oaeiai oiaa?a, eioi?ue, ii aai iiaieth, ieeoi ia
ioeaaeaony acyoue acaiai ia i?iaeoeou naiaai i?iiunea. A ?aciuo no?aiao
oaeeie i?oaeeyie iaiaia auee ?aciua aaue: auee, nieue, ?aeiaeiu, oaaae,
naoa?. Ii ai anao no?aiao ethaee a eiioea eiioeia aeaee i?aaeii/oaiea
iaoaeeai, oae eae iie i?i/iu e eo iiaeii aeaeeoue ia ethaia eiee/anoai
/anoae. Ia?aiia/aeueii iaoaeeu oiio?aaeyeenue a neeoeao, a ia a iiiaoa.
Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iaiaiia e iaaeoaaoaeuenoa auei ni/oaii iaiaoiaeeiui
ioia/aoue ioaee/iui eeaeiii ii?aaeaeaiiua eiee/anoaa oao iaoaeeia,
eioi?ua iau/ii oiio?aaeyeenue i?e iieoiea oiaa?ia, oae aicieeee /aeaiiay
iiiaoa e oa ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iieo/eee iacaaiea
iiiaoiuo aeai?ia. O anao oeeaeeeciaaiiuo ia?iaeia aeaiueae noaee
anaiauei i?oaeeai oi?aiaee, i?e iin?aaenoaa eioi?iai i?iaeathony e
iieoiathony anyeiai ?iaea oiaa?u eee aea iaiaieaathony iaeei ia
ae?oaie”.

Aeaiueae – yoi aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea iaiiaie noieiinoe (aiciiaeiinoue
i?eia?aoaiey ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia, eioi?oth aeaao iaeaaeaiea aeaiiui
i?aaeiaoii) oiaa?a.

Ieeiio ia ecaanoii eae aia?aua iiyaeeenue aeaiueae, ii ciatho, /oi
auee ?aciua oiaa?u, ioaa/athuea anaiauae iio?aaiinoe, eioi?ua a
aeaeueiaeoai iiaeii auee iaiaiyoue ia ae?oaea oiaa?u. A Ae?aaiae
A?aoeee, ?eia iio?aaiinoyi ioaa/ae neio, a ae?oaeo no?aiao – oeaie,
?uaa. Caoai iaoaeeu auoiaeyo ia ia?aia ianoi. A ?eia aeaiueaaie auea
a?iica, a Nia?oa – aeaeaci. Yoi nio?aiyeinue aei XIX aaea, caoai iie
auee auoaniaiu aaieiioaie, aeaiueaaie aaciaee/iiai ?an/aoa (caiene ia
n/aoa i?aaei?eyoey). Ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu ia iiaee ecaaaeaoue o/anoe
noaoue aeaiueaaie (eaaee a ia?aaicea, oaeiaiu a o?aiaiee, iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny aei aaneiia/iinoe). A ia/aea iaoaeee/aneea aeaiueae
eiaee ii?aaeaeaiiue aan. A Aioe/iua a?aiaia aeaiueae /aeaieee ethaua
noauaeou, n?aaeiea aaea – iiiiiieecaoeey /aeaiee aeey i?anoeaea,
naii?aeeaiu. Eciaiaiey i?iaeieaeathony e, ia/eiay n XIII aaea, a
ea/anoaa aeaiaa aeoeaii eniiocoaony cieioi e na?aa?i.

Nouanoaotho 3 yoaia aicieeiiaaiey aeaiaa a ?innee:

1) A Ae?aaiae ?one – na?aa?yiua, ii iioii eo caiaiyee neeoeaie ec
na?aa?a (a?eaia). N XIV aaea – oe?ieay /aeaiea a Iineaa, I. Iiaai?iaea,
?ycaie. Yoio yoai – iaoii?yaei/aiiue.

2) Yoai oii?yaei/eaaiey. 1535-1538 aa. – A. Aeeineay i?iaaea aeaiaaeioth
?aoi?io: iia ecuyea iaiieiioeaiiua oaeueoeaua aeaiueae, aaaea
aeanyoe/ioth nenoaio, a oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo oii?yaei/aiea aana 1 ?oaey (1
?oa.= 10 a?eaia). Aua oiaeee a ia?auaiee aeoui.

3) 90 eao nionoy a 1625 aiaeo ana iiiaoiua aeai?u, e?iia Iineianeiai,
cae?ueenue. Ainoaea?ue iiiiiieece?iaae /aeaieo iiiao e noae /aeaieoue
oieueei ia Iineianeii aeai?a. N 1700 aiaea i?iecaiaeeianue ?aaoey?iay
/aeaiea na?aa?yiuo ?oaeae e iaaeiuo iiiao.

Aeiaoaeee/aneay nenoaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi naiaiaeii /aeaiyony
iiiaou ec cieioa e na?aa?a. Caoai oeene?oaony niioiioaiea cieioa e
na?aa?a – aeiaoaeee/aneay ia?a. Eaaeaeay iiiaoa ec ethaiai iaoaeea
iaia?aie/aiii ?aciaieaaaony. N XVI aaea aeiieie?oao cieioi,
aeiaoaeee/aneay nenoaia ionooiaao ia?aae iiiiiaoaeee/aneie. Caeii
A?yoyia: ieioea aeaiueae auoaniytho oi?ioea (iiiaou, eioi?ua eo/oa,
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey iaeiieaiey nie?iaeu, eeai aeey aiaoieo
ieaoaaeae).

N XVI aaea ia?aoiae e cieioiio iiiiiaoaeeecio. A 1851 aiaeo a
Aano?aeee ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaua cieioua ?oaeieee, oaeei ia?acii,
aicieeaao oa?ica iaanna?aa?aaaiey. 1865 aiae – Eaoeineee aeaiaaeiue
nithc (Aaeueaey, Oaaeoea?ey, Eoaeey, O?aioeey – no?aiu, iaeaaeaaoea
na?aa?ii, nieceee i?iao (aei 835), aeiaoaeeeci nio?aieeny oieueei aeey 5
o?aieia. Oeaeue – ia?aie/aiea eniieueciaaiey na?aa?a a ia?auaiee,
naiaiaeiay /aeaiea e ?aciai aue i?ae?auai. Ia/aeinue iaanoeaiaiea
na?aa?a, aeaenoaoao caeii A?yoyia. Niioiioaiea cieioa e na?aa?a
eciaieeinue ii ioiioaieth e ioeoeeaeueiiio eo?no. Cieioi noaei aeaoaaea
na?aa?a TH ecuiaaony ec ia?auaiey. Na?aa?i auoaniyao cieioi. Ii
Eaoeineee nithc iiyoue iiaeienae Eiiaaioeeth ia ieii/aiee eniieueciaaiey
na?aa?a (1878 a). Ia/aeny yoai cieioiai iiiiiaoaeeecia, oioy 5-e
o?aieiaua iiiaou aua nio?aieeenue. A 1834a. – caeii, eciaieaoee cieioia
niaea?aeaiea aeieea?a, 1873 a. – iiaue aeaiaaeiue eiaeaen ooaa?aeee
cieioie iiiiiaoaeeeci a NOA (na?aa?yiua iiiaou nio?aiyee eaaaeueiue
eo?n e iaia?aie/aiii ?aciaieaaeenue, ii /aeaiea auea i?ae?auaia e
aoiaaeiua aeaiueae iiaeii auei iaiaiyoue ia cieioua). Cieioie
iiiiiaoaeeeci aaiaeeony e a ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao (1897 a. – ?inney,
ssiiiey, 1895 a. – Eiaeey, Iaeneea). Anei?a oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eee iaiaoaeee/aneea oi?iu aeaiaa – aoiaaeiua e e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae.

Caeii iaoaeee/aneiai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey: eiee/anoai iaoiaeyueony a
ia?auaiee aeaiaa ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia ?aaii eiee/anoao aeaiaa,
iaiaoiaeeiiio aeey ia?auaiey.

Aeaeu aeaiaa:

iaee/iua iaoaeee/aneea e aoiaaeiua;

aaciaee/iua, 90% anao naeaeie inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth /aeia (/ae –
ienueiaiiue i?eeac i ?anoiaeiaaiee aeaiaa, iaoiaeyueony ia /aeiaii n/aoa
a aaiea);

“ii/oe aeaiueae” – aunieieeeaeaeiua oeiainiaua aeoeau. 3 aeaea:
aan/aeiaua naa?aaaoaeueiua n/aoa; n?i/iua, aunieieeeaeaeiua aeeaaeu;
e?aoein?i/iua aunieieeeaeaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae.

E?aaeeoiua aeaiueae naycaiu n e?aaeeoiuie ioiioaieyie (aaenaeue, /ae,
iaeeaaoeee, aao/a?u).

Aoiaaeiua e aaciaee/iua aeaiueae iiyaeeenue n ?acaeoeai oi?aiaee e
aaieia. Ia?aiia/aeueii aaenaey eiaee aeiaa?eoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, a iioii
yoi noae th?eaee/anee /aoeee aeieoiaio, eioi?ue aeaaae aiciiaeiinoue
aino?aaiaaoue iacaae naie aeaiueae, aeaiiua a aeiea. I?inoie aaenaeue –
yoi iaycaoaeuenoai aaenaeaaeaoaey iieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio aeaiaa
e ii?aaeaeaiiiio n?ieo ieaoaaea aea?aeaoaeth aaenaey. Ia?aaiaeiie
aaenaeue (o?aooa) – ienueiaiiue i?eeac aaenaeaaeaoaey (o?annaioa)
ieaoaeueueeo (o?annaoo) oieaoeoue oeacaiioth a aaenaea noiio aeaiaa.
Aaieiiou ecia?ae oaaaeneee aaiee? a XVII aaea – eo iiaeii auei
?aciaieaaoue ia aeaiueae, eo auioneaee aeey iie?uoey iio?aaiinoae
ia?auaiey.

A ie?a aaieiiou iaiyeenue ia aeaiueae ii ?aciui i?aaeeai. A 1914-18
aa. aicieeee aieaa neiaeiua ?aaeeiu eiiaa?oaoeee aaieiio. Aicieeaao
cieioi=neeoeiaue noaiaea?o. Iaiaiyoue iiaeii auei ia cieioi oieueei
e?oiiua aeaiaaeiua noiiu. Aei 1933 aiaea – cieioiaaethoiue noaiaea?o
(aioo?aiiea aeaiueae a no?aia iiaoo eiiaa?oe?iaaoueny a eiaaethoo, a
eiaaethoa – a cieioi). N 1933 a. – caeii i iaeiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aeieea?a a
cieioi.

Iaeeaaoeee – aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa. Iiaoo auoue ainoaea?noaaiiuie e
ei?ii?aoeaiuie. Ii ainoae. iaeeaaoeeyi aeieaeiee- ainoaea?noai e oiaaea
oei. ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianao i?aaeoaeuenoai. Ei?ii?aoeaiua iaeeaaoeee –
eiaaea auioneaao eiiiaiey. Ii aeaiiie iaeeaaoeee ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue
aoaeao ianoe oieueei eiiiaiey a i?aaeaeao aa aeoeaia. Iaeeaaoeee – yoi
aeieain?i/iua aeieaiaua eino?oiaiou, eioi?ua oaeaea yaeythony
o?aaiaaieyie ia aeoeau oe?iu, eioi?ay auionoeea iaeeaaoeee. Aeioiae
aeaaeaeueoeaa iaeeaaoeee no?iai iaiai?ai e oeene?iaai, ii enoa/aiee
n?iea caeia auiea/eaaaony iniiaiay noiia aeieaa. Aeieain?i/iua
ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee iaiaa eeeaeaeiu e aieaa ?eneiaaiiu ii
n?aaiaieth n AEI. Ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee iiaoo auoue aioo?aiiaai
caeia (i?iaeaaea aioo?e no?aiu), a iiaoo e ca ?oaaaeii.

E?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee. (ieanoeeiaua aeaiueae). E?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee –
oaeiaiia n?aaenoai i?eia?aoaiey iieoiie. Iie nei?aa yaeythony ia
aeaiueaaie, a n?aaenoaii iieo/aiey e?aoein?i/iie nnoaeu a eiiia?/aneii
aaiea eee ae?oaii oeiainiaii o/?aaeaeaiee, auionoeaoai ea?oi/eo .
E?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oiai, /oiau ion?i/eoue iieaoo ia
ei?ioeia a?aiy, iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue eiaoue a ?anii?yaeaiee iaiueoa
iaee/iinoe e /aeiauo aeeaaeia aeey caeeth/aiey naeaeee. Iie iiiiaatho
neio?iiece?iaaoue ?anoiaeu e aeioiaeu, oiaiueoay oai naiui
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a o?aiaiee iaee/iuo e /aeiauo aeeaaeia.

Eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee = noiia oeai anao oiaa?ia/ n?aaeiaa
/enei iai?ioia iaeiieiaiiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu

? 7. Iiiyoea eaieoaea. I?eaueue e i?ioeaio ia eaieoae

Oa?iei “eaieoae” eiaao iiiai cia/aiee: ii iiaeao o?aeoiaaoueny e eae
iaeioi?ue caian iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, e eae ia/oi, aeeth/athuaa a naay ia
oieueei iaoa?eaeueiua i?aaeiaou, ii e iaiaoa?eaeueiua yeaiaiou, oaeea,
eae /aeiaa/aneea niiniaiinoe, ia?aciaaiea. Eaieoae annioeee?oaony ni
niiniaiinoueth i?eiineoue aeioiae. Eaieoae – yoi iaee/ea naiaiaeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua aeeaaeuaathony aeieain?i/ii
a i?iecaiaenoai. Ieeeue (“Iniiau iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”): “Iiieii
ia?aiia/aeueiuo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa o?oaea e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee,
nouanoaoao aua iaeii oneiaea, aac eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii inouanoaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?a/ue eaeao i i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
iaeiieaiiii caiana i?iaeoeoia i?ioeiai o?oaea. Yoio iaeiieaiiue caian
i?iaeoeoia o?oaea iacuaaaony eaieoaeii. Ooieoeey eaieoaea a
i?iecaiaenoaa – ii iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe caeaiey, io?aio, i?oaeey e iaoa?eaeu, a oaeaea ieoaiea e
eiua n?aaenoaa nouanoaiaaiey aeey ?aaioieeia ai a?aiy i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna. Yoi ana oaeea oneoae, eioi?ua oaeouee o?oae aeieaeai
iieo/eoue ca n/ao i?ioeiai o?oaea. Ana, /oi i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey
aeaiiie oeaee, aeey iaania/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea yoeie
?aciiia?aciuie oneiaeyie, – ana yoi e anoue eaieoae. Ana n?aaenoaa,
i?eiinyuea naiaio aeaaeaeueoeo aeioiae, eioi?ue ii iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue, aeey iaai ?aaiicia/iu eaieoaeo. I?iecaiaenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?aie/aia ?acia?aie eaieoaea. Eaaeaeia oaaee/aiea
eaieoaea i?eaiaeeo e iiaiio ?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa, aac
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeaea. Eaieoae – anoue ?acoeueoao naa?aaeaiey.
Eaieoaeii aeaaeaao ia oio, eoi aai iaeiiee, a oio, eoi, aoaeo/e neeueiaa
eee, i?eiaaeeaaea e aieaa iiaouanoaaiiie iaueia, i?enaiee aai
iin?aaenoaii a?aaaaea. Eaieoae, oioy e naa?aaaaony, ii ii e
iio?aaeyaony. Naa?aaeaiea iaiaauaao, a ?anoi/eoaeueiinoue iaaaeiyao
iauanoai; iauanoai a oeaeii noaiiaeony aiaa/a a ?acoeueoaoa ecaea?aeae
ia niaea?aeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea, aaaeiaa, ?anoiaeoy ?ano?nu
ia iio?aaeaiea ?aaee oaeiaieuenoaey. Eaieoae, eioi?ue iieiinoueth
en/a?iuaaao naith ooieoeeth a i?iecaiaenoaa aai iaeiie?aoiiai
i?eiaiaiey, iacuaaaony iai?ioiui (nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, yia?aaoe/aneea
?ano?nu). Eaieoae, eioi?ue nouanoaoao a ethaie ec aeieaiaa/iuo oi?i e
aeioiae io eioi?iai iinooiaao ia i?ioyaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai
ia?eiaea, iacuaaaony iniiaiui (caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey, noaiee,
iai?oaeiaaiea). Iaeaieaa aeieaiaa/iui ec anao ?aciiaeaeiinoae iniiaiiai
eaieoaea yaeyaony eaieoae, aeiaeaiiue a iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
i?e?iaeu”. A i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iniiaiie eaieoae iiaeaa?aaaony
oece/aneiio e ii?aeueiiio eciino. Oece/aneee eciin – yoi i?ioeann, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai yeaiaiou iniiaiiai eaieoaea noaiiayony oece/anee
iai?eaiaeiuie aeey aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii
ii?aaeaeyaony i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth e eioaineaiinoueth eniieueciaaiey
iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, iniaaiiinoyie oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea
i?eiaiyaony iniiaiie eaieoae. Ii?aeueiue eciin – i?ioeann iaanoeaieaaiey
iniiaiiai eaieoaea aneaaenoaea iiyaeaiey aaeaa aeaoaaiai eee aieaa
nia?aiaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey; ii aeaaiui ia?acii naycai n aunieeie oaiiaie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aiciauaiea oece/anee eciioaiiiai e
ii?aeueii onoa?aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee (yoi /anoue noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ay aaeaaiaeii
aoiaeeo a noieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee). Ioiioaiea noiiu
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee e noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea, au?aaeaiiia
a i?ioeaioao, iacuaaaony ii?iie aii?oecaoeee.

I?e?ino eaieoaea iaae naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie aaee/eiie – i?eaueue. Iu
no?aieiny iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue – a yoii caeeth/aaony
iniiaiie niune eiieo?aioeee. I?eaueue – ?acieoea iaaeaeo aaeiaui
aeioiaeii e ecaea?aeeaie i?iecaiaenoaa. A. Nieo e Ae. ?eea?aei n/eoaee,
/oi i?eaueue anoue au/ao i?aaei?eieiaoaey ec i?iaeoeoa o?oaea iaaiiuo
?aai/eo, E. Ia?en ii?aaeaeyao i?eaueue eae i?aa?auaiioth oi?io
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Aiiaua i?eaueue i?aaenoaaeyaony eae aeioiae io
eniieueciaaiey iniaiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oaeoi?a –
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo niiniaiinoae. Yoi aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca oaeaio
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, aai aea? i?aaiecaoi?a, aai niiniaiinoe i?aaeaeaeaiey e
oiaiey i?eaioe?iaaoueny a iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo. 2 ooieoeee
i?eauee: 1) ooieoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia n?aaee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
iieueciaaoaeae (i?aaei?eieiaoaee, no?aiynue ecaea/ue i?eauee e
ecaaaeaoue iioa?ue, ?anoe?ytho oa aeaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, a eioi?uo anoue
iio?aaiinoue e iaiai?io); 2) ooieoeey noeioee?iaaiey (i?eaueue
iiaoaeaeaao oe?iu inouanoaeyoue iiaiaaaaeaiey, oaaee/eaaoue iauee auione
e ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee). Anee iu aaee/eio i?eauee ?acaeaeei ia aanue
aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae, oi iieo/ei ii?io i?eauee.

Eaieoae – oa /anoue aiaaonoaa no?aiu, eioi?ay oiio?aaeyaony a
i?iecaiaenoaa e ninoieo ec ieue, iaeaaeaeu, eino?oiaioia, nu?uey,
iaoa?eaeia, iaoei, e ae?oaeo aauae, iaiaoiaeeiuo, /oiau i?eaanoe a
aeaeaeaiea o?oae. Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio ioiineony e eaoaai?ee aeioiaeia ia
nianoaaiiinoue. Yoi aeioiae, iieo/aaiue aeaaeaeueoeaie aeaiaaeiiai
eaieoaea, eioi?ue yaeyaony aaaeiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ?ano?nii e
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa niaoeeoe/aneiai oiaa?a ia ?uiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea.
Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio (eee noaaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa) – yoi oeaia, eioi?oth
aaie eee caaiuee aeieaeai caieaoeoue e?aaeeoi?o ca iieueciaaiea
aeaiueaaie a eaeie-oi ia?eiae a?aiaie. Oi anoue nnoaeiue i?ioeaio – yoi
oeaia ca eniieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea, iau/ii ii ii?aaeaeyaony
eae i?ioeaio io eiee/anoaa caiyouo aeaiaa. Eeanne/aneay e aneaae ca iae
ia?enenoneay iieeoyeiiiiey ?anniao?eaaao i?ioeaio eae /anoue i?eauee,
eioi?oth eaieoaeeno caaiuee onooiaao aaieo-e?aaeeoi?o ca iieueciaaiea
aeaiueaaie. Nai eaieoae, eae oaeiaie, ie/aai ia i?iecaiaeeo. Ii
i?iecaiaeeoaeai oieueei a oii niunea, /oi yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui oneiaeai
i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia nai ii naaa. I?eaueue e i?ioeaio – yoi eeoue oi?ia
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, nicaeaiiie o?oaeii iaaiiiai ?aai/aai. Iaeiaei iie
yaeythony ?uii/iuie eaoaai?eyie, eo aaee/eia iiaeao eieaaaoueny a
caaeneiinoe io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo oaeoi?ia a
a?aieoeao i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. I?e?iaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa
iauyniyaony ineoieiae/aneeie iioeaaie iiaaaeaiey ethaeae. Ethaee
i?aaeii/eoatho iieo/eoue ?ano?n nae/an e caieaoeoue ca yoi i?ioeaio,
aianoi oiai, /oiau aeaeaoue aei oao ii?, iiea iie naie ia ca?aaioatho
yoe aeaiueae. Iaiueoay oeaiiinoue aoaeoueo aeaa, ii n?aaiaieth n
ianoiyuei, iauyniyaony a iniiaiii oai, /oi oaea naaiaeiy iie iiaoo auoue
ia?auaiu a eaieoae e i?eiineoue aeioiae. E iiea auea?uo a aeioiaea
aoaeao a aeaea i?ioeaioa, ethaee aoaeoo i?aaeii/eoaoue a?aoue nnoaeo.

? 8. Oeiieiaey yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia. I?iiuoeaiiue oeeee e aai oacu.
Oai?ee oeeeeia

Iniaaiiinoue ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, i?iyaeyaoayny a neeiiiinoe e
iiaoi?aieth yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee, auea caia/aia yeiiiienoaie aua a
ia?aie iieiaeia i?ioeiai aaea. A no?aieaiee e aani?aaeaeueiiio
?anoe?aieth naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa, e caaiaaaieth aiciiaeii aieueoaai
?uiea, eioi?ue a eaaeaeeue aeaiiue iiiaio eiaao i?aaeaeu, aeaaeaeueoeu
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee ia?eiaee/anee noaeeeaaeenue n
ia?ai?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia. Iuoaynue auyaeoue i?e/eiu ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa,
yeiiiienou ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia ia?eiaee/iinoueoaeeo yaeaiee, eae
iiauoaiea eee iiieaeaiea ni?ina, oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa eee aai
canoie. Auyaeeanue e ii?aaeaeaiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a /a?aaeiaaiee
oeacaiiuo yaeaiee. ?acaeoea yeiiiieee n iiaeuaiaie e niaaeaie
i?iecaiaenoaa iacuaatho oeeeee/aneei, a ia?eiae io ia/aea iaeiiai niaaea
aei ia/aea ae?oaiai iacuaatho i?iiuoeaiiui, eee yeiiiie/aneei oeeeeii.
I. Naioyeuenii a naiae eieaa “Yeiiiieea” ii?aaeaeyao yeiiiie/aneee oeeee
eaeiauoth /a?oo ii/oe aeey anao iaeanoae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie e aeey
anao no?ai n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. I?eciaaay iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, aieueoeinoai nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiienoia i?aaeeaaatho
eco/aoue yoi yaeaiea /a?ac aiaeec aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia oa?aeoa? oeeeea, aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, niaoeeoeeo
i?iyaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo oac. E aiaoiei oaeoi?ai iiaoo auoue ioianaiu
iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa, aucuaathuea ia?eiaee/aneoth
iiaoi?yaiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee, a oaeaea: aieiu, ?aaiethoeee e
ae?oaea iieeoe/aneea iio?ynaiey; ioe?uoey e?oiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
cieioa, o?aia, iaooe e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo ?ano?nia; inaiaiea iiauo
oa??eoi?ee e naycaiiay n yoei iea?aoeey ianaeaiey, eieaaaiey /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey caiiiai oa?a;iiuiua i?i?uau a oaoiieiaee, ecia?aoaiey e
eiiiaaoeee.

Oai?ee, iauyniythuea yeiiiie/aneee oeeee aeaaiui ia?acii iaee/eai
aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, i?eiyoi iacuaaoue yenoa?iaeueiuie oai?eyie, a ioee/ea
io eioa?iaeueiuo oai?ee, ?anniao?eaathueo yeiiiie/aneee oeeee eae
ii?iaeaeaiea aioo?aiieo, i?enoueo naiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia, oaeoi?ia.
Yoe oaeoi?u iiaoo aucuaaoue eae iiaeueai, oae e niaae yeiiiie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie. Anee a iaeiie eee
ianeieueeeo io?aneyo ia/aeny aoi, aucauaoee ?aceia oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia
iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea, oi aiieia anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
yaeaiea iiaoi?eony /a?ac 10-15 eao, a oa/aiea eioi?uo yoe iaoeiu e
iai?oaeiaaiea aoaeoo iieiinoueth eciioaiu. Oece/aneee n?ie neoaeau
iniiaiiai eaieoaea (aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai) ?anniao?eaaaony iiiaeie
yeiiiienoaie eae iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia, ii?iaeaeathueo
yeiiiie/aneee oeeee. N?aaee ae?oaeo aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia auaeaeytho: 1)
ee/iia iio?aaeaiea,

2) nie?auaiea eee aic?anoaiea eioi?iai neacuaaaony ia iauaiao
i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe;

3) eiaanoe?iaaiea, oi anoue aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa a ?anoe?aiea
i?iecaiaenoaa, aai iiaea?iecaoeeth, nicaeaiea iiauo ?aai/eo iano;

4) yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa, au?aaeathuothny a i?yiii e
einaaiiii aicaeaenoaee ia i?iecaiaenoai, ni?in e iio?aaeaiea.

A i?iiuoeaiiii oeeeea auaeaeytho oacu: e?ecen, aeai?anney, iaeeaeaiea.

e?ecen
iiaeuai

O?iaaiue
e?ecen

i?-aa
iaeeaeaiea A /enoii
eaieoaeecia oacai

iiaeuai

i?iiuoeaiiiai oeeeea i?enoue

neaaeothuea /a?ou:

1)
E?ecen (niaae) – i?ienoiyo iaaeaiea

i?eicaiaenoaa, ?aceia oaaee/aiea

aeai?anney
iaaeia?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiu-

iinoae e aac?aaioeoeu, nieaeaiea oeai

ia
oiaa?u, ca?aaioiie ieaou, aeioiaeia

Aiaeu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ianniaua aaie?i-

Oeeee onoaa

2) Aeai?anney – iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?einoaiaaeeaaaony, aai iauai a
oeaeii noaaeeece?oaony, ia/eiaaony i?ioeann niaa?oainoaiaaiey no?oeoo?u
yeiiiieee e iaiiaeaiey aa oaoie/aneie aacu, nio?aiyaony aunieee o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu, ii iaaeaiea oeai i?einoaiaaeeaaaony, noaaeeece?othony
oiaa?iua caianu.

3) Iaeeaeaiea – noaaeeecaoeey niaiyaony ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa,
“auiiecaieai” ec aeai?annee, iinoaiaiii nie?auathony aac?aaioeoea,
iiauoathony ca?aaioiay ieaoa e aeioiaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, iinoaiaiii
ia/eiatho iiauoaoueny oeaiu, ia oiaa?iii ?uiea ?anoao ni?in ia iiaia
i?iiuoeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea.

4) Iiaeuai – aai enoiaeiui ioieoii n/eoaaony ainnoaiiaeaiea aei
e?eceniiai o?iaiy iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, aac?aaioeoea nie?auaaony aei
ieieiaeueiuo ?acia?ia, ?anoao ca?aaioiay ieaoa, ?anooo oeaiu, o?iaaiue
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aainoiaeeo aeinoeaiooue a i?aaeuaeouai oeeeea,
?anoe?yaony ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey e n?iaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Caoai i?iecaiaenoaa ia/eiaao io?uaaoueny io
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, iaeaieeaathony aeeni?iii?oeee, e noaiiaeony
iaecaaaeiui iiaue e?ecen ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iiuoeaiiue oeeee ia iaeeiaeiai aicaeaenoaoao ia ?acee/iua naeoi?u
yeiiiieee e ia ioaeaeueiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iau/ii io niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa a aieueoae ia?a no?aaeatho io?anee, auioneathuea n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, io?anee
no?ieoaeueiie eiaeono?ee. Io?anee aea, auioneathuea iio?aaeoaeueneea
oiaa?u e?aoeia?aiaiiiai iieueciaaiey, ?aaae?otho ia oacu i?iiuoeaiiiai
oeeeea a iaiueoae ia?a, oae eae ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia yoe oiaa?u ia
iiaeao nie?auaoueny ieaea ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy.

? 9. Ia?eaioeeeci eae yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea e eaeaieiaey

Ii?aaeaeythuei iai?aaeaieai yeiiiie/aneie iunee XV-XVII aa. noae
ia?eaioeeeci. Noi?iiieee ia?eaioeeecia iieaaaee, /oi enoi/ieeii
aiaaonoaa yaeyaony noa?a ia?auaiey, a ia noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa. Naii aea
aiaaonoai iie ioiaeaeanoaeyee n aeaiueaaie e ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi
aeaaininoiyiea ainoaea?noaa caaeneo io aiciiaeii aieueoaai neiieaiey a
no?aia aeaiaa (cieioa e na?aa?a). Iiyoiio ia?eaioeeenou i?ecuaaee
any/anee ?acaeaaoue oi?aiaeth, iniaaiii iaaeaeoia?iaeioth (aiaoithth) e
aeiaeaaeenue i?aiaeaaeaiey auaica oiaa?ia ca a?aieoeo iaae aaicii eo a
no?aio (aeoeaiue oi?aiaue aaeain). Oa?aeoa?iuie au?aceoaeyie eaeae
ia?eaioeeecia auee aiaee/aiei Oiian Iai e o?aioeoc AEai Aaoeno Eieueaa?.
A 17 aaea ia?eaioeeeci iieo/ee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a Aa?iia,
iniaaiii a ainoaea?noaao – iao?iiieeyo (Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Aieeaiaeee,
Eniaiee, Ii?ooaaeee). Naycaii yoi auei n oai, /oi oai?ee ia?eaioeeenoia
aunooiaee eae iaiauaiea iiuoa ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea,
eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeei a oi a?aiy ca n/ao ia?aaeaiey eieiiee. Ia /oaeaea
ia?eaioeeecio ieacaeanue e ?inney. A /anoiinoe, Iao? I no?iee naith
yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, ai iiiaii ?oeiaiaenoaoynue aicc?aieyie
ia?eaioeeenoia. A yiioo ?anoeaaoa ia?eaioeeecia iiyaeythony ?aiiea
i?iecaaaeaiey Oeeueyia Iaooe (1623-1687aa.). A ieo /oanoaoaony aeeyiea
eaeae ia?eaioeeecia, io eioi?iai Iaooe caoai ioioae.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia aanue neeaae iuneae ia?eaioeeenoia
ieacaee eaeae yiioe ?aiannaina. A yoo ii?o yeiiiie/aneia iuoeaiea, eae e
iaoea aiiaua, inaiaiaeaeaaony io ioo oaiaeaeueii-?aeeaeiciiai
ie?iaicc?aiey: enoeio oaea euoo ia a nayuaiiii ienaiee, yoe/aneeo
ii?iaoeaao, a a o?acaii aiaeeca ?aaeueiie aeecie, yeiiiie/aneie,
iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeaio?ii aieiaiey ia?eaioeeenoia noaiiaeony aeeaie, i?aaei?eei/eaue,
iieiue aaaioth?iuo no?aieaiee ao?aeoa n aai iaoa?eaeueiuie, caiiuie
eioa?anaie e aeaeaieyie, i?iua – n aai aeaaeaeie iaiaauaiey, aeaaeaeie
iaaeeau. Iaoiaeieiaey ia?eaioeeecia ii?aaeaeyaony iauei ia?aoiaeiui
oa?aeoa?ii eaeaieiaee oiaaeaoiaai iauanoaa. Yoi auei a?aiy eoeueoo?iuo
?aaiethoeee, iai?yaeaiiie e ao?iie eaeaeiie ?aaiou, eaeie aei oao ii? ia
i?eoiaeeeinue auiieiyoue /aeiaa/anoao. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea
ia?eaioeeecia niaeaenoaiaaea ia?aiia/aeueiiio iaeiieaieth eaieoaea,
ianeeuenoaaiii nie?auay ia?aoiae io oaiaeaeueiiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa
e ao?aeoaciiio, /oi iaoneiaeeaaei aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneeo
o/aiee.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?eaioeeeci ia i?aaenoaaeyao iai?aaeaiey,
oeieu a iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, eae iineaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey a
?acaeoee yeiiiie/aneie iunee. Ia?eaioeeeci iiae?acoiaaaao niaie nenoaio
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi yoa nenoaia
yeiiiie/anei e iieeoeee eiaea naiae oai?aoe/aneie i?aaeiinueeie
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i nouiinoe aiaaonoaa, i aeaiueaao e o.ae.,
ii iie ia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /aai-oi nenoaiaoe/aneiai ie ii naiaio
nouanoao, ie a naiai eceiaeaiee o ?aciuo ia?eaioeeenoia. Iaeuecy
neacaoue, /oiau ana ia?eaioeeenou eniiaaaeiaaee ia?eaioeeenoe/aneoth
oai?eth, ai-ia?auo, iioiio /oi ia ai anao aii?inao iie auee iaaeaeo
niaie niaeaniu, e, ai-aoi?uo, iioiio /oi ieeaeie aaeeiie “oai?ee ”,
ioaaouaathuae ana yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey, iie ia nicaeaee. *oiau iiiyoue
iniaaiiinoe ia?eaioeeecia, iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ii aicieeaao
a i?ioeanna ai?ueau oi?aiaiai eaieoaea i?ioea oae iacuaaaiie iieeoeee
aeaiaaeiiai aaeaina. Iauei a nenoaiao aeaiaaeiiai e oi?aiaiai aaeaina
yaeyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeaiueaao eae aaeeinoaaiiii aiaaonoaa no?aiu.
Ia yoii iniiaaiee ?anniao?eaatho eiiaaea nenoaio aeaiaaeiiai aaeaina eae
?aiiee ia?eaioeeeci. A nenoaio oi?aiaiai aaeaina – eae ia?eaioeeeci a
nianoaaiiii niunea neiaa. O. Yiaaeuen iiae/a?eeaae oi iauaa, /oi ?iaeieo
ea?eaioeeueioth nenoaio n iiiaoa?iie, a eiaiii: i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aeaiueaao, eae i aaeeinoaaiiii aiaaonoaa.

Ia?eaioeeeci ?anniao?eaaao o?oae eae enoi/iee iio?aaeoaeueiie
noieiinoe ia?yaeo n i?e?iaeie. Iaiiaie noieiinoueth i?iaeoeo o?oaea
noaiiaeony eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii i?aa?auaaony a iauaeo aiaoiae
oi?aiaee, auaiceony ca a?aieoeo e aeinoaaeyao no?aia a ea/anoaa naiaai
yeaeaaeaioa ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu: ii nouanoao ia?eaioeeenou iiae
aiaaonoaii iiieiatho ecauoie i?iaeoeoia, inoathueeny iinea
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae no?aiu. Aiaaonoai aeey ieo – yoi ecauoie
iaiiaie noieiinoe iaae iio?aaeaieai, eioi?ue iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai
i?eiyoue aeaiaaeioth oi?io. Iie, neaaeiaaoaeueii, inoathony a ieaio
eeethcee, /oi aiaaonoai nicaeaaony auaicii, a ia i?iecaiaenoaii. Aeey
ieo ia?eeii iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa yaeyaony oi?aiaue aaeain. Iniiaiui
i?aaenoaaeaieai ia?eaioeeecia auei oi, /oi o?oae i?iecaiaeeoaeai oieueei
a oao io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iaeoeou eioi?uo, aoaeo/e auaacaiu ca
a?aieoeo, aica?auatho no?aia aieueoa aeaiaa, /ai iie noieee, eee /ai
ioaeii auei ia ieo cao?aoeoue. Ia?eaioeeenou auaeaeaaee aieaa aeoaieia
iiieiaiea aeaiaa, /ai noi?iiieee iiiaoa?iie nenoaiu. Iie iiae/a?eeaatho,
/oi aeaiueae – yoi iniaue oiaa?, i?ioeainoiyuee anai ae?oaei oiaa?ai.
Iie ?anniao?eaaee aeaiueae eeoue eae i?iaeoeo ia?auaiey, eae oeaeue
ia?auaiey, oi anoue eae iaiiaoth noieiinoue, a ia eaeie-eeai
aauanoaaiiue yeaiaio aiaaonoaa.

Oa?aeoa?iui iiiaioii aeey anaai ia?eaioeeenoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey
yayeaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi aiaaonoai iaeiie iaoeee iiaeao
oaaee/eaaoueny oieueei ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey aai o ae?oaie iin?aaenoaii
aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Ana inoaeueiua iieiaeaiey ia?eaioeeenoia yaeythony
i?iecaiaeiuie io yoie oeaio?aeueiie eaeae:

1) no?aieaiea i?eaeaaoue /?acia?iia cia/aiea aieueoiio caiano
ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia; 2) no?aieaiea i?aaiciineoue eiino?aiioth
oi?aiaeth iaae aioo?aiiae, ia?aaaouaathuoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia?aae
aeiauaathuae; 3) no?aieaiea i?eaeaaaoue neeoeii aieueoia cia/aiea
ianaeaieth, eae yeaiaioo iaoeeiiaeueiie neeu; 4) no?aieaiea i?eaaaaoue e
aeayoaeueiinoe aeanoe aeey eneonnoaaiiiai aeinoeaeaiey aeaeaoaeueiuo
oeaeae. Ana yoe no?aieaiey ia?eaioeeenoia, icaai/aiiuo ?inoii aiaaonoaa
iaoeee, i?ienoaeatho ec no?aiaeaiey i?eaea/aiey a no?aio i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa ae?oaeo no?ai, oioy iie e ia iiieiaee i?e?iaeu i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa. Aeey ieo ii aue oeaeueth anae oicyenoaaiiie e iieeoe/aeneie
aeayoeaeueiinoe.

? 10. “Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea” O. Eaiy

Iaoeey ninoieo eo o?ao eeannia a?aaeaeai: eeanna i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai,
eeanna nianoaaiieeia e eeanna aanieiaeiiai. Eeannii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui
yaeyaony oio, eioi?ue aiciauaao iooai ia?aaioee oa??eoi?ee aaeaaiaeiua
aiaaonoaa iaoeee, aeaeaao ?anoiaeu ii caieaaeaeue/aneei ?aaioai e
iiea/eaaao aaeaaiaeii aeioiaeu nianoaaiieeia caiee. A caaeneiinoe io
yoiai eeanna iaoiaeyony ana cao?a/eaaaiua aeey yoie oeaee ecaea?aeee e
aanue o?oae aieioue aei i?iaeaaee i?iecaaaeaiee ec ia?auo ?oe,
i?iaeaaee, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao oeaiiinoue aaeaaiaeiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
aiaaonoa iaoeee. Eeann nianoaaiieeia aeeth/aao a naay ainoaea?y,
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e iieo/aoaeae aeanyoeiu. Yoio eeann nouanoaoao ia
aeioiae, eee /enoue i?iaeoeo, io caieaaeaeey, oiea/eaaaiue aio
aaeaaiaeii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui eeannii, iinea oiai eae iineaaeiee au/ae
ec aaeaaiaeii aini?iecaiaeeiuo ei aiaaonoa /anoue, iaiaoiaeeioth ia
aiciauaiea aaeaaiaeiuo cao?ao e ia iiaeaea?aeaiea aiaaonoa,
oiio?aaeyaiuo ia ia?aaioeo. Eeann aanieiaeiue ia?acotho ana a?aaeaeaia,
auiieiythuea ae?oaea caiyoey e ae?oaea aeaeu o?oaea, iiieii ioiinyueony
e caieaaeaeeth. Ecaea?aeee eo iiea/eaathony eeannii i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
eeannii nianoaaiieeia, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue iieo/atho naie aeioiaeu
io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna.

I?aaeiieiaeei aieueoia ainoaea?noai, oa??eoi?ey eioi?iai i?e naiie
aunieie noaiaie ?acaeoey caieaaeaeey aeinoaaeyao eaaeaeue aiae noiio
aini?iecaiaenoaa oeaiiinoueth a 5 ie?ae. e aaea iinoiyinoai yoie
oeaiiinoe iniiaaii ia iinoiyiiuo oeaiao, i?eiyouo a niioaieyo iaaeaeo
oi?aiauie iaoeeyie, i?e oneiaee iinoiyiiiai nouanoaiaaiey naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee a oi?aiaea e iieiie iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiinoe ia
aiaaonoaa, caiyoua a ia?aaioea caiee.

Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea iaieiaao o?e eeanna e eo aaeaaiaeiua aiaaonoaa e
iienuaaao ia?auaiea eo a neaaeothuae oi?ia:

Eeann i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue:Cao?aou: aaeaaiaeiua yoiai eeanna,
aeinoeaathuea 2 ie?ae. (yoi ?anoiaeu, i?iecaiaeeiua ia
caieaaeaeue/aneoth ?aaioo aaeaaiaeii) i?iecaaee 5 ie?ae., ec eioi?uo 2
ie?ae., i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /enoue i?iaeoao, eee aeioiae.

Eeann nianoaaiieeia: Aeioiae: yoiai eeanna ninoaaeyao 2 ie?ae., ec
eioi?uo 1 ie?ae. ?anoiaeoaony ia iieoieo o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna, a
ae?oaie ie?ae. – ia iieoiee o aanieiaeiiai eeanna.

Eeann aanieiaeiue: Cao?aou: yoiai eeanna ninoaaeytho noiio a 1ie?ae.,

eioi?ue ?anoiaeoaony aanieiaeiui eeannii ia iieoiee nu?uo iaoa?eaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue eeann i?iaeaao ia 1 ie?ae. naieo
i?iecaaaeaiee nianoaaiieeai aeioiaea e ia 1 ie?ae. – aanieiaeiiio
eeanno, iieoiathuaio o iaai nu?ua iaoa?eaeu aeey naieo ecaeaeee, /oi
ninoaaeo 2 ie?ae. Ieeeea?ae, eioi?ue nianoaaiieee aeioiaea
ec?anoiaeiaaee ia iieoieo o aanieiaeiiai eeanna, oiio?aaeyaony
iineaaeiei aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey nouanoaiaaiey eeoe, ec eioi?uo ninoieo
yoio eeann, ia iieoieo i?iecaaaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
eeanna, /oi ninoaaeo aua 1 ie?ae. Eoia iieoiie, naeaeaiiuo
nianoaaiieeaie aeioiaea e aanieiaeiui eeannii o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
eeanna, ninoaaeo 3 ie?ae. Ec yoeo 3 ie?ae., iieo/aiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui eeannii ca 3 ie?ae. a i?iecaaaeaieyo, i?iaeaiiuo ei,
ii aeieaeai oieaoeoue nianoaaiieeai ca oaeouee aiae 2 ie?ae. aeioiaea, a
1 ie?ae. ii ?anoiaeoao ia iieoiee ecaeaeee, aeinoaaeyaiuo aanieiaeiui
eeannii. Yoio iineaaeiee oaea?aeeaaao yoo noiio ia aiciauaiea naieo
cao?ao, eioi?ua auee niaa?oaiu ei aia/aea ia iieoiee o
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna nu?uo iaoa?eaeia, oiio?aaeyaiuo a ecaeaeeyo
aanieiaeiiai eeanna. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aai cao?aou ie/aai ia i?iecaiaeyo;
ii niaa?oaao eo e iie aiciauathony aio, inoaaaynue anaaaea a caiana ec
aiaea a aiae. Nu?ua iaoa?eaeu e o?oae, cao?a/eaaaiue ia ecaeaeey,
iiaeieiatho i?iaeaaee aanieiaeiiai eeanna aei noiiu a 2 ie?ae., ec
eioi?uo 1 ie?ae. aue ec?anoiaeiaai ia n?aaenoaa nouanoaiaaiey eeoe,
ninoaaeythueo yoio eeann; caeanue eiaao ianoi oieueei iio?aaeaiea eee
oie/oiaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiea, ii ia aini?iecaiaenoai. Ae?oaie ie?ae. aue
nio?aiai aeey aiciauaiey ecaea?aeae yoiai eeanna, eioi?ua a neaaeothuai
aiaeo aoaeoo aiiaue niaa?oaiu ia iieoiee o i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eeanna
nu?uo iaoa?eaeia aeey ecaeaeee, i?iecaiaeeiuo aanieiaeiui eeannii. Oaeei
ia?acii, 3 ie?ae., eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue eeann iieo/ee ca
niaa?oaiiua ei i?iaeaaee nianoaaiieeai aeioiaea e aanieiaeiiio eeanno,
auee oiio?aaeaiu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui eeannii ia oieaoo aeioiaea oaeouaai
aiaea a ?acia?a 2 ie?ae. e ia iieoiee a ?acia?a 1 ie?ae. ecaeaeee, ca
eioi?ua ii oiea/eaaao aanieiaeiiio eeanno.

Oi?ioea
yeiiiie/aneie oaaeeoeu

Iauee eoia
aini?iecaiaenoaa 5 ie?ae.

Cao?aou
Aeioiae
Cao?aou

aaeaaiaeiua
nianoaaiieeia caiee, aanieiaeiiai

i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
ainoaea?y e iieo/aoaeae eeanna

eeanna
aeanyoeiu

2 ieeeea?aea

1 ieeeea?ae

Noiiu, oiio?aaeyaiua 2 ieeeea?aea

ia oieaoo 1 ieeeea?ae

aeioiaea e i?ioeaioia ia 1 ieeeea?ae
1 ieeeea?ae

ia?aiia/aeueiua cao?aou 1 ieeeea?ae
1 ieeeea?ae

Eoia – 2 ie?ae.,

Ecaea?aeee ia aaeaaiaeiua
ec eioi?uo iieiaeia

cao?aou 2 ieeeea?aea
oaea?aeeaaaony
yoei

Eoia 5 ieeeea?aeia
eeannii aeey
cao?ao a

neaaeothuai
aiaeo

? 12. oai?ey ioiineoaeueiua i?aeiouanoa Ae.?eea?aei

?eea?aei iiiai aeoiae i oaeoi?ao, ii?aaeaeythueo iioiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee. Yoi iiiyoii: aeey Aiaeee aiaoiyy oi?aiaey anaaaea ea?aea iniai
aaaeioth ?ieue. Ii caaeaeny aii?inii – ii/aio ec aeaiiie no?aiu
auaicyony eiaiii oaeea oiaa?u, a aaicyony ae?oaea? E /oi aeaao aiaoiyy
oi?aiaey aeey ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa, aeey yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna?

O Aaeaia Nieoa aue i?inoie e a iauai-oi aeiaieueii ieineee ioaao ia
oaeea aii?inu. Iiaeao auoue, e iuneeii i?iecaiaeeoue a Oioeaiaeee
aeiia?aaeiia aeii, ii cao?aou o?oaea aoaeoo iaiiia?ii aaeeee. Auaiaeiaa
i?iecaiaeeoue a Oioeaiaeee, neaaeai, iaan e iaiaieaaoue aai ia aeii ec
Ii?ooaaeee, aaea i?iecaiaenoai aeia o?aaoao iaei cao?ao o?oaea, a iana –
iiiai. Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, auea?atho iaa no?aiu. Ii yoi ia iiaei
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?eea?aei. Iaoaeaee oi?aiaey aiciiaeia oieueei a
i/aaeaeiuo neo/ayo, eiaaea aeeeooao naia i?e?iaea? Ii ?annoaeaeae oae.
Anee aeaaea i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi Oioeaiaeey i?iecaiaeeo e iaan e aeii
n iaiueoeie ecaea?aeeaie, ii ii iano aa i?aeiouanoai aieueoa, /ai ii
aeio, oi i?e ecaanoiii niioiioaiee ecaea?aeae e ecaanoiuo i?iii?oeeyo
iaiaia ae aoaeao ana aea auaiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei iaan, a
Ii?ooaaeee – oieueei aeii. Yoi e anoue i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao,
eee n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa. ?eea?aei iniiauaae yoio i?eioeei ia
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe e iuoaeny aeieacaoue aai n iiiiuueth
/eneiaiai i?eia?a.

Iiiuoaainy i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue eaeae ?eea?aei /eneiaui i?eia?ii, eioi?ue
ii aiciiaeiinoe i?eaeeaeai e ?aaeueiinoe ia/aea 19 aaea. I?aaenoaaei
naaa, /oi a Aiaeee e O?aioeee i?iecaiaeyony oieueei aeaa oiaa?a – noeii
e ca?ii. A Aiaeee i?iecaiaenoai 1 iao?a noeia o?aaoao a n?aaeiai 10
/ania o?oaea, a 1 oiiiu ca?ia – 20 /ania. Ai O?aioeee oeeo?u ninoaaeytho
aeey noeia 20 /ania, aeey ca?ia – 30 /ania. A niioaaonoaee n caeiiii
noieiinoe a Aiaeee 1 oiiia ca?ia aoaeao iaiaieaaoueny ia 2 iao?a noeia,
a ai O?aioeee – ia 1,5 iao?a. Caiaoei, /oi a aeaiiii i?eia?a Aiaeey
eiaao aaniethoiia i?aeiouanoai a i?iecaiaenoaa iaieo oiaa?ia, ii
n?aaieoaeueiia – eeoue ii noeio. Ii ca?io n?aaieoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai
eiaao O?aioeey. Yoi iiaeii iauynieoue aua oae: ai O?aioeee i?iecaiaenoai
noeia iaoiaeeony a 2 ?aca aei?iaea, /ai a Aiaeee, a ca?ia – oieueei a
1,5 ?aca. Yoi oieueei e anoue n?aaieoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iaa no?aiu iineaaeiaaee niaaoo ?eea?aei e
niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue – Aiaeey – ia i?iecaiaenoaa noeia, O?aioeey – ia
i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa. Iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi niioiioaiea iaiaia noeia ia
oeaa aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny aaea-oi iaaeaeo aiaeeeneei e o?aioeocneei e
ninoaaeo, neaaeai, 1,7 (o.a. 1,7 iao?a noeia ca 1 oiiio ca?ia).
Aeaeueiaeoea ?annoaeaeaiey eo/oa ecia?aceoue a aeaea oaaeeoeu:

AiaeeyO?aioeeyNiaieoiiay cao?aoa ?aai/eo /ania ia 1 i noeia e 1 o
ca?ia3050Aei niaoeeaeecaoeeeI?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea noeia
(i)11I?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea ca?ia (o)11Iinea
niaoeeaeecaoeeeI?iecaiaenoai noeia (i)3-I?iecaiaenoai ca?ia
(o)-1,67Iio?aaeaiea noeia (i)10,67*1,7=1,14Iio?aaeaiea ca?ia a i?aaeaeao
aiciiaeiiai iaiaia (m)0,67Ia?aaeeciaaiiue inoaoie noeia (i)3 –
2,14=0,861Iaaei neacaoue, /oi ?eea?aei iinayoee oai?ee aiaoiae oi?aiaee
anaai ianeieueei no?aieoe. Eae e a ?yaea ae?oaeo iaeanoae, ii auneacae e
iainiiaae ooiaeaiaioaeueioth eaeath, i?aaeinoaaea iieieaieyi yeiiiienoia
?acaeaaoue e iiaea?iece?iaaoue aa.

A naiae aano?aeoiie oi?ia i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao ni?aaaaeeea ia
oieueei aeey eaieoaeecia. Ii i?eiaiei ii naiie naiae nouiinoe e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ?acaeaeaieth o?oaea. Caeiiiia?ii, /oi a iineaaeiea
aiaeu a nayce n oneeaieai aeey nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai cia/aeiey i?iaeai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea
yeiiiienoia-ia?enenoia.

Ia?en oeacuaae, /oi a i?eioeeia niaoeeaeecaoeey iiaeao auoue auaiaeia
aeaaea ioiineoaeueii ionoaeie no?aia, o.e. oaeay no?aia “ana-oaee
iieo/aao i?e yoii oiaa?u aeaoaaea, /ai iiaea au naia eo i?iecaiaeeoue”.
Aianoa n oai oaea ?eea?aei aeaeae ec i?eioeeia n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao
auaiaeu a aeooa naiae oai?ee i aa?iiie/aneii ?acaeoee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a oneiaeyo naiaiaeu oi?aiaee. O iaai
iieo/aeinue, /oi oi?aiaey nieioeo ana oeeaeeeciaaiiua iaoeee a iaeio
anaie?ioth iaueio, anee oeaa, aeii e ae?oaea n/o oiaa?u aoaeoo
i?iecaiaeeoueny a i?i/eo no?aiao ie?a, a iaoaeee/aneea ecaeaeey e
ae?oaea i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u – a Aiaeee. Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aaaeuaaeinue
“anoanoaaiiia” i?aiaeaaeaiea Aiaeee a ea/anoaa aeaaiie i?iiuoeaiiie
aea?aeaau ie?a. A aeaeueiaeoai i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo cao?ao noae
eniieueciaaoueny a ?yaea neo/aaa aeey ii?aaaeaiey iaeiinoi?iiiae
niaoeeaeecaoeee yeiiiie/anee neaai ?acaeouo no?ai ia i?iecaiaenoaa
nu?uey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey, eae aeiaiae i?ioea eo eiaeono?eaeecaoeee.

Oioy naiaiaea oi?aiaee auea iniaaiii auaiaeia aeey aiaeeeneie
ao?aeoacee, aa iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea auei a oi a?aiy ana aea
i?ia?anneaiui: iia auea iaoeaeaia ia eeeaeaeaoeeth oaiaeaeecia a naiie
Aiaeee e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, ia nicaeaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?iaiai
?uiea. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo eaeay naiaiaeu oi?aiaee, ai anyeii neo/aa
a i?eiaiaiee e ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai, yaeyaony ia?aaeei ?aaeoeeiiiie.
Aeaaea iiiaea yeiiiienou ec Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e NOA i?eciatho, /oi
naiaiaea oi?aiaee ia?aeea au ?acaeaathueany no?aiu ia aa/ioth ?ieue
nu?ueaauo i?eaeaoeia e iiaea au eeoue caeiina?ae?iaaoue eo ionoaeinoue.
Iai?ioea, oieueei aeoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a noa?o aiaoiae oi?aiaee (eae
e a ae?oaea noa?u oicyenoaa), a /anoiinoe iaeiaeaiea iioeeiaie aaica
eiino?aiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia, niaeaenoaea iaoeeiiaeueiiio yenii?oo
oaeeo oiaa?ia e o.ae iiaoo iiii/ue yoei no?aiaie auaeoueny ec
ionoaeinoe.

? 13. “Ia?aeeiaeenoneay ?aaiethoeey” a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee

A iineaaeiae o?aoe 19 aaea a ye.iunee iiyaeeinue iiaia iai?aaeaiea –
ia?aeeiaeeci (a iai eniieuecoaony i?aaeaeueiue aiaeec). Aai
aicieeiiaaiea auei naycaii ni neaaeothueie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie:

1. iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey oai?ee iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey – oai?ey
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina

2. ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?enecia (yoi iai?aaeaiea auei ?aaeoeeae ia
ia?eneci). Iii – ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey ye.iunee

Ioee/ey iiaiai iai?aaeaiey io iniiaiiai iai?aaeaiey ye.iunee:

1. iiaia iai?aaeaiea iuoaaony iino?ieoue ye.oai?eth, enoiaey ec
iiaaaeaiey eiaeeaeaeooia (ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea), aai ?aaeoeeae ia
ye.i?ioeannu.

2. a oeaio?a aieiaiey ia?aeeiaeecia iaoiaeeony ni?in, iio?aaeaiea, a oi
a?aiy eae i?aaenoaaeoaee aiae. eeanne/aneie iieeo. yeiiiiee eco/aee
i?aaeaea anaai i?aaeeiaeaiea, o.a. i?-ai.

3. aieueoia cia/aiea i?aaenoaaeoaee ia?aeeiaeecia i?eaeaaaee
noauaeoeaiui ioeaieai oeaiiinoe oic. aeaa, iiyoiio yoi iai?aaeaiea
iio/eei iacaaiea noauaeo. iai?aaeaiey a ye. oai?ee.

4. eniieueciaaiea i?aaeaeueiiai aiaeeca, a /anoiinoe oai?ee i?aaeaeuei.
iieaciinoe e oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiae-oe oaeoi?ia i?-aa.

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee ia?aeeiaeenoneiai iai?aaeaiey
yae.iio?aaiinoue – yoi iethaia oyeinoiia iuouaiea, eioi?ia aeieaeii
auoue ono?aiaii. Iio?aaiinoe iiaoo auoue ?aiaee?iaaiu, o.e. iiaeao auoue
iino?iai ?yae iio?aaiinoae ii noaiaie eo iai?yaeaiiinoe. Ia?aeeiaeenou
naycuaaee oeaiiinoue oic.aeaaa n aai iieaciinoueth, ii n iieaciinoueth
i?aaeaeueiie. I?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue – iieaciinoue iineaaeiae
aaeeieoeu ec anaai iaee/iiai caiana aeaiiiai aeaaa, eioi?ia
eniieuecoaony aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey aeaiiie iio?aaiinoe. Niaeanii o/aieth
ia?aeeiaeenoia, oeaiiinoue oic.aeaaa (oiaa?u e oneoae) ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoueth aeaiiiai aeaaa. I?aaenoaaeoaee ia?aeeiaeecia,
i?eaea?aeeaathueany oaeie o?aeoiaee oeaiiinoe, – Aai-Aaaa?i, Aeca?
(Aano?ey), Aeaeaaain, Aaeue?an.

A ia?aeeiaeecia auaeaeythony 2 oa/aiey: ea?aeeiaeenoneia e
i?aeeiaeenoneia. I?aaenoaaeoaee ea?aeeiaeenoneiai enoiaeyo ec
aiciiaeiinoe aeiaieueii oi/iiai ecia?aiey iieaciinoe (iieaciinoue iiaeao
ecia?eoue ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaio aeaaa). I?aaenoaaeoaee i?aeeiaeenoneiai
iai?aaeaiey n/eoatho, /oi iieaciinoue (a o./. i?aaeaeueiay) ecia?eoue
iaeuecy, ii iieaciinoe iiaeii ?aiaee?iaaoue. Ia?aeeiaeenoai oaeaeinue
nicaeaoue ia aaca naiae aeecie eiioeaioeeth iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey
(iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina). A aa iniiaa eaaeeo oaaeeoea Iaiaa?a.
I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eiaaony 6 aaeeieoe eaeiai-oi ye. aeaaa e eiathony 3
iio?aaiinoe – A, A e N. Iio?aaiinoue A yaeyaony naiie ianoiyoaeueiie,
ianouiie, A – iaiaa, e N – naiie iaeiaaaeiie. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi
eiaeeaeae ana 6 aaeeieoe aeaaa ?anoiaeoao ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe
A. Oiaaea a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii Ainnaea, ia?aay aaeeieoea aeaaa,
?anoiaeiaaiiay ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A, aoaeao eiaoue
iieaciinoue (oeaiiinoue) 10 aaeeia aaeeia, aoi?ay – 9 a, o?aouey – 8,
4-y – 7, 5-y – 6, 6-y – 5. I?aaeiieiaeei, ana – ia A: 1-ay aaeeieoea
aeaaa – 9 aaeeia, 2-y – 8, ….7,6,5,4.

Aiaeiae/ii aeey N: 1-ay aaeeieoea aeaaa aoaeao eiaoue iieaciinoue 8,
aeaeaa 7,6,5,4,3. Ia?aoth aaeeieoeo aeaaa eiaeeaeae ec?anoiaeoao ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A, o.e. i?e yoii iaeneiaeueiay iieaciinoue
(10 aaeeia), aoi?oth aaeeieoeo – ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A – 9
aaeeia, o?aoueth – ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe A (9 aaeeia), 4-th
aaeeieoeo – ia N (8 aaeeia), 5 e 6 – ia A e A (ii 8 aaeeia). Iu aeaeei,
/oi iieaciinoue iineaaeiae aaeeieoeu aeaaa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea eiie?aoiie iio?aaiinoe – A, A, N – ieacaeanue
iaeeiaeiaie ii anai o?ai iio?aaiinoyi = 8 aaeeia. Auaiae. Niaeanii
o/aieth ia?aeeiaeenoia, iio?aaeoaeue oae i?aaiecoao naia iio?aaeaiea,
/oi i?aaeaeueiua iieaciinoe aeaaa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiiai ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
eiie?aoiuo iio?aaiinoae, ieacuaathony iaeeiaeiauie ii anai iio?aaiinoyi.
A ian. a?aiy ia?aeeiaeecia eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai oa/aiey iao, iaeiaei,
iaoiaeu ia?aeeiaeueiiai aiaeeca aeoeaii eniieuecothony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
anao ae?oaeo iai?aaeaiee ye. iunee (iaieeanne/aneiai, eaeineaineiai,
einoeoooeeiiaeueiiai).

? 14. Iainiiaaiea Eaeinii iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeiiiieee.

Iinea ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena 1929-33 aa. i?iecioea niaia
ia?aaeeaiu (ainiiaenoaothuae) a ye-eie oai?ee. Ie?.ye.e?ecen iieacae,
/oi ainiiae-uaa iaieeanne/aneia iai?aaeaiea a yeiiii-ie iunee
ieacuaaaony oai?aoe/anee ia ninoiyoaeueiui, iineieueeo aai auaiaeu ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeathony aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth. O.e. iaieeanneee (Ia?oaee e
ae?.) aneaae ca Nieoii ooaa?aeaeaaeo, /oi ?uii/iay ye-ea yaeyaony
naii?aaoee?othuaeny nenoaiie, a iae aiciiaeiu ioeeiiaiey, ii ye-ea ana
?aaii i?eoiaeeo a ninoiyiea ?aaiiaaney. Aac?aaioeoea, niaeanii
iaieeanneeai, aiciiaeia, ii iia eiaao a?aiaiiue oa?-?, neea ?uiea
iaania/eo a eiioea eiioeia ?aaiiaaniue o?iaaiue caiyoinoe.

Iaeiaei neooaoeey, neiaeeaoayny a aiaeu e?ecenu e iinea iaai,
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea i oii, /oi: – ?ui.ye-ea ia yae. naii?aaoee?othuaeny
nenoaiie

– i?e eaieoaeecia nouanoaoao auioaeaeaiiay aac?aaioeoea.

A yoeo oneiaeyo iiyaeeinue o/aiea Aeaeiia Iaeia?aea Eaeina (1883-1946).
A 1936 Eaein iioaeeeiaae eieao “Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, % e aeaiaa”. Yoa
eieaa i?iecaaea ia?aai?io a yeii-ie iaoea e iaeiie ec aa iniiaiuo eaeae
auei iainiiaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a
ye-eo.

A?aoiaiou a iieueco yoie eaeae.

Iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo eiioeaioeee Eaina yaeyaony oai?ey yooaeoeaiiai
(iiaeao, e yooaeoiiai) ni?ina. Iiae yooa-ui ni?inii Eain iiieiaao
ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u e oneoae, a oaeaea ia
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u (naycaiiua n eaieoaeiaeiaeaieai).

Ii Eaeino n ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia yo-iue ni?in ana aieaa e aieaa
noaiiaeony iaaeinoaoi/iui, o.e. aeaenoaoao iniiaiie ineoieiae/aneee
caeii. A niioaaonoaee n yoei caeiiii ii ia?a ?inoa aeioiaeia ana
aieueoay /anoue aeioiaea naa?aaaaony e ana iaiueoay iio?aaeyaony.
Iiyoiio yo-iue ni?in ieacuaaaony iaaeinoaoi/iui aeey iaania/aiey o?iaiy
iieiie caiyoinoe.

Eaein a naiai aiaeeca aeoeaii eniieuecoao iiiyoea niaieoiiue ni?in e
niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea. AD – niaieoiiue ni?in, AS – niaieoiiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea. Aeey oiai, /oiau ye-ea iaoiaeeeanue a ?aaiiaanee,
iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau AD = AS. A yoii neo/aa ana i?iecaaaeaiiua oiaa?u e
oneoae aoaeoo ?aaeeciaaiu, a ana aeioiaeu ioiaa?aiu.

Yoi auei ecaanoii e aei Eaeina. Iaeiaei iaieeanneee n/eoaee, /oi anee
AD=AS, oi eiaao ianoi iieiay caiyoinoue.

Eaein aeieacae, /oi iae?iyeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea onoaiaaeeaaaony nianai
ia iaycaoaeueii a oie oi/ea, a eioi?ie iaania/eaaaony iieiay caiyoinoue.
Ii Eaeino a?aoee nia.i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeieth AS –
aennaeo?ena oaea. *oi nicaeaaony, ana i?aaeeaaaaony e i?iaeaaea.
Aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi /anoue aeioiaea naa?aaaaony, a?aoee nia.ni?ina AD
iieaeao aieaa iieiai, o.a. eeoue ia /anoue aeioiaea i?eoiaeeony ni?in. A
oi/ea A onoaiaaeeaaaony iae?iyeiiii.?aaiiaanea AD=AS, eioi?iio
niioaaonoaoao AII®IN.

Ii ii Eaeino a yoie oi/ea iao aua iieiie caiyoinoe, a iae oieueei AD
=AS. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iieiie caiyoinoe niioaaonoaoao AII OD, eioi?ue < ON eee OE>OC.

Anee, iai?eia?, a A iaania/eaaaony iieiay caiyoinoue e iinoaaei
ia?iaiaeeeoey?, oi a yoie oi/ea ia aoaeao iae?iye.?aaiiaaney, iaaei
niaieoue AD.

Ii Eaeino aeey iaania/aiey iae?iye.?aaiiaaney, a oi/ea caiyoinoe iaaei
nianoeoue AD aaa?o. Aeieaeia auoue neea, eioi?ay au iaania/eea yoi
niauaiea. Yoie neeie yaeyaony ainoaea?noai. Niiniau:

Oiaiueoeoue iaeiae

Ieacaoue iiiiuue aac?aaioiui e o.ae.

?15. Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia

Ioaaouaaao aa?a?ioth e ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaoth noa?o. C iai?aaeaiey:

?ac?ooaiea e?anoueyineie iaueiu e ianaaeaeaiea oooi?neiai e io?oaiiai
oicyenoaa

ieacaiea e?aaeeoiie iiiiue caaeeoi/iiio e?anoueyinoao /a?ac
e?anoueyineee iicaiaeueiue aaie

i?aaiecaoeey e?anoueyineiai ia?anaeaiey a ie?aeiiua ?aeiiu

A Noieuieineie ?aoi?ia oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caiye oeac 9 iiya?y 1906
aiaea, noaaoee caeiiii 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea. Ii iaio ana iaueiu
aeaeeeenue ia 2 eaoaai?ee: 1)Ioiioaiea e iaueia

– iaueiu, aaea ia auei ia?aaeaeia a oa/aiea 24 eao. Oai e?anoueyia ii
oaeoe/aneiio iieueciaaieth noaiiaeeenue nianoaaiieeaie.

– aaea auee ia?aaeaeu, oai e?anoueyia iiaee iieo/eoue nianoaaiiinoue,
anee 2/3 oicyaa auei ca auaeaeaiea ec iaueiu. Naeueneay iaueia ia iiaea
aiaoeaaoueny a aaaeaiea oicyenoaa. E?anoueyiei iia iio?aaiaaoue naaa
io?oa, aueoe ia io?oa.

2) Ieacaiea iiiiue. Ii ?aoi?ia e?anoueyineee aaie iieo/ee i?aai iieoiee
caiee, eioi?oth i?iaeaaaee iiiaueee, eeeaeaee?oy naie eiaiey. Ii
oeiaine?iaae i?iaeaaee caiee i?aeiouanoaaiii ao?aeoacii-eoeaoeeei
caaeeoi/iui oicyenoaai. Io?oaieee n?aaee iieoiaoaeae ninoaaeyee 54%, a
oooi?yia – 23%. Aaie auaeaaae ei e?oiiua noiiu nnoaeu aeey iieoiee
caiee. Eoeaee neoiaee caiee o aaaeiio.

E na?aaeeia 1914 aiaea 1,5 iei. (17%) /aeiaae noaee nianoaaiieeaie
caiee, ii eeoue 1/3 ec ieo auoea ia oooi?a e io?oaa, oioy ca oooi?neia
aeaaeaiea e?anoueyia iieo/aee neeaeeo 10% e eiaee i?aai ia eueaioiue
e?aaeeo aaiea. Ec iaueiu auaeaeyeenue iiiaicaiaeueiua e aaaeiioa.

3) Ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea. Ia?anaeaieai noa?aeenue ?aoeoue 3 caaea/e:

a) ?aoaeanue i?iaeaia e?anoueyineiai iaeicaiaeuey

a) e?anoueyineay eieiiecaoeey iicaieyea inaaeaaoue ionoothuea oeaeeiiua
caiee

a) oae?aee iiaeaeueoa aeoeaioth /anoue e?anoueyinoaa.

Aieueoeinoai e?anoueyi ia?anaeyeinue ca O?ae, a Neae?ue, ca 3 aiaea
ia?anaeeeinue 2 iei. /aeiaae. A ca 10 eao ?aoi?iu a Aia?eeo
eiiea?e?iaaee 1,5 iei. /aeiaae. Ia/aeinue niaeaenoaea ia?anaeai/aneie
iieeoeea, auaeaeyeenue nnoaeu ii 160 ?oaeae ia naiueth aeey iacaaaaeaiey
iiaui oicyenoaii, auei ?aoaii i?iaanoe iiaoth thaeii-neae?neoth
aeaeacioth aei?iao.

?acoeueoaou ia?anaeai/aneie iieeoeee

“+” Ia?aoiia ia?anaeaiea ninoaaeei io 17-80% a 1915 aiaeo. Ca O?aeii
neiieeinue ieiei700.000 naiae aac n?aaenoa e nouanoaiaaieth, oae eae
inaaeaaoue iiaua caiee iaueiieeai auei oyaeaei.

“-” e?anoueyinoai ia i?eiyei Noieuieineie ?aoi?iu

Iaueia aeaaaea e?anoueyinoao:

I?eau/ea e niaianoiiio caieaiieueciaaieth e ?aoaieth iiauo i?iaeai,
eieeaeoeaiie acaeiiiiiiue. Ii/aio e?anoueyiei oioae eiaoue iaeaiueeee
o/anoie caiee, ii a iaueia? Oae eae yoi auea aa?aio?iaaiiay caiey,
eioi?oth aeaaea i?e ieioii oicyenoaa iaeuecy auei iioa?youe.

Yoi aeaaaei: 1) anee o e?anoueyieia auei caiey, oi o iaai anaaaea auea
iaaeaaeaea niiaa noaoue oicyeiii;

2) iaueia iiaea ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaiu caieaono?ienoaa (no?ieoaeuenoai
ia?aaeu, ai?ueaa n ia?aaaie, eniieueciaaiea eania e iaoai, niaianoiay
iieoiea i?oaeee o?oaea e neioa).

Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia ia aeaea ei?aiiuo eciaiaiee naeueneiio oicyenoao,
ia eioi?ua ?ann/eouaae Noieuiei.

1) E 1-e ie?iaie aieia naeueneia oicyenoai inoaeinue ?ooeiiui e
ionoaeui, i?aiaeaaeaea a ianna i?eieoeaiay oaoieea: einu, nioe,
aea?aayiiua ai?iiu, ?o/iua iieioeeee; 2) ?aoi?ia ia niiaea ?ac?ooeoue
iaueiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey. Ia io?oaa e oooi?a auaeaeeeanue eeoue 1/10
/anoue e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa; 3) ?aoi?ia iioea ia niaae aua aei 1-e
ie?iaie aieiu, eiaaea caieaono?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou i?ae?aoeeenue; 4)
Oiaa?iue oeaa aeaaaee eoeaee e iiiaueee, a e?anoueyineia oicyenoai
inoaaaeinue iaoo?aeueiui, iio?aaeoaeueiui, a ia oiaa?iui; 5) inaieoue
iiaua caiee a iaecaanoiuo ii/aaiii – eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo a iaeeii/eo
iaueiiui e?anoueyiai auei ia iiae neeo.

Ioiioaiea e Noieuieineie ?aoi?ia ae?oaeo eeannia?

Noieuieio i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaee iiiaueee, ain. /eiiaieee, oioy aa?a?iay
iieeoeea i?iaiaeeeanue a niioaaonoaee n iieacaieyie niaaoa
iauaaeeiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa. Iiiaei ia i?aaeeanue eaeay i ?ac?ooaiee
iaueiu, oae eae a iae aeaeaee eneiiii ?onneia ia/aei e aa?aioeth io yca
i?ieaoa?eaoa.

?acoeueoaou “+”

A 1912 aiaeo e 1906 aiaeo a 1,5 ie?ae oaaee/eeny ?ino e?anoueyineeo
aeaiaaeiuo aeeaaeia

Oaaee/eeny auaic n/o i?iaeoeoeee:

?ino i?iecaiaenoaa ia oooi?ao;

?aci?aiea iaeeiai e?anoueyinoaa e iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue iiiaueeia;

Oaaee/eeanue o?iaeaeiinoue oeaaia n 39 ioaeia n aeanyoeiu (1900a) aei 43
ioaeia (1910a).

E 1913 aiaeo oaaee/eeanue iinaaiay ieiuaaeue

Oaaee/eeinue i?eiaiaiea n/o iaoei

I?ienoiaeeo ?ino naeueneeo iauanoa

A oiaea ?aoi?iu aunieeie oaiiaie ?acaeaaaony iio?aaeiiia?aoeey.

N 1906 -1913 aicieeei 8000 e?anoueyineeo eiiia?aoeaia n aiaeiaui
aeioiaeii 15 iei.?oa.

Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa, au?inei ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea
n 18iei. /ae. (1904a) aei 30 iei. /ae. (1914a)

A ai?iaea i?iecioae iaieua /a?ii?aai/eo;

Oaaee/eeanue eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo ?aai/eie, o.a. ana eeannu auee
iaaeiaieueiu ?aoi?iie: ?aai/ea, e?anoueyia, iaeioi?ia eoea/anoai e
iaeioi?ua iiiaueee

?16 Noaia ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey. No?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey – yoi nai?, ia?aaioea e aiaeec eioi?iaoeee
ii ninoiyieth ?uii/iiai ni?ina e aiciiaeiinoae aai oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

Iaeaieaa oeie/iua ninoaaiua nayce ethaiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey:

– enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea e i?iaeaae:

ioeaiea aieinoe ?uiea

ii?aaeaeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee ?uiea e aai naaiaioia

aiaeec oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiey ?uiea

i?iaiic iauaia i?iaeaae

iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i nouanoaothueo e iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeyo

eco/aiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee

eco/aiea eiieo?aioia

– enneaaeiaaiea oiaa?a:

ioeaiea niiniaiinoae nouanoaothuaai ia ?uiea oiaa?a oaeiaeaoai?eoue
ianoiyuea e aoaeouea iio?aaiinoe

au?aaioea eaeae i iiauo oiaa?ao

eco/aiea niioaaonoaey oiaa?ia ie?iaui noaiaea?oai e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao

enneaaeiaaiey e eniuoaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia oiaeiaee oiaa?a

– enneaaeiaaiea oeai:

enneaaeiaaiea acaeiinayce iaaeaeo oeaiie oiaa?a e ni?inii ia iaai

enneaaeiaaiea oeai eiieo?aioia

i?iaiice?iaaiea oeai

– enneaaeiaaiea i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a:

enneaaeiaaiea ?aeeaiu, ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa ia eo yooaeoeaiinoue

enneaaeiaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee

enneaaeiaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo iioeaaoeee

aiaeec n?aaenoa e iaoiaeu i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a iio?aaeoaeth

– enneaaeiaaiea i?aaiauo aniaeoia oi?aiaee ia ?uiea.

Noaia ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey aeeth/aao 5 ?acaeaeia:

auyaeaiea i?iaeai e oi?ie?iaaiea oeaeae enneaaeiaaiey

ioai? enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee

nai? eioi?iaoeee

aiaeec nia?aiiie eioi?iaoeee

i?aaenoaaeaiea iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Eioi?iaoeey aeey ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee iieo/aaony a ?acoeueoaoa
eaaeiaoiuo e iieaauo enneaaeiaaiee. Eaaeiaoiua enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyony
ii aeaiiui ioeoeeaeueiuo ioaeeeoaiuo iaoa?eaeia. Iie niaea?aeaoueny a
noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaieyo, ni?aai/ieeao, iiniaeyo e o.ae. Niaea?aeaueany
a ieo aeaiiua ia?acotho aoi?e/ioth eioi?iaoeeth. Iia iiaeao yaeoueny
iniiaie aeey auyaeaiey i?iaeaiu, aeey ?ac?aaioee aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia aa
?aoaiey, eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa ni?aai/iuo iaoa?eaeia aeey ?aaiou n
ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeeae.

Ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey – yoi oa, eioi?ay niae?aaony aia?aua aeey
eaeie-eeai oeaee. Ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey iieo/aaony a oiaea iieaauo
enneaaeiaaiee. Iiae ieie iiieiathony iaiin?aaenoaaiiia eco/aiea iiaiee
ii aii?inai ioiinyueiny e ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu. Iniiaiuie
enoi/ieeaie ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee yaeythony iio?aaeoaee i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaioieee iin?aaeie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, oi?aiaua aaaiou e ae?.
eiiiaoaioiua eeoea.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey iieaauo enneaaeiaaiee eniieuecothony neaaeothuea
iaoiaeu: eioa?auethe?iaaiea, aieaoe?iaaiea, aii?inu ii oaeaoiio, ii/oa,
yenia?eiaiou, i?iaaaeaiea aunoaaie, y?ia?ie e o.ae.

Iinea ananoi?iiiaai eco/aiey ?uiea ?ac?aaaouaaaony ananoi?iiiyy
ia?eaoeiaiaay i?ia?aiia. Iia ian/eouaaaony, eae i?aaeei, ia 5 eao e
yaeyaony iniiaie anae i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu. ?acoeueoaou ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a yoie
i?ia?aiia, eniieuecothony aeey:

nicaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo, oaeoe/aneeo e oaeoueo ieaiia

iainiiaaiey yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe

?ac?aaioee o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao i?iaeoeoeee

ii?aaeaeaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa

ii?aaeaeaiey iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiey
nauoa

ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou oe?iu.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee iinoaaeaiiuo a ia?eaoeiaa oeaeae ?ac?aaaouaathony
no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa. Iiae no?aoaaeae ia?eaoeiaa iiieiaaony
aeieain?i/iay i?ia?aiia ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, iai?aaeaiiay
ia caaiaaaiea eee oaea?aeaiea ?uiea.

I ) No?aoaaee, iniiaaiiua ia auai?a oeaeaaiai ?uiea:

1) No?aoaaey ianniaiai, iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa. I?eiaiyaony
oiaaea, eiaaea oe?ia i?aiaa?aaaao ?acee/eyie a naaiaioao ?uiea. “+” –
i?e iae aeinoeaaaony naiue ieceee o?iaaiue cao?ao ia ia?eaoeia.

2) No?aoaaey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa. I?eiaiyaony, eiaaea oe?ia
i?eaioe?oaony ia 2 eee aieaa naaiaioa ?uiea, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
iaeaaeaao naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie. “+” – aeoaieia
i?iieeiiaaiea ia eaaeaeue ec naaiaioia, oaaee/aiea nauoa. “-“ – ?ino
cao?ao ia ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey a neaaenoaee eco/aiey eaaeaeiai
naaiaioa.

3) No?aoaaey eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai oeaeaaiai ia?eaoeiaa. I?eiaiyaony,
eiaaea oe?ia auae?aao iaeei aaeeinoaaiiue naaiaio e eiioeaio?e?oao a aai
iai?aaeaiee naie ia?eaoeiaiaua oneeey.

II) No?aoaaee, iniiaaiiua ia aeiea ?uiea e ?uii/iii ni?ina:

1) No?aoaaey ianooieaiey (aoaeothuay). Iia i?aaeiieaaaao aa?anneaioth,
ianooiaoaeueioth iiceoeeth oe?iu ia ?uiea n oeaeueth aai caaiaaaiey eee
?anoe?aiey.

Iai?iieoaeueiay eee oaea?aeeaathuay no?aoaaey. I?aaeiacia/aia aeey
oaea?aeeaaiey naiae aeiee ?uiea.

2) No?aoaaey ionooieaiey. I?e iae oe?ia auioaeaeaia eaeoe ia nieaeaiea
naiae aeiee ?uiea.

III) No?aoaaee, iniiaaiiua ia i?iaeoeoa:

1) No?aoaaey eeaea?noaa. Iia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oe?ia i?eaea?o
naiae i?iaeoeoeee iniaua ea/anoaa, ionoonoaothuea o aiaeiae/iie
i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiea.

2) No?aoaaey ieceeo ecaea?aeae. Caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oe?ia iieo/aao
eiie?aoiua i?aeiouanoaa ca n/ao nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe.

3) No?aoaaey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee. Ninoieo a oii, /oi oe?ia i?iecaiaeeo
i?iaeoeoeeth ia naycaiioth n i?iecaiaenoaii i?ioeee?othuae i?iaeoeoeee.
Aeaiiay no?aoaaey iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue i?iaaea ia ?uiea.

4) No?aoaaey ?anoe?aiey a?aieoe ?uiea. Caeeth/aony a no?aieaiee oe?iu
oaaee/eoue iauai i?iaeaae ca n/ao aiaae?aiey naiae i?iaeoeoeee ia ae?.
?uiee.

?17 Oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee a nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa.
Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?a. AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a e oa?aeoa?enoeea
aai noaaeee.

Ea/anoai oiaa?a – niaieoiiinoue naienoa e oa?aeoa?enoee, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ui oiaa? oaeiaeaoai?yao ii?aaeae?iiua iio?aaiinoe. A ia?eaoeiaa
aieueooth ?ieue a ea/anoaa oiaa?a ea?aao ia?aoiay naycue n ?uieii.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue – oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea iniaaiiinoae oiaa?a,
ioee/athueo aai io oiaa?ia eiieo?aioa. Iniaaiiinoe iiaoo auoue
oaoie/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua (oeaia, aeecaei, ea/anoai).

AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a. Ii iienuaaao aeeiaieeo i?iaeaae ia ?uiea,
iieo/aaioth i?e yoii i?eaueue e no?aoaaeth ia?eaoeiaa ecaioiaeoaey yoiai
oiaa?a.

Nouanoaoao 4 noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a:

1) Noaaeey aiaae?aiey eee auoiaea oiaa?a ia ?uiie; 2) ?ino; 3)
C?aeinoue; 4) Niaae

Ia ia?aie noaaeee oiaa? iiyaeyaony ia ?uiea. Iauai i?iaeaae
iacia/eoaeueiue, a naaanoieiinoue aunieay, o.e. iiiai n?aaenoa o?aoeony
ia inaiaiea ?uiea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eaueue ieieiaeueiay eee
ionoonoaoao.

Ia aoi?ie noaaeee ni?in ia oiaa? ?ano?o aunieeie oaiiaie, oaaee/eaaaony
iauai i?iaeaae, naaanoieiinoue nieaeaaony ca n/ao nie?auaiey cao?ao ia
ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey e ca n/ao iauaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.
I?eaueue noaiiaeony iaeneiaeueiie, oeaiu iinoaiaiii nieaeathony
ioiineoaeueii ia?aie noaaeee.

Ia o?aoueae noaaeee ?ino i?iaeaae iinoaiaiii caiaaeeyaony. I?eaueue
nieaeaaony, o.e. i?aaei?eieiathony iiaua ia?eaoeiaiaua oneeey aeey
nio?aiaiey oiaa?a ia yoie noaaeee e iiaeaea?aeaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
oiaa?a. I?iecaiaenoai iieiinoueth ioeaaeaii, ea/anoai oiaa?a aunieia e
noaaeeueiia, i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua iiaeeoeeaoeee oiaa?a, oeaiu iiaoo
nieaeaoueny. Ia yoie noaaeee oe?ia i?iaiaeeo iau/ii ia?eaoeiaiaua
ia?ii?eyoey, eioi?ua iicaieeee au oaea?aeaoue oiaa?u io niaaea. E eo
/eneo ioiinyony: nieaeaiea oeai, inaiaiea iiauo ?uieia, noeioee?iaaiea
iieoiaoaeae, aeeooa?aioeeaoeey anni?oeiaioa, i?eaea/aiea iiauo
iio?aaeoaeae.

Ia /aoaa?oie noaaeee i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia nieaeaiea iauaia i?iaeaae e
i?eauee. ?anoiaeu ia ia?eaoeia iaaieueoea, oeaiu ia oiaa?u nieaeathony.
Oiaa?u iinoaiaiii auaiaeyony n ?uiea e caiaiythony iiauie.

Cia/aiea aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a a oii, /oi aai eniieueciaaiea ?aoaao
2 caaea/e:

naiaa?aiaiii nicaeaoue iiaua oiaa?u aeey caiaiu oao, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony
ia caaa?oathuae noaaeee.

yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoaa oiaa?a ia eaaeaeii ec yoaiia
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea.

?18 Iniiaiua ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa e ii?aaeaeythuea aai oaeoi?u.

Iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi iaeanoue aeayoaeueiinoe, i?ecaaiiay iaania/eoue ?ino
i?eaueueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo ?uiea, eniieuecoy eioaeeaeo, o?oae
e iioeau iiaaaeaiey ethaeae.

Iaiaaeaea?ii yaeyaony /aeiaae, i?aaiecothuee eiie?aoioth ?aaioo,
?oeiaiaenoaoynue nia?aiaiiuie iaoiaeaie. Iaiaaeaea? ia aaoiiaoe/anee
yaeyaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey eee aoiaeeo a ninoaa aunoaai
?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey. Iaiaaeaea?u ?aaioatho ia anao “yoaeiiao”
oi?aaeaiey, e oaeiaui yaeyaony /aeiaae, a caaea/o eioi?iai aoiaeeo
i?aaiecaoeey eiie?aoiie ?aaiou a ?aieao ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea
nio?oaeieeia, eioi?ua iiae/eiythony aio.

I?aaei?eyoea – i?aaeaea anaai ethaee. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi
iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ethaeae, nio?oaeieeia. Ethaee
yaeythony aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ia
i?aaei?eyoee. Oniaoe e iaoaea/e i?aaei?eyoey – yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
oniaoe e iaoaea/e iaiaaeaeiaioa. Anee i?aaei?eyoea ?aaioaao ieioi e
ia?aioaaaeueii aai oicyei a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaiyao ?oeiaiaenoai, a ia
?aai/eo.

Iaiaaeaeiaio eae iaoea oi?aaeaiey enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ?aai/ea e
neoaeauea yaeythony /aeiaa/aneeie nouanoaaie e eae oaeiaua ioee/athony
ae?oa io ae?oaa naieie ineoieiae/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, niiniaiinoyie
e iaaeinoaoeaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eieiay ethaua ?aoaiey, iaiaaeaea?u
aeieaeiu iinoiyiii eiaoue a aeaeo ia oieueei aunieoth ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey, ii e i?iaeaiu nouanoaiaaiey naieo nio?oaeieeia, a oaeaea
iio?aaeoaeae, ?aaee eioi?uo i?aaei?eyoea nouanoaoao, e oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaiinoae eioi?uo ?aaeueii iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey e ?aaiou aai iaiaaeaea?ia. Ethaia
i?eieiaaiia ?aoaiea aeieaeii a aeeeoaeueiie ia?niaeoeaa
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ia yeiiiie/aneie iieueca i?aaei?eyoey. Io, a oi,
/oi aeaao oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou oieueei a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie e ia
aeeaeaeoaa aoaeouaa, a a ioaeaeaiiii ia?eiaea noaaeo nouanoaiaaiea
i?aaei?eyoey iiae oa?ico, neaaeoao ?anoeaieaaoue eae ioeai/iia. Oaeei
ia?acii, iaania/aiea nouanoaiaaiey i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea iiaeii n/eoaoue
aeaaiie caaea/ae iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa:

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony oaeaea 1) nicaeaiea
iiaiai ?uiea e iaania/aiea auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey ia ana eciaiaiey a
nioeeaeueiie noa?a ?uiea. Ia i?aaei?eyoea e iaiaaeaeiaio aiceaaaaony au?
aeaa i/aiue aaaeiua ooieoeee – 2) ooieoeey ia?eaoeiaa e 3) ooieoeey
eiiiaaoeee.

Nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa aeieaeia caieiaoue i?aaaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea ai anao
noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaioo
i?aaei?eyoey iaaeeaaeeo ioeaieaaoue iiae yoei oaeii c?aiey.

Au? iaeiie aaaeiie ooieoeeae iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeythony 4) eiiiaaoeee,
?ac?aaioea iiauo oiaa?ia e oneoa, e oiio aea aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa.
Iiiyoea eiiiaaoeey aeeth/aao a naay ia oieueei /enoi oaoie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee, ii e ana eciaiaiey a noeea ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey a eo/ooth noi?iio. A ?aieao eiiiaaoeee ?oeiaiaenoao
iaiaoiaeeii ia?auaoue iniaia aieiaiea ia iiauoaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa e oiaiueoaiea caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Caaea/ae iaiaaeaeiaioa oaeaea yaeyaony 5) iaania/aiea aaoiiaoecaoeee
neiaeiie, a?yciie e iianiie ?aaiou, ia o?aaothuae eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
?aai/ae neeu, a oaeaea ia?aoiaea e eniieueciaaieth nio?oaeieeia,
iaeaaeathueo aieaa aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeeae. Aieaa oiai, caiaia eaae?ia
iaoneiaeeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia oieueei iiauneoue ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey, ii e noeioee?iaaoue ?aaioo naieo nio?oaeieeia iooai
nicaeaiey aeey ieo eo/oeo oneiaee o?oaea e onoaiiaeaiey aieaa aunieie
ca?aaioiie ieaou.

I?eaueue yaeyaony ia i?e/eiie nouanoaiaaiey i?aaei?eyoey, a ?acoeueoaoii
aai aeayoaeueiinoe e inouanoaeaiey iniiaiuo ooieoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey – nicaeaaaoue oneiaey,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oniaoiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
i?aaei?eyoey. Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii e i?eaioe?ii iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony ia
iaeneiaeecaoeey i?eauee, a oniaoiia yeeieie?iaaiea aeeyiey ?eneiauo
neooaoeee. Oa eee eiay iia?aoeey i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia i?eiineoue oaeoth
i?eaueue, eioi?ay iicaieyea au aeeoioee?iaaoue aeinoaoi/ii n?aaenoa,
nicaeathueo ?aaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue i?aiaeieaaaoue aiciiaeiua ?enee
aoaeouaai.

Ethaie iaiaaeaeiaio iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio ec oi?i
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?oeiaiaenoai ia iiaeao auoue /enoi
ath?ie?aoe/aneei , aaeieieno?aoeaiui aeoii eee aace?iaaoueny ia
iieeoe/aneeo aeiiuneao. Yoi – ii-ianoiyuaio oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue,
eneeth/athuay ana oi?iu i?eniiniaeai/anoaa. Iii aeieaeii iinoiyiii,
aeoeaii, a oe?ieeo ianooaaao nicaeaaaoue, oai?eoue iiaua oneiaey , a ia
i?inoi ianneaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea. Eiaiii yoi aeaeaao iaiaaeaeiaio enoeiii nia?aiaiiie oi?iie
oi?aaeaiey.

Iaiaaeaeiaio aeieaeai oiaei i?aaieciaaoue aiaeeoe/aneoth ?aaioo ia
i?aaei?eyoee. Caaea/e i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeythony ia i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, a
iio?aaeoaeyie. Aeaaiia aeaenoaothuaa eeoei caeanue – eeeaiou
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iniiaiuie noa?aie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeey eioi?uo aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai
aeieaeii onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaee, yaeythony neooaoeee ia ?uiea, eiiiaaoeee,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, iaania/aiea oeiainiauie n?aaenoaaie e
?aai/ae neeie, ?aioaaaeueiinoue a /enoi oaoie/aneii e oeiainiaii
niunea, a oaeaea yooaeoeaiinoue o?oaea neoaeaueo e eo acaeiiioiioaiey, a
oaeaea nayce n iauanoaaiiinoueth.

Ieioea ioiioaiey, neiaeeaoeany iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaenoaii e nio?oaeieeaie,
?aii eee iicaeii noaioo io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaoueny e ia iieiaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea. Neacaiiia ioiineony e e ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe
o?oaea ?aai/ae neeu, ieceie oaeiaeaoai??iiinoe nio?oaeieeia ?aaioie.
Iineaaeiaa iniaaiii aeeyao ia eo ioiioaiea n eeeaioaie.

?oeiaiaenoai oe?iu aeieaeii ii iaiueoae ia?a aiaeece?iaaoue: 1)
aeaeaaiia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea n oiaa?aie , auioneaaiuie a
ianoiyuee iiiaio; 2) aeaeaaiia iieiaeaiea oaeouae i?iaeoeoeee ia iiauo
iioaioeeaeueiuo ?uieao; 3) auione i?iaeoeoeee a caaeneiinoe io oiai, a
eaeie noaiaie iaiaoiaeeii auaiaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ecaeaeey ec
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu; 4) i?iecaiaenoai iiauo aeaeia oiaa?ia,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey auaaaeaiey ia iiaua ?uiee; 5) aiciiaeiua eciaiaiey
nauoiaie e i?i/eo i?aaiecaoeee, anee aicieeiao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aeinoeaeaiey auoaoeacaiiuo oeaeae. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aunieay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo e, iiaeao auoue, aeaaea
?aoathuei yeaiaioii oi?ie?iaaiey oi?ioaai eeeiaoa ia i?aaei?eyoee.
Iieiaeeoaeueiua eee io?eoeaoaeueiua acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo
?oeiaiaenoaii, ?aai/eie e neoaeaueie aeiaieueii nei?i ieacuaathony a
iieiaeeoaeueiii eee io?eoeaoaeueiii niunea ia iieiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey ia
?uiea, io eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoea caaeneo.

?20 Ea/anoai oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey e ii?aaeaeythuea aai oaeoi?u.

Oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea – yoi auai? ec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia iiaaaeaiey ia
oi?aaeyaiii iauaeoa. ?aoaiea i?eieiaao ?oeiaiaeeoaeue e ian?o ca iaai
ia?niiaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. A iiaeaioiaea ?aoaiey o/anoaoao aanue
ia?niiae. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey – yoi oai?/aneee i?ioeann, a naii ?aoaiea
aunooiaao eae i?eaeiaeueiue oai?/aneee i?iaeoeo /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea ioee/aaony io i?inoiai ?aoaiey
oai, /oi io iaai caaeneo yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e
o?iaaiue o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a eieeaeoeaa, iiyoiio ?aoaiea
aunooiaao eae eiia/iue, caaa?oathuee ioieo i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey. Io
ea/anoaa oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey caaeneo aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae
i?aaei?eyoey, e?iia oiai ?aoaiea yaeyaony eioaa?e?othuei oaeoi?ii anae
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A i?ioeanna i?eiyoey e ?aaeecaoeee
?aoaiey au?aaeaaony ea/anoaaiiue o?iaaiue oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua eeannu ?aoaiee. Iaeaieaa aeooaeueiay
eeanneoeeaoeey:

ii iai?aaeaieth aicaeaenoaey: 1) ?aoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
aicaeaenoaey ia aioo?aiithth n?aaeo; 2) ?aoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
aicaeaenoaey ia aiaoithth n?aaeo.

ii ia?eiaeo aeaenoaey: 1)no?aoaae/aneea ?aoaiey, 2)oaeoe/aneea ?aoaiey,
3)iia?aoeaiua ?aoaiey.

ii i?iaiice?oaiinoe: 1) aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua ( i?inoua, yniua), 2)
?eneiaaiiua, 3) i?iaiice?oaiua.

ii ya?enoe/aneie i?e?iaea: 1)?ooeiiua (noaiaea?oiua, oeiiaua);
2)?aoaiey, i?eieiaaiua ii aiaeiaee, oai?/aneea, i?eaeiaeueiua.

ii o?iaith eiiiaoaioeee: 1)aaeeiiee/iua, 2)eieeaeoeaiua.

Ea/anoai oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea o iaai oaeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ni/aoaiea eioi?uo i?eaiaeeo e aeinoeaeaieth oeaee. Y=Q*A

Y – yooaeoeaiinoue ?aoaiee eae niiniaiinoue aeinoeaaoue oeaee Q –
ea/anoai ?aoaiey A – aini?eyoea oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. Aini?eyoea
?aoaiey – yoi ioiioaiea e iaio eniieieoaeae aeaiiiai ?aoaiey.

Ea/anoai ?aoaiee aeieaeii ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi: 1) iii
aeieaeii i?eieiaoueny ia oii o?iaia, aaea aicieeea i?iaeaia, e
iaoiaeeony eeoei, iaeaaeathuaa iaeaieueoae eioi?iaoeeae ii aeaiiie
i?iaeaia; 2) ?aoaiea aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue aaeaino i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae eeoea, i?eieiathuaai ?aoaiea; 3) ?aoaiea aeieaeii ii
aiciiaeiinoe iaeiie?aoii au?aaeaoue aicieeooth i?iaeaio; 4) ?aoaiea
aeieaeii auoue iainiiaaiii, o.a. i?eieiaoueny ia iniiaa ?aciiia?aciie
ea/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee; ?aoaiea aeieaeii auoue iia?aoeaiui; 5) ?aoaiea
aeieaeii auoue aeaeei; ?aoaiea aeieaeii auoue eiie?aoiui e iiiyoiui.

A i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ?acee/atho 2 noaaeee:

– eiooeoeaii-eiae/aneay: auyniaiea i?iaeaiu, nai? e aiaeec eioi?iaoeee,
?ac?aaioea aa?eaioia ?aoaiee, ii?aaeaeaiea e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee aa?eaioia
?aoaiey, auai? iaeiiai aa?eaioa.

– i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aeoe/aneay: oi?ie?iaaiea ?aoaiey e ioi?ieaiea,
aeiaaaeaiea ?aoaiey aei eniieiaiey e ?acuyniaiea aai niunea, eniieiaiea
?aoaiey, eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai ?aoaiey, ei??aeoe?iaea ?aoaiey.

? 21. Ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u ?inneeneie
yeiiiieee iiaay eiioeaioeey oaaea?aeecia e caaea/e ?aaeiiaeueiiai
yeiiii. oi?aaeaiey. Aeai?anneaiua ?aaeiiu e i?iaeaia eo ain.
iiaeaea?aeee.

Oaaea?aeeci athaeaeaoiue – iiiaio?iaiaaay nenoaia an-aa, i?e eioi?ie
eaaeaeue ec o?iaiae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?aniieaaaao nianoaaiiui
athaeaeaoii e aeaenoaoao a i?aaeaeao cae?aieaiiuo ca iei athaeaeaoiuo
iiiiiieee. Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao a no?aiao n oaaea?aoeaiui ono?ienoaii
eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth niaoeeoeeo e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia
niaethaeaiee neaaeothueo iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia: 1) ?aaiii?aaea anao /eaiia
oaaea?aoeee a eo oeiainiauo acaeiiioiioaieyo n oeaio?ii, aeiioneathuea
i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo auai? oiai eee eiiai oeia acaeiiioiioaiee
/eaiia oaaea?aoeee n oeaio?aeueiui athaeaeaoii i?e niaethaeaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiuo ?aaeeiia yoeo ioiioaiee; 2) ?aca?aie/aiea
noa? aeayoaeueiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo oaaea?aoeaiui oeaio?ii e
/eaiaie oaaea?aoeee, o.a. oaeoe/anee ?aca?aie/aiea noa? oeiaine?iaaiey
?anoiaeia ca n/ao athaeaeaoia oiai eee eiiai o?iaiy, i?e yoii iiaeao
eiaoue ianoi onoaiaaeeaaaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueii eae iaee/ea i?aaa
oeiaine?iaaoue e-e ?anoiaeu aia i?aaeaeia eiiiaoaioiinoe oiai eee eiiai
o?iaiy aeanoe, oae e ionoonoaea oaeiai i?aaa; 3)naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
athaeaeaoia ?acee/iuo o?iaiae, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaaeaeue ec ieo
eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiua enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey e i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey i iai?aaeaieyo eniieueciaaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa.

? 22.Aecian-ieai i?aaei?eyoey e aai caaea/e

Aecian – ieai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeieoiaio, niaea?aeauee iainiiaaiea
aeaenoaee, eioi?ua iaia/aaony inouaaeoue aeey eaeiai-eeai eiiia?/aneiai
i?iaeoa eee nicaeaiey iiaiai i?aaei?eyoey. ii yaeyaony aaaeiui
eino?oiaioii i?e ?anniio?aiee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa neooaoeee aeey auai?a
i?eiaieiuo e ii?aaeaeaiey n?aaenoa aeey eo aeinoeaeaiey. Aecian-ieai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeieoiaio aioo?eoe?iaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey, eceaaathuee
ana iniiaiua aniaeou ieaie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e eii. Aeayo-oe
i?aaei?eyoey, aiaeece?othuee i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie iii iiaeao
noieeiooueny, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeythuee niiniau ?aoaiey oei.-oic. caaea/.

Iacia/aiea aecian-ieaia:

iiii/ue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi ioeaieoue naie aiciiaeiinoe;

auyaeoue aieinoue e ia?niaeoeau aoaeouaai ?uiea;

ioeaieoue iaiaoiaeeiua cao?aou e ni?acia?eoue eo n oaie, ii eioi?ui
iiaeii aoaeao ?aaeeciaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth eee oneoae;

oaaaeeoue aiciiaeiiai eiaanoi?a a i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe e
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe aua?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

iaia?oaeeoue aiciiaeiua “iiaeaiaeiua eaiie” a ia?aua aiaeu ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey;

?ann/eoaoue ii ioeaii/iui iieacaoaeyi i?eaueueiinoue aeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

ii?aaeaeeoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?acaeoey aeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
neiaeeaoeony yeii. oneiaeyo;

onoaiiaeoue aiciiaeiua eiio?aeou n eiio?aaaioaie.

Ninoaaeyy aecian-ieai, iaaei iiiieoue, /oi iniiaiie oeaeueth yaeyaony
iieo/aiea i?eauee /a?ac oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae iieoiaoaeae, a
n?aaenoaaie aa aeinoeaeaiey yaeythony iiaua i?iaeoeou eee oneoae.
?ac?aaioea aecian-ieaia iicaieyao iieo/eoue ioaaou ia aii?inu: eae
ia/aoue naia aeaei, eae yooaeoeaii i?aaieciaaoue i?iecaiaenoai, eiaaea
aoaeoo iieo/aiu ia?aua aeioiaeu, eae nei?i iiaeii aoaeao ?anieaoeoueny n
eiaanoi?aie, eae oiaiueoeoue aiciiaeiue ?ene. Aecian-ieai ninoaaeyaony
ia ianeieueei eao (3-5) e neoaeeo iniiaie acaeiiiiieiaiey iaaeaeo
eiaanoi?aie e i?aaiecaoi?aie.

No?oeoo?a aecian-ieaia:

Eiioeaioeey aua?aiiiai aeciana;

Neooaoeey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy (iaia?aiey, caaea/e, oeaee);

Oa?aeoa?enoeea nicaeaaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey, aai i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa;

Oi?aaeaiea;

Enneaaeiaaiea e aiaeec ?uiea;

Ieai ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee;

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue ieai;

Ioeaiea ?enea;

Oeiainiaue ieai.

? 23.Aiaeec naaanoieiinoe. ?aca?au e oaeoi?u nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe

Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee – niaieoiiua cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey,
au?aaeaiiua a noieiinoiie oi?ia. Naaanoieiinoue ninoaaeyao iniiao oeaiu
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Oeaia=Naaanoieiinoue +I?eaueue

Naaanoieiinoue – yoi aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea cao?ao i?iecaiaenoaaiio
oaeoi?ia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n auioneii e
?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee e ieacaieai oneoa, oi anoue ana oi, ai /oi
iaoiaeeony i?aaei?eyoeth i?iecaiaenoaie ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoe. A
niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaieai ecaea?aeae (naaanoieiinoe) i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee neaaeoao ?acee/aoue naaanoienioue i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee, auionea i?iaeoeoeee e i?iaeaae. Naaanoieiinoue auionea
(i?iecaiaenoaa) i?iaeoeoeee oa?aeoa?ecoao a aeaiaaeiii ecia?aiee ana
iao?eaeueiua cao?aou e cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea, eioi?ua a oii eee eiii
i?iecaiaenoaa iaaeatho ia aaeeieoeo e ia aanue iauai auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

A naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee niaeanii eino?oeoeee aeeth/athony:

cao?aou ia iiaeaioiaeo e inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa;

cao?aou, naycaiiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii n i?iecaiaenoaii i?iaeoeoeee,
iaoneiaeaiiua oaoiieiaeae e i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa;

cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea;

cao?aou, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai i?e?iaeiiai nu?uey;

cao?aou iaeaieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, naycaiiua n niaa?oainoaiaaieai
oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea n oeo/oaieai ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee;

?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ecia?aoaoaeuenoaii, oaoie/aneei
oniaa?oainoaiaaieai e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neeie i?aaeeiaeaieyie;

cao?aou ii ianeoaeeaaieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna (oaeouee,
n?aaeiee e eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio) – nthaea cao?aou ia iiaea?iecaoeeth
iai?oaeiaaiey e ?aeiino?oeoeeth iauaeoia iniiaiuo oiiaeia ia
aeeth/aathony.

cao?aou ii iaania/aieth ii?iaeueiuo oneiaee o?oaea e oaoieee
aaciianiinoe;

?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n iaai?ii ?aai/ae neeu;

oaeouea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai e yenieoaoaoeeae oiiaeia
i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiiai cia/aiey;

?anoiaeu, aycaiiua n oi?aaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaii;

cao?aou ia iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aaiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia;

?anoiaeu ii o?ainii?oe?iaea ?aaioieeia e ianoo ?aaiou e ia?aoii,
io/eneaiey ia ainoaea?noaaiiia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea e iaineiiiia
iaania/aiea, a ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae caiyoinoe io cao?ao ia iieaoo
o?oaea ?aaioieeia, caiyouo a i?iecaiaenoaa niioaaonoaothuae i?iaeoeoeee;

io/eneaiey ii iaycaoaeueiiio iaaeeoeeineiio no?aoiaaieth;

ieaoaaee ii n?aoiaaieth eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey;

cao?aou ia iieaoo i?ioeaioia ii e?aoein?i/iui nnoaeai aaieia, iieaoa
oneoa aaieia;

cao?aou ii aa?aioeeiiio ianeoaeeaaieth;

cao?aou, naycaiiua ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee, oiaeiaea, o?aiaiea,
o?ainii?oe?iaea);

cao?aou ia aini?iecaiaenoai iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia
(aii?oecaoeey, ia iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea);

eciin (aii?oecaoeey) ii iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai;

iioa?e io a?aea;

iioa?e io i?inoiaa ii aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?e/eiai.

Aaee/eia yoeo cao?ao caaeneo io oeai ia ?ano?nu, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, a oaeaea io oaoiieiaee eo eniieueciaaiey;

Iiiaieeaoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai ii yeiiiie/aneei yeaiaioai:

iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (ca au/aoii noieiinoe aica?aoiuo iooiaeia);

cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea (ana aeaeuiieaou o?oaea e ae?oaea auieaou);

io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu;

aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia;

i?i/ea aeaiaaeiua cao?aou.

?acee/iua aeaeu ?ano?nia ii-?aciiio ia?aiinyo naith naaanoieiinoue ia
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth. A niioaaonoaee n yoei a oai?ee e ia i?aeoeea
?acee/atho iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa. E
iinoiyiiui ecaea?aeeai i?iecaiaenoaa ioiinyony cao?aou, aaee/eia eioi?uo
ia iaiyaony n eciaiaieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iie aeieaeiu auoue
iiea/aiu. Aeaaea anee i?aaei?eyoea ia i?iecaiaeyeo i?iaeoeoeeth
(io/eneaiey ia aii?oecaoeeth, a?aiaea caeaiee e iai?oaeiaaiey, no?aoiaua
aciinu, iieaoa aunoaai oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea).

Iiae ia?aiaiiuie ecaea?aeeaie iiieiatho cao?aou, iauay aaee/eia eioi?uo
iaoiaeeony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee, a oaeaea eo no?oeoo?u i?e i?icaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
ianeieueeeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. E iei ioiinyony cao?aou ia nu?uea e
iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai, yia?aeth, o?ainii?oiua oneoae, aieueooth /anoue
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia e o.ae.

A aeaeaiee eae iiaeii aieueoa iieo/eoue i?eauee, eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea
aeieaeii no?aieoueny nieceoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa (naaanoieiinoue).
A aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iinoiyiii neaaeeoue ca neeaaeuaathueiny
ioiioaieai iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e cao?aoaie, naycaiiuie n ecaioiaeaieai
i?iaeoeoee e ieacaieai oneoa. Nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe – iiiaiieaiiaue
i?ioeann, o?aaothuee nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e aaeeiiai oi?aaeaiey. Yoi
iaoneaaeeaaaony oai, /oi naaanoieiinoue yaeyaony iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai
anao aeaeii cao?ao ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee – o?oaeiaieinoe,
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe, oiiaeiaieinoe, yia?aiaieinoe e ae?.

I?e oi?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoueth ii nieaeaieth naaanoieiinoe iaiaoiaeeii
enoiaeeoue i?aaeaea anaai ec auyaeaiey ?aca?aia. iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
yoiai. Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e oaeouea ?aca?au.
I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?aca?au i?aaeoniao?eaatho nicaeaiea a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii ieaia iioeiaeueiiai o?iaiy ?aca?aia, iaania/eaathueo
iaaeaaeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu i?e aiciiaeiuo naiyo. A oneiaeyo
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee eo aaee/eia caaeneo ia oieueei io iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e io aeaeaeaiey oeai ia nu?uea, aiciiaeiinoe auno?iai
aai i?eia?aoaiey e o.ae. A ?yaea neo/aaa enoiaey ec i?iaiica aeaeaeaiey
oeai oeaeaniia?acii nicaeaaaoue aieueoea caianu nu?uey. Oaeouea ?aca?au
auyaeythony ia iniiaa niiinoaaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe n ieaiii
e eoiaaie i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea. E iei ioiinyony nie?auaiea iioa?ue
nu?uey e ?aai/aai a?aiaie, eeeaeaeaoeey i?inoiaa, ai?ueaa n
ia?aoeeiiaeueiui eniieueciaaieai nu?uey.

Aianoa n oai i?e anai iiiaiia?acee eiie?aoiuo iooae yeiiiiee
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey:

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa,
yeaeo?iyia?aee;

nie?auaiea iooiaeia e iioa?ue;

eeeaeaeaoeey a?aea;

aiaae?aiea iiauo aeaeia yeiiiie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia e caiaieoaeae;

eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia;

oiaiueoaiea aica?aoiuo iooiaeia.

? 24. ?aioaaaeueiinoue eae iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoe?

?aioaaaeueiin?? – yoi ii?aaaeuaathuee ?anoiae, oeaeaniia?acaue e
i?eaueueiue n oi/ee c?aiey oicyenoaiaaiey. Anee i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao
i?eaueue, iii n/eoaaony ?aioaaaeueiui.

Nouanoaotho 3 aeaea
?aioaaaeueiinoe:

n?aaenoaa, iai?aaeyaiua ia nicaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey, aunooiatho eae aai
eaieoae, eioi?ue neoaeeo aeey inouanoaeaiey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. A
eiioea yoie aeayoaeueiinoe iaia?oaeeaaaony ?acoeueoao, aunooiathuee a
aeaea i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey. ?aioaaaeueiinoue iieacuaaao niiniaiinoue
i?e?auaiey aeiaeaiiiai a i?aaei?eyoea eaieoaea;

ia?aiia/aeueiue eaieoae iai?aaeyaony i?eia?aoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey, nu?uey,
iaoa?eaeia, oi anoue enoiaeiue eaieoae aeeaaeuaaaony a a iniiaiua oiiaeu
e iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey. Ii eae au aaaine?oaony a
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

? i? = I?i ( eee ??) 100% ??? -?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eoyey; I?? – i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?aaei?eyo??;

O + In I/ –
/enoay i?eaueue; O – iniiaiua oiiaeu; In – n?aaeiaa. no-oue iai?. n?-a
i?aaei?.

??? = I?? 100% N –
naaanoieiinoue

N
??? – ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyo??

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee iieacuaaao ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue oaeoueo
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee. Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo
?an/aoa ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iiaoo i?eieiaoueny ?aoaiey
ioiineoaeueii oeaeaniia?aciinoe auionea i?iaeoeoeee.

3) ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae iieacuaaao ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoee?

?i? = ?? 100% Q? – iauai
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (au?o/ea i?aaei?eyoe?)

Q?

Iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe, i?eiaiyaiua a yeiiiie/aneeo ?an/aoao
oa?aeoa?ecotho ioiineoaeueioth i?eaueueiinoue. ?acee/atho iieacaoaee
?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoe?e e ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyo??.
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee auaaao: ?aioaaaeueiin?ue ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee e ioaeaeueiiai ecaeaeey.
?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoe?? – yoi ioiioaiea i?eauee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e aa iieiie naaanoieiinoe. ?aioaaaeueiinoue
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoe?e oa?aeoa?ecoaony iieacaoaeai cao?ao ia aeaiaaeioth
aaeeieoeo oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ( (T-C) / N 100) – O – oiaa?iay
i?iaeoeoeey, N – naaanoieiinoue). ?aioaaaeueiinoue ecaeae?? – yoi
ioiioaiea i?eaueee ia aaeeieoeo ecaeaeey e naaanoieiinoe yoiai ecaeaeey.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeytho eae ioiioaiea aaeainiaie
i?eauee e n?aaeiae noieiinoe iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e
ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa (i?eaueue aei ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioia * 100
/ aeoeau)

? 25. Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey e iieacaoaee aai ioeaie?

Oeaeue oeiainiaiai iaania/aiey i?aaei?eyoey ninoieo a oii, /oiau
eiaoue n?aaenoaa aeey iieo?uoey iio?aaiinoae i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiaaeiuo
?ano?nao, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oniaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey.
?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey, iie?uaaaiua aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie, aeaeyony ia
iniiaiie e iai?ioiue eaieoae. Iniiaiie e iai?ioiue eaieoae ia?acotho a
noiia aai aeoeau. Aeoeau auaatho oaeouea (- iai?ioiue eaieoae – iaee/iua
n?aaenoaa, aeaaaoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinnoue, ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia)
e iniiaiua (aeiaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a iniiaiua oiiaeu
i?aaei?eyoey).

Iniiaiua caaea/e oeiainiaiai iaania/aiey:

auyaeyoue iio?aaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao;

aiaeece?iaaoue e eciaiyoue no?oeoo?o iniiaiiai e iai?ioiiai eaieoaea a
caaeneiinoe io oeiainiaie neooaoeee ia ?uiea;

nicaeaaaoue oiiaeu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?ani?aaeaeyoue eo a
niioaaonoaee n oeaeaaui iacia/aieai;

iaania/eaaoue iinoiyiioth ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey;

iaeaieaa i?eaueueii eniieueciaaoue ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey;

iiene iaeaieaa auaiaeiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey aeey i?aaei?eyoey.

?aoaiea yoeo e ae?oaeo caaea/ naycaii n oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoey, io aa i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee caaeneo ?aaioa
i?aaei?eyoey. Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo no?ieony oeiainieaay
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey:

oeiainiaay iacaaeneiinue;

ionoonoaea aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiey oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ni
noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa;

yeiiiie/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?aceeueoaou oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nouanoaotho 2 aeaea oeiainiauo enoi/iee?a i?aaei?eyoey, ii eioi?ui iie
iieo/atho oeiaineau n?aaenoaa:

nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee (eaieoae);

caaiiua (i?eaea/aiiua) enoi/ieee (caaiiue eaieoae).

Iniiaiui nianoaaiiui enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey yaeyaony onoaaiue
eaieo??. Ii ia?acoaony i?e nicaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey e oi?ie?oaony iooai
aianaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ?acee/iie oi?ia (aeoeee) a onoaaiue oiiae
i?aaei?eyoey. A aeaeueiaeoai, a oiaea inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaei?eyoea oi?ie?oao naie nianoaaiiue eaieoae ca n/ao
i?eauee e aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee. E?iia oiai, e /eneo nianoaaiiuo
enoi/iee?a ioiinyony: au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee eceeoiaai iai?oaeiaaiey,
i?iaeaaea aeoeee, n?aaenoaa io naea/e eiouanoaa a a?aiaeo, au?o/ea io
ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

Caaiiue eaieo?e aeaeeony ia: aeieain?i/iue eaieoae ( > 1 aiaea) e
e?aoein?i/iue (aei 1 aiaea). Aeieain?i/iue eaieoae aunooiaao a aeaea
nnoae, eioi?ua ianeoaeeaatho yeaiaiou iniiaiiai eaieoaea. E?aoein?i/iue
eaieoae aunooiaao a aeaea e?aaeeoia, eioi?ua ianeoaeeaatho yeaiaiou
iai?ioiiai eaieoaea (c/i, nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu). E?iia oiai, i?eaeaeaaiua
caaiiua n?aaenoaa iiaoo iinooiaoue e io ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia (i?eaea/aiea
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, ain. aeioaoeee, acaeiiia e?aaeeoiaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee).

Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

iieacaoaee ieaoaaeaniiniaiin?? (iie eniieuecothony aeey ioeaiee
niiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey iiea/eaaoue naie aeieae):

a) eiyooeoeeaio iie?uo??

Ei = Iai?ioiua aeoeau Yoio eiyooeoeeaio iieacuaaao
niniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ieaoeoue ii e?aoein?. Aeieaai (aei 1a.)

E?aoein?i/iay caaeieaeaiiinoue

Anee Ei > 1? i?aaei?eyoea a ninoiyiee ?ann/eouaaoueny ii naiei
e?aoein?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai.

a) eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiin??

Ee = Aeaiaaeiua n?aaeno?? Iieacuaaao niiniaiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey ?aniea/eaaoueny ii anai e?aoein?i/iui aeieaai

E?aoein?i/iay caaeieaeaiiinoue iia?aoeai?

a) eiyooeoeeaio aaoiiiie?

30 Ea = Nianoaaiiue eaieoa? Iieacuaaao
niiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey auaea?aeeaaoue oauoee iacaaeneii

Aeoeau (iai?ioiue+iniiaiie eaieoae) io enoi/ieea eo
oi?ie?iaaiey. Ii aeieaeai auoue auoa iieiaeiu (>0,5)TH

i?aaei?eyoea a ninoiyiee auaea?aeeaaoue oauoee.

iieacaoaee oeiainiaie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. Iie oa?aeoa?ecotho oeiainiaoth
iacaaeneiinoue i?aaei?eyoey io caaiiiai eaieoaea.

a) eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey caaiiiai e nianoaaiiiai eaieoa??

Ecn = Caaiiue eaieo?? Iieacuaaao, neieueei caaiiuo
n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoea i?eaeaeei ia ?oaeue nianoaaiiiai

Nianoaaiiue eaieoae eaieoaea. Anee E<1 (/ai iaiueoa, oai iaiueoa i?aaei?eyoea aa?ao aeiea, a iie?aaony ia naie nianoaaiiua oeiainu, oai aeey iaai eo/oa. Anee E=1 - e?eoe/aneay neooaoeey?26. Iaoiaeu aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa.I?e aaaeaiee aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa eniieuecothony ?acee/iua niiniau e i?e?iu, niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo iacuaaaony iaoiaeii aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa. Ii aeeth/aao ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou, ec eioi?uo aeaaiuie yaeythony: aeieoiaioaoeey, eiaaioa?ecaoeey, n/aoa, aeaieiay caienue, aaeain, io/?oiinoue, ioeaiea e eaeueeoeyoeey. Eniieueciaaiea eaaeaeiai ec aeaiiuo yeaiaioia iaiai?aii a niioaaonoaothueo iieiaeaieyo, eino?oeoeeyo, ?ac?aaioaiiuo e ooaa?aeaeaaiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea.Aeieoiaioaoeey - ienueiaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoai i niaa?o?iiie oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee, i?eaeathuaa neeo aeaiiui aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa. Ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, a oii /enea ia aoiaaeiuo iaoeii/eoaaiuo iineoaeyo eioi?iaoeee, iaania/eaatho aooaaeoa?neiio o/?oo nieioiia e iai?a?uaiia io?aaeaiea oicyenoaaiiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. E o/?oo i?eieiaaony oieueei i?aaeeueii ioi?ieaiiue aeieoiaio, a eiaiii oio, a eioi?ii caiieiaiu ana ?aeaeceou, i?aaeoniio?aiiua noaiaea?oaie. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaeeie ?aeaeceoaie yaeythony: iaeiaiiaaiea i?aaei?eyoey, iaeiaiiaaiea aeieoiaioa, aai iiia?, aeaoa, e?aoeia niaea?aeaiea oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee, a? eiee/anoaaiiia e aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea, iiaeiene eeoe, ioaa/athueo ca aeaiioth oicyenoaaiioth iia?aoeeth. Ia?aii/a?aaeiia o?aaiaaiea e aeieoiaioai: naiaa?aiaiiinoue ninoaaeaiey, iieiioa e aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee, iaania/eaathuea aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai e oaeouaai eiio?iey ca oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey e aeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia ?acoeueoaou aai ?aaiou.?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoey, ia eioi?uo aiceiaeaia iaycaiiinoue ninoaaeaiey aeieoiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa e eiio?iey, ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue niaea?aeaueony a ieo aeaiiuo, a oaeaea ca ninoaaeaiea aeieoiaioia, io?aaeathueo iacaeiiiua iia?aoeee.Eiaaioa?ecaoeey eae yeaiaio iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa iicaieyao /a?ac i?iaa?eo a iaoo?a iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa auyaeoue eo oaeoe/aneia ninoiyiea. Iia eee iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aeaiiua aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa, eee auyaeyao iao/o?iiua oeaiiinoe e aeiiouaiiua iioa?e, oeuaiey, iaaeinoa/e. Iiyoiio i?e iiiiue eiaaioa?ecaoeee eiio?iee?oaony nio?aiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, i?iaa?yaony iieiioa e aeinoiaa?iinoue aeaiiuo aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa e io/?oiinoe.Aieiaiea! I n/aoao aiai?eony a aii?ina ?27.Aeaieiay caienue. Noiia eaaeaeie oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee caienuaaaony ia n/aoao aeaaaeaeu (ii aeaaaoo iaeiiai n/?oa e ii e?aaeeoo ae?oaiai), /oi e iacuaaaony aeaieiie caienueth. Iia iaania/eaaao acaeiinaycaiiia io?aaeaiea oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a aooaaeoa?neii o/?oa. E?iia oiai, a? eniieueciaaiea eiaao aieueoia eiio?ieueiia cia/aiea, o.e. o?aaoao iaycaoaeueiie naaeaine?iaaiiinoe (?aaainoaa) eoiaia caienae ia n/aoao. Yoi inouanoaeyaony ii ieii/aiee eaaeaeiai io/?oiiai ia?eiaea, eiaaea iiaen/eouaathony noiiu iai?ioia ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo anao n/aoia iacaaeneii io eo aeaea. Iie aeieaeiu auoue iaaeaeo niaie ?aaiu, ia?aaainoai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia ioeaea, aeiiouaiiie a caienyo eee iiaen/?oao. Acaeiiay naycue iaaeaeo n/aoaie, io?aaeathueie aeaiioth iia?aoeeth, iacuaaaony ei??aniiiaeaioeeae n/aoia, a n/aoa, iaaeaeo eioi?uie aicieeaao yoa naycue, iacuaathony ei??aniiiaee?othueie n/aoaie. Aeey iaaeeaaeauae i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa ia i?aaei?eyoee aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao i?aaeeueiia eniieueciaaiea Ieaia n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e eino?oeoeee ii aai i?eiaiaieth, aaea aeathony oa?aeoa?enoeea eaaeaeiai n/?oa e oeiiaay ei??aniiiaeaioeey n/aoia ii iei. Ieai n/aoia niaea?aeeo 9 ?acaeaeia: 1. Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e ae?oaea aeieain?i/iua aeiaeaiey. 2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu. 3. Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai. 4. Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey, oiaa?u e ?aaeecaoeey. 5. Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa. 6. ?an/?ou. 7. Oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou e eniieueciaaiea i?eauee. 8. Eaieoae e ?aca?au. 9. E?aaeeou e oeiaine?iaaiea. Caaaeainiaua n/aoa. A eaaeaeii ?acaeaea oeacaiu iaeiaiiaaiea neioaoe/aneeo n/aoia (n/aoia ia?aiai ii?yaeea), eo iiia?, a oaeaea iiia?a e iaeiaiiaaiey noan/aoia (n/aoia aoi?iai ii?yaeea).Aaeain a aooaaeoa?neii o/?oa ?anniao?eaaaony eae niinia iaiauaiey e a?oiie?iaee oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey e eo enoi/ieeia ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo, Ii aeaeeony ia ?acaeaeu e noaouee e i?aaenoaaeyaony a onoaiiaeaiiua aae?ana e n?iee. Ii naiaio no?iaieth ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaonoi?iiithth oaaeeoeo, eaaay noi?iia eioi?ie - aeoea - io?aaeaao ninoaa e ?aciauaiea oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, a i?aaay- iannea- io?aaeaao enoi/ieee ia?aciaaiey oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e eo oeaeaaia iacia/aiea. A ia?aaiaea n eaoeineiai neiai "aaeain" icia/aao "aeaoo/aoa/iue, aanu", iiyoiio a iai aeieaeii i?enoonoaiaaoue iaycaoaeueiia ?aaainoai eoiaia: noiia anao noaoae aeoeaa aaeaina aeieaeia auoue ?aaia noiia anao noaoae ianneaa aaeaina. Aai aeaiiua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey eiio?iey ca iaee/eai e no?oeoo?ie oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e eo enoi/ieeia, aeey aiaeeca oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ?aciauaiey n?aaenoa, noaiaie eciioaiiinoe iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e i?.Aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue eae yeaiaio iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa yaeyaony caaa?oathuei yoaiii o/aoiiai i?ioeanna. A iae io?aaeathony eiouanoaaiiia e oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee, ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. Eioi?iaoeey, niaea?aeauayny a aooaaeoa?neeo io/aoao e aaeainao, iniiauaaaony ia aeaiiuo neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa.Ioeaiea e eaeueeoeyoeey eae yeaiaiou iaoiaea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa aucaaiu iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ioeaiee a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee iaoiaeyuaainy a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey eiouanoaa e eaaeaeie niaa?oaiiie oicyenoaaiiie iia?aoeee, aucuaathuae eciaiaiey a ninoaaa oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e eo enoi/ieeia. Iiae eaeueeoee?iaaieai naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) iiieiaaony ?an/ao cao?ao, naycaiiuo n aa i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeeae, eae ii i?aaei?eyoeth a oeaeii, oae e ii aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee e ia aa aaeeieoeo. Ii aeaiiui aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?ann/eouaaaony oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue auiouaiiie e ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.27. Aeaeu n/aoia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.N/aoa aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey a?oiie?iaee e oaeouaai o/aoa iaeii?iaeiuo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee. Ia eaaeaeue aeae oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e eo enoi/ieeia ioe?uaaaony ioaeaeueiue n/ao. ?acee/atho aeaa aeaea n/aoia: aeoeaiua e ianneaiua. Naia iacaaiea iie iieo/eee io iacaaiey noi?ii aaeaina e io?aaeatho eo niaea?aeaiea. Aeoeaiu n/aoa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa ii eo ninoaao e ?aciauaieth, ianneaiua- aeey o/aoa enoi/ieeia oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa ii eo oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth. No?iaiea n/aoia, iacaaeneii io eo aeaea iaeeiaeiai- yoi oaaeeoea aeaonoi?iiiae oi?iu, eaaay noi?iia eioi?ie anoue aeaaao, a i?aaay- e?aaeeo. Aeey aieueoeinoaa n/aoia oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea inoaoea (naeueaei) ia ia/aei e ia eiiaoe ianyoea e iai?ioia ca ianyoe ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo.Aeey o/aoa ?an/aoiuo acaeiiioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoee n ae?. i?aaei?eyoeyie, i?aaiecaoeeyie e eeoeaie, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo iiaeao aicieeiooue oi aeaaaoi?neay, oi e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, i?eiaiythony aeoeaii-ianneaiua n/aoa, iniaaiiinoueth eioi?uo yae-ny oi, /oi iie iiaoo eiaoue iaeiia?aiaiii e aeaaaoiaue e e?aaeeoiaue inoaoie.Noaia aeoeaiiai n/aoaAeaaao E?aaeeoInoaoie (naeueaei) oic. n?aaenoa Oic. iia?aoeee, aucuaathueaia ia/aei ianyoea oiaiueoaiea oic. n?aaenoa aio/aoiii ianyoea (-)Oic. iia?uee, aucuaathuea oaaee/aiea (+) oic. n?aaenoa a io/aoiii ianyoeaNoiia oic. iia?aoeee ninoa- Noiia oic. iia?aoeee ninoaaeo aeo iai?io ii aeaaaoo- n/aaa iai?io ei e?aaeeoo n/aaa caca io/aaiue ianyoe io/aaiue ianyoeInoaoie ia eiiaoe ianyoea ?a- aai inoaoeo ia ia/aei ianyoea + iai?io ii aeaaaoo- iai?io ii oe)i~ Noaia ianneaiiai n/aoa Aeaaaa E?aaeeoOic. iia?uee, aucuaath- Inoaoie (naeueaei) enoi/ieea oic. uea oiaiueaiea (-) enoi/ie~ n?aaenoa ia ia/aei ianyoea eia oic. n?aaenoaOic. iia?aoeee, aucuaathuea oaaee/aiea (+) enOI*IEEIA OIC.n?aaenoa a io/aaiii ianyoeaNoiia oic. iia?aoeee ninoa Noiia oic.iia?aoeee ninoaaeoaeo iai?iai ii aeaaaoo- n/aae iai?io ii e?aaeeoo n/aaa ca io/aa-ca io/aaiue ianyoe iue ianyoeInoaoie ia eiiaoe ianyoea ?aaai inoaoeo ia ia/aei ianyoea +iai?io ii e?aaeeoo- iai?io ii aeaaaooNoaia aeoeaii-ianneaiiai n/aoaAeoeaiua e ianneaiua n/aoa aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ii niiniao a?oiie?iaee e iaiauaieth o/aoiuo aeaiiuo aeaeyony ia neioaoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea. Neioaoe/aneea n/aoa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oe?oiiaiiie, iaiauathuae a?oiie?iaee e o/aoa ninoaaa e aeaeaeaiey n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey, eo enoi/ieeia e oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia a aaeeiii aeaiaaeiii ecia?eoaea (au?aaeaiee). O/ao, inouanoaeyaiue ia yoeo n/aoao, iacuaaaony neioaoe/aneei. Aai aeaiiua eniieuecothony i?e caiieiaiee oi?i aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, e i?aaeaea anaai aaeaina, a cia/eo aeey aiaeeca oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Iaeiaei aeey iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey e ?oeiaiaenoaa ?aaioie i?aaei?eyoey, eiio?iey e ieaie?iaaiey iauaia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, eiio?iey ca nio?aiiinoueth anao aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe, o/aoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai, aeey i?aaiecaoeee ?an/aoia n ?aai/eie e neoaeaueie, n iinoaaueeaie, n athaeaeaoii o?aaothony aeaoaeueiua, /anoiua naaaeaiey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iiae?iaii ana noi?iiu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. N/aoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey oaeiai aeaea o/aoa iacuaathony aiaeeoe/aneeie. Iie ioe?uaathony a ?acaeoea ii?aaeaeaiiiai neioaoe/aneiai n/aoa a ?ac?aca aai aeaeia, /anoae, noaoae, e aaea yoi o?aaoaony, n ioeaieie eioi?iaoeee a iaoo?aeueiii, o?oaeiaii e aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee. Iaaeaeo neioaoe/aneei n/aoii e ioiinyueieny e iaio aiaeeoe/aneeie n/aoaie nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay acaeiinaycue: naeueaei iaeiiai neioaoe/aneiai n/aoa aeieaeii auoue ?aaii noiia naeueaei anao aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia, e iaio ioiinyueony; noiiu iai?ioia ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo iaeiiai neioaoe/aneiai n/aoa aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu noiiai iai?ioia niioaaonoaaiii ii aeaaaoo e e?aaeeoo anao aiaeeoe/aneeo n/aoia, e iaio ioiinyueony. Iiiyoii, /oi, anee neioaoe/aneee n/ao aeoeaiue, oi e ioiinyueany e iaio aiaeeoe/aneea n/aoa aeoeaiua.N/aoa aoo.o/aoa a?oiie?othony oaeaea ii iaeii?iaeiiio yeii. niaea?aeaieth io?aaeaaiuo a ieo iieacaoaeae. O.i. iiaeii auaeaeeoue:n/aoa enoi/ieeia oic. n?aaenoa, ?acaeaeyaiua ia n/aoa nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e caaiiuo, a naith i/a?aaeue ?acaeaeyaiuo ia n/aoa e?aaeeoia aaiea e e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, a oaeaea n/aoa caaeieaeaiiinoae ii iaycaoaeuenoaai;n/aoa oic. n?aaenoa, eo iaee/ea e aeaeaeaiea;n/aoa oic. i?ioeannia (i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee).Eeanneoeeaoeey n/aoia ii yeii. niaea?aeaieth eaaeeo a iniiaa aaeeiiai ieaia n/aoia aoo. o/aoa. Ii naiaio iacia/aieth e no?oeoo?a n/aoa aoo. o/aoa aeaeyony ia iniiaiua, ?aaoee?othuea, ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua, eaeueeoeyoeeiiiua, niiinoaaeythuea e caaaeainiaua.Ia iniiaiuo n/aoao aaaeaony o/ao oic. n?aaenoa e eo enoi/ieeia, iai?eia?: iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, iaoa?eaeu, onoaaiue oiiae.?aaoee?othuea n/aoa i?eiaiythony aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey, o.a. ooi/iaiey ioeaiee n?aaenoa e enoi/ieeia. Yoi n/aoa ia eiatho naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey e aeaeyony ia 2 a?oiiu: aeiiieiythuea e eiio?a?iua. Aeiiieiythuea ?aaoee?othuea n/aoa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey o/aoa noii, aeiiieiythueo ioeaieo iauaeoa, o/eouaaaiiai ia iniiaiii n/aoa, iai?eia? n/ao “O?ainii?oii-caaioiaeoaeueiua ?anoiaeu”. Eiio?a?iua ?aaoee?othuea n/aoa a ioee/ea io aeiiieiythueo ii?aaeaeytho aeaenoaeoaeueioth aaee/eio ioeaiee ?aaoee?oaiiai n/aoa iooai au/eoaiey ec ia?aiia/aeueiie aai ioeaiee e auaatho eiio?aeoeaiuie e eiio?ianneaiuie. I?eia?ii eiio?aeoeaiiai n/aoa iiaeao auoue “Eciin ini. n?aaenoa” ii ioiioaieth e aeoeaiiio n/aoo “Ini. n?aaenoaa”. I?eia?ii eiio?ianneaiiai n/aoa ii ioiioaieth e n/aoo “I?eauee e oauoee” yaeyaony n/ao “Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee”.?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua n/aoa eniieuecothony aeey o/aoa cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey, iiaeeaaeaueo ?ani?aaeaeaieth, e aeaeyony ia niae?aoaeueii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua e athaeaeaoii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua. Niae?aoaeueii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua n/aoa i?aaeiacia/athony aeey niae?aiey ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n oi?aaeaieai i?aaiecaoeeae e ianeoaeeaaieai i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa. E iei ioiinyony n/aoa oeia “Iauaoic. ?anoiaeu”. Athaeaeaoii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua n/aoa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia iaaeaeo niaaeiuie io/aoiuie ia?eiaeaie. I?eia?ii yae-ny n/ao “?aca?a i?aaenoiyueo ieaoaaeae e ?anoiaeia”.Eaeueeoeyoeeiiiua n/aoa neoaeao aeey o/aoa cao?ao e ii?aaeaeaiey oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e ieacaiiuo oneoa. Inoaoee ii yoei n/aoai iieacuaatho cao?aou ia iacaaa?oaiiia i?iec-ai. I?eia?ii neoaeeo n/ao “Iniiaiia i?iec-ai”.Niiinoaaeythuea n/aoa eniieuecothony aeey auyaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia oic. i?ioeannia. I?eia?ii yae-ny n/ao “?aaeecaoeey”. Auyaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia oic. aeayo-oe inouanoaeyaony iooai niiinoaaeaiey oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, o/oaiiie ia aeaaaoa n/aoa n ioioneiie noieiinoueth yoie i?iaeoeoeee, o/oaiiie ia e?aaeeoa n/aoa. Auyaeaiiue ?ac-o iiaeao auoue e?aaeeoiaui, icia/athuei iaeiieaiea, e aeaaaoiaui, icia/athuei iioa?e, oauoie.Caaaeainiaua n/aoa neoaeao aeey o/aoa n?aaenoa, ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo i?aaei?eyoeth, ii a?aiaiii iaoiaeyueony o iaai, e iaycaoaeuenoa ii iei. Ia caaaeainiauo n/aoao o/eouaatho oaeaea oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, i?eiyoua ia ioaaonoaaiiia o?aiaiea, iai?oaeiaaiea, i?eiyoia aeey iiioaaea, aeaiee no?iaie io/aoiinoe, nienaiioth a oauoie caaeieaeaiiinoue iaieaoaaeaniiniaiuo aeaaaoi?ia.N/aoa, iaaeaeo eioi?uie aicieeaao acaeiinaycue, iac-ny ei??aniiiaee?othueie.? 28. O/aoiay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey.O/aoiay iieeoeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie auai? i?aaei?eyoeai eiie?aoiuo iaoiaeee, oi?iu, oaoieee aaaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee aoo. o/aoa enoiaey ec onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee e iniaaiiinoae aeayoaeueiinoe. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a iaeanoe aoo. o/aoa niaa?oaao ia?aoiae io aeanoeie eiia?aoeaiinoe (iiaeii aeaeaoue oieueei oi, /oi ?ac?aoaii) e aeeniiceoeaiinoe (iiaeii an?, /oi i?yii ia cai?auaii). Iiyoiio iaeioi?ua i?eioeeieaeueiua iiiaiou a i?aaiecaoeee aoo. o/aoa i?aaeinoaaeaiu aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai auai?a ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaei?eyoey. Niaieoiiinoue yoeo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoiaee/aneeo aii?inia iac-ny o/aoiay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey (OII). OII aeieaeia ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi, eceiaeaiiui a iieiaeaiee ii aoo. o/aoo, ooaa?aeaeaiiiio 28.07.94 ?100: iieiioo io?aaeaiey a aoo. o/aoa anao oaeoia oic. aeayo-oe; iniio?eoaeueiinoue, o.a. i?ei?eoao iioa?ue (?anoiaeia) iaae aeioiaeaie, i?aaei?eyoea n aieueoie aeioiaeiinoueth aeieaeii io?aaeaoue aiciiaeiua iioaioeeaeueiua oauoee , a ia iioaioeeaeueiua aeioiaeu, e o/aoo aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny eeoue oa aeioiaeu, eio. oaea iieo/aiu, a iioa?e iiaoo o/eouaaoueny ia oieueei ninoiyaoeany, ii e iioaioeeaeueiua; i?ei?eoao niaea?aeaiey ia?aae oi?iie, yeiiiie/aneiio niuneo oaeoia oic. aeayo-oe i?e aaaeaiee o/aoa ioaeaaony i?aaeii/oaiea ia?aae eo i?aaiaie oi?iie; iai?ioeai?a/eainoue, icia/aao oiaeaeanoai aeaiiuo aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa n/aoai neioaoe/aneiai o/aoa, a oaeaea iieacaoaeae aoo. io/aoiinoae aeaiiuo neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa; ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue, icia/aao yeiiiieth aaaeaiey aoo. o/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoee. OII aeieaeia ioi?ieyoueny oeacii, eio. i?eiaiytho n 1-iai yiaa?y aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca aiaeii ecaeaiey i?eeaca. A ?yaea neo/aaa a oa/aiea aiaea aiciiaeia ei??aeoe?iaea ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee i?eeaca ia OII. Iieiaeaiea i aoo. o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ?O onoaiaaeeaaao iniiaiua i?aaeea aaaeaiey aoo. o/aoa. N?aaee yoeo i?aaee: 1. Eiouanoai, iaycaoaeuenoaa e oic. iia?aoeee iiaeeaaeao ioeaiea, eio. inouanoaeyaony a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee iooai noiie?iaaiey oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia; 2. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaiecaoeeth aoo. o/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoee ianao ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaiecaoeee; 3. Ii?aaeaeaiea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, nienuaaaiuo a i?iecaiaenoai, ?ac?aoaaony i?iecaiaeeoue iaeiei ec neaaeothueo iaoiaeia: ii n?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe ia?auo ii a?aiaie caeoiie (oeoi - fifo - first is first out), ii naaanoieiinoe iineaaeieo ii a?aiaie caeoiie (lifo - last is first out); 4. Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey io?aaeaaony a aaeaina ii oaeoe/aneie eee ii?iaoeaiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie naaanoieiinoe; ioa?oaeaiiua oiaa?u io?aaeathony a aaeaina ii iieiie oaeoe/aneie eee ii?iaoeaiie naaanoieiinoe, aeeth/ay ?anoiaeu ii nauoo, iiaeeaaeauea aiciauaieth iieoiaoaeai naa?o aeiaiai?iie oeaiu. i?e aeieoiaioaeueiie i?aa?ea ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia, i?iaa?ythuee iaycai i?aaeaa?eoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?eeac ii o/aoiie iieeoeea. Oaeei ia?acii, yoio i?eeac ya-ny aoi?ui ii aaaeiinoe iinea o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia ia ethaii i?aaei?eyoee.? 29. Ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia.Oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?e?ino ( oiaiueoaiea) noieiinoe eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey, ia?aciaaaoeeny a i?ioeanna aai oic. aeayo-oe ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. A aoo. o/aoa ?acoeueoao oic. aeayo-oe ii?aaeaeytho iooai iiaen/aoa e aaeaine?iaaiey anao i?eaueae e oauoeia ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. Aeey yoie oeaee neoaeeo n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia (n/. 80). Naeueaei ia yoii n/aoa (aeaaaoiaia - oauoie, e?aaeeoiaia - i?eaueue ) oa?aeoa?ecoao oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n ia/aea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea. Iia?aoeee io?aaeathony ia n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia ii oae iacuaaaiiio eoioeyoeaiiio i?eioeeio: iieacaoaee i?eaueae e oauoeia iaeaieeaathony ia n/aoa ia?anoathuei eoiaii n ia/aea io/aoiiai aiaea. Naeueaei ii n/aoo iieo/atho, aaeaine?oy ana i?eauee e oauoee n ia/aea io/aoiiai aiaea. Eiia/iue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao neaaaaony ec oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa io 1) ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e eiiai eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey, 2) aeioiaeia io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee, oiaiueoaiiuo ia noiio ?anoiaeia ii yoei iia?aoeeyi. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ieie a oie, /oi i?eaueue eee oauoie io i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii auyaeyaony ia ioaeaeueiuo n/aoao ?aaeecaoeee, a caoai iauae noiiie ia?aiineony ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia. Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu , oauoee e iioa?e i?yii io?aaeathony ii e?aaeeoo eee aeaaaoo 80-ai n/aoa aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie caiene ia eaeeo-eeai eiuo n/aoao. 1) i?eaueue (oauoie) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a aeaenoaothueo oeaiao aac IAeN e aeoeecia e cao?aoaie ia aa i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth. I?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeythuea yenii?oioth aeayoaeueiinoue, i?e en/eneaiee i?eauee ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee eneeth/atho yenii?oiua oa?eou. Aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eeai ii ia?a aa iieaou, eeai ii ia?a ioa?ocee oiaa?ia e i?aaeuyaeaiey iieoiaoaeth ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee onoaiaaeeaaaony naiei i?aaei?eyoeai. ?acoeueoaou io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iieooaa?eeaoia, ?aaio e oneoa nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auyaeythony ia n/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (n/. 46). N/ao 46 aaeaiany/ii cae?uaaaony e naeueaei ia eiaao. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eiathuea y?ei au?aaeaiiue oeeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (o ieo 46 n/ao cae?uaaaony 1 ?ac a eiioea aiaea). Ia n/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee niiinoaaeythony aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ii ?aaeeciaaiiui i?iaeoeoai. Iiyoiio ia n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia ca/eneyaony aaeaiany/ii noiia i?eauee, iieo/aiiay io ?aaeecaoeee e aeaeaaony caienue Ae46 E80 (anee oauoie - Ae80 E46). 2) Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou - i?eauee e oauoee, ia naycaiiua n iia?aoeeyie ?aaeecaoeee (eoiee-i?iaeaaee). Eo iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeioiaeu oi o/anoey a ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo, aeeth/ay e aei/a?iea; i?eauee e oauoee io oeiainiauo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea neo/aeiua aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey i?eauee e oauoee. Aeioiaeu io o/anoey a ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo iiyaeythony a ?ac-oa iieo/aiey /anoe i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee e aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi, aea?aeaoaeai eioi?uo ya-ny aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea. E yoie a?oiia aeioiaeia iiaeii oaeaea ioianoe aeioiaeu oi naea/e eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey a a?aiaeo. A aoo. o/aoa aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa io?aaeaiey yoeo aeioiaeia: ii oaeoe/aneiio iinooieaieth aeaiaa eee iooai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ia/eneaiey aeioiaeia ia n/aoao. Aeioiaeu e oauoee io oeiainiauo iia?aoeee neeaaeuaaaony ec eo?niauo aaethoiuo ?acieoe, aeioiaeia io i?ioeaioia ca n?aaenoaa, ia?aaeaiiua acaeiu, a oaeaea ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n i?eia?aoaieai iaeeaaoeee, aaethou, eiuo oeiainiauo oeaiiinoae. Eo?niaua aaethoiua ?acieoeu aicieeatho a nayce n ia?an/aoii ii aeaenoaothuaio eo?no iaee/iie aaethou ia aaieianeeo n/aoao e ?an/aoia, inouanoaeyaiuo a eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethoa; iiaoo auoue eae iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiua. I?aaei?eyoey, nicaeathuea ?aca?a ia iiaaoaiea niiieoaeueiuo aeieaia, noiio ia/eneaiiiai ?aca?aa nienuaatho ia oiaiueoaiea aaeainiaie i?eauee io/aoiiai aiaea. E niiieoaeueiui aeieaai ioiineony aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, ia iiaaoaiiay a onoaiiaeaiiue ii aeiaiai?o n?ie eee a oa/aiee ii?iaeueiiai a?aiaie aeey aaieianeiai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa e ca/eneaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiue n/ao, a oaeaea ia iaania/aiiay onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aa?aioeyie ieaoaaea. Iaoa?aeoa?iua aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e oauoee iiiai/eneaiiu e ?aciiia?aciu. Iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athueany eo aeaeu: iinooieaiey io oieaou oo?aoia, iaie, iaonoiae e ae?. aeaeia naieoeee, a oaeaea aiciauaiea oauoeia, ana oaeea iinooieaiey ca/eneythony ia e?aaeeo n/aoa 80 a ei??aniiiaeaioeee ni n/aoaie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?an/aoia a aeaaeoi?aie. E yoiio aeaeo neaaeoao ioianoe e ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoey ia noaeaaiua ecaea?aeee, oiea/aiiua aeia?iaieueii eee i?enoaeaeaiiua noaeii a iieueco ae?oaeo oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, oo?aou, iaie ,iaonoieee e o.ae. , eioi?ua caienuaatho a ?anoiae ia aeaaao n/aoa 80; ia E80 ca/eneyaony i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiay a io/aoiii aiaeo: iinooiathuea io iinoaaueeii noiiu ii ia?a?an/aoai ca iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe e oneoae, iieo/aiiua e eniieueciaaiiua a i?ioeii aiaeo , ia?a?an/aou ii i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?ai, ?aaioai e oneoaai, ?aaeeciaaiiui a i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu, iinooieaiey ii ?an/aoai, ?aiaa nienaiiui ia oauoie eae aaciaaeaaeiay aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue. Ia Ae80 oeene?oaony oaeaea neaaeothuea iioa?e e oauoee, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeii n/eoaoue neo/aeiui aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey: cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai, ia aeaoaaea i?iaeoeoeee, e ii aiioee?iaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui caeacai; oauoee io nienaiey aaciaaeaaeiuo aeieaia, aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii enoa/aiee n?ieia eneiaie aeaaiinoe, ii eioi?ie ia nicaeaaaeny ?aca?a ia iiaaoaiea niiieoaeueiuo aeieaia; oauoee ii iia?aoeeyi i?ioeuo eao, auyaeaiiua a io/aoiii aiaeo: aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou ii caeacai, naeaeaiiui a i?ioeua aiaeu, aica?ao iieoiaoaeyi noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaeeciaaiiie a i?ioeii aiaeo e o.i.; iaeiiiaine?oaiua oauoee io oeuaiee eiouanoaa: iioa?e io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e a ?acoeueoaoa yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeee, i?aaenoaaeythuea noieiinoue oo?a/aiiiai, oie/oiaeaiiiai e enii?/aiiiai eiouanoaa, ia eiiiaine?iaaiioth no?aoiauie i?aaiaie eee ainoaea?noaii. E yoei iioa?yi ioiinyony e ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n eeeaeaeaoeeae iineaaenoaee noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee.?30 Oeiainiaay nenoaia ?innee. Ooieoeee Ieienoa?noaa oeiainiaIiiyoea “oeiainiaay nenoaia” yae. ?acaeoeai aieaa iauaai iiiyoey “oeiainu”. Oeiainu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie yeii. ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaaieai, ?ani?aaeaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oiiaeia aeai. n?-a a oeaeyo auiieiaiey ooieoeee e caaea/ ain-aa e iaania/aiey oneiaee ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Eaaeaeia caaii oei. neoaiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aae. noa?o oei. ioiioaiee, a oei. nenoaia a oeaeii - niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo noa? oei. ioiioaiee, a i?ioeanna eioi?uo ia?acothony e eniieuecothony oiiaeu aeai. n?-a. Oei. nenoaia - yoi nenoaia oi?i e iaoiaeia ia?aciaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey oiiaeia aeai. n?-a ain-aa e i?aaei?eyoee. Oeiainiaay nenoaia ?O aeeth/aa neaae. caaiuey oei. ioiioaiee: ain. athaeaeaoioth nenoaio; aiaathaeaeaoiua niaoe. oiiaeu; ain. e?aaeeo; oiiaeu no?aoiaaiey; oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee ?ace. oi?i nian-oe (o.a. oeiainu oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia: ainoaea?noaaiiuo, ioieoeeiaeueiuo, /anoiuo, aeoeeiia?iuo, a?aiaeiuo, iauanoaaiiuo), oeiainu ianaeaiey (aeiiaoieo oicyenoa). Ia?aua o?e aeiea oei. ioiioaiee ioiinyony e oeaio?aeeciaaiiui oeiainai e eniieuecothony aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee e nioe. ioiioaiee ia iae?io?iaia, a iineaaeothueo aeieia - ia iee?io?iaia. *A niioa-e n Caeiiii ?NON? “Ia iniiaao athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa e athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna a ?NON?” io 10 ieoya?y 1991 a. e ?yaeii ae?oaeo caeiiia e iinoaiiaeaiee I?aa-aa ?O ain. athaeae. nenoaia ?innee auea ei?aiiui ia?acii ia?ano?iaia e a iano. a?aiy aeeth/aao o?e caaia:*?anioaeeeaineee athaeaeao ?O, eee oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao;*athaeaeaou iaoeeiiaeueii-ain-o e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee - yoi athaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee;*ianoiua athaeaeaou.Ana yoe athaeaeaou ooieoeeiie?otho aaoiiiiii. *Aoi?ia caaii oei. nenoaiu - aiaathaeaeaoiua niaoe. oiiaeu. Iie eiatho no?iai oeaeaaia iacia/aiea - ?anoe?eoue nioe. oneoae ianaeaieth, noeioee?iaaoue ?acaeoea ionoaeuo io?aneae eio?ano?oeoo?u, iaania/eoue aeiiieieoaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?ei?eoaoiua io?anee ye-ee. Aaaeiaeoee n?aaee nioe. oiiaeia - Iaineiiiue oiiae, n?-aa eioi?iai oi?ie?othony ca n/ao no?aoiauo aciinia ?aaioiaeaoaeae e ?aaioathueo, aeioaoeee ec oaae athaeaeaoa e ?ano?nia, iieo/aaiuo io nianoa. eiaanoeoeee oiiaea. E nioe. oiiaeai ioiinyony oaeaea Oiiae nioe. no?aoiaaiey, Ain. oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, Oaaea?. e oa??eoi?eaeueiue oiiaeu iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey. *Ain. e?aaeeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniaoth oi?io e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ain-aii e th?eae. e oec. eeoeaie, i?e eioi?uo ain-ai aunooiaao aeaaiui ia?acii a ea/-aa caaiueea n?-a. ain. e?aaeeo io?aaeaao e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo iiaeeecaoeee ain-aii a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeai. n?-a i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee e ianaeaiey ia ia/aeao aica?aoiinoe aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ain. ?anoiaeia. Aioo?aiiee aeiea ninoieo ec caaeieaeaiiinoe i?ioeuo eao e aiiaue aicieeathuae caaeieaeaiiinoe.Iieeoeeo a ioiioaiee ain. aioo?. aeieaa ii?aaeaeyao Oaae. Nia?aiea ?O, eioi?ia onoaiaaeeaaao aai aa?oiee i?aaeae i?e ooaa?aeaeaiee oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee oei. aiae. Oaaee/aiea aioo?. aeieaa ca iineaaeiea aiaeu naycaii n yienneae aaieiio Oeaio?. Aaieii ?innee aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e yaeeinoue iiuiui eioeyoeeiiiui oaeoi?ii. Ain. aiaoiee aeiea - yoi caaeieaeaiiinoue ii iaiiaaoaiiui aiaoiei caeiai e iaauiea/aiiui ii iei i?ioeaioai. A 1993 a. aeey iie?uoey athaeae. aeaoeoeeoa auee auiouaiu iiaua oeaiiua aoiaae - ain. e?aoein?i/iua iaeeaaoeee (AEI) ni n?ieii ia?auaiey o?e ianyoea e cieioua na?oeoeeaou Iei-aa oeiainia ni n?ieii ia?auaiey iaeei aiae. A 1995 a. auee auiouaiu iaeeaaoeee Oaae. caeia (IOC) e Ain. naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia (IANC), /oi i?eaaei e ?acaeoeth ?uiea ain. oe. aoiaa. A iano. a?aiy aioo?. ain. aeiea ?innee ninoieo ec ain. oe. aoiaa, auiouaiiuo Iei-aii oeiainia ?O io eiaie I?aa-aa ?innee, a oaeaea a aeaea e?aaeeoiuo niaeaoaiee n OeA ?innee. Ana aeaeu caeinoaiaaiee yae. n?i/iuie e ii iei auiea/eaathony i?ioeaiou. *Oiiae no?aoiaaiey iaania/eaao aiciauaiea aiciiaeiuo oauoeia io noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e ian/anoiuo neo/aaa, a oaeaea niinianoaoao eo i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth. A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu aeaenoaiaaea ain. iiiiiieey ia no?aoiaia aeaei. N ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie ye-ea nicaeaiu iauaeoeaiua oneiaey aeey aeoeaiiai ?acaeoey no?aoiaaiey. *Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee ?ace. oi?i niano-oe ninoaaeytho iniiao oeiainia. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaieoiiinoue aeai. ioiioaiee, i?iyaeythueony a iniauo oi?iao aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, a /a?ac yoi - a oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeai. oiiaeia a i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e o/anoey a aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/ae neeu. Caeanue oi?ie?oaony i?aiaeaaeathuay /anoue oei. ?ano?nia. Io ninoiyiey oeiainia i?aaei?eyoee ai iiiaii caaeneo iauaa oei. iieiaeaiea no?aiu. A oneiaeyo ?ui. ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoey inou-tho naith aeayo-oue ia ia/aeao eiii. ?an/aoa, i?e eioi?ii ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo aeioiaeia. Aeaaiui enoi/ieeeii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e nioe. ?acaeoey o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia noaiiaeony i?eaueue. I?aaei?eyoey noaee iaeaaeaoue ?aaeueiie oei. iacaaeneiinoueth, naiinoiyoaeueii ?ani?aaeaeytho au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ii naiaio oniio?aieth ?anii?yaeathony i?eaueueth, oi?ie?otho i?iecaiaenaoaiiua e nioe. oiiaeu, ecuneeaatho iaiaoiaeeiua ei n?-aa aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey, eniieuecoy a oii /enea e ?ano?nu oei. ?uiea. *Oeiainu aeiiioicyenoa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaieoiiinoue aeai. ioiioaiee, i?iyaeythueony a oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee athaeaeaoa eaaeaeiai aeiiioicyenoaa a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey ee/iuo e naiaeiuo iio?aaiinoae. ***Nenoaia oeiainia i?ecaaia iaania/eaaoue naaeaine?iaaiiia aeaeaeaiea noieiinoiuo e iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiiuo iioieia a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e ?aai/ae neeu. Aeinoeaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea aeieaeiie naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaania/eaaaony yooaeoeaiui ooieoeeiie?iaaieai ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiuo oei. iiaenenoai, eaaeaeie ec eioi?uo i?enoue naie niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe e caeiiiia?iinoe ia?aciaaiey, iaeiieaiey e eniieueciaaiey oei. ?ano?nia.Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie a ?O i?aaeaea anaai inou-tho aunoea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe. Yoi Oaaea?aeueiia Nia?aiea e aai aeaa iaeaou - Ain. Aeoia e Niaao Oaaea?aoeee. Aaaeiaeoei i?aaiii, inouanoaeythuei oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie ?O, aunooiaao Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?innee e aai i?aaiu ia ianoao.Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?O auiieiyao neaae. ooieoeee:1. O/anoaoao a ?aaioa ii ninoaaeaieth aeieaia?aiaiiuo e e?aoein?i/iuo i?iaiicia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ye-ee, ii?aaeaeyao iio?aaiinoue a ain. oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ?ano?nao, iiaeaioaaeeaaao i?aaeeiaeaiey i ?ani?aaeaeaiee eo iaaeaeo oaae. athaeaeaoii e ain. oaae aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie;2. I?aaiecoao ?aaioo ii ninoaaeaieth i?iaeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa;3. Iaania/eaaao eniieiaiea oaae. athaeaeaoa, a oaaae ain. oaae. aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia;4. ?ac?aaaouaaao n o/anoeai Ain. iaeia. neoaeau, Oaae. neoaeau iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?O i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth iae. iieeoeee e iaeiaiaie nenoaiu;5. I?eieiaao o/anoea a ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiiaie iieeoeee;6. I?eieiaao o/anoea a ?aaioa ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth no?aoiaie aeayo-oe a no?aia;7. ?ac?aaaouaaao i?aaeeiaeaiey ii auioneo e ?aciauaieth, a oaeaea inou-ao auione ain. aioo?. caeiia ?O;8. ?ac?aaaouaaao i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oi?ie?iaaieth e ?acaeoeth oei. ?uiea;9. Inou-ao ii ii?o/aieth I?aa-aa ?O nio?oaeie/anoai n iaaeae. oei. i?aaiecaoeeyie;10. ?ac?aaaouaaao i?iaeou i?ia?aii aiaoieo caeinoaiaaiee ?O;11. O/anoaoao a ?aaioa ii eiiieaeniiio aiaeeco ?acaeoey ye-ee, oeiainia e iaeiaiaiai noeioee?iaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayo-oe;12. Aiaeece?oao oiae i?iaaaeaiey yeii. ?aoi?i, ninoiyiey ye-ee.? 31. Oeiainiaay iieeoeea ?ONiaieoiiinoue ain. ia?ii?eyoee ii eniieueciaaieth oei. ioiioaiee aeey auiieiaiey ain-aii naieo ooieoeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo. Niaea?aeaiea oei. iieeoeee aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia, o.e. ioaaouaaao oe?ieee eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee: 1) ?ac?aaioeo iauae eiioeaioeee oei. iieeoeee, ii?aaeaeaiea aa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee, oeaeae, aeaaiuo caaea/; 2) nicaeaiea aaeaeaaoiiai oei. iaoaiecia; 3) oi?aaeaiea oei. aeayoaeueiinoueth ain-aa e ae?. noauaeoia ye-ee. Oei iieeoeea ain-aa i?ecaaia iaania/eoue ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oei. nenoaiu iau-aa e ia yoie iniiaa yooaeoeaiaa inou-oue anie ooieoeee - nioe., yeii., yeieiae/aneea, iai?iiiua. Ionthaea oei. iieeoeea yae. ninoaaiie /aoueth, naaiaioii nioe.-yeii. iieeoeee. Aaaeiaeoae oeaeueth oei. iie-ee yae. oaaee/aiea iauaia oei. ?ano?nia ia aaca yeii. ?inoa, niioaaonoaothuaa ia?aueaaiea ain. oeiainia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aieaa iieiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae iau-aa. Nia?aiaiiay oei. iie-ea ?O. A 1991 - 1996aa. e ii iano. a?aiy i?iaiaeeony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaay oei. iieeoeea, aace?othuayny ia eniieueciaaiee yeaiaioia ?ui. iaoaiecia e nenoaia ain. ?aaoee?iaaiey ye-ee. Iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei iaania/eaaoue oneiaey aeey nicaeaiey ioaeiiai iauaia oei. ?ano?nia, ii e nicaeaoue a e?ao/aeoea n?iee i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue iaoaieci ai anao noa?ao e caaiueyo oei. nenoaiu. Iniiaa nia?. oei. iie-ee - yoi i?eciaiea naiaiaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aaaaeaiea ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey, i?eaaoecaoeee ain. niano-oe e ia?aoiae e niaoaiiie ye-ea, aace?othuaeny ia oiaeii ni/aoaiee /anoiuo e ain. oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. Ia yoie iniiaa ?ac?aaaouaaaony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue oei. iaoaieci. Ain-ai ioeacuaaaony io aee?aeoeaiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa aioo?eoic. ioiioaieyie ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e ia?aaiaeeo eo ioiioaiey n athaeaeaoii ia iaeiaiaoth iniiao, eioi?ay noaaeo caneii i?iecaieueiiio ecuyoeth aeioiaeia. A yoeo oneiaeyo anth oyaeanoue iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ianoo iaeiaiieaoaeueueee. Nieaeaiea iaeiaiaiai ecuyoey aeioiaeia aiciiaeii oieueei i?e nie?auaiee ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa, a eo ?acia? a iniiaiii caaeneo io oe?iou auiieiyaiuo ain-aii ooieoeee. Iiyoiio aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae noaei eciaiaiea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa. Yoa i?iaeaia eiaea 2 aeaaiuo aniaeoa: - nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia a oeaeyo oiaiueoaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa; - eciaiaiea ii?yaeea i?aaeinoaaeaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?-a. Iieo/eea iiaia iai?aaeaiea nenoaia ain. e?aaeeoa. Ii noae aaaeiui e ioe?uoui enoi/ieeii iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa. Eciaiyaony a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?aaiecaoeey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu. Ia niaio oeaio?aeeciaaiiie athaeae. nenoaia i?eoea athaeaeaoiay nenoaia, iniiaaiiay ia ?aaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e ?aaiii?aaee athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae. Aieueoia cia/aiea a ieaia aeoeaecaoeee oei. iie-ee eiaao eciaiaiea i?aeoeee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oei. ?ano?nia. Oei ?ano?nu ia?a?ani?aaeaeythony a iano. a?aiy iaaeaeo yeii. noauaeoaie enoiaey ec ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey /a?ac oei. ?uiie, a ia iin?aaenoaii athaeaeaoa. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea nenoaia aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia ain-aa. Iia iicaieyao neiioeaio?e?iaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua n?-aa aeey oeaeaaiai oeiaine?iaaiey nioe. ?anoiaeia. ?acaeoea ?uii/iuo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey i?eaaei e aeaiiiiiieecaoeee no?aoiaiai aeaea e iiyaeaieth no?aoiaiai ?uiea - nicaeaieth iacaaeneiuo /anoiuo no?ao. Eiiiaiee, aaaaeaieth iiauo io?aneae e aeaeia no?aoiaaiey. Ea?aeeiaeueii eciaieeanue nenoaia oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie. Ia niaio aaeeiiio i?aaio oi?aaeaiey - Ieioeio i?eoea oeaeay nenoaia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oei. e eiio?ieueiuo i?aaiia: Ain. iaeia. neoaeaa, Oaae. neoaeaa iaeia. iieeoeee, N/aoiay iaeaoa, Ain. oaiiae. eiieoao e o.ae. Oe?ieia ?acaeoea iieo/ee iacaaeneiue aoaeeoi?neee oei. eiio?ieue. I?ioeann niaa?oainoaiaaiey oei. iie-ee iineo iinoiyiiue oa?aeoa?. A 1995 - 1998 aa. iaia/ai ?yae ia?ii?eyoee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth oei. iie-ee. Ini. caaea/a ia yoii yoaia - nieaeaiea aeaoeoeeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa aei o?iaiy 3% AAI, /oiau aai oeiaine?iaaiea ca n/ao aioo?. e aiaoieo enoi/ieeia ia oi?iiceei yeii. ?acaeoea no?aiu a oeaeii e niinianoaiaaei nieaeaieth eioeyoeee. Ini. caaea/a neaaeothuaai yoaia (n 1998 a.) ii ia?a iaeiieaiey oei. ?ano?nia - iieiay naaeaine?iaaiiinoue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia oaae. athaeaeaoa. A yoio aea ia?eiae aoaeao inou-ny iaeiaiaay ?aoi?ia, iai?aaeaiiay ia oe?aieaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu e oeo/oaiea ?aaeueiiai oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa. Aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny ain. iiaeaea?aeea no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee iin?aaenoaii i?iaaaeaiey eueaioiie iaeiaiaie e e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, a oaeaea i?yiuo athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iieo/ao ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa ia nioe. ioaeaeu. Ini. iai?aaeaiea caeanue - iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey n?-a. I?iaeieaeaaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa ?O. Aeey yoiai i?aaeoniao?eaaaony i?iaaaeaiea athaeaeaoiie ?aoi?iu: ?aoi?ie?iaaiea athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu a oeaeii ia iniiaa naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e ?aaiii?aaey anao athaeaeaoia; onoaiiaeaiea ?aaeaiaioa athaeae. i?ioeanna; ooi/iaiea nenoaiu iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee; oe?aieaiea aeioiaeiie aacu ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia. Aieueoia aieiaiea aeieaeii oaeaeyoueny ?acaeoeth e ?aaoee?iaaieth ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa. I?aaenoieo iaeoe iioeiaeueiia ni/aoaiea ia?auaiey ia yoii ?uiea ain. e ei?ii?aoeaiuo oe. aoiaa, /oi iicaieeo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaania/eoue iio?aaiinoe ain-aa a n?-aao iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, nicaeano oneiaey aeey ii?iaeueiiai ia?aeeaaa oei. ?ano?nia iaaeaeo ioae. i?aaei?eyoeyie e io?aneyie yeiiiieee. Aaaeiui i?aaenoaaeyaony iiauoaieea ea/-aa ?aaiou ain. oei. i?aaiia.A ?ac?aaioaiiie I?aa-aii ?O eiioeaioeee n?aaeian?i/iie i?ia?aiiu ia 1995-1997 aiaeu “?aoi?iu e ?acaeoea yeiiiieee” ioia/aaony, /oi i?iaiaeeiay oia?aiiay oei. e aeai. iie-ea en/a?iaea naay, e iiyoiio ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu icaei?iaeaiey ye-ee aeaeeony a i?eiyoee aeanoeiai athaeaeaoa. Nooue aai caeeth/aaony a inou-iee aeanoeeo athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee ia anao o?iaiyo n oai, /oiau iiaeaaeoue eioeyoeeth e nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey ?inoa eiaanoeoeee, noaaeeecaoeee e iaeeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?aieao oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?iaiaeyony neaae. ia?u: 1. N 1995 a. i?ae?auaii iie?uoea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa ca n/ao e?aaeeoia OeA e iaania/ai ia?aoiae e iaeioeyoeeiiiui enoi/ieeai oeiaine?iaaiey iooai oaaee/aiey ianooaaia ?aaeecaoeee ain. oe. aoiaa e aiaoieo caeinoaiaaiee; 2. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia nie?auaiea ia?aoeeiiaeueiuo ain. ?anoiaeia, i?aaeaea anaai aeioaoeee e eueaio; 3. Iiauoaiea ?iee iaeiaia eae nioe. ?aaoeyoi?ia, noeioee?othueo yooaeoeaiia i?iecaiaenoai e ia?aie/eaathueo ?anoi/eoaeueiia iio?aaeaiea, oi?iuaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu e nieaeaiea iae. a?aiaie aeey oic. noauaeoia. Enoiaey ec eiioeaioeee oei. iie-ee, oaae. i?aa-aii ii?aaeaeaiu ini. iai?aaeaiey e caaea/e ia 1995 a.:*inou-iea e caaa?oaiea athaeae. ?aoi?iu;*oe?aieaiea aeioiaeiie aacu athaeaeaoa iooai niaa?oainoaiaaiey iae. cae-aa, ?acaeoey iae. neoaeau e iiauoaiey o?iaiy niae?aaiinoe iaeiaia;*i?iaaaeaiea oanoeiai eiio?iey ca oeaeaaui oa?-?ii ?anoiaeiaaiey n?-a athaeaeaoa, o?iaiai aai aeaoeoeeoa, yae-ny ini. i?e/eiie eioeyoeee;*aeoeaiia ?acaeoea ?uiea ain. oe. aoiaa, a oii /enea iooai ?aciauaiey o.i. “aa?iiaeeaaoeee” ia ie?iaii oei. ?uiea e o.ae.***Inou-a ain-aii naieo ooieoeee, aieaa iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae iau-aa caaeneo io iaee/ey oei ?ano?nia. Iiyoiio i?e ieaie?iaaiee aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iaiaoiaeeii ?aaeueii iiaeoiaeeoue e ioeaiea oei. aiciiaeiinoae, ecaaaaoue "i“eeoece?iaaiiuo" ”oeaiie aeeiaieee AAI e aeaaiuo athaeaeaoiia?acothueo iieacaoaeae.? 32. Aeaeu e oi?iu oei. eiio?ieyOi?iie ?aaeecaoeee eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee oeiainia aunooiaao oeiainiaue eiio?ieue. Aai niaea?aeaiea e iacia/aiea naiaeeony e i?iaa?ea oei. aeayo-oe oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia e noauaeoia io?aneaaiai (aaaeiinoaaiiiai) e oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Iauaeoii oei. eiio?iey yae. ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua ioiioaiey ia noaaeee ia?aciaaiey e a i?ioeanna eniieueciaaiey oei. ?ano?nia, oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeai. oiiaeia, oei. eiio?ieue oaeaea aeeth/aao ioeaieo yeii. yooaeoeaiinoe oeiainiai-oic. iia?aoeee e oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Oei. i?iaa?ea iiaeaa?aathony noieiinoiua iieacaoaee - au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e oneoa, naaanoieiinoue, iieaoa o?oaea, aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey, oeaiu e oa?eou, i?eaueue, aeioiaeu io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee, aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu, iaycao. io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeae. oiiaeu, eniieueciaaiea i?eauee e ae?. Oei. eiio?ieue ioaaouaaao i?aaeeueiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoiuo iieacaoaeae e oei. ?acoeueoaoia aeayo-oe oic. noauaeoia, ninoaaeaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, ?anoiaeiaaiey niao iaeiii. i?aaiecaoeeyie, oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea athaeaeaoiuo n?-a, iieiioo e naiaa?aiaiiinoue iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae e iaiaeiaiauo io/eneaiee. Ia?ooaiea oei. aeenoeeieeiu ea?aaony yeiiiie/anee iin?aaenoaii oei. naieoeee e a aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea (a ioiioaiee aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea). Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeaeia oei. eiio?iey: ainoaea?noaaiiue, aioo?eoe?iaiiue e iacaaeniue (aoaeeo). Ain. oei. eiio?ieue ioaaouaaao iauaain. eiio?ieue, inou-iue niioa. i?aaiaie ain. e eniieieo. aeanoe a ethaie noa?a ye-ee e oi?aaeaiey, e aaaeiinoaaiiue eii?ieue, i?iaiaeeiue ieienoa?noaaie a ioiioaiee iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Noauaeoaie oei. eiio?iey aunooiatho a ia?aii neo/aa N/aoiay iaeaoa ?O, Aeaaiia eiio?ieueiia oi?aaeaiea I?aceaeaioa ?O, Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea eacia/aenoaa Neioeia, Ain. oaiiaeaiiue eiieoao, Ainiaeianeoaeaa, Oaae. neoaeaa iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, Oaae. eiienney ii ?uieo oe. aoiaa ?O. Aaaeiinoaaiiue eiio?ieue inou-ny eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiuie neoaeaaie ieienoa?noa. Aioo?eoe?iaiiue oei. eiio?ieue inou-ny oei. neoaeaie i?aaei?eyoey, a a AI, a eiiia?aoeaiie e iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee - ?aaeceiiiie eiienneae. Iacaaeneiue oei. eiio?ieue (aiaoiee aoaeeo) auiieiytho aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu a niioa-e n caeeth/aaiui aeiaiai?ii e ca ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Caeeth/aiea aoaeeoi?neie oe?iu ioaaouaaao oei. io/aoiinoue e aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee, ioaeeeoaony a ioe?uoie ia/aoe.Oei. iaiaaeaea? a e?oiiie eiii. no?oeoo?a eiio?iee?oao aanue i?ioeann eiaanoe?iaaiey eaieoaea. Yoi oae iacuaaaiue “iinoaoaeeo”, eioi?ue aeeth/aao n?aaiaiea oaeoe/aneeo oei. ?acoeueoaoia ia eaaeaeie noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayo-oe n i?iaiice?oaiuie a oeiainiaii ?acaeaea aecian-ieaia; aiaeec e ono?aiaiea i?e/ei eo ianiioaaonoaey; iiene iooae nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae e oeo/oaiey iaoiaeia oei. i?iaiice?iaaiey. Neaae-ii, oei. eiio?ieue - aaaeiue yeaiaio nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie oi?iaie oei. eiio?iey yae. i?iaa?ee e ?aaecee. I?iaa?ee i?iaiaeyony ii ioaeaeueiui aniaeoai oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayaoeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. ?aaecey - yoi eiiieaeniay i?iaa?ea anae oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayo-oe i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. ?aaecey i?iaiaeeony ii niioa. i?ia?aiia (oeaeue, iauaeo, ia?a/aiue ini. aii?inia) e caaa?oaaony ninoaaeaieai aeoa aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee i?aaei?eyoey, a eioi?ii io?aaeathony auyaeaiiua iaaeinoaoee oei.-oic. aeayo-oe i?aaei?eyoey, ii?aaeaeythony oei. naieoeee ca ia?ooaiea oei. aeenoeeieeiu, ia?u ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth iiaeiaiuo ia?ooaiee a aoaeouai e iiaeeecaoeee aioo?eoic. ?aca?aia oe?aieaiey oei. aacu. Ae?oaeie oi?iaie oei. eiio?iey yae. i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue oei. eiio?ieue - i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioeaieo iainiiaaiiinoe oei. i?ia?aii e i?iaiicia aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iayeiiiiiiai e iayooaeoeaiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey n?aaenoa; oaeouee (iia?aoeaiue) oei. eiio?ieue i?iecaiaeeony a iiiaio niaa?oaiey aeaiaaeiuo naeaeie, oei. iia?aoeee, auaea/e nnoae e noaneaeee, ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao aiciiaeiua ceioiio?aaeaiey i?e iieo/aiee e ?anoiaeiaaiee n?aaenoa, niinianoaoao niaethaeaieth oei. aeenoeeieeiu e naiaa?aiaiiinoe inou-y oeiainiai-aeai. ?an/aoia; iineaaeothuee oei. eiio?ieue, i?iaiaeeiue iooai aiaeeca e ?aaecee io/aoiie oei. e aooaaeoa?neie aeieoiaioaoeee, i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia oei. aeayo-oe yeii. noauaeoia, niiinoaaeaiey oei. ieaiia e i?iaiicia n ?acoeueoaoaie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe inou-y i?aaeeiaeaiiie oei. no?aoaaee, n?aaiaiey oei. ecaea?aeae n i?iaiice?oaiuie; ianeaaeiaaiea a ioee/ea io i?iaa?ee ioaaouaaao aieaa oe?ieee niaeo? oeiainiai-yeii. iieacaoaeae ianeaaeoaiiai yeii. noauaeoa aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aai oei. ninoiyiey e aiciiaeiuo ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey; iaaeci? i?iecaiaeeony eiio?iee?othueie i?aaiaie ca yeii. noauaeoaie, iieo/eaoeie eeoeaiceth ia oio eee eiie aeae oei. aeayo-oe, e i?aaeiieaaaao niaethaeaiea eie onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee e ii?iaoeaia; aiaeec oei. aeayoaeueiinoe eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue oei. eiio?iey i?aaeiieaaaao aeaoaeueiia eco/aiea ia?eiaee/aneie eee aiaeiae oeiainiai-aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe n oeaeueth iauae ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia oei. aeayo-oe, ioeaiee oei. ninoiyiey e iaania/aiiinoe nianoa. eaieoaeii e yooaeoeaiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey; iaaethaeaiea (iiieoi?eia) - iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee ca eniieueciaaieai auaeaiiie nnoaeu e oei. ninoiyieai i?aaei?eyoey-eeeaioa, iayooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea iieo/aiiie nnoaeu e nieaeaiea ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe iiaeao i?eaanoe e oaeanoi/aieth oneiaee e?aaeeoiaaiey, o?aaiaaieth aeieain?i/iiai aica?aoa nnoaeu; ?aaecey - iaeaieaa aeoaieee e anaiauaiethuee iaoiae oei. eio?iey. I?aaieciaaiiay eacia/aenoaii nenoaia iinoiyiiiai eiio?iey i?ecaaia niinianoaiaaoue nie?auaieth /enea ia?ooaiee a noa?a eniieueciaaiey oaae. athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa. E?iia oiai, ii ii?o/aieth Oaae. Nia?aiey ?O e N/aoiay iaeaoa inouanoaeyao aeanoeee eiio?ieue ca oeaeaaui e yooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaieai athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia.? 33. Athaeaeao ainoaea?noaa e aai iniiaiua ooieoeee. Caaea/e athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee a ?O.A ethaie no?aia ain. athaeaeao - aaaeouaa caaii oei. nenoaiu. Ii iauaaeeiyao aeaaiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ain-aa. Athaeaeao anoue aaeeinoai iniiaiuo oei. eaoaai?ee (iaeiaia, ain. e?aaeeoa, ain. ?anoiaeia) a eo aeaenoaee, o.a. /a?ac athaeaeao inou-ny iinoiyiiay iiaeeecaoeey ?ano?nia e eo ?anoiaeiaaiea. Athaeaeao yae. oi?iie ia?aciaaiey e ?anoiaeiaaiey aeai. n?aaenoa aeey iaania/aiey ooieoeee i?aaiia ain. aeanoe. Nin?aaeioi/aiea oei. ?ano?nia a athaeaeaoa iaiaoiaeeii aeey oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee oei. iieeoeee ain-aa. Niaieoiiinoue anao aeaeia athaeaeaoia ia?acoao athaeaeaoioth nenoaio ain-aa. Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aa ioaeaeueiuie caaiueyie, i?aaiecaoeeth e i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu i?eiyoi iacuaaoue athaeaeaoiui ono?ienoaii. Ain. athaeaeao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ini. oei. ieai ain-aa ia oaeouee aiae, eiathuee neeo caeiia. Athaeaeao ooaa?aeaeaaony cae-iui i?aaiii aeanoe - ia?eaiaioii. ?anioaeeeaineee athaeaeao ?O (eee oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao ?innee) - aeaaiia caaii athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu. Ii au?aaeaao yeii. aeai. ioiioaiey, iiin?aaeothuea i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oiiaea aeai. n?-a ain-aa, e ooaa?aeaeaaony Oaae. Nia?aieai ?O eae caeii. *a?ac yoio athaeaeao iiaeeecothony n?-aa i?aaei?eyoee ?ace. oi?i niano-oe e /anoe/ii aeioiaeu ianaeaiey. Iie iai?aaeythony ia oeiaine?iaaiea ia?iaeiiai oic-aa, nioe.-eoeueoo?iuo ia?ii?eyoee, oe?aieaiea iai?iiiniiniaiinoe no?aiu, ia niaea?aeaiea i?aaiia ain. oi?aaeaiey, oei. iiaeaea?aeeo athaeaeaoia noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, ia iiaaoaiea ain. aeieaa, nicaeaiea ain. iaoa?eaeueiuo e oei. ?aca?aia. A oeaeii athaeaeaoiay nenoaia ?O nioieo ec 3 caaiueaa: *oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao ?O; *athaeaeaou noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee (?aaeiiaeueiua); *ianoiua athaeaeaou. Iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie athaeaeaoa yaeythony: *ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoe. aeioiaea e AAI, *ain. ?aaoee?iaaiea e noeioee?iaaiea yeiiiieee, *oei. iaania/aiea nioe. iieeoeee, *eiio?ieue ca ia?aciaaieai e eniieueciaaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oiiaea aeai. n?aaenoa. *a?ac ?anoiaeu e iaeiae athaeaeao aunooiaao aaaeiui eino?oiaioii ?aaoee?iaaiey e noeioee?iaaiey ye-ee e eiaanoeoeee, iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao nioeeaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue athaeaeaoiuo n?-a. Eoeueoo?a a oe?ieii niunea - iaeie-ec oeaio?aeueiuo eiiiiiaioia yeii. ?acaeoey. A nioe. iie-ea i?ei?eoaou - iiaeaea?aeea iaeiaiaa caueuaiiuo neiaa ianaeaiey, a oaeaea ooieoeeiie?iaaiea o/?aaeaeaiee cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey e eoeueoo?u. Aeieaeiu auoue nouanoaaiii oneeaiu aa?aioee nioe. e yeii. i?aa a?aaeaeai ?innee. Ain. athaeaeao auiieiyao ooieoeeth i?aaiecaoi?a ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a ia?iaeiii oic-aa. Oioy /a?ac athaeaeao ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony ia aanue /enoue aeioiae, ii aeeyao ia ?acia?u iaeiieaiee, ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie no?oeoo?u aeioiaeia ii oei. ieaiai i?aaei?eyoee e io?aneae oic-aa. A i?ioeanna athaeaeaoiiai ieaie?iaaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa inou-ny eiio?ieue ca oei.-oic. aeayo-oueth ia?iaeiiai oic-aa, onoaiaaeeaaaony iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuie oiiaeaie aeai. n?-a, ii?aaeaeythony ?acia?u oei. ?ano?nia, eiioeaio?e?oaiuo a oei. ieaiao i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea noaiaiue o/anoey i?aaei?eyoee a oi?ie?iaaiee aeioiaeia athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu e i?aaeaea anaai oaae. athaeaeaoa ?O. A oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea ia ?uii/iua iaoaieciu cia/aiea athaeaeaoiiai eiio?ey a i?ioeanna iiaeeecaoeee ?ano?nia e eo eniieueciaaiey oneeeaaaony. N iiiiuueth athaeaeaoa ?aaeecothony ain. e ianoiua i?ia?aiiu ii ?acaeoeth e ii?iaeueiiio ooieoeeiie?iaaieth io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oic-aa, ii i?iaaaeaieth eiiaa?nee aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, io?aiu ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, ii oe?aieaieth iao/iiai iioaioeeaea e eoeueoo?u, iaoa?eaeueiiai o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey, iiaeaea?aeea nioeeaeueii-yeii. ?acaeoey noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee. A oneiaeyo oaeoaeaiey ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i iniiaiua caaea/e athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee ?O ninoiyo a neaaeothuai: 1) oaea?aeaoue yeiiiieeo io niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa; 2) iaania/eoue oei. noaaeeecaoeeth. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai i?aaei?eiyoue iaioeiaeiua ia?u e oe?aieaieth aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey eae iniiau oniaoiiai i?iaaaeaiey yeii. ?aoi?i. Oieueei a oneiaeyo onoie/eaiai e oi?ioi ooieoeeiie?othuaai aeai. ia?auaiey aiciiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue nayce iaaeaeo anaie o/anoieeaie e ninoaaiuie /anoyie oic. iaoaiecia. Eae ecaanoii, eioeyoeey - iiiaioaeoi?iue i?ioeann. A ?O ia ?acaeoea eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna iaeaieaa aicaeaenoaea ieacaee e?oiiua athaeaeaoiua aeaoeoeeou e eeeaa?aeecaoeey oeai, i?iaaaeaiiay a yiaa?a 1992 a. Aeey oe?aieaiey aeai. ia?auaiey iaiaoiaeeii nieaeaoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo, oiaiueoaoue aiaiiua ?anoiaeu, cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea ain. aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, onoaiiaeoue aeanoeee eiio?ieue iaae aeeiaieeie aeai. iannu. Oieueei iiaeaaeaiea eioeyoeee iicaieeo ?ann/eouaaoue ia oaeaoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa, ia ianniaue i?eoie eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai; 3) noeioee?iaaoue eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeoeaiinoue, aeiaeaaoueny oaaee/aiey aeiee iaeiieaiey a iaoe. aeioiaea; 4) nie?aoeoue iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa ia ain. aeioaoeee ioaeaeueiui io?aneyi noa?u iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; 5) oe?aieoue aeioiaeioth aaco athaeaeaoa ca n/ao niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e oneeaiey eiio?iey ca iieiioie oieaou iaeiaia; 6) nicaeaoue nenaoio aeaenoaaiiiai oei. eiio?iey ca yooaeoeaiui e oeaeaeaiai?aaeaiiui eniieueciaaieai ain. ?anoiaeia; 7) oneeeoue eiio?ieue ca aaee/eiie ain. aeieaa. A Iineaiee I?aceaeaioa ?O I?aaeoaeuenoao ?O “I athaeaeaoiie iieeoeea a 1997 a.” iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi iniiaiua caaea/e athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee ninoiyo a iieiioeaiiii oeiaine?iaaiee nioe. noa?u, noeioee?iaaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe, aaconeiaiii auiieiaiee ain-aii naieo oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa.? 34. Iiiyoea athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee. Iniiaiua yoaiu athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna.Ninoaaeaiea e eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa aace?oaony ia athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee, a eioi?ie auaeaeythony oeaeaaua iai?aaeaiey ain. aeayo-oe, auoaeathuea ec iniiaiuo ooieoeee ain-aa.Athaeaeaoiay eeanneoeeaoeey - yoi iaycaoaeueiay a?oiie?iaea aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae ii iaeii?iaeiui i?eciaeai n i?enaiaieai iauaeoai eeanneoeeaoeee a?oiie?iai/iuo eiaeia. Athaeaeaoiay eeanneoeeaoeey (AE) eniieuecoaony i?e ieaie?iaaiee e eniieiaiee athaeaeaoia, aaaeaiee o/aoa e ninoaaeaiee io/aoiinoe. Ia iniiaa AE iaania/eaaaony aaeeiiia?acea ninoaaeaiey i?iaeoia athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae, niiinoaaeiinoue iieacaoaeae athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae, o/ao e eiio?ieue ca iinooieaieai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeiaaieai n?aaenoa niaeanii ooaa?aeaeaiiui iieacaoaeyi (athaeaeaoiui iacia/aieyi). A Oaae. caeiia “I athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee”, iiaeienaiiii I?aceaeaioii ?O 15 aaaonoa 1996 a. ioia/aaony, /oi athaeaeaoiay eeanneoeeaoeey aeeth/aao:*eeanneoeeaoeeth aeioiaeia athaeaeaoia ?O;*ooieoeeiiaeueioth eeanneoeeaoeeth ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia ?O;*yeii. eeanneoeeaoeeth ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia ?O;*eeanneoeeaoeeth enoi/ieeia aioo?aiiaai oeiaine?iaaiey aeaoeoeeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa;*eeanneoeeaoeeth aeaeia ain. aioo?. aeieaia ?O e noauaeoia ?O;*eeanneoeeaoeeth aeaeia ain. aiaoiaai aeieaa e aiaoieo aeoeaia ?O;*aaaeiinoaaiioth eeanneoeeaoeeth ?anoiaeia oaae. athaeaeaoa.Aeaaiui a?oiie?iai/iui i?eciaeii aeioiaeia yae. enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey eaaeaeiai ec ieo, a o ?anoiaeia - iai?aaeaiea oeiainia ia auiieiaiea ooieoeee i?aaiia ain. aeanoe e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Aeioiaeu a AE iiae?acaeaeythony ia ?acaeaeu e ia?aa?aou. A ?acaeaea iauaaeeiaiu aeioiaeu (eee enoi/iee) iaeiiai aeaea, a ia?aa?ao eiie?aoece?oao iaeiaiiaaiea aeioiaea (eee enoi/ieea). Naiue aieueoie - ?acaeae 12 - “I?i/ea iaeiae, nai?u e ae?oaea iinooieaiey” iauaaeeiyao 98 ia?aa?aoia. ?anoiaeu a AE iiae?acaeaeythony ia ?acaeaeu, aeaau, ia?aa?aou e noaouee. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ?acaeaeaie yae.: 100 - ia?iaeiia oic-ai, 200 - ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia; 203 - cae?aaiio?aiaiea; 207 - nioe. iaania/aiea; 254 - n?-aa, ia?aaeaaaaiua ae?oaei athaeaeaoai. N 1 yiaa?y 1997 a. aaaaeai a aeaenoaea Oaae. caeii “I athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee ?O”. Ninoaa ?anoiaeia iino?iai a niioaaonoaee n ini. ooieoeeyie ain-aa (ooieoeeiiaeueiay eeanneoeeaoeey) e a ?ac?aca aaaeiinoa - eiie?aoiuo iieo/aoaeae athaeaeaoiuo n?-a (aaaeiinoaaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey). Yeii. eeanneoeeaoeey ?anoiaeia yae. a?oiie?iaeie ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae ii eo yeii. niaea?aeaieth. Ii iiaie eeanneoeeaoeee auaeaeaiu enoi/ieee iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, na?oiie?iaaiiua ia aioo?. e aiaoiea: e?aaeeou OeA ?O (eioeyoeeiiiue enoi/iee, naycaiiue n yienneae aeaiaa), auione e ?aciauaiea ain. oe. aoiaa a no?aia e ca?oaaaeii, caeiu o eiii. aaieia, eiino?aiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa e iaaeae. oei. i?aaiecaoeee (IAO, IA??). Iiaay eeanneoeeaoeey auaeaeyao ain. aeiea, a ninoaaa eioi?iai ana aeieaiaua iayc-aa a?oiie?othony ia aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea. Ooaa?aeaeaiiue eee eniieiaiiue athaeaeao n/eoaaony naaeaine?iaaiiui, anee aai aeioiaeu iieiinoueth niiaaonoaotho ?anoiaeai.Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann eae aeaaiay oi?ia athaeaeaoiiai ieaie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiioth cae-aii aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia aeanoe ii ninoaaeaieth, ?anniio?aieth, ooaa?aeaeaieth e eniieiaieth oeaio?aeueiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai/ianoiuo athaeaeaoia. Aai niaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony ain. e athaeaeaoiui ono?ienoaii no?aiu, athaeaeaoiuie i?aaie niioa i?aaiia aeanoe e th?eae. eeoe. Aai ninoaaiie /anoueth yae. athaeaeaoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, o.a. /anoe/iia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oei. ?ano?nia iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie ?aciuo o?iaiae. Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann ioaaouaaao /aou?a yoaia athaeaeaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe: 1. Ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoa athaeaeaoa inou-ny eniieieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe. Aio i?aaeoanoaoao ?ac?aaioea ieaiia-i?iaiicia ?acaeoey oa??eoi?ee e oeaeaauo i?ia?aii, ia iniiaa eioi?uo nicaeaaony naiaeiue oei. aaeain ain-aa ii oa??. ?innee (NOA). A aeai. oi?ia ii au?aaeaao nioe-yeii. ?acaeoea no?aiu, iicaieyao iieiaa aiaeece?iaaoue aeaeaeaiea noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e iaoe. aeioiaea, o/eouaaoue ana oei. ?ano?nu, ii?aaeaeyy eo iauai e iai?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey. Iaaeaeo NOA e oaae. athaeaeaoii nou-ao oaniay naycue: NOA au?aaeaao oei. i?ia?aiio a iauai aeaea, a athaeaeao - eiie?aoii, ?acaa?iooi; NOA io?aaeaao o?aaiaaiea oei. iie-ee, a athaeaeao iaania/eaaao i?iaaaeaiea aa a aeeciue; no?oeoo?a aeioiaea e ?anoiaeia NOA i?eaeeaeaaony e athaeaeaoo. Aianoa n i?iaeoii Oaae. caeiia “I oaae. athaeaeaoa” I?aa-ai ?O aiineo a Ain.Aeoio i?iaeou oaae. caeiiia i athaeaeaoao ain. aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, a oaeaea i?aaeeiaeaiey i iiauoaiee iei. ?acia?a iainee e iei. ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea; 2. ?anniio?aiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea athaeaeaoia a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiao - Oaae. Nia?aiee (Ia?eaiaioa) ?O, i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiao noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e ianoiuo naiioi?aaeaieyo. I?iaeo oaaeth. Athaeaeaoa e aeieoiaiou, iieo/aiiua Niaaoii Ain. Aeoiu, iai?aaeythony a aai Eiieoao ii athaeaeaoo, iaeiaai, aaieiai e oeiainai aeey caeeth/aiey. Ia iniiaaiee caeeth/aiey Eiieoao ?aoaao aii?in i i?eiyoee i?iaeoa oaae. caeiia “I oaae. athaeaeaoa” e ?anniio?aieth a Ain.Aeoia. Ana iaoa?eaeu ia?aaeathony I?aceaeaioo ?O, Niaaoo Oaaea?aoeee, eiieoaoai Aeoiu aeey aianaiey caia/aiee e i?aaeeiaeaiee, a oaeaea a N/aoioth iaeaoo ia caeeth/aiea. Iieo/ea caeeth/aiea io eaaeaeiai eiieoaoa, Eiieoao Ain Aeoiu ii athaeaeaoo, iaeiaai, aaieai e oeiainai ninoaaeyao naiaeiia caeeth/aiea ii i?iaeoo oaae. athaeaeaoo e i?aaenoaaeyao aai ia ?aniio?aiea a Ain. Aeoio, eioi?ay ia/eiaao ?anniio?aiea athaeaeaoa a ianeieueeeo /oaieyo. I?e ?anniio?aiee oaae. athaeaeaoa a ia?aii /oaiee Ain. Aeoia ianoaeaeaao eiioeaioeeth e i?iaiic nioe.-yeii. ?acaeoey ?O, iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey athaeaeaoiie e iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, ini. i?eioeeiu acaeiiioiioaiee oaae. athaeaeaoa n athaeaeaoaie noauaeoai oaaea?aoeee. E?iia oiai, ?anniao?eaathony ini. oa?-ee oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae. Ii eoiaai ?anniio?aiey i?iaeoa oaae. athaeaeoa a ia?aii /oaiee i?eieiaaony iinoaiiaeaiea Ai. Aeoiu i oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae a ia?aii /oaiee e ia ini. oa?-eao yoiai athaeaeaoa. I?e ?anniio?aiee i?iaeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa ai aoi?ii /oaiee Ain. aeoia ooaa?aeaeaao ?anoiaeu oaae. athaeaeaoa ii ?acaeaeai athaeaeaoiie ooieoeeiiaeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee a i?aaeaeao iauaai iauaia ?anoiaeia oaae. athaeaeaoa, ooaa?aeaeaiiiai a ia?aii /oaiee. A o?aoueai /oaiee Ain. Aeoia ianoaeaeaao ?anoiaeu oaae. athaeaeaoa ii iiae?acaeaeai ooieoeeiiaeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee, anai o?iaiyi aaaeiineaaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee, oaae. oeaeaaui i?ia?aiiai. A /aoaa?oii /oaiee Ain. Aeoia ?anniao?eaaao iii?aaee e caeiiii?iaeoo, a oaeaea iieaa?oaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeaeia, ?anoiaeia e aeaoeoeeoa oaae. athaeaeaoa. Ia ieaia?iii canaaeaiee Ain. Aeoiu caeiiii?iaeo i oaae. athaeaeaoa noaaeony ia aieiniaaiey a oeaeii. I?eiyoue Aeoiie caeii “I oaae. athaeaeaoa ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae” a oa/aiea iyoe aeiae ni aeey i?eiyoey ia?aaeaaony ia ?anniio?aiea Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee. I?eiyoue Oaae. caeii i athaeaeaoa a oa/. Iyoe aeiae iai?aaeyaony I?aceaeaioo ?O aeey iiaeienaiey e iaia?iaeiaaiey. 3. Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa ia/eiaaony iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey athaeaeaoa caeiiiaeao-ie i?aaiaie e iiaeiene I?aceaeaioii ?O. Yoa noaaeey aeeth/aao auiieiaiea aeioiaeiie e ?anoiaeiie /anoae athaeaeaoia. Aaaeiaeoay caaea/a eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa - iaania/aiea iieiiai e naiaa?aiaiiiai iinooieaiey iaeiaia e ae?oaeo ieaoaaeae e aeioiaeia a oeaeii e ii eaaeaeiio enoi/ieeo, a oaeae oeiaine?iaaiea ia?ii?eyoee a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo a athaeaeaoa noii. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiay ?aaioa ii eniieiaieth oaae. athaeaeaoa i?iaiaeeony Ieioeiii ?O, aai iiae?acaeaeaieyie e i?aaiaie, a aoeaea Ainiaeianeoaeaie ?O e Ain. oaiiae. eiieoaoii ?O e eo i?aaiaie ia ianoao. I?e eniieiaiee athaeaeaoa aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao i?aaeeueiia e yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea anao aeaeia ieaoaaeae e anneaiiaaiee ooaa?aeaeaiiiai oaae. athaeaeaoa, inou-iia ii athaeaeaoiie ?iniene aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. I?aaiecaoeey eniieiaiey athaeaeaoia e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia aiceiaeaia ia iiaoth no?oeoo?o Ieioeia ?O - Oaae. eacia/aenoai ?O. 4. Ninoaaeaiea io/aoa ia eniieiaiee athaeaeaoa e ooaa?aeaeaiea aai a cae-iuc i?aaiao aeanoe. Any ?aaioa ii nioaaeaieth io/aoia aiceiaeaia ia Iei-ai oeiainia ?O e aai oei. i?aaiu, Ainiaeianeoaeao e aa iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee, Ain. oaiiae. eiieoao e aai i?aaiu. Yoe io/aou iai?aaeythony niioa. i?aaiaie ain. aeanoe. Io/ao i oaae. athaeaeaoa ?O aeieeaaeuaaaony Oaae. Nia?aieth ?O, eioi?ia aai ooaa?aeaeaao. Aeey inou-y eiio?iey ca eniieiaieai oaae. athaeaeaoa Niaao Oaaea?aoeee e Ain. Aeoia ia?acotho N/aoioth iaeaoo, ninoaa e ii?yaeie aeayo-oe eioi?ie ii?aaeaeytho oaae. caeiiii. ***Ana noaaeee athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu e acaeiinaycaiu e yae. i?yiui io?aaeaieai ia oieueei yeii. aeecie iau-aa, ii e iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna: aieaa aiaea ia?aay e aoi?ay noaaeee; aiae (n 1 yiaa?y aei 31 aeaeaa?y) - eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa; ieiei iieoaiaea - ninoaaeaiea io/aoa ia eniieiaiee athaeaeaoa e aai ooaa?aeaeaiea.? 35. Nayce iaaeaeo aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie e ae?oaeie caaiueyie oeiainiaie nenoaiu.Aaaeiui caaiii oei. nenoaiu yae. aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu ain-aa - niaieoiiinoue oei. ?ano?nia, iaoiaeyueony a ?anii?yaeaiee oeaio?. eee ?aaeiiaeueiuo ianoiuo i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey e eiathueo oeaeaaia iacia/aiea. Ii?yaeie eo ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiey ?aaeaiaioe?oaony oei. i?aaii. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu - iaeei ec iaoiaeia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoe. aeioiaea i?aaiaie aeanoe a iieueco ii?aae. nioe. a?oii ianaeaiey. Ain-ai iiaeeecoao a oiiaeu /anoue aeioiaeia ianaeaiey aeey oeiaine?iaaiey naieo ia?ii?eyoee. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu ?aoatho aeaa aaaeiaeoea caaea/e: iaania/aiea aeiiieieo. n?-aaie i?ei?eoaoiuo noa? ye-ee e ?anoe?aiea nioe. oneoa ianaeaiey. Ia?aiia/aeueii aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iiyaeeenue a aeaea niaoe. oiiaeia eee iniauo n/aoia caaeieai aei aicieeiiaaiey aaeeiiai oeaio?aeueiiai aeai. oiiaea ain-aa - athaeaeaoa. A nia?. oneiaeyo ia?yaeo n athaeaeaoii iiauoaaony cia/aiea aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, oaaee/eaathony eie-ai e iauai yoeo oiiaeia. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu nicaeathony aeaoiy iooyie. Iaeei - yoi auaeaeaiea ec athaeaeaoa ii?aae. ?anoiaeia, eiathueo iniai aaaeiia cia/aiea, a ae?oaie - oi?ie?iaaiea aiaathaeaeaoiiai oiiaea n nianoa. enoi/ieeaie aeioiaeia aeey ii?aae. oeaeae. Niaoe. aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oeaeaaiai eniieueciaaiey. Iaoa?eaeueiui enoi/ieeii aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, eae e ae?oaeo caaiueaa oei. nenoaiu, yae. iaoe. aeioiae. Ini. iaoiaeu iiaeeecaoeee iaoe. aeioiaea a i?ioeanna aai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey i?e oi?ie?iaaiee oiiaeia - niaoe. iaeiae e nai?u, n?-aa ec athaeaeaoa e caeiu.?aciiia?acea aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iaoneiaeeaaao neiaeiua iiiainooiai/aoua nayce iaaeaeo yoeie oiiaeaie e ae?oaeie caaiueyie oei. nenoaiu. ?acee/atho iaeiinoi?iiiea, aeaonoi?iiiea e iiiainoi?iiiea oei. nayce. I?e iaeiinoi?iiieo naycyo aeai. n?-aa eaeoo a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee: io oei. caaiueaa e aiaathaeaeaoiiio oiiaeo. Oaeay naycue iiyaeyaony i?e oi?ie?iaaiee oiiaeia eee i?e eniieueciaaiee eie n?aaenoa. Iai?eia?, aaethoiua oiiaeu iiiaeo no?ai ia?acothony ca n/ao n?aaenoa oeaio?. athaeaeaoa a oi?ia aacaica?aoiuo noaneaeee. Iaeiinoi?iiiyy naycue iiyaeyaony e a oii neo/aa, eiaaea aiaathaeaeaoiue oiiae ia?a/eneyao /anoue naieo ?ano?nia ae?oaei oei. caaiueyi. I?e aeaonoi?iiieo naycyo aeai. iioie aeaeaeaony iaaeaeo aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie e ae?oaeie caaiueyie oei. nenoaiu a aeaoo iai?aaeaieo. Oae, oiiaeu nioe. no?aoiaaiey ia?acothony ia oieueei ca n/ao no?aoiauo aciinia, ii e n?aaenoa oeaio?. athaeaeaoa. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?e iaee/ee aeoeaiiai naeueaei iie i?eia?aoatho ain. oe. aoiaae e noaiiayony e?aaeeoi?ii athaeaeaoa. I?e iiiainoi?iiieo naycyo iaeei aiaathaeaeaoiue oiiae iaeiia?aiaiii i?eoiaeeo a nii?eeiniiaaiea n ?aciuie oei. caaiueyie e ae?oaeie aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie, o.a. aeaiueae aeaeaeoony a ?aciuo iai?aaeaieyo iaaeaeo ieie.Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu a oei. nenoaia ?innee nicaeaiu a niioa-e n Caeiiii ?NON? “Ia iniiaao athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa e athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna a ?NON?” (io 17 ieoya?y 1991 a.). Aeaaiay i?e/eia eo nicaeaiey - iaiaoiaeeiinoue auaeaeaiey /?acau/aeii aaaeiuo aeey iau-aa ?anoiaeia e iaania/aiea eo naiino. enoi/ieeaie aeioiaea. ?aoaiea ia ia?aciaaiee aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia i?eieiaao Oaae. Nia?aiea ?O, a oaeaea ain. i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua i?aaiu noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Oiiaeu aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue niaoe. oei. ?ano?naie aaaeiaeoea io?anee e noa?u ia?iaeiiai oic-aa (iai?eia?, oiiaeu IEIE?), a oaeaea ieacuaaoue nioe. iiiiuue a?aaeaeaiai ?O (ca n/ao ?acee/ii nicaeaaaaiuo nioe. oiiaeia). Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iaoiaeyony a nianoaaiiinoe ain-aa, ii yae. aaoiiiiiuie. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n 1992 a. ia/aei aeaenoaiaaoue aieaa aeaoo aeanyoeia aiaathaeaeaoiuo nioe. e yeii. oiiaeia, a oii /enea: nioeeaeueiua: Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O, Oiiae nioe. no?aoiaaiey, Ain. oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ?O, oiiaeu iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey, Oiiae iaycaoaeueiie nioe. iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey e ae?.; yeiiiie/aneea - Oaaea?aeueiue e oa??eoi?eaeueiua aei?iaeiua oiiaeu, Oiiae aini?iecaiaenoaa ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu ?O, oiiaeu oei. ?aaoee?iaaiey.? 36. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e ioieoeeiaeueiua oeaiiua aoiaae (oe.a.). Eo ?ieue a iie?uoee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.Ain. oe.a. - yoi aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa yieoaioa (ainoaea?noaa, /aua anaai a eeoea eacia/aenoaa) i?aae i?eia?aoaoaeai aeaiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa a oii, /oi yieoaio iaycoaony a n?ie e a iieiie ia?a iiaaneoue oeaiiua aoiaae, auiea/eaaoue i?e/eoathueany %-u, anee oaeiaua neaaeotho ec aeiaiai?a i iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, a oaeaea auiieiyoue i?i/ea iaycaoaeuenoaa, eio. iaiai?aiu a aeiaiai?a. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae i?eiyoi aeaeeoue ia ?uii/iua e ia?uii/iua a caaeneiinoe oi oiai, ia?auathony ee iie ia naiaiaeiii ?uiea (ia?ae/iii e aoi?e/iii) eee ia aoiaeyo ai aoi?e/iia ia?auaiea ia ae?aeao e naiaiaeii aica?auathony yieoaioo aei enoa/aiey n?iea eo aeaenoaey. Iniiaioth /anoue ain. oe.a. ninoaaeytho ?uii/iua. Aeaeu: iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia (aeey th?eae. eeoe). N?ie ia?auaiea aieaa 1 aiaea, aacaoiaaeiay oi?ia auionea; ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (AEI); iaeeaaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia (AENC), oi?ia - aoiaaeiay, n?ie ia?auaiey 1 aiae; iaeeaaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?anioaeeeaineiai aioo?aiiaai caeia ?NON? 1991a. , eiaioaiua ain. aeieaiauie iaeeaaoeeyie (AAeI), n?ie ia?. - 30 eao. Aunieee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee e iiiaia ae?oaia naeaeaee iaecaaaeiui auione ainoaea?noaii oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aeey ainoaea?noaa iie noaee eino?oiaioii aeey iieo/aiey eaieoaea /a?ac oiiaeiaue ?uiie. 1. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aoein?i/iua iaeeaaoeee. Aeaaiie caaea/ae yoe oe.a. yaeyaony oeiaine?iaaiea aeaoeoeeoa ain. athaeaeaoa ii ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiie oeaia. Yieoaioii aunooiaao Ieioei. Yienney i?iecaiaeeony ia n?ie 3, 6, 12 ianyoeaa a aacaoiaaeiie oi?ia. 2. Eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa. Aicieeiiaaiea eo naycaii n ?inoii caaeieaeaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa i?aaei?eyoeyi ?acee/iuo io?aneae oicyenoaa e oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. EI auioneathony n?ieii ia 1 aiae a aacaoiaaeiie oi?ia - a aeaea caienae ia n/aoao “aeaii” a oiieiiii/aiiuo aeaiiceoa?eyo. Aeioiae ninoaaeyao 40% aiaeiauo. Aeaaeaeueoeu a i?aaa i?iecaiaeeoue n ieie neaaeothuea iia?aoeee; iiaaoaoue e?aaeeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue, iiea/eaaoue aac ia?aie/aiee oiaa?u e oneoae, i?iaeaaaoue eo th?eaee/aneei e oece/aneei eeoeai, niaa?oaoue caeiaiaua iia?aoeee, iiaaoaoue n iieo/aieai i?ioeaioia. 3. Iaeeaaoeee aioo?aiiaai aaethoiiai caeia. Yieoaio - Ieioei. Eoiiiiay noaaea - 3% aiaeiauo, auiea/eaaaony 14 iay eaaeaeiai aiaea. 4. Iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia n ia?aiaiiui eoiiiiui i?ioeaioii. Yieoaio - Ieioei. Aaee/eia eoiiiiiai aeioiaea ?ann/eouaaaony ioaeaeueii aeey eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea aai auieaou e iauyaeyaony ii ia?aiio eoiiio ca 7 aeiae aei aeaou ia/aea ?aciauaiey. 5. Ainoaea?noaaiiue naa?aaaoaeueiue caei. ANC auioneaaony a aeieoiaioa?iie oi?ia, a aeaea iaeeaaoeee ia i?aaeuyaeoaey, n i?ioeaioiui aeioiaeii, eioi?ue aeey ia?aiai eo auionea ?aaai 102.7% aiaeiauo. Iaeeaaoeee caeia naiaiaeiu a ia?auaiee, eo aeaaeaeueoeaie iiaoo auoue eae th?eaee/aneea, oae e oece/aneea eeoea. Iiieiae iaeeaaoeee - 100 e 500 ?oa. ?uiie oe.a. a ?innee anaaaea aoaeao iiaeaeaeiui, io?aaeay nouanoaothuea a no?aia yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea ?aaeee. A 1992 a. a ?innee ia/aeinue ainnoaiiaeaiea ?uiea ioieoeeiaeueiuo oe.a. E?oiiua caeiu naeaeaiu Iineaie, Othiaiueth, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aii. Auione iaeeaaoeee i?aaiaie aeanoe noauaeoia ?O , a oaeaea i?aaiaie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ?aaoee?oaony ia niaoeeaeueiuie, a iaueie aeey auionea anao oeaiiuo aoiaa ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie. IA aeaeyony: aeey iauaai iie?uoey e aeioiaeiua iaeeaaoeee (oeaeaaua). Ia?aua i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa e oeiaine?iaaiey oaeoueo ?anoiaeia. I?aiaeaaeatho oeaeaaua caeiu. Iaeaieueooth a?oiio n?aaee yoeo caeiia ninoaaeytho aeeeeuiua caeiu, a oaeaea caeiu, eiathuea nioeeaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Ioieoeeiaeueiua iaeeaaoeee yieoe?othony a oi?ia eeai e?aoein?i/iuo (1-12 ian.), eeai n?aaeian?i/iuo (1-3, iaeneioi 10 eao) iaycaoaeuenoa. Ii/oe ai anao neo/ayo aa?aioaie aunooiatho naie yieoaiou. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho aeeeeuiua caeiu, aa?aioaie eioi?uo aunooiaao ?aaeiiaeueiay aaeieieno?aoeey, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo - eiiia?/aneea aaiee.? 37. Iniiaiua aeaeu iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.Eiii. aaiee ninaoaeytho einoye e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu ethaie no?aiu n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie e eiioeaio?e?otho iniiaioth /anoue aa e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia. Naaiaeiy eiii. aaie niiniaai i?aaeeiaeeoue eeeaioo aei 200 aeaeia ?aciiia?aciuo aaieianeeo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa. Aaaeiaeoeie ooieoeeyie eiii. aaieia yae.: *aeeoioeyoeey a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeai. n?aaenoa, naa?aaeaiee, iaeiieaiee; *e?aaeeoiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee, ain-aa e ianaeaiey; *i?aaiecaoeey e inou-a ?an/aoia a oic-aa; *o/ao aaenaeae e iia?aoeee n ieie; *iia?aoeee n oe. aoiaaaie; *o?aiaiea oei. e iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae; *oi?aaeaiea eiouanoaii eeeaioia ii aeiaa?aiiinoe (o?anoiaua iia?aoeee). Iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia aeaeyony ia aeoeaiua e ianneaiua. Ianneaiua iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia - yoi iia?aoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa, ?ano?nia aaiea, eioi?ua io?aaeathony a ianneaa aai aaeaina. Nooue eo ninoieo a i?eaea/aiee ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeeaaeia, iieo/aiee e?aaeeoia io ae?oaeo aaieia, yiennee nianoa. oe/a e i?iaaaeaiee ae?oaeo iia?aoeee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo oaaee/eaathony aaieianeea ?ano?nu. ?ano?nu eiii. aaieia ia?acothony ec aeaoo enoi/ieeia: 1. Nianoa. eaieoae e i?e?aaiaiiua e iaio ?ano?u; 2. I?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth aaieianeiai aeciana yae. oi, /oi ii ?aaioaao i?aeiouanoaaiii ia /oaeii eaieoaea. Nianoa. eaieoae iau/ii ninoaaeyao iaiaa 10% ?ano?nia eiii. aaiea, i?eaea/aiiua n?-aa - aieaa 90%. Nianoa. eaieoae aaiea ninoieo ec aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea e ?aca?aia. Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae aeeth/aao: i?inoua aeoeee, i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua aeoeee, ecauoi/iue eaieoae (?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie eo?niaie oeaiu aeoeee e eo iiieiaeii) e ia?ani?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue. ?aca?au aeeth/atho: ?aca?a ia neo/ae iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, ?aca?a ia auieaoo aeeaeaeaiaeia, ?aca?a ia iie?uoea iioa?ue io iaiiaaoaiiuo nnoae eee eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. I?eaea/aiiua n?-aa aaiea ninoaaeytho iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue ?ano?nia eiii. aaiea; iniiaioth /anoue yoeo n?-a ninoaaeytho aeaiiceou, o.a. aeaiueae, aianaiiua a aaie eeeaioaie. E ianneaiui iia?aoeeyi ioiinyony: *i?eai aeeaaeia, *ioe?uoea e aaaeaiea n/aoia eeeaioia, *auione nianoa. oe/a (aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee), oei. eino?oiaioia (aaenaeae, aeaiiceoiuo naa?aaaoaeueiuo na?oeoeeaoia), *iieo/aiea iaaeaaieianeeo e?aaeeoia e e?aaeeoia io ae?oaeo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a o./. e?aaeeou Oeaio?. aaiea ii noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey. Aeaeu aeaiiceoiuo n/aoia a ie?iaie i?aeoeea i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu e /enei eo auno?i ?anoao. Iniiaiia aeaeaiea caaeneo io n?iea aeaiiceoa. Aeaa aaaeiaeoea ?aciiaeaeiinoe: aeaiiceou aei aino?aaiaaiey e aeaiiceou ia n?ie (n?i/iua). Aeeaaeu aei aino?aaiaaiey aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aeaaeaeueoeai iieo/aoue aeaiueae a ethaia a?aiy ii ia?aiio o?aaiaaieth e i?iecaiaeeoue ?an/aou n iiiiuueth auienee n/aoa eee yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu ieaoaaeae. N?i/iua aeaiiceou eiatho aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe: n?i/iua aeeaaeu e naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu. Iie iiaoo auoue ecuyou oieueei a niioa-e ni n?ieii o?aiaiey, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa eeeaio eeoaaony i?ioeaioia eee oiea/eaaao aaieo oo?ao. Auno?ue ?ino aeeaaeia ianeieueei nieaeaao aeioiaeiinoue aaiea, ii iiauoaao o?iaaiue eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina. Naa?aaaoaeueiua aeeaaeu a ?innee iiae?acaeaeythony ia n?i/iua, oeaeaaua, iaeiieoaeueiua, n?i/iua aeaiiceou, aeaiaaeii-aauaaua, auea?uoiua e ae?. N ia/aea 1993 a. oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee iia?aoeee ii i?eaea/aieth n?aaenoa iooai auionea aaieianeeo aaenaeae. Iiiaea aaiee ia/aee auioneaoue nianoaaiiua i?inoua aaenaey, eee, eae eo iacuaatho - “niei-aaenaeue”. Ii Caeiio i iaeiaa ia iia?aoeee n oe/a iia?aoeee n i?inouie aaenaeyie ia iaeaaathony iaeiaii.?aciauaiea iiaeeeciaaiiuo ?ano?nia aaiea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey aeioiaea e iaania/aiey eeeaeaeiinoe ii?aaeaeyao niaea?aeaiea aai aeoeaiuo iia?aoeee.Aeoeaiua iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 4 aieueoea a?oiiu: 1. E?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee (nnoaeu, oaeoi?eiaiaua e eeceiaiaua naeaeee), 2. Eiaanoeoee a oe/a, 3. Eanniuaa iia?aoeee, 4. Iin?aaeie/aneea e aeiaa?eoaeueiua iia?aoeee. Aaaeiaeoei iai?aaeaieai aeoeaiuo iia?aoeee eiii. aaieia anaaaea auei e inoaaony aei neo ii? e?aaeeoiaaiea, o.a. auaea/a nnoae eeeaioai. Eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayo-oue - a i?ioeanna eioi?ie aaiee aunooiatho a ea/-aa eiaanoi?a, aeeaaeuaay ?ano?nu a oe/a eee i?eia?aoay i?aaa ii niaianoiie oic. aeayo-oe (aeoeee). Aaiee iaycaiu iaania/eoue /aoeia eanniaia ianeoaeeaaiea naieo eeeaioia, auiieiyy eanniaua iia?aoeee. Niaea?aeaiea eanniauo iia?aoee - i?eai, auaea/a e o?aiaiea aeai. n?-a.? 38. Aaeieieno?aoeaiua e oeiainiaua naieoeee iaeiaiauo i?aaiia a ioiioaiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee aicieeaao i?e nie?uoee (caieaeaiee) i?eauee (aeioiaea), nie?uoee iauaeoia io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?e ianaiaa?aiaiiii ia?a/eneaiee iaeiaia (ieaoaaeae) a niioaaonoaothuea o?iaie athaeaeaoa, i?e iaeni?aaiii (iaoi/iii) aaaeaiee o/aoa cao?ao e ae?.Ainoaea?noaaiiui iaeiaiaui einiaeoeeyi e eo aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai i?eiaiyoue e i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?aaiecaoeeyi e o/?aaeaeaieyi onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii naieoeee.a) oeiainiaua naieoeee. Oeiainiaua naieoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiua iiaeioieoii “a” i.1 no.13 Caeiia ?O io 27.12.91 a. “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O”, i?eiaiythony ca onoaiiaeaiiua yoie noaoueae ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa, aeiiouaiiua n iiiaioa aaaaeaiey caeiia a aeaenoaea, o.a. n 01.01.92 a. Yoe naieoeee i?eiaiythony a oii neo/aa, anee i?e i?iaa?ea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa, aeiiouaiiua eie i?e ninoaaeaiee aiaeiaiai io/aoa i oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie eee ae?oaie aeayoaeueiinoe ca 1991 a., o.a. a ia?eiae aeaenoaey iacaaiiiai caeiia. Iniiaaieai aeey i?eiaiaiey naieoeee yaeyaony iaeniieiaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii naieo iaycaiiinoae, aicieeathueo i?e iaee/ee o iaai iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e a i?aaeoniio?aiiuo noaoueae 8 caeiia “I ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeaa ?O” e no.13 Caeiia ?O “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O” a neo/ayo ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa. Oeiainiaua naieoeee i?eiaiythony oieueei ii ?acoeueoaoai aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea: 1. Ca nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea aeioiaea (i?eauee) iaeiaiaui i?aaiii acuneeaaaony any noiia nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea e oo?ao a ?acia?a oie aea noiiu; 2. Ca eiie nie?uoue eee iao/oaiiue iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (e?iia nie?uoey aeioiaea) n i?aaei?eyoey acuneeaaaony noiia iaeiaa e oo?ao a ?acia?a oaeie aea noiiu; 3. Ca iiaoi?iia ia?ooaiea, aeiiouaiiia i?aaei?eyoeai a oa/aiea aiaea n iiiaioa i?eiaiaiey naieoeee ca aiaeiae/iia ia?ooaiea e i?aaei?eyoeth i?eiaiythony iaeiaiaua naieoeee a aeaea acuneaiey anae noiiu nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea, eeai noiiu iaeiaa ca eiie nie?uoue eee iao/oaiiue iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e oo?aoa a aeaoe?aoiii ?acia?a yoie noiiu; 4. Ca ionoonoaea aaaeaiey o/aoa iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e ninoaaeaiea io/aoia i oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n ia?ooaieai onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?yaeea, /oi aea/ao ca niaie nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea aeioiaea ca i?iaa?yaiue ia?eiae, i?aaei?eyoea oiea/eaaao oo?ao ca eaaeaeia ia?ooaiea a ?acia?a 10% aeiia/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaa; 5. Ca iai?aaenoaaeaiea eee ianaiaa?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai a iaeiaiaue i?aai aeieoiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey en/eneaiey, a oaeaea oieaou iaeiaia; 6. Ca iaaianaiea eni?aaeaiee a aoo. io/aoiinoue a ?acia?a noiiu nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea, auyaeaiiiai i?iaa?eaie iaeiaiauo i?aaiia; 7. Anee i?aaei?eyoea, inouanoaeythuaa oic. aeayoaeueiinoue, ia iiaeao oieaoeoue onoaiiaeaiiua cae-aii iaeiae e ae?oaea ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, iaeiaiaue i?aai a niioa-e n cae-aii eiaao i?aai ia?aoeoueny a a?aeo?aaeiue noae i i?eciaiey i?aaei?eyoey ianinoiyoaeueiui (aaie?ioii). Cae-aii onoaiiaeaia nenoaia naieoeee e oic. noauaeoai ca ianaiaa?aiaiiinoue io/eneaiey aeai. n?-a a ain. aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. Anee i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaei?eieiaoaee ia niaethaeatho oneiaey ?aaiou n aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoueth, a oaeaea ii?yaeie aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee a ?O, oi e iei i?eiaiythony neaae. aeaeu oei. naieoeee (oo?aou): 1) ca inou-a ?an/aoia iaee/iuie aeai. n?-ie n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaeaeueiuo noii; 2) ca iaii?eoiaeiaaiea a eanno aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe; 3) ca ianiaethaeaiea aeaenoaothuaai ii?yaeea o?aiaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea ca iaeiieaiea a eannao iaee/iuo aeaiaa naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia. Auoaiacaaiiua naieoeee e iaaeieiee n i?aaei?eyoee acuneeaathony a aannii?iii ii?yaeea. I?aaiu Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O iaycaiu inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue e i?eiaiyoue naieoeee ca iaoieaoo ieaoaaeae eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue ieaoaeueueeia onoaiiaeaia caeiiii eee ae?oaeie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie ?O. Ca eaaeaeia a ioaeaeueiinoe ia?ooaiea i?eiaiythony oo?aoiua naieoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiua ii.a i.1 caeiia ?O “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O”.a) aaeieieno?aoeaiua naieoeee. I?aaa iaeiaiauo i?aaiia ii i?eiaiaieth naieoeee a aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea i?aaeoniio?aiu no.7 caeiia ?O “I ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeaa ?O” io 25.02.93a. iaeiie ec oi?i i?iyaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony ecuyoea aeieoiaioia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i ia?ooaiee. A niioa-e n aeaenoaothueie iieiaeaieyie a iauai e ninoaa aeieoiaioia, iiaeeaaeaueo ecuyoeth o i?aaei?eyoey, aoiaeyo neaaeothuea: ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou, aeai. aeieoiaiou, ieaiu, niaou, aeaeea?aoeee, ni?aai/iua iaoa?eaeu, ?an/aou, a oaeaea eiua aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n ia/eneaieai e oieaoie iaeiaia e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo io/eneaiee a athaeaeao. Aaeieieno?aoeaiua oo?aou i?eiaiythony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaa?ee i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeee e oec. eeoe auyaeaiu ia?ooaiey a:1) nie?uoee (caieaeaiee) aeioiaea (i?eauee) eee nie?uoee (iao/oaiee) eiuo iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;2) ionoonoaee aoo. o/aoa eee aaaeaiee aai n ia?ooaieyie onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?yaeea, a oaeaea eneaaeaiee aoo. io/aoia, aaeainia;3) iai?aaenoaaeaiee, ianaiaa?aiaiiii i?aaenoaaeaiee eee i?aaenoaaeaiee ii iaonoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia aoo. io/aoia, aaeainia e o.ae.;4) ia?ooaiee a?aaeaeaiaie cae-aa i i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayo-oe, a ioiioaiee eioi?ie eiaaony niaoe. cai?auaiea;5) iai?aaenoaaeaiea aeaeea?aoeee i aeioiaeao, a oaeaea a i?aaenoaaeaiee aa n eneaaeaiiuie aeaiiuie.?oeiaiaeeoaee aaieia e e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ianoo aaeieieno?aoeaioth ioa-oue ca ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai cae-aa, aeiiouaiiua a aeayo-oe aaieia a niioaaonoaee:*ioe?uoey ?an/aoiiai eee eiiai n/aoa iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii aac i?aaeuyaeaiey aeieoiaioa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai iinoaiiaeo ia o/ao a iaeiaiaii i?aaia, a oaeaea ca ianiiauaiea iaeiaiaiio i?aaio ia ioe?uoee oeacaiiuo n/aoia;*nie?uoea (caieaeaiea) aeioiaeia aaiea;*caaea?aeeo eniieiaiey ii?o/aiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo ii ia?a/eneaieth iaeiaia a athaeaeao eee ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e eniieueciaaiea iaia?a/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaia a ea/anoaa e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia.? 39. Iaeia ia i?eaueue: ii?iaoeaiay aaca, ieaoaeueueee, iauaeo iaeiaeaiey.Ii?iaoeaiie aacie aeey iaeiaa ia i?eaueue yaeyaony Eino?oeoeey Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O “I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee” io 10 aaaonoa 1995 a. ?37, ecaeaiiay ia iniiaaiee: Caeiia ?O io 27 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. “I iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee”; Caeiia ?O io 27 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O”; Caeiia ?NON? io 21 ia?oa 1991 a. “I Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeaa ?NON?”. Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa yaeythony: 1. I?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee (a oii /enea athaeaeaoiua), yaeythueany th?eae. eeoeaie ii cae-ao ?O, aeeth/ay nicaeaiiua ia oa??eoi?ee ?O i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie, a oaeaea iaaeae. iauaaeeiaiey e i?aaiecaoeee, inouanoaeythuea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue; 2. Oeeeaeu e ae?oaea iainiaeaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, eiathuea ioaeaeueiue aaeain e ?an/aoiue (oaeouee) n/ao; 3. Eiii. aaiee ?ace. aeaeia, aeeth/ay aaiee n o/anoeai eiino?. Eaieoaea, iieo/eaoea eeoeaiceth OeA ?O; Aaie aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?O; Oeaio?. Aaie ?O e aai o/?aaeaeaiey a /anoe i?eauee, iieo/aiiie io aeayoaeueiinoe, ia naycaiiie n ?aaoee?iaaieai aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa; 4. Oeeeaeu aaieia e e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, eiathuea ioae. aaeain e ei??aniiiaeaioneee noan/ao, aeeth/ay oeeeaeu eiino?. aaieia-ia?aceaeaioia, iieo/eaoea eeoeaiceth OeA ia i?iaaaeaiea aaie. iia?aoeee, ca eneeth/aieai oeeeaeia (ioaeaeaiee) Naa?. aaiea ?O; 5. I?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiey, caieiathueany no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth (eiathuea eeoeaiceth ia inou-a yoie aeayo-oe), a oaeaea eo oeeeaeu, eiathuea aaeain n eiia/iui oei. ?acoeueoaoii aeayo-oe e ioae. ?an/aoiue n/ao. Ia yaeythony ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?eaueue: 1) i?aaei?eyoey ethauo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i ii i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie eie n/o e ioioioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ca eneeth/aieai n/o i?aaei?eyoee eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia, ii?aaeaeyaiuo ii ia?a/ith, ooaa?aeaeaaiiio caeiiiaeao. i?aaiaie noauaeoia ?O; 2) Oeaio?. aaie ?O e aai o/?aaeaeaiey ii i?eauee, iieo/aiiie io aeayo-oe, naycaiiie n ?aaoee?iaaieai aeai. ia?auaiey; 3) iaeua i?aaei?eyoey (/eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo aei 15 /aeiaae), i?eiaiythuea oi?iuaiioth nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe e o.ae. Iauaeoii iaeiaeaiey yae. aaeiaay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey (e?aaeeoiaia naeueaei ii n/aoo 80 “I?eauee e oauoee”). Aaeiaay i?eaueue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio i?eauee (oauoea) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), iniiaiuo oiiaeia (aeeth/ay caiaeueiua o/anoee) eiiai eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey e aeioiaeia io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee, oiaiueoaiiuo ia noiio ?anoiaeia ii yoei iia?aoeeyi. I?eaueue (oauoie) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee aac IAeN e aeoeecia e cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth, aeeth/aaiuie a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. Cao?aou, ia?acothuea naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) a?oiie?othony a niioa-e n eo yeii. niaea?aeaieai ii neaaeothuei yeaiaioai:*iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (ca au/aoii noieiinoe aica?aoiuo iooiaeia). E iei ioiinyony cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, eniieuecoaiuo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa; oiieeaa e yia?aee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa; iieaoo ?aaio e oneoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?-?a, auiieiyaiuo noi?iiieie i?aaei?eyoeyie e o.ae.;*cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea, eioi?ua aeeth/atho cao?aou ia iieaoo iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea, aeeth/ay i?aiee ?aai/ei e neoaeauei ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou, noeioee?othuea e eiiiaine?othuea auieaou;*io/eneaiey ia nioe. ioaeaeu, io?aaeathuea iaycaoaeueiua io/eneaiey ii onoaiiaeaiiui cae-aii ii?iai i?aaiai ain. nioe. no?aoiaaiey, Iaineiiiiai oiiaea, ain. oiiaea caiyoinoe e iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey io cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea ?aaioieeia;*aii?oecaoeey ini. oiiaeia io?aaeaao noiio aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea ini. i?ieca. oiiaeia, en/eneaiiay enoiaey ec aaeainiaie noieiinoe e ooaa?aeaeaiiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea ii?i, aeeth/ay e onei?aiioth aii?oecaoeeth eo aeoeaiie /anoe, i?iecaiaeeioth a niioa-e n cae-aii;*i?i/ea cao?aou, e eioi?ui ioiinyony iaeiae, nai?u, ieaoaaee, io/eneaiey a no?ao. oiiaeu e ae?. iaycao. io/eneaiey, ieaoaaee ca aua?inu caa?yciythueo aauanoa, cao?aou ia eiiaiaee?iaee, cao?aou ia i?aaiecaoeeiiioth io?aio, ca iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia, aii?oecaoeey ii iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai e o.ae.A oeaeyo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aaeiaay i?eaueue oiaiueoaaony ia noiiu:*aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi e eiui oe. aoiaaai e i?ioeaioia ii ain. oe. aoiaaai, i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth;*aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo io aeieaaiai o/anoey a ae?. i?aaei?eyoeyo;*?acieoeu iaaeaeo au?o/eie e ?anoiaeaie, aeeth/ay ?anoiaeu ia iieaoo o?oaea, io oneoa (aeeth/ay aeioiaeu io a?aiaeu e ae?. aeaeia eniieueciaaiey) eaceii, ae?oaiai eai?iiai aeciana, aeaeainaeiiia, aeaeaiiieaca e o.ae.;*i?eauee io iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee;*i?eauee io no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe;*i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie n/o e ioioioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e o.ae.N 1 ai?aey 1999 aiaea noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, ca/eneyaiiai a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao, nieaeaia n 13 aei 11%. A ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaou iaeia ca/eneyaony ii noaaeai, onoaiaaeeaaaiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie (i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie) i?aaiaie noauaeoia ?O. Yoe noaaee oaia?ue ia iiaoo i?aauoaoue 19%. A iauae neiaeiinoe aaciaay noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue = 30% (19%+11%). Aeey i?aaei?eyoee, iieo/eaoeo i?eaueue io iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee e naeaeie, a oaeaea aeey no?aoiaueeia, ae?ae, a?iea?neeo eiioi?, aaieia e ae?. e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaeiiaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaia noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a ?acia?a, ia i?aauoathuai 27%.? 40. Aeoeecu: yeiiiie/aneay nouiinoue, iauaeo e iioeau iaeiaeaiey.Aeoeecu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie einaaiiua iaeiae, aeeth/aaiua a oeaio oiaa?a e iiea/eaaaiua iieoiaoaeai. Aeoeecu onoaiaaeeaathony ia aeaoeoeeoioth, auniei?aioaaaeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth e ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oiaa?ia, ia eioi?ua nio?aiythony iiiiiieueiua i?aaa ainoaea?noaa, n oeaeueth ecuyoey a athaeaeao aicieeathuae i?e i?iecaiaenoaa yoeo oiaa?ia naa?oi?eauee. A ?inn. Oaaea?aoeee aeey oiaa?ia ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aeoeecu aaaaeaiu n 01.01.92a. Caeiiii ?O “Ia aeoeecao” io 06.12.91a. Iniiaiie ii?iaoeaiue aeieoiaio ii aeoeecai - Eino?oeoeey Ain. iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O “I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou aeoeecia” io 10 aaaonoa 1998a. ?47. Ieaoaeueueeaie aeoeecia yae. i?iecaiaeyuea e ?aaeecothuea iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e aaaeiinoaaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Aeoeecaie iaeaaathony neaae. oiaa?u: nie?o yoeeiaue ec anao aeaeia nu?uey (ca eneeth/aieai nie?oa eiiuey/iiai, nie?oa-nu?oea e nie?oa aeaiaoo?e?iaaiiiai), nie?oiniaea?aeauay i?iaeoeoeey (ca eneeth/aieai aeaiaoo?e?iaaiiie), aeeiaieueiay i?iaeoeoeey (nie?o ieoueaaie, aiaeea, eeea?i-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey, eiiueyee, aeii), ieai, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, thaaee?iua ecaeaeey (a?eeeeaiou - 10%), a?ociaua aaoiiiaeee, aaicei aaoiiiaeeueiue, eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee (ca eneeth/aieai aaoiiiaeeae n ?o/iui oi?aaeaieai), iaoiaua ecaeaeey (35%), ecaeaeey ec o?onoaey (20%), iaeaaeaea ec iaoo?. eiaee (35%), iaooue, aeeth/ay aaoiaue eiiaeainao. Ia iaeaaathony aeoeecaie: nie?oiniaea?aeauea eaea?noaaiiua, ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneea, aeeaaiinoe/aneea n?aaenoaa; niie?oiniaea?aeauea i?aia?aou aaoa?eia?iiai iacia/aiey; ia?othia?ii-einiaoe/aneay i?iaeoeoeey; nie?oiniaea?aeauea iooiaeu, ia?acothueany i?e i?iecaiaenoaa nie?oa yoeeiaiai ec ieuaaiai nu?uey, aiaeie, iiaeeaaeauea aeaeueiaeoae ia?a?aaioea. A iano. a?aiy onoaiaaeeaathony neaae. eueaiou ii aeoeeciui ieaoaaeai. Aeoeecaie ia iaeaaathony iiaeaeoeeciua yenii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u (ca i?aaeaeu no?ai NIA), a oaeaea iiaeaeoeeciua a ?O oiaa?u, iinooieaoea n oa??. no?ai NIA, i?e aaica ia oa??eoi?eth ?O. Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii aeoeecai ?aiueoa yaeyeanue ioioneiay oeaia oiaa?ia, eoaea aoiaeeee aeoeecu. A iano. a?aiy iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yae. no-oue oiaa?ia aac aeoeecia. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa i?eieiaaony no-oue ?aaeecoaiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, en/eneaiiay ec oeai ?aaeecaoeee aac o/aoa IAeN. Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yae.:a) ii oiaa?ai, i?iecaiaeeiui ia oa??eoi?ee ?O: *aeey i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaeyueo e ?aaeecothueo iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u, ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu aaeaaei?iua (a %-oao) noaaee aeoeecia, ca eneeth/aieai iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, a oaeaea aeey i?aaiecaoeee, eniieuecothueo i?iecaaaeaiiua iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, ia iaeaaaaiuo aeoeecaie, e (eee) aeey nianoa. ioaeae, - no-oue iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeyaiay enoiaey ec ioioneiuo oeai aac o/aoa aeoeeca; *aeey i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaeyueo iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, aeey i?aaiecaoeee, inoucanoaeythueo ia?ae/ioth ?aaeecaoeeth eiioeneiaaiiuo e aanoicyeiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, a oaeaea oiaa?ia, eioi?ua aaacaiu ia oa??. ?O aac oaiiaeaiiiai ioi?ieaiey e ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu aaeaaei?iua noaaee aeoeecia, - no-oue yoeo oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeyaiay enoiaey ec ?ui. oeai aac o/aoa aeoeeca, neiaeeaoeony a aeaiiii ?aaeiia ia aiaeiae/iua oiaa?u a i?aaeuaeouai io/aoiii ia?eiaea;a) ii iiaeaeoeeciui oiaa?ai, ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu aaeaaei?iua noaaee aeoeecia e eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony ca i?aaeaeaie oa??eoi?ee ?O ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai i?aaiecaoeeyi-iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai a ?O, - no-oue ?aaeecoaiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia, ii?aaeaeyaiay enoiaey ec ioioneiuo oeai aac o/aoa aeoeeca; a) ii iiaeaeoeeciui oiaa?ai, ia eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu oaa?aeua (niaoeeoe/aneea) noaaee aeoeecia (a aaniethoiie noiia ia aaeeieoeo iaeiaeaiey), aeey anao i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay i?aaiecaoeee, i?iecaiaeyuea e ?aaeecothuea iiaeaeoeeciua oiaa?u ec aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, - iauai ?aaeeciaaiiuo iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee.2 ini. iioeaa iaeiaeaiey oiaa?ia aeoeecaie: *aunieay aeioiaeiinoue ii iiaeaeoeeciui oiaa?ai; *iiiiiieey ain-aa ia i?iecaiaenoai iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia.Ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo ii naiae i?e?iaea aeoeecu iaiiieiatho IAeN, iiyoiio eae e a ioiioaiee IAeN, oae e ii aeoeecai, aeaenoaoao i?eioeei ca/aoa ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao. Yoi icia/aao, /oi anee i?e i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia auee eniieueciaaiu nu?uea eee e-e ae?. oiaa?u (?ano?nu), ii eioi?ui aue oiea/ai aeoeec, oi noiia aeoeeca, iiaeeaaeauay aciino a athaeaeao, anoue ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie aeoeeca, iieo/aiiiai io iieoiaoaey, e noiiie aeoeeca, oiea/aiiiai i?iaeaaoeii. O/ao ?an/aoia n athaeaeaoii ii aeoeecai aeieaeai inou-ny ia n/aoa 68 “?an/aou n athaeaeaoii” ii ioae. noan/aoo “?an/aou ii aeoeecai”. Noiia aeoeeca, o/oaiiay ii n/aoo ?aaeecaoeee a ninoaaa au?o/ee, io?aaeaaony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 46 “?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)” e e?aaeeoo n/aoa 68. Ia?a/eneaiea aeoeeca a athaeaeao iieacuaaaony ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 68 a ei??aniiiaeaioeee ni n/aoii 51 “?an/aoiue n/ao”. Ioa-oue ca i?aaeeueiinoue en/eneaiey e naiaa?aiaiiinoue oieaou aeoeecia a athaeaeao aiceaaaaony ia ieaoaeueueeia. ?an/aou ii aeoeecai ninoaaeythony ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo iaeiieoaeueiuo aaaeiiinoae ?aaeecaoeee iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia. A iaeiieoaeueiuo aaaeiiinoyo aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoueny aeaiiua i eie-aa ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia, eo no-oe ii ioioneiui oeaiai, aeeth/ay aeoeec, ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio iaeiaiiaaieth ia iniiaaiee ia?ae/iuo ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia. Iiaen/ao aaaeiiinoae ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeony a n?iee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oieaou aeoeeca ca ii?aae ia?eiae. Iaeiieoaeueiua aaaeiiinoe ?aaeecaoeee iiaeaeoeeciuo oiaa?ia aaaeoony ieaoaeueueeaie ii oiaa?ai e a?oiiai oiaa?ia a ?ac?aca onoaiiaeaiiuo noaaie. N?iee ieaoaaeae. I?aaei?eyoey, i?iecaiaeyuea e ?aaeecothuea nie?oiua iaieoee, eeea?i-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey, ieai, aao. aaicei, aeieaeiu oiea/eaaoue aeoeecu iiaeaeaaeii, a eiaiii: ca ia?aoth aeaeaaeo - aei 15 /enea oaeouaai ianyoea, ca aoi?oth - aei 25, ca o?aoueth aeaeaaeo - aei 5 /enea neaae. ianyoea.? 41. Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe: ii?iaoeaiay aaca, ieaoaeueueee e iauaeou iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.Ii?iaoeaiay aaca: iiaeioiaeiue iaeia aceiaaony ia iniiaaiee Caeiia ?O “I iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe”, i?eiyoiai Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii ?O 7 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. Iniiaiui ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioii ya-ny Eino?oeoeey Ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O ii i?eiaiaieth Caeiia ?O “I iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe” io 29 ethiy 1995 a. ?35. Ieaoaeueueeaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa yaeythony oece/aneea eeoea (a?aaeaeaia ?O, a?aaeaeaia ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa), eae eiathuea, oae e ia eiathuea iinoiyiiiai ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa a ?O. E a?aaeaeaiai, eio. ?anniao?eaathony eae eiathuea iinoiyiiia ianoiaeeoaeuenoai a ?O, ioiinyony a?aaeaeaia, iaoiaeyueany a ?O a iauae neiaeiinoe ia iaiaa 183 (iieaiaea) aeiae a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo. Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey o oece/aneeo eeoe, eiathueo iinoiyiiia ianoiaeeoaeuenoai a ?O, ya-ny niaieoiiue aeioiae, iieo/aiiue a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo eae ia oa??eoi?ee ?O, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie eae a aeaiaaeiie, oae e a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, a oii /enea a aeaea iaoa?eaeueiie auaiaeu. Aeaoie iieo/aiey aeioiaea a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo ya-ny aeaoa auieaou aeioiaea (aeeth/ay aaainiaua auieaou), aeaoa ia?a/eneaiey aeioiaea, eeai aeaoa ia?aaea/e aeioiaea a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia oece/aneiio eeoeo. Aeioiaeu oec. eeoe, ia eiathueo iinoiyiiiai ianoiaeeoaeuenoaa a ?O, iiaeeaaeao iaeiaeaiey iaeiaii, anee oieueei iie iieo/aiu ec enoi/ieeia ia oa??eoi?ee ?O a aeaiaaeiie e iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia. Iiieii iieaou o?oaea a aeaiaaeiie eee iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, a ninoaa niaieoiiiai aeioiaea oece/aneeo eeoe aeeth/aaony noieiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo e nioeeaeueiuo aeaa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie, o/?aaeaeaieyie, i?aaiecaoeeyie e ae?. ?aaioiaeaoaeyie yoei eeoeai, a /anoiinoe: iieaoa eiiioiaeueii-auoiauo oneoa, aaiiaiaioia. Iiaeienee ia aacaou, aeo?iaeu, ieoaiey, i?iacaea e ianoo ?aaiou e ia?aoii, e?iia neo/aaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii; noiiu aaeeiia?aiaiiuo iiniaee oece/aneei eeoeai, ooiaeyuei ia iaineth; aianaiea (aiciauaiea) ieaou ca ?iaeeoaeae ia niaea?aeaiea aeaoae a aeaoneeo aeioeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, a oaeaea iieaou ca iao/aiea aeaoae a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo; ?acieoea a oeaia oiaa?ia, ?aaeeciaaiiuo oece/aneei eeoeai ii oeaia ieaea ?uii/iuo; anee i?aaei?eyoea eee i?aaiecaoeey ioioneaao oece/aneei eeoeai i?iaeoeoeeth nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aanieaoii, noiia noieiinoe oaeie i?iaeoeoeee aeieaeia auoue aeeth/aia a niaieoiiue aeioiae oece/aneeo eeoe enoiaey ec ?uii/iuo oeai ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth; noiiu iainee iacia/aaiuo e auiea/eaaaiuo ca n/ao n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee; noiiu io/eneaiee i?iecaiaeeiuo a iaainoaea?noaaiiua iaineiiiua oiiaeu; noieiinoue eiouanoaa, ?ani?aaeaeyaiiai a iieueco oece/aneeo eeoe i?e eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaiecaoeee e aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa eeeaeaee?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee. A niaieoiiue aiaeiaie aeioiae ia aeeth/athony: ainoaea?noaaiiua iiniaey (ii aac?aaioeoea, ii aa?aiaiiinoe e?iaeai e o.ae.), ca eneeth/aieai iiniaee ii a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe; ana aeaeu iainee, iacia/aaiua a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii iaineiiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, a oaeaea aeiiieieoaeueiua iainee, auiea/eaaaiua ia oneiaeyo aeia?iaieueiiai no?aoiaaiey; ana aeaeu onoaiiaeaiiuo a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eiiiainaoeeiiiuo auieao oece/aneei eeoeai a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i, naycaiiuo n auiieiaieai eie o?oaeiauo iaycaiiinoae, ia?aacaeii ia ?aaioo a ae?oaoth ianoiinoue, aiciauaieai eiiaiaee?iai/iuo ?anoiaeia, aiciauaieai a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai iia?aaeaeaieai caei?iauey, oaieueiaieai ?aaioieeia, aeaaeueth aiaiiineoaeaueo e o.ae. Noaaea iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa caaeneo io ?acia?a niaieoiiiai aeioiaea. Ieieiaeueiay noaaea - 12%. Aei 1 yiaa?y 1999a. , anee niaieoiiue aeioiae ia i?aauoae 20000 ?oaeae, ii iaeaaaeny ii noaaea 12%. N 1.01.99 i?iecioee eciaiaiey - ?acia? niaieoiiiai aeioiaea, iaeaaaaiiai ii ieieiaeueiie noaaea au?in aei 30000 ?oa. Aeey aeioiaeia nauoa 30000 ?oa. nouanoaoao i?ia?anneaiay oeaea noaaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa:Niaieoiiue aeioiaeNoaaea a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeaoNoaaea a athaeaeaou noauaeoia ?OAei 30000 ?oa.3%9%Io 30000 aei 600003%2700 (9% io 30000) +12% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 30000Io 60001 aei 900003%6300 (12% io 60000)+17% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 60000Io 90001 aei 1500003%11400+22% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 90000Io 150001 aei 3000003%24600+32% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 150000Io 3000003%72600 + 42% n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 300000? 42. Yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieyIiae iiiyoeai “i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea” iiieiatho anth niaieoiiinoue i?ioeannia acaeiiioiioaiey i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaea. Iauaeo - eiiieaen acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, anoanoaaiiuie oneiaeyie aeecie iau-aa e aai nioe. - yeii. ?acaeoeai. I?aaeiaoii i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey yae. Iioeiecaoeey yoeo ioiioaiee, no?aieaiea e nio?aiaieth e aini?iecaiaenoao n?aaeu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. A aieaa oceii cia/aiee i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea iiieiatho eae niaieoiiinoue anao oi?i yenieoaoaoeee i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioeeaea e ia? ii aai nio?aiaieth.Yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci aace?oaony ia caeiia ?O “Ia io?aia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu”, i?eiyoii a 1992 aiaeo. A iniiaiii eiaaony a aeaeo 3 ?acaeae caeiia - yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci io?aiu ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Ana caaea/e caeiia iiaoo auoue ?acaeou ia 3 /anoe:io?aia ie?oaeathuae e i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, e /a?ac iaa - caei?iauey /aeiaaeai?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey oicyenoaaiiie e ae?oaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia yeaiaiou yeinenoaiu;icaei?iaeaiea ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e oeo/oaiea aa ea/anoaa.Yeii. iao-i io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu eiaao naieie caaea/aie:ieaie?iaaiea e oeiaine?iaaiea i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee;onoaiiaeaiea eeieoia eniieueciaaiey i?e?. ?ano?nia, aua?inia e na?inia caa?yciythueo aauanoa a ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeo e ?aciauaiea iooiaeia;onoaiiaeaiea ii?iaoeaia ieaou e ?acia?ia ieaoaaeae ca eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia, aua?inu e na?inu caa?yciythueo aau-a a ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeo, ?aciauaiea iooiaeia e ae?. aeaeu a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey;i?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyi e a?aaeaeaiai iaeiaiauo, e?aaeeoiuo e eiuo eueaio i?e aiaae?aiee eie iaeiiooiaeiuo e ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee e iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeia yia?aee, inouanoaeaiee ae?oaeo yooaeoeaiuo ia? ii io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu;aiciauaiea a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaea e caei?iaueth /ae-ea.A aeaiiii ?acaeaea cae?aieaia no?oeoo?a yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia. Oae, no.16 iinayuaia o/aoo i?e?. ?ano?nia e aaaeaieth eo eaaeano?ia; a no.17 ?a/ue eaeao i ieaie?iaaiee i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ia naycaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii n yeii. aii?inaie, a eiaiii - n oeiaine?iaaieai i?e?iaeiio?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; nthaea aea aoiaeeo e iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. A no.18 aiai?eony i aeiaiai?a e eeoeaiceyo ia eiiieaeniia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea.A ninoaaa yeii. iaoaiecia io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiio iaania/aieth. A /enea ia?, oeo/oathueo aai, ia ia?aia ianoi auaeaeioou nicaeaiea e i?iecaiaenoai iiaaeoae aunieiyooaeoeaiie oaoieee, nii?oaeaiee, ono?ienoa, i?eai?ia, oaoiieiaee. A eniieueciaaiee e io?aia caiaeue - yoi iiaua oaoieea e niiniau aini?iecaiaenoaa ieiaei?iaeey ii/a, caueou eo io y?icee, iionouieaaiey, caa?yciaiey; a iaeanoe eniieueciaaiey e io?aiu aiae - i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aiaeinaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee, iaoiaeu i/enoee e iaacca?aaeeaaiey e o.i. A niaea?aeaiee e nenoaia ia? yeii. iao-ia aaaeiia ianoi caieiaao aeie ia?, naycaiiuo n i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieai. A Caeiia iii ?anniao?eaaaony oieueei ni noi?iiu aai yeieiaecaoeee, eioi?ay iaania/eaaaony oaeeie yeii. ia?aie, eae: a) ii?ie?iaaiea (eeieou) i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e a?aaeiiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo, onoaiaaeeaaaiua a eeoeaiceyo e aeiaiai?ao; a) ieaoa ca i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea. I?e/ai aua?inu e na?inu a?aaeiuo aau-a a cae-aa oaeaea ?anniao?eaathony eae aeaeu i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey, eia/a ca ieo iaaiciiaeii auei au onoaiaaeeaaoue ieaoo. Eeieou i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey au?aaeathony a onoaiiaeaiee ?acia?ia caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, iauaiia auaiee ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia ec iaae?, aiaeu ec aiaeiaiia, ?an/aoiie eaninaee a eanicaaioiaeao, eaio a ioioa e ?uaieianoaa./no.21/-Aeey ?aoaiey iaioeiaeiuo i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiuo caaea/, ainnoaiiaeaiey iioa?ue a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, eiiiainaoeee i?e/eiaiiiai a?aaea e ae?. i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiuo caaea/ nicaeaaony aaeeiay nenoaia aiaathaeaeaoiuo ain. yeieiae/aneeo oiiaeia, oiiaeu ia?acothony ec n?aaenoa, iinooiathueo io i?aaei?eyoee, a?aaeaeai, a oaeaea io eiino?. th?eae. eeoe e a?aaeaeai. /no.22/-Nicaeathony iauanoaaiiua oiiaeu io?aiu ie?oae. n?aaeu, oa aea oeaee. /no.23/-A ?O inou-ny aeia?iaieueiia e iaycaoaeueiia ain. yeieiae/aneia no?aoiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea a?aaeaeai, iauaeoia eo nianoaaiiinoe e aeioiaeia ia neo/ae yeieiae/aneiai e noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey, aaa?ee e eaoano?io. /no.24/-A ?O inou-ny noeioee?iaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu iooai:*onoaiiaeaiey iaeiaiauo e eiuo eueaio, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ain. e ae?oaei i?aaei?eyoeyi, a oii /enea i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiui, i?e aiaae?aiee iaeiiooiaeiuo e aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee e i?iecaiaenoa, eniieueciaaiee aoi?e/iuo ?ano?nia, inou-iee ae?oaie aeayo-oe, iaania/eaathuae i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiue yooaeo;*inaiaiaeaeaiey io i/iae. yeieiae/. oiiaeia;*onoaiiaeaiey iiauoaiiuo ii?i aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?e?iaeiio?aieoaeueiuo oiiaeia;*i?eiaiaiey iiiu?eoaeueiuo oeai e iaaeaaaie ia yeieiae/anee /enooth i?iaeoeoeeth;*aaaaeaiey niaoeeaeueiiai i/iae. yeieiae/anee a?aaeiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea i?iaeoeoeee, auioneaaiie n i?eiaiaieai yeieiae/anee iianiuo oaoiieiaee;*i?eiaiaiey eueaioiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey i?aaei?eyoee iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, yooaeoeaii inouanoaeythueo io?aio ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.Iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee caeiia niaea?aeeo aeaa /anoe: noaoe/ioth e aeeiaie/aneoth. Noao. /anoue oeene?oaony a ii?iao e noaoueyo caeiia; aeeiaie/. /anoue ii?aaeaeyao iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee yoeo ii?i a aeeciue.? 43. Aeaeu ieaoaaeae ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nuNenoaia yeii. ?aaoee?iaaiey i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey a ?innee noi?ie?iaaia Caeiiii “Ia io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu” (1992a.). Iniiaiui a yoie nenoaia yaeeinue neaaeothuaa: *iaee/ea ?ac?aoaiee ia aua?inu, auaeaaaaiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuie i?e?iaeiio?aiiuie eiieoaoaie; *iaee/ea aeiaiai?a eee eeoeaicee ia eiiieaeniia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea, a eioi?uo onoaiaaeeaathony aeiionoeiua iauaiu aua?inia, ieaiu i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, ii?iaoeau e ii?yaeie ?an/aoa e aianaiey ieaoaaeae ca caa?yciaiea ie?oae. n?aaeu; *aaaaeaiea ieaoaaeae ca caa?yciaiea; *nicaeaiea nenoaiu yeieiae/. oiiaeia; nicaeaiea nenoaiu iaeiaiauo eueaio.Nia?aiaiiay nenoaia ieaoaaeae ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny a 70-a aiaeu. Iiyaeeenue oaeea yeaiaiou, eae iiiaiiay ieaoa a eaniie i?ii-oe, ieaoa ca aiaeiua e caiaeueiua ?ano?nu, noaaee aiciauaiey cao?ao ia aaieiai-?acaaaei/iua ?aaiou. I?eiaiyeenue oaeaea oo?aoiua naieoeee ca ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia. A 1991a. i?eioeei “ieaoiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia” aue cae?aieai eae iniiaiiieaaathuee a Caeiia “Ia io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu” (no.20). Oeaeue aaaaeaiey ieaoiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey: *?aoeeiiaeueiia e eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia; *oeo/oaiea io?aiu ie?oae. n?aaeu; *au?aaieaaiea nioe.-yeii. oneiaee oicyenoaiaaiey i?e eniieueciaaiee i?e?. ?ano?nia; *oi?ie?iaaiea niaoe. oiiaeia oeiaine?iaaiey ii io?aia e aini?iecaiaenoao i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Nenoaia ieaoaaeae ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu: aeaeu ieaou, iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?a ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ieaou, ii?yaeie onoaiiaeaiey, ecuyoey e eniieueciaaiey ieaou. Auaeaeytho neaae. aeaeu ieaou ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu (caieth, iaae?a, aiaeo, ean, aeeaioiue ie?, ?ae?aaoeeiiiua e ae?. i?e?. ?ano?nu):ca i?aai iieueciaaiey i?e?. ?ano?naie a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia;ca naa?oeeieoiia e ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia;ca aini?iecaiaenoai e io?aio i?e?. ?ano?nia.Ieaoaeueueeaie yae. i?aaei?eyoey, iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, e-?ua eniieuecotho i?e?. ?ano?nu eee ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia ie?oae. n?aaeo, aia caaeneiinoe io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.Ieaoa ca iieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nii - yoi oeaia iio?aaeyaiiai eiee/anoaa ?ano?na eee oneoae, ieacuaaaiie i?e iieueciaaiee i?e?. ?ano?nii. Caeiiiaeaoaeueii aeaiiay ieaoa aeeth/aia a ninoaa iaeiaiaie nenoaiu (o.a. ieaoaaee ca i?e?. ?ano?nu yae. iaeiaaie). Ieaoa ca ia?aoeeii. eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia - yoi oi?ia yeii. ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ca oua?a, i?e/eiaiiue a ?acoeueoaoa ianiaethaeaiey ii?i e i?aaee io?aiu i?e?. ?ano?nia e eo ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey. Ieaoa ca aini?iecaiaenoai e io?aio i?e?. ?ano?nia - yoi eiiiainaoeey cao?ao i?aaiecaoeee e aaaeiinoa, e-?ua inou-tho aini?iecaiaenoai e io?aio ioae. Aeaeia i?e?. ?ano?nia. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee yoiai aeaea ieaoaaea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue:*cao?aou ca aini?iecaiaenoai i?e?. ?ano?na;*nenoaiu eiio?iey e iiieoi?eiaa ninoiyiey i?e?. ?ano?na;*iniaaiiinoe io?aiu eiie?aoiuo aeaeia i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia io io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoio aeae ieaoaaeae aeeth/aaony a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 2 aeaea ieaoaaeae, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho 2-i aeaeai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey:ieaoaaee ca ecuyoea i?e?iaeiiai aauanoaa (aeiau/a iaooe, eana);ieaoaaee ca na?inu (a aiaeiua nenoaiu), aua?inu (a aicaeoo) e ?aciauaiea iooiaeia (ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee e a iiaecaiiua ai?eciiou).Ieaoa ca caa?yciaiea ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu e ae?. aeaeu aicaeaenoaey aceiaaony ca: *aua?inu, na?inu caa?yciythueo aauanoa, ?aciauaiea iooiaeia e ae?. aeaeu caa?yciaiey a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia; *oi aea naiia naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia.Ia?aeeaeueii n aaaaeaieai ieaoaaeae ?acaeaaeanue nenoaia yeieiae/aneeo oiiaeia o?ao o?iaiae: ianoiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e oaaea?aeueiua. Ana ieaoaaee aeeoioee?othony a yeieiae/. oiiaeu. Ec anao nia?aiiuo ieaoaaeae ca caa?yciaiea 10% iinooiatho a aeioiae oaaea?. athaeaeaoa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aaiia ain. oi?aaeaiey a iaeanoe io?aiu ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu, a inoaaoeany 90% ?ani?aaeaeythony neaaeothuei ia?acii: 10% - a oaaea?. yeieiae/. oiiae; 30% - a ?aaeiiaeueiue e 60% - a ianoiue.Ii?yaeie en/eneaiey e i?eiaiaiey ii?iaoeaia ieaou ca eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia ii?aaeaeyaony I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O /i.5 no.20/. Aianaiea ieaou ca eniieueciaaiea i?e?. ?ano?nia ia inaiaiaeaeaao i?e?iaeiiieueciaaoaey io auiieiaiey ia?ii?eyoee ii io?aia ie?oae. i?e?. n?aaeu e aiciauaiey a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai yeieiae/. i?aaiia?ooaieai /i.6 no.20/.? 44. Iaycaoaeueiua ?aeaeceou aeoeee e eo na?oeoeeaoiaOeaiiie aoiaaie yaeyaony aeieoiaio, oaeinoiaa?ythuee n niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu e iaycaoaeueiuo ?aeaeceoia eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, inouanoaeaiea eee ia?aaea/a eioi?uo aiciiaeiu oieueei i?e aai i?aaeuyaeaiee. A niioa-e n caeiiii i ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, a ?innee nouanoaotho oieueei 2 oe. aoiaae - aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee.Aeoeey - yienneiiiay oeaiiay aoiaaa, cae?aieythuay i?aaa aa aeaaeaeueoea (aeoeeiia?a) ia iieo/aiea /anoe i?eauee a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee aeoeeiia?iui iau-aii e ia /anoue eiouanoaa, inoathuaainy iinea aai eeeaeaeaoeee (ii caeiio “I ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa”). Nouanoaoao oaeaea e ae?oaia ii?aaeaeaiea: Aeoeey - yoi oeaiiay aoiaaa, auioneaaiay aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii e oaeinoiaa?ythuay i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia aeieth a onoaaiii eaieoaea. Na-aa aeoeee: 1) aeoeey - yoi oeooe nianoaaiiinoe; 2) o aeoeee iao eiia/iiai n?iea iiaaoaiey; 3) ia?aie/aiiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue eiaanoi?a (oa?yao ia aieueoa, /ai aeiaeee); 4) aeey aeoeee oa?aeoa?ia iaaeaeeiinoue (niaianoiia aeaaeaiea aeoeeae ia naycaii n aeaeaieai i?aa iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeaie); 5) aeoeee iiaoo ?anuaieyoueny e eiinieeaee?iaaoueny.Aeoeey - yoi oi?iaeueiue aeieoiaio, iiyoiio niaeanii ii?aaeaeaieth oeaiiie aoiaae aeieaeia eiaoue iaycaoaeueiua ?aeaeceou. Niaeanii nouanoaothuei ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioai aeaiee aeoeee aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue neaaeothuea ?aeaeceou:1. oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa e aai ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea;2. iaeiaiiaaiea oeaiiie aoiaae - “aeoeey”;3. aa ii?yaeeiaue iiia?;4. aeaoo auionea;5. aeae aeoeee (i?inoay eee i?eaeeaae?iaaiiay);6. iiieiaeueioth noieiinoue;7. eiy aea?aeaoaey;8. ?acia? onoaaiiai oiiaea ia aeaiue auionea aeoeee;9. eiee/anoai auioneaaiuo aeoeee;10. n?ie auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia e noaaea aeeaeaeaiaea oieueei aeey i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee;11. iiaeienue i?aaenaaeaoaey i?aaeaiey aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa;12. ianoi ia/aoe, i?aaei?eyoea-ecaioiaeoaeue aeaieia oeaiiuo aoiaa.E?iia oiai, aiciiaeii oeacaiea ?aaeno?aoi?a e aai ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea e aaiea-aaaioa, i?iecaiaeyuaai auieaoo aeeaeaeaiaeia.Aeoeey iiaeao auoue auiouaia eae a aeieoiaioa?iie (aoiaaeiie, iaoa?eaeueiie) oi?ia, oae e a aacaeieoiaioa?iie oi?ia - a aeaea niioaaonoaothueo caienae ia n/aoao. I?e aeieoiaioa?iie oi?ia auionea aeoeee aiciiaeia caiaia aeoeee na?oeoeeaoii, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naeaeaoaeuenoai i aeaaeaiee iacaaiiui a iai eeoeii ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa aeoeee. I?e iieiie iieaoa aeoeee aeoeeiia? iieo/aao iaeei na?oeoeeao ia ana eiee/anoai i?eia?aoaiiuo ei aeoeee. Na?oeoeeao aeoeee aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue oa aea ?aeaeceou, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey aeoeee, a oaeaea oeacaiea ia eiee/anoai aeoeee, eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao aeaaeaeueoeo (aeoeeiia?o). A iaeioi?uo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioao na?oeoeeao aeoeee ioiinyo e oeaiiui aoiaaai, oioy yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea aeiaieueii nii?ii e iiaeao oneiaeieoue ia?auaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?eaanoe e iaeiia?aiaiiiio ia?auaieth eae aeoeee, oae e eo na?oeoeeaoia.? 45. Aeaeu aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ain-aa e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoeAeieaiaua oe. aoiaae, iiin?aaeothuea e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey, eiaaea aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa i?aaeinoaaeythony a iieueciaaiea ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie, iiaeeaaeao aica?aoo n oieaou onoaiiaeaiiiai ca?aiaa %-oa ca iieueciaaiea caaiiuie n?aaenoaaie. Yoi iaeay oi?ia e?aaeeoa. Yoi: iaeeaaoeee, aaenaey, aeaiiceoiua e naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou e /aee.Iaeeaaoeey (ii caeiio “I ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa) - yienneiiiay oe. aoiaaa, cae?aieythuay i?aai aa aea?aeaoaey ia iieo/aiea io yieoaioa iaeeaaoeee a i?aaeoniio?aiiue ath n?ie aa iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe eee eiiai eiouanoaaiiiai yeaeaaeaioa. Iaeeaaoeey - oe. aoiaaa, oaeinoiaa?ythuay ioiioaiey caeia iaaeaeo aa aeaaeaeueoeai (e?aaeeoi?ii) e eeoeii, auionoeaoei aa (caaiueeii). Iaeeaaoeee, a ioee/ea io aeoeee, ia yae. oeooeii nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai, a oieueei oaeinoiaa?ytho caai. Iaeeaaoeee eiatho eiia/iue n?ie iiaaoaiey; iaeaaeatho noa?oeinoaii ia?aae aeoeeae i?e auieaoa %-oia e oaeiaeaoai?aiee ae?oaeo iaycaoaeuenoa; ia aeatho i?aaa a oi?aaeaiee AI.Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae (AOeA) - yoi oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey ain. aioo?aiiaai aeieaa; yoi aeieaiaua oeaiiua aoiaae, yieoaioii eioi?uo aunooiaao ain-ai. Oioy ii naiae yeii. nooe ana aeaeu AOeA anoue aeieaiaua oeaiiua aoiaae, ia i?aeoeea eaaeaeay naiinoiyoaeueiay AOeA iieo/aao naia nianoaaiiia iacaaiea, iicaieythuaa ioee/aoue aa io ae?oaeo aeaeia iaeeaaoeee. Iau/ii e?iia oa?ieia “iaeeaaoeey” eniieuecothony oa?ieiu “eacia/aeneee aaenaeue”, “na?oeoeeao”, “caei”. Ooieoeee AOeA: - oeiaine?iaaiea aeaoeoeeoa ain. athaeaeaoa aac aeiiieieoaeueiiai auionea aeaiaa a ia?auaiea; - oeiaine?iaaiea oeaeaauo ain. i?ia?aii a iaeanoe aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, eio?ano?oeoo?u, nioe. iaania/aiey; - ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe: aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee, aicaeaenoaea ia oeaiu e eioeyoeeth, ia ?anoiaeu e iai?aaeaiey eiaanoe?iaaiey, yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, ieaoaaeiue aaeain e o.ae. I?aeiouanoaa AOeA: naiue aunieee ioiineoaeueiue o?iaaiue iaaeaaeiinoe aeey aeiaeaiiuo n?aaenoa e ieieiaeueiue ?ene iioa?e eaieoaea e aeioiaeia ii iaio; iaeaieaa eueaioiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea. AOeA, eae i?aaeei, caieiatho aaaeouaa ianoi ia ?uiea iaeeaaoeee, aaea eo aeiey aeioiaeeo aei 50%. Aeaeu AOeA Ii aeaeo yieoaioa: *oe. aoiaae oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa; *ioieoeeiaeueiua oe. aoiaae; *oe. aoiaae ain. o/?aaeaeaiee; *oe. aoiaae, eioi?ui i?eaeai noaoon ainoaea?noaaiiuo. Ii oi?ia ia?auaaiinoe: *?uii/iua (ia?ai?iaeathony iinea ia?ae/iiai ?aciauaiey); *ia?uii/iua (/a?ac ii?aae. n?ie aica?auathony yieoaioo). Ii n?ieai ia?auaiey: *e?aoein?i/iua -aei 1 aiaea; *n?aaeian?i/iua - io 1 aei 5-10 eao; *aeieain?i/iua - nauoa 10-15 eao. Ii niiniao auieaou aeioiaeia: *eoiiiiua (n ?aaoey?ii auiea/eaaaiui %-oii); *aaneoiiiiua (aeeneiioiua) - iaeeaaoeee, eioi?ua ?aciauathony ii oeaia ieaea iiieiaea, e yoa ?acieoea - aaeei eee aeeneiio - ia?acoao aeioiae ii iaeeaaoeee.?inneyN?ie ia?auaiey Yieoaiou E?aoein?i/iua N?aaeian?i/iua Aeieain?i/iua1. Oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu aeanoeAinoaea?noaaiiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (AEI) Eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa (EI) Iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai caeia (IOC) Iaeeaaoeee naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia (INC)Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieai- n?i/iua iaeeaaoeee (AAeI) Iaeeaaoeee aioo?aiiaai aaethoiiai caeia2. Ioieoeeiaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoeIoieoeeiaeueiua e?aoein?i/iua aaneoiiiiua iaeeaaoeee (IEI) Ioieoeeiaeueiua aaenaeyIoieoeeiaeueiua n?aaeia- n?i/iua iaeeaaoeee Ioieoeeiaeueiua aeeeeuiua na?oeoeeaouIoieoeeiaeueiua oeaiiua aoiaae - yoi niinia i?eaea/aiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ianoiuie i?aaiaie ain. aeanoe a neo/aa aeaoeoeeoa ianoiiai athaeaeaoa eee ia aiaathaeaeaoiua oeaee iooai auionea aeieaiauo oe. aoiaa.Oeaee. Ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe iiaoo i?eaeaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa a i?eioeeia ia ethaua oeaee, eioi?ua a?oiie?othony neaae. ia?acii: *iie?uoea a?aiaiiiai aeaoeoeeoa ianoiiai athaeaeaoa; *oeiaine?iaaiea aani?eaueueiuo iauaeoia, o?aaothueo aaeeiia?aiaiiuo e?oiiuo n?aaenoa; *oeiaine?iaaiea i?eaueueiuo i?iaeoia, aeiaeaiea a eioi?ua ieoiaaony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao ca n/ao iieo/aaiie eie i?eauee; *oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia no?ieoaeuenoaa, eae i?aaeei, ia iniiaa eo naiiieoiaaiinoe, o.a. cao?aou eiiiaine?othony au?o/eie io i?iaeaaee anaai eee /anoe iino?iaiiiai aeeeiai oiiaea. Oi?iu ioieoeeiaeueiuo caeiia. 2 aeaaiua oi?iu: * auione ioieoeeiaeue- iuo oe. aoiaa; * nnoaeu. Ioieoeeiaeueiua oe. aoiaae iau/ii auioneathony a aeaea ioieoeeiaeueiuo iaeeaaoeee, ?aaea - aaenaeae. Ioieoeei. oe. aoiaae eiatho noaoon ain. oe. aoiaa n oi/ee c?aiey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeey th?eae. e oec. eeoe, a oaeaea ii?yaeea yiennee e ia?auaiey. Iniiaiua iieoiaoaee - ianoiia ianaeaiea, eiii. aaiee, no?aoiaua e iaineiiiua oiiaeu, ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee. Aeioiaeiinoue e iaaeaaeiinoue. I?eia?aoaiea oeacaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ieacuaaaony i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey eiaanoi?a ii aeaoi iniiaiui i?e/eiai:*aieaa aunieay iaaeaaeiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n ?aciauaieai naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a oe. aoiaae AI eee a aaie;*aieaa aunieay eiia/iay eo aeioiaeiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n aaieianeeie aeaiiceoaie ca n/ao iaeiaiauo eueaio.Aua aieueoae iaaeaaeiinoueth, /ai ioieoeei. oe. aoiaae, iaeaaeatho oieueei oe. aoiaae oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iau/ii ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee yae. Naiaiaeii ia?auaaiuie, o.a. eo aea?aeaoaee iiaoo naiaiaeii i?iaeaaaoue e iieoiaoue iaeeaaoeee ia ae?aeaaii eee aiaae?aeaaii ?uieao oe. aoiaa a oa/aiea anaai n?iea, ia eioi?ue auiouai iaeeaaoeeiiiue caei. Ii ieii/aiee n?iea iaeeaaoeee aueoiathony (iiaaoathony) yieoaioii ii eo ia?eoeaoaeueiie noieiinoe (n auieaoie niioaaonoaothuaai aeioiaea, anee yoi i?aaeoniio?aii oneiaeyie caeia). A oeaeii ia ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee ?ani?ino?aiythony oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey, eanathueany iaeeaaoeee aiiaua eae iaeiiai ec aeaaiuo aeaeia oeaiiuo aoiaa.?inneeneay i?aeoeea. Iaania/eaatho iau/ii o?iaaiue aeioiaeiinoe, n?aaieiue n ain. iaeeaaoeeyie, ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiythony oa aea iaeiaiaua eueaiou. Aaaeiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth ?inn. ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee yae. aeeeeuiua iaeeaaoeee, oeaeue eioi?uo - oeiaine?iaaiea no?ieoaeuenoaa aeeeuey. Ioieoeeiaeueiua caeiu a iniiaiie naiae ianna auioneathony ia n?aaeian?i/iue (1-5 eao) e aeieain?i/iue ia?eiae (io 5 eao e auoa). Nauoa 1/3 ioieoeei. iaeeaaoeee auiouaii ia i?aaeuyaeoaey; o ieo - oe?ieee niaeo? oeaeae.? 46. Oaeoi?iue aiaeec oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoiaOeiainiaue (yeii. aiaeec) anoue yeaiaio iaiaaeaeiaioa ia i?aaei?eyoee e aoaeeoa. Ini. aeiee oei. aiaeeca: 1 aeie - aiaeec oei. - yeii. iieacaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, iniiaiia aieiaiea ia?auaaony ia aiaeec oei. ?acoeueoaoia aeayo-oe i?aaei?eyoey; 2 aeie - aiaeec oei. ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey, aieiaiea ia aiaeec oei. onoie/eainoe e ia aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina e ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey; 3 aeie - aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe oic. aeayoaeueiinoe. Ini. enoi/ieeaie aeey oei. aiaeeca yae.: 1. Aaeain i?aaei?eyoey (oi?ia ?1), 2. Io/ao i oei. ?acoeueoaoao e eo eniieueciaaiee 9oi?ia ?2), 3. I?eeiaeaiea e aaeaino (oi?ia ?5). Caaea/e oei. aiaeeca: iieo/aiea ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoiai /enea iieacaoaeae, aeinoaoi/ii aaeaeaaoii oa?aeoa?ecothueo yeii. ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey, e, i?aaeaea anaai, aai i?eaueae e oauoeia, eciaiaiee a no?oeoo?a aeoeaia e ianneaia e eciaiaiee a ?an/aoao n aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie. Eiie?aoiua oeaee aiaeeca caaenyo io noauaeoa aiaeeca. Iaoiaeu oei. aiaeeca (iaoiaeu /oaiey oei. io/aoia): 1. Ai?eciioaeueiue iaoiae /oaiey aaeaina - iieacaoaeue ca io/. ia?eiae aaeaina n?aaieaatho n niioa. iieacaoaeai i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea; 2. Aa?oeeaeueiue aiaeec - ii?aaeaeytho no?oeoo?o ?acoeueoe?othuaai iieacaoaey, iau/ii ?ann/eouaatho oaeaeueiue aan yeaiaioa no?oeoo?u a eoiaiaii iieacaoaea; 3. O?aiaeiaue aiaeec - io/. iieacaoaeue n?aaieaaaony n aiaeiae/iuie iieacaoaeyie ca ?yae i?aaeoanoaothueo ia?eiaeia, ae. caaea/a - auyaeoue oaiaeaioeeth eciaiaiey aeaiiiai iieacaoaey; 4. Aiaeec ioiineoaeueiuo iieacaoaeae - ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo io/aoia ?ann/eouaathony ioiineoaeueiua iieacaoaee; 5. N?aaieoaeueiue (i?ino?ainoaaiiue) aiaeec - iieacaoaee aeaiiie oe?iu n?aaieaathony n niioa. iieacaoaeyie ii eiieo?e?othuei oe?iai; 6. Oaeoi?iue aiaeec. Aai oeaeue - ii?aaeaeaiea aeeyiey eiie?aoiuo oaeoi?ia ia eoiaiaue iieacaoaeue. Oaeoi?iue aiaeec auaaao: *aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiue (ii?aaeaeaiiue) - ii?aaeaeyaony oi/iia aeeyiea eiie?. oaeoi?a ia eoiaiaue iieacaoaeue, *noioanoe/aneee (aa?iyoiinoiue) - aeeyiea oaeoi?a ia ?acoeueoao ii?aaeaeyaony n ecaanoiie aeieae aa?iyoiinoe. ?acee/atho: i?yiie e ia?aoiue oaeoi?iue aiaeec. I?e i?yiii oaeoi?iii aiaeeca eciaiaiea eoiaiaiai iieacaoaey ?aceaaaaony ia /anoe, niioaaonoaothuea aeeyieth ioae. eiie?. oaeoi?ia ia yoio iieacaoaeue. I?e ia?aoiii oaeoi?iii aiaeeca ii eciaiaieth ioaeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony eciaiaiea eoiaiaiai iieacaoaey.Iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eauee, iniiaaiiay ia i/iae. i?eauee.(Aaeiaay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee eee iieiue iai?io) - (IAeN, aeoeecu, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu) = (au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a oeaiao i?iecaiaeeoaey eee /enoue iai?io) - (naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee) = (oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa) + (oei. ?acoeueoao io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee) = (oei. ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee) + (oei. ?acoeueoao io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee) = (aaeainiaay i?eaueue) ± (ei??aeoe?iaea aaeainiaie i?eauee aeey oeaeae i/iaeiaeaiey) = (iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue) - (iaeiae) = (/enoay i?eaueue); /enoay i?eaueue eaeao ia: *aeeaeaeaiaeu; *ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue; *?aca?aiue oiiaey + (onoaaiie eaieoae) = (nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey).Oaeoi?iue aiaeec i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (oei. ?acoeueoaoia).Ionoue eniieuecothony neaae. iaicia/aiey: ? - i?eaueue, D? - eciaiaiea i?eauee, ?1 - i?eaueue io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, ?0 - i?eaueue aaceniiai ia?eiaea, ? - oeaia, ?1 - oeaia io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, ?0 - oeaia aaceniiai ia?eiaea, q - eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, q1 - a io/aoiii ia?eiaea, q0 - a aaceniii ia?eiaea, N - iauai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (au?o/ea, noieiinoiie iauai), N1 - a io/. ia?eiaea, N2 - a aaceniii ia?eiaea, S - naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, S1 - a io/. ia?eiaea, S0 - a aaceniii ia?eiaea, E - eiyooeoeeaio eciaiaiey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee. N1.1. (ia?aue eiaeaen iieacuaaao ia?eiae, aoi?ie - oeaio (oneiaey)) - yoi au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a io/. ia?eiaea a oeaiao io/. ia?eiaea; N1.0. - ii oeaiai aaceniiai ia?eiaea, S1.1.- naaanoieiinoue io/. ia?eiaea ii oeaiai io/aoiiai, S1.0. - naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee io/. ia?eiaea ii oeaiai aaceniiai.Aeai?eoi ioeaiee (?an/aoia) aeeyiey eiie?aoiuo oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.D? /eciaiaiea i?eauee/ = ?1-?0Ioeaieaaai aeeyiea eciaiaiey oeai ia eciaiaiea i?eauee: D?1 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey oeai, D?1 = N1.1.- N1.0. = p1q1 - p0q0 = (p1 - p0)*q1.Ii?aaeaeyai aeeyiea eciaiaiey iauaia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia eciaiaiea i?eauee: D?2 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey oece/. iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, D?2 = ?0*E1 - ?0 /E1-eiyooeoeeaio eciaiaiey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee a io/aoiii ia?eiaea ii n?aaiaieth n aaceniui, E1 = S1.0./S0.0.; S1.0. - eciaiaiea oec. iauaia ii eciaiaieth naaanoieiinoe).Ii?aaeaeyai aeeyiea no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee ia eciaiaiea i?eauee: D?3 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u anni?oeiaioa, D?3 = ?0*(E2 - E1), aaea E2 - eiyooeoeeaio eciaiaiey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, E2 = N1.0./N0.0. (enoiaey ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee).?ann/eouaaai aeeyiea ia i?eaueue yeiiiiee io nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee: D?4 - aeeyiea nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe aneaaenoaea yeiiiiee iaoa?eaeia, nu?uey, D?4 = S1.0. - S1.ei??. aaea S1 ei??. - yoi oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nei??aeoe?iaaiiay ia eciaiaiea oeai e oa?eoia?ann/eouaaai aeeyiea ia i?eaueue eciaiaiee a naaanoieiinoe ca n/ao no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a ninoaaa i?iaeoeoeee: D?5 - aeeyiea eciaiaiey naaanoieiinoe aneaaenoaea no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a ninoaaa i?iaeoeoeee, D?5 = S0.0.*K2 - S1.0.I?iaa?ea: SD?i = D?.I?eia? oaeoi?iiai aiaeeca ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey?acee/atho ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee e i?aaei?eyoey. ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee - yoi ioiioaiea i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e aa naaanoieiinoe. ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey - yoi ioiioaiea aaeainiaie i?eauee e n?aaeiaaiaeiaie noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu aeaeyony ia 2 a?oiiu: *iniiaiua n?aaenoaa (iai?oaeiaaiea), *iai?ioiua oiiaeu (IAI, nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, cao?aou aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia - /oi iaoiaeeony a i?iecaiaenoaa).Caaeaiea (aaceniia cia/aiea)Oaeoe/aneea cia/aiey (io/aoiua)1. I?eaueue, ?oa. 96 000 141 2502. N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue i?iec- aiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, ?oa. 800 000 882 8123. ?aioaaaeueiinoue, % (1/2*100) 12,0 16,0R = 16,0 - 12,0 = 4,0 (i?e?ino ?aioaaaeueiinoe). Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ninoaaeei 4 ioieoa, 1-e oaeoi? -oaaee/aiea i?eauee, 2-e oaeoi? - oaaee/aiea noieiinoe i?ieca. oiiaeia. Ioeaieoue, eaeiaa aeiey a 4% eciaiaiey i?eauee e eciaiaiey i?ieca. oiiaeia?Ii?aaeaeyai oae iacuaaaioth oneiaioth ?aioaaaeueiinoue, /oi anoue ioiioaiea R one.= 141250/800000 = 17,7 /iieo/eeanue ?aioaaaeueiinoue, eioi?ay auea au, anee au noieiinoue ia iaiyeanue/. ?ino ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao ?inoa aaeainiaie i?eauee: DR1 - 17,7 - 12,0 = +5,7 (ca n/ao oiai, /oi aaeainiaay i?eaueue aic?inea ?aioaaaeueiinoue oaaee/eeanue). Ii?aaeaeyai eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe ca n/ao aiaea/aiey a i?ieca. i?ioeann aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?ieca. oiiaeia: DR2 = 16,0 - 17,7 = -1,7. I?iaa?ea: +5,7 + (-1,7) = 4.? 47. E?eoa?ee eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina oe?iu.Oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea oe?iu e ia?niaeoeau aai eciaiaiey iaoiaeyony iiae aeeyieai ia oieueei oaeoi?ia oeiainiaiai oa?aeoa?a, ii e iiiaeo ae?. , ia eiathueo noieiinoiie ioeaiee. Yoi iieeoe/aneea e iauayeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey, ia?ano?ieea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey io?aneueth eee i?aaei?eyoeai, niaia oi?i naaanoieiinoe e o.ae. Iiyoiio aoo. io/aoiinoue e aa aiaeec n/eoatho iaeiei ec ?acaeaeia eiiieaeniiai yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca, eniieuecothuaai ia oieueei oi?iaeeciaaiiua e?eoa?ee, ii e iaoi?iaeueiua ioeaiee. E?eoa?ee (E) iie?uoey - aea?o iauoth ioeaieo eeeaeaeiinoe aeoeaia. E. iie?uoey =( oaeouea aeoeau)/(oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa). E. auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe = (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, ?an/aou, i?i/ea aeoeau)/(oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa). E. aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe = (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa)/(oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa). Aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny n eniieueciaaieai aaniethoiuo e ioiineoaeueiuo aaee/ei. Aaniethoiua iieacaoaee ?ann/eouaathony n iiiiuueth (NIN - nianoaaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, NE - nianoaaiiue eaieoae, AeI - aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, NA - n?aaenoaa e aeiaeaiey eee oaeouea aeoeau, EOC - enoi/iee oi?ie?iaaiey caiania, CC - caianu e cao?aou) NIN=NE+AeI-NA, e EOC=NIN + nnoaeu aaieia e caeiu, eniieuecoaiua aeey iie?uoey caiania + ?an/aou n e?aaeeoi?aie ii oiaa?iui iia?aoeeyi. CCEOC – iaonoie/eaia
oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea, (CC + iaiiaaoaiiua e?aaeeou e caeiu +
i?in?i/aiiay e?aaeeoi?neay e aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoe)>EOC –
e?eoe/aneia iieiaeaiea. Ana aeaiiua aa?oony ec ?acaeaeia 2 e 3 oi?iu ?5.

? 48. Iaoiaeu n?aaiaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

A iniiaa i?ioeanna i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
oa?-?a eaaeao ioeaiea e n?aaiaiea iau?ia i?aaeiieaaaaiuo eiaanoeoeee e
aoaeoueo aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee. Aeaaiie i?iaeaiie ya-ny i?iaeaia eo
niiinoaaeiinoe. Iaoiaeu, eniieuecoaiua a aiaeeca eiaanoeoeeiiiie
aeayo-oe, iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia 2 a?oiiu: 1) iniiaaiiua ia
aeeneiioe?iaaiiuo ioeaieao; 2) iniiaaiiua ia o/aoiuo ioeaieao. *anoi
ia?aae iaiaaeaea?ii noaiiaeony i?iaeaia auai?a ec ianeieueeeo aiciiaeiuo
aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiaano. i?iaeoia. I?e/eia iiaoo auoue ?aciuie, a o./. e
ia?aie/aiiinoue a n?aaenoaao, o.a. iaaeinooiiinoue oei. ?ano?nia. A
caaeneiinoe io i?eiyoiai e?eoa?ey auai? aoaeao ?acee/iui. Ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie NPV(/enoue i?eaaae?iiue yooaeo), PI
(eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe), IRR (ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe), CC
(aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae, o.a. ioiineoaeueiue o?iaaiue ?anoiaeia)
eiathony i/aaeaeiua acaeiinayce: anee NPV>0, oi iaeiia?aiaiii IRR>CC e
PI>1; anee NPV<0, oi IRR

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