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Некоторые экономические теории

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Ia?eaioeeeci

Oa?iei “ia?eaioeeeci” (io eoaeueyineiai mercante – oi?aiaaoe, eoiaoe)
aaae a iai?io a XVIII aaea aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno Aaeai Nieo. Yoei
oa?ieiii i?eiyoi iaicia/aoue nenoaio yeiiiie/aneeo acaeyaeia, eioi?ay,
ii-aeaeeiiio, auea aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia a Aa?iia ai aoi?ii
ouny/aeaoee iaoae y?u e a ienueiaiiii aeaea aeioea aei ian aeaaiaea?y
iaeioi?ui ioaeeeaoeeyi aiaeeeneeo, eoaeueyineeo e o?aioeocneeo aaoi?ia
XVI-XVII aaeia. Ia?eaioeeeci aue ?ani?ino?aiai e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, ii
oieueei a ?aaioao aiaee/ai Aeeueyia Noaooi?aea (1554-1612), Oiiana Iaia
(1571-1641), o?aioeoca Aiooaia Iiie?aoueaia (1575-1622), oioeaiaeoea
Aeaeiia Eio (1677-1729), eoaeueyioeaa Aania?a Nea?oooe (1519-1584),
Aioiiei Aeaeaaiiace (1712-1769) e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo yeiiiienoia
ia?eaioeeenoneea aicc?aiey i?eia?aee caaa?oaiiua i/a?oaiey.

I?iaeeaay a ?aciuo no?aiao e ii?ie ia iiaeic?aaay i nouanoaiaaiee ae?oa
ae?oaa, yoe aaoi?u auneacuaaee oaeeaeoaeueii noiaeiua acaeyaeu, /oi
iicaieyao o?aeoiaaoue ia?eaioeeeci ia oieueei eae oai?eth, ii e eae
/anoue ii?aaeaeaiiie eoeueoo?ii-iieeoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee.

Aei yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey a aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a auei oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i aa?ia-caaiaaaoaea eae aiieiuaiee
any/aneeo aeia?iaeaoaeae, eaeaaea aeey iiae?aaeaiey. Oaea/iue iaaaa ia
/oaeoth, a ii?ie e ia naith nianoaaiioth oa??eoi?eth, a?aaaae e
?aci?aiea ii ii?aee oiai a?aiaie ?anniao?eaaeenue eae aiieia i?eaieaiue
e caeiiiue niinia iaiaauaiey. Yoa o?aaeeoeey, auoaaeoay ec aioe/iinoe,
oniaoii ooieoeeiie?iaaea e a n?aaeiea aaea.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey ii?iaeeea iiaua iiaeoiaeu ei iiiaei
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iui i?ioeannai, a oii /enea e i?aaenoaaeaieth i
aiaaonoaa e enoi/ieeao aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Eciaieeenue nioeeaeueiua
eaeaaeu; aa?ie oiai a?aiaie – oaea ia aiei-caaiaaaoaeue, a oaea/eeaue
eoiaoe, ?aianeaiiee, ooaeiaeiee (aniiiiei oioy au i?ioanneiiaeueiue
noaoon aa?iaa iiaaee Aieea//i). Oai?aoe/aneie eiioeaioeeae, eioi?ay a
aeaeueiaeoai e iainiiaaea oaeie naeaea a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee, noae
ia?eaioeeeci.

Iaoe yeiiiie/aneea o/aaieee /aua anaai oeene?iaaee eeoue aiaoithth
/anoue eiioeaioeee ia?eaioeeecia, aeaeay auaiae i oii, /oi ia?eaioeeeci
eae oai?aoe/aneay oeiea ioeai/ii ?anniao?eaae aiaaonoai a aeaea
aeaiaaeiiai iaoaeea n enoi/ieeii ?inoa a noa?a aiaoiae oi?aiaee.
Eiia/ii, ia?eaioeeeci eae niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay /anoue iauanoaaiiiai
niciaiey oie yiioe io?aaeae iiaua noa?aioeiu iuoeaiey, eioi?ua
oeene?iaaee aeaiueae eae aeaaiue, a ii?ie e aaeeinoaaiiue eiiiiiaio
iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey e aiaaonoaa. Ii a oi aea a?aiy eiioeaioeey
ia?eaioeeecia ia auea oaeie i?eieoeaiie, eae aa o?aeoiaaee niaaoneea
o/aaieee iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, ae auea i?enoua ecaanoiay neiaeiinoue.

Aeaei a oii, /oi ia?eaioeeeci aue cia/eoaeueiui i?i?uaii a eoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee oaiaeaeueii-?acae?iaeaiiie Aa?iiu e yaeeny
yeiiiieei-oai?aoe/aneei iainiiaaieai i?ioeanna nicaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noa ia i?eioeeiao iieeoe/aneiai
aaniethoecia. A niioaaonoaee n yoeie i?ioeannaie ethaee, i?iaeeaathuea
ia oa??eoi?ee oiai eee eiiai ainoaea?noaa, noaee ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
aaeeiue iauanoaaiiue i?aaieci (iaoeey, ia?iae). Ia?iaeu eiieo?e?otho
ae?oa n ae?oaii, anooiay a oicyenoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie
oiai a?aiaie auea aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. Iaeia iaoeey i?iaeaaaea ae?oaie
iaoeee oa oiaa?u, eioi?ua auee o iaa a ecauoea, i?eia?aoay oa oiaa?u,
eioi?uo ee iaaeinoaaaei. Aeaiueae oiai a?aiaie – yoi i?aaeaea anaai
aeaai?iaeiua iaoaeeu, e eiaiii a ieo inouanoaeyeanue ioeaiea noieiinoe
oiaa?ia e

i?iaiaeeeenue ?an/aou ii oi?aiaui iia?aoeeyi. Iiyoiio anoanoaaiii, /oi
iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao aiaoiae oi?aiaee annioeee?iaaeny n
i?aauoaieai auaica iaae aaicii e oeene?iaaeny iiiyoeai aeoeaiiai
oi?aiaiai aaeaina.

E?iia oiai, ia?eaioeeeci aia?aua ii?aaeaeee oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee
ainoaea?y, i?aaeoaey. Anee a aioe/iie o?aaeeoeee, eioi?ay i?iaeieaeaea
nio?aiyoueny e a ia?eiae ?aiiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey, ainoaea?ue
?anniao?eaaeny eae aeanoeoaeue, caaiaaaoaeue naieo iiaeaeaiiuo, eioi?ue
eiae ana i?aaa ia eo eiouanoai e aeaaea ia aeeciue, oi ia?eaioeeeci
?anniao?eaae i?aaeoaey eae aa?oiaiiai oi?aaeythuaai, iooea iaoeee,
eioi?ue aue iaycai i?iaiaeeoue yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, aaaeouoth e
iaiaauaieth iaoeee a oeaeii. Yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeeie ainoaea?noaa,
eioi?ay, ii iiaieth ia?eaioeeenoia, aaea e ?inoo iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aiaaonoaa, aue i?ioaeoeeiieci, niune eioi?iai ninoiye ai anaia?iie
iiaeaea?aeea ioa/anoaaiiiai eoia/anoaa ia aiaoieo ?uieao e a
ia?aie/aieyo, i?iaiaeeiuo ii ioiioaieth e eiino?aiiui eoioeai ia
aioo?aiiai ?uiea. Aeaaiaea?y oaeie iieeoeea aeieaeia auea aic?anoaoue
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue iaoeee e oaaee/eaaoueny i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia yenii?o. Iieacaoaeai aea yooaeoeaiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee, ioae?inoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa noaiiaeeny aeoeaiue
oi?aiaue aaeain (i?aauoaiea yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii) e i?eoie cieioa a
no?aio.

?acee/atho ?aiiee e iicaeiee ia?eaioeeeci. ?aiiee ia?eaioeeeci aiciee
aei yiioe Aaeeeeo aaia?aoe/aneeo ioe?uoee, e aai oeaio?aeueiie eaeaae
auea eaeay “aeaiaaeiiai aaeaina”. A yoio ia?eiae oae i?ioeann nicaeaiey
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ainoaea?noa, eeeaeaeaoeee oaiaeaeueiie
?acae?iaeaiiinoe a Aa?iia. *anoua aieiu o?aaiaaee nicaeaiey ?aaoey?iuo
a?iee e aaee e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iinoiyiiiai iiiieiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie
eaciu. Iiyoiio yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa a yoio ia?eiae
iineea y?ei au?aaeaiiue oeneaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oniaoiue nai? iaeiaia iia
auoue iaania/ai eeoue ca n/ao nicaeaiey oaeie nenoaiu, i?e eioi?ie
/anoiui eeoeai auei cai?auaii auaiceoue ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu ca
i?aaeaeu ainoaea?noaa. Eiino?aiiua eoioeu iaycaiu auee anth iieo/aiioth
io ?aaeecaoeee naieo oiaa?ia au?o/eo eno?aoeoue ia i?eia?aoaiea ianoiuo
oiaa?ia, yienney aeaiaa auea iauyaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieeae.
*oiau i?eaea/ue aeaiueae ec-ca a?aieoeu, i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?eaaaaee e
“ii?/a” iiiao iooai oiaiueoaiey eo aana eee nieaeaiey i?iau i?e
nio?aiaiee iiieiaea, /oi aaei e iaanoeaiaieth aeaiaa. N/eoaeinue, /oi a
?acoeueoaoa iaanoeaiaiey eiino?aioeu niiaoo i?eia?anoe aieueoa ianoiuo
oiaa?ia ia naie aeaiueae e iiyoiio aoaeoo caeioa?aniaaiu a ia?a/aeaiea
naieo aeaiaa a iaanoeaieaoeany aeaiueae ae?oaie’ no?aiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa Aaeeeeo aaia?aoe/aneeo ioe?uoee a Aa?iio, i?aaeaea anaai
/a?ac Eniaieth, oeuioei aeaoaaia na?aa?i e cieioi. Eacaeinue au,
aeinoeaioo yeiiiie/aneee eaeaae. Ii /ai aieueoa aeaiaaeiiai iaoaeea
iinooiaei ia aa?iiaeneea ?uiee, oai auno?aa oae i?ioeann eo
iaanoeaiaiey. Ia/aeny iinoiyiiue ?ino oeai ia oiaa?u, eioi?ue iinoaiaiii
oneeeaae yeiiiie/aneea iiceoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo neiaa iauanoaa
(?aianeaiieeia, e?anoueyi) e ineaaeye iiceoeee aeai?yineiai, aiaiiiai
nineiaey, iieo/aaoaai aeaeiaaiuea a aeaea iaanoeaieaathueony aeaiaa.

Iicaeiee ia?eaioeeeci ai aeaao oaea noaaeo eaeath oi?aiaiai aaeaina,
oeneaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee niaiyaony iieeoeeie,
a iniiao eioi?ie eaaee niia?aaeaiey oicyenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.
N/eoaeinue, /oi ainoaea?noai noaiiaeony oai aiaa/a, /ai aieueoa ?acieoea
iaaeaeo noieiinoueth auaacaiiuo e aaacaiiuo oiaa?ia. Oaeia iieiaeaiea
iiaei auoue iaania/aii aeaoiy niiniaaie. Ai-ia?auo, iiiu?yeny auaic
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e ia?aie/eaaeny auaic nu?uey e aaic i?aaeiaoia
?ineioe. Ai-aoi?uo, noeioee?iaaeinue ?acaeoea iin?aaeie/aneie oi?aiaee,
aeey eioi?ie ?ac?aoaeny auaic aeaiaa ca a?aieoeo. I?e yoii n/eoaeinue
iaiaoiaeeiui iieoiaoue eae iiaeii aeaoaaea a iaeieo no?aiao e
i?iaeaaaoue eae iiaeii aei?iaea a ae?oaeo. A ?aieao yoiai iiaeoiaea
onoaiaaeeaaeenue aunieea eiii?oiua iioeeiu, auiea/eaaeenue yenii?oiua
i?aiee, i?aaeoaeuenoaa no?aieeenue e iaania/aieth aaciianiinoe

aiaoiaoi?aiauo eiiioieeaoeee, i?aaeinoaaeyee ?acee/iua i?eaeeaaee
oi?aiaui eiiiaieyi, auaeaaaee ainoaea?noaaiiua noaneaeee aeey ?acaeoey
yenii?oii?eaioe?iaaiiuo e eiii?oicaiaiythueo i?iecaiaenoa.

A oeaeii ia?eaioeeenoneay iieeoeea ainoaea?noa auea aeinoaoi/ii
i?iaeoeoeaiie aeey iiiaeo no?ai, ii iinoaiaiii aaea e na?ueaciie
eiio?iioaoeee iaaeaeo eiieo?e?othueie ia aiaoiai ?uiea no?aiaie,
i?eaiaeeea e acaeiiui ia?aie/aieyi a oi?aiaea. Ae?oaei iaaeinoaoeii
iieeoeee a aeooa ia?eaioeeecia auei iinoaiaiiia caiaaeeaiea, a caoai e
oiaaeie i?iecaiaenoa, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia aioo?aiiea ?uiee. Oae,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiay ia?eaioeeenoneay iieeoeea ai O?aioeee a ia?eiae
?eoaeuea e Eieueaa?a aaea e oooaeoaieth iieiaeaiey a iaeanoe naeueneiai
oicyenoaa e ?aianea, i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia ianoiua ioaeaeu, ii?iaeaeaea
iinoiyiiue ?ino iaeiaiaiai aeaaeaiey ia aieueooth /anoue o?aioeocneiai
iauanoaa. Aeey iaania/aiey ana aic?anoathueo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia
?aii eee iicaeii i?aaeoaeuenoai auei auioaeaeaii ia?aoiaeeoue e
eniieueciaaieth aoiaaeii-aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, /oi ia aeaiiii yoaia
i?eaiaeeei e auno?iio iaanoeaiaieth aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa e ?anno?ienoao
oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu. Oaeei ia?acii, oaea a XVIII aaea eiae/anee
caaa?oaiiue ia?eaioeeeci noae oi?iicii yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e anooiee
a i?ioeai?a/ea n ?aaeueiuie iio?aaiinoyie oicyenoaaiiuo nenoai a Aa?iia.
A oi aea a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iiiaea iiiyoey e i?eioeeiu
ia?eaioeeenoneie aeieo?eiu oniaoii ia?aaeeee naia a?aiy e oe?iei
i?eiaiythony a nia?aiaiiie oai?ee e i?aeoeea.

Oeceie?aou

Oa?iei “oeceie?aoeci” (aeanoue i?e?iaeu) aue aaaaeai a iai?io Aaeaiii
Nieoii. Naie o?aioeocneea oeceie?aou iacuaaee naay yeiiiienoaie. Oai?ey
oeceie?aoecia ?acaeaaeanue a Aa?iaiee, Iieueoa, Oaaoeee e ae?oaeo
no?aiao, ii oieueei ai O?aioeee yoa nenoaia aicc?aiee i?eia?aea iaeaieaa
?acaeooth oi?io e nouanoaiaaea a aeaea oai?aoe/aneie oeieu. Iniiaaoaeai
oeceie?aoe/aneiai o/aiey aue O?ainoa Eaiy (1694-1774), iaeaieaa e?oiiuie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie Aeeoi? aea Ie?aai (1715-1789), Aethiii Iaeio?
(1739-1817) e AEae Oth?ai (1727-1781).

Oeceie?aoeci aue anoanoaaiiie ?aaeoeeae o?aioeocneeo eioaeeeaaioia ia
iaaeinoaoee ia?eaioeeenoneie iieeoeee eieueaa?oecia, i eioi?uo auei
neacaii a i?aaeuaeouai ?acaeaea. Oeceie?aou n/eoaee aiaaonoaii ia
aeaiueae, a “i?iecaaaeaiey caiee”. Naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai,
a ia oi?aiaey e i?iiuoeaiiinoue, n eo oi/ee c?aiey, yaeyaony enoi/ieeii
aiaaonoaa iauanoaa, /oi e ii?aaeaeyaony “anoanoaaiiui” caeiiii,
onoaiiaeaiiui naiei Aiaii.

Aeey oeceie?aoia aiaaonoai iaoeee i?e?anoaao a oii neo/aa, anee
nouanoaoao e iinoiyiii aini?iecaiaeeony ?acieoea iaaeaeo i?iaeoeoeeae,
eioi?ay i?iecaiaeeony a naeueneii oicyenoaa, e i?iaeoeoeeae, eioi?ay
auea eniieueciaaia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yoie i?iaeoeoeee a oa/aiea aiaea,
oi anoue oae iacuaaaiay caiaeueiay ?aioa a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia. O. Eaiy
iacuaae yoo ?acieoeo “/enoui i?iaeoeoii” e n/eoae aaeeinoaaiiui
“i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui eeannii” a iauanoaa eeann caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Eaiy
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “n?aaee anao n?aaenoa aeey i?eia?aoaiey eiouanoaa iao
ie iaeiiai, eioi?ia auei au aeey /aeiaaea eo/oa, auaiaeiaa, i?eyoiaa e
i?eee/iaa, aeaaea aeinoieiaa aeey naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea, /ai
caieaaeaeea”.

Aeaaiia i?iecaaaeaiea O. Eaiy “Yeiiiie/aneay oaaeeoea” (1758)
niaea?aeeo noaio ?acaeaeaiey iauanoaa ia o?e iniiaiuo eeanna:

1) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue eeann caieaaeaeueoeaa;

2) eeann caiaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia;

3) “aanieiaeiue eeann” – ethaee, caiyoua ia a naeueneii oicyenoaa.

Ana o?e iauanoaaiiuo eeanna iaoiaeyony a ii?aaeaeaiiii yeiiiie/aneii
acaeiiaeaenoaee. *a?ac iaoaieci iieoiee e i?iaeaaee i?iaeoeoeee
i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey “/enoiai
i?iaeoeoa” e nicaeathony iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey iinoiyiiiai
aiciaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, oi anoue aini?iecaiaenoaa.
O. Eaiy aeaeeo yoio i?ioeann, ninoiyuei ec neaaeothueo noaaeee:

– oa?ia?u-caieaaeaeueoeu a?aiaeotho ca aeaiueae o caiaeueiuo
nianoaaiieeia caieth e au?aueaatho ia iae o?iaeae;

– nianoaaiieee neoiatho i?iaeoeou o caieaaeaeueoeaa e i?iiuoeaiiua
ecaeaeey o ?aianeaiieeia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai /anoue iieo/aiiuo eie ca
a?aiaeo caiee aeaiaa ia?aoiaeeo e naeueneei oicyaaai e ?aianeaiieeai;

– oa?ia?u caeoiatho i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u o i?iiuoeaiieeia;

– i?iiuoeaiieee caeoiatho naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oiaa?u o oa?ia?ia.

A eoiaa oa?ia?u aiiaue iieo/atho aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa aeey a?aiaeu
caiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, oicyenoaaiiue i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeyeny oeceie?aoai eae
anoanoaaiiay aa?iiiey, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue aeaaea iienaia no?iai
iaoaiaoe/anee. Aiineaaenoaee yoa eaeay iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a
?acee/iuo iiiuoeao iino?iaiey iaoaiaoe/anee oi/iuo iiaeaeae
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee e a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie
iaoea nouanoaoao a aeaea iiiai/eneaiiuo io?aneaauo e i?iaeoeoiauo
aaeainia, iaaeio?aneaauo iiaeaeae, oi?iaeeciaaiiuo aa?eaioia oai?ee
iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney e yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Ninoaaiie /anoueth yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee oeceie?aoecia yaeyaony eaeay
iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa a anoanoaaiiue oiae yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie. Anee enoiaeeoue ec noaiu, i?aaeeiaeaiiie O. Eaiy, ianoa aeey
eaeie-eeai niciaoaeueiie, aeoeaiie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe
yeiiiieee i?inoi ia inoaaony. Oi/iaa, ii iiaieth O. Eaiy, ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii onoaiiaeoue oaeea caeiiu, eioi?ua au niioaaonoaiaaee
“anoanoaaiiui caeiiai” i?e?iaeu, e ia yoii yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee
ainoaea?noaa iiaeii aoaeao n/eoaoue en/a?iaiiuie.

Iiiuoeo i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie eiioeaioeee oeceie?aoia
i?aaei?eiye o?aioeoc AEae Oth?ai, eioi?ue a 1774 aiaeo aue iacia/ai
aia/aea ii?neei ieieno?ii, a caoai, a ia?eiae 1774-1776 aiaeia, caiye
iino aaia?aeueiiai eiio?iea?a oeiainia. Iaoiaeynue ia yoii iinoo, AE.
Oth?ai i?iaae ?yae ?aoi?i oeceie?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, ino?ea eioi?uo
auei iai?aaeaii ia nieaeaiea ?iee o?aioeocneiai ainoaea?noaa a
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie no?aiu. Auee ioiaiaiu ia?aie/aiey ia oeaaioth
oi?aiaeth, oi?acaeiaiu oeaoiaua ei?ii?aoeee e aeeueaeee, e?anoueyineea
iaoo?aeueiua iiaeiiinoe a iieueco ainoaea?noaa auee caiaiaiu aeaiaaeiui
iaeiaii, auee nie?auaiu ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu. Iiaeaeoe, naiui
aaaeiui yeaiaioii ?aoi?i AE. Oth?ai auei iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeai?yineiai
nineiaey, eioi?ia aei yoiai aiiaua ia ieaoeei iaeiaia. A ia?niaeoeaa
ieaie?iaaeinue iieiinoueth ioeacaoueny io nai?a iaeiaia n e?anoueyi,
caiaiea eo aaeeiui iicaiaeueiui iaeiaii n aeai?yi. Oaeay iieeoeea
,anoanoaaiii, nii?iaiaeaeaeanue na?ueaciie iiiiceoeeae ni noi?iiu
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee; ia/aeenue i?eaeai?iua eio?eae, e a
?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?iaoi? aue auioaeaeai oeoe a ionoaaeo. Iinea aai ooiaea
Ethaeiaee XVI ioiaiee ana iiaiaaaaeaiey AE. Oth?ai, e O?aioeey ia/aea
naia aacoaea?aeiia aeaeaeaiea e nioeeaeueiui iio?ynaieyi Aaeeeie
o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee.

AE. Oth?ai i?ineaaeeny ia oieueei eae aeaeiue ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue, ii noae ecaanoai e eae iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo oai?aoeeia.
Aeaaiia aai ni/eiaiea “?aciuoeaiey i nicaeaiee e ?ani?aaeaeaiee
aiaaonoa” (1776) niaea?aeeo ia oieueei oaea ecaanoiua iai iieiaeaiey
oeceie?aoe/aneie oeieu a aeooa O. Eaiy, ii e ?yae iiauo aeey yoiai
o/aiey iieiaeaiee. Oae, a aai ?aaioa niaea?aeeony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
/enoue i?iaeoeo i?iecaiaeeony ia oieueei a naeueneii oicyenoaa, ii e a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe; eeanniaay no?oeoo?a iauanoaa ii Oth?ai aieaa neiaeia,
/ai ii Eaiy, ca n/ao oiai, /oi aioo?e eaaeaeiai eeanna nouanoaoao
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey; “aanieiaeiue eeann” AE. Oth?ai aeaeeo ia eeann
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. E?iia yoiai, ii caeeaaeuaaao
iao/ioth iniiao aiaeeca ca?aaioiie ieaou iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, eioi?oth
naiaeeo e ieieioio n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey a ?acoeueoaoa eiieo?aioeee
iaaeaeo eeoeaie iaaiiuo i?ioannee ia ?uiea o?oaea. Na?ueaciui aeeaaeii
AE. Oth?ai a ?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneie iaoee auea oi?ioee?iaea “caeiia
oiaiueoaiey caiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa”, niaeanii eioi?iio oaaee/aiea
i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea e caiea i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi eaaeaeay iineaaeothuay
cao?aoa o?oaea ieacuaaaony iaiaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie, oi anoue aeaenoaoao
caeii oauaathuaai ieiaei?iaeey ii/a, eioi?ue a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee o?aeooaony a aeaea caeiia oauaathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, anee i?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey oeceie?aoe/aneiai o/aiey
auea yaii iaoaea/iie, oi oai?aoe/aneee aeeaae yoie oeieu o?oaeii
ia?aioeaieoue. Ai anyeii neo/aa, oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi eiaiii ciaeiinoai
n o?oaeaie o?aioeocneeo oeceie?aoia, a oaeaea ee/iia ciaeiinoai e
iauaiea n ieie noeioee?iaaei eioa?an e yeiiiie/aneie i?iaeaiaoeea
iniiaaoaey aiaeeeneie eeanne/aneie yeiiiie/aneie oeieu Aaeaia Nieoa.

Eeanne/aneay oeiea

Eeanne/aneay oeiea iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee ioiineony e /eneo c?aeuo
iai?aaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie iunee, inoaaeaoeo aeoaieee neaae a enoi?ee
yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee. Yeiiiie/aneea eaeae eeanne/aneie oeieu ia iioa?yee
naiaai cia/aiey aei iaoeo aeiae. Eeanne/aneia iai?aaeaiea ca?iaeeeinue a
XVII aaea e ?anoeaaei a XVIII e a ia/aea XIX aaea. Aaee/aeoay caneoaa
eeanneeia ninoieo a oii, /oi iie iinoaaeee a oeaio? yeiiiieee e
yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee o?oae eae niceaeaoaeueioth neeo e noieiinoue
eae aiieiuaiea oeaiiinoe, iieiaeea oai naiui ia/aei o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe. Eeanne/aneay oeiea noaea i?iaicaanoieoeae eaeae yeiiiie/aneie
naiaiaeu, eeaa?aeueiiai iai?aaeaiey a yeiiiieea. I?aaenoaaeoaee
eeanne/aneie oeieu au?aaioaee iao/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe, i?eauee, iaeiaao, caiaeueiie ?aioa. A iaae?ao eeanne/aneie
oeieu, ii nooe, ca?iaeeeanue yeiiiie/aneay iaoea.

Ia?aui i?aaenoaaeoaeai e i?a?iaeeoaeai eeanne/aneie oeieu neaaeoao
n/eoaoue aiaeeeneiai yeiiiienoa Oeeueyia Iaooe (1623-1687), eioi?iai E.
Ia?en iacaae “iooeii iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee e a iaeioi?ii ?iaea
ecia?aoaoaeai noaoenoeee”. Iaooe i?eiaaeeaaeao iao/iua ?ac?aaioee a
iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei. Enoi/ieeii yeiiiie/aneiai
aiaaonoaa ii n/eoae noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi naeeaeaao aai n aaoi?aie
o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe.

Eeanne/aneay oeiea i?aaenoaaeaia ianeieueeeie iniiaiiieiaeieeaie e
?yaeii oaeaioeeauo eo iiioey?ecaoi?ia e oieeiaaoaeae. Anee ia
aaeaaaoueny a aieaa oiieee aiaeec, oi any oae iacuaaaiay eeanne/aneay
yeiiiie/aneay oeiea iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia ii e?aeiae ia?a /aou?ueiy
eiaiaie: Aaeai Nieo (1723-1790), Aeaaeae ?eea?aei (1772-1823), Oiian
Iaeueoon (1766-1834), Aeaeii Notha?o Ieeeue (1806-1873).

Eae e eo i?aaeoanoaaiieee, iniiaaoaee eeanne/aneie oeieu ?anniao?eaaee
yeiiiie/aneoth iaoeo eae o/aiea i aiaaonoaa e niiniaao aai oaaee/aiey.
Ooiaeaiaioaeueiue o?oae A. Nieoa, oaeaeaaoee naao a 1776 aiaeo, oae e
iacuaaeny: “Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”. A.
Nieo enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aiaaonoai iaoeee aiieiuaii a i?iaeoeoeee,
eioi?ay iio?aaeyaony ia?iaeii, ianaeythuei aeaiioth no?aio. *ai aieueoa
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eiee/anoaii iio?aaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee e
/eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey no?aiu, oai auoa o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueiiai
aiaaonoaa. Naii aea niioiioaiea a naith i/a?aaeue caaeneo io oaeeo aeaoo
oaeoi?ia, eae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea e i?iii?oeee aeaeaiey
iauanoaa ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue e iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiue eeann. Ia?aue
oaeoi?, ii A. Nieoo, neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaeaieaa cia/eiue.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ii?aaeaeyaony oae iacuaaaiui ?acaeaeaieai
o?oaea e o?iaiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ia?ann
iauanoaa, ?ino aiaaonoaa ca-

aenyo a eiia/iii n/aoa io o?iaiy iaeiieaiey eaieoaea e niiniaia aai
eniieueciaaiey.

?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, i?aaenoaaeythuaa ooieoeeiiaeueioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth
?aaioieeia a ?aieao ioaeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey, ?anniao?eaaaony eae
anoanoaaiiue e iai?aiaiiue iooue ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa. *ai auoa
noaiaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoa, oai neeueiaa nayce iaaeaeo ieie,
oai cia/eoaeueiaa neeiiiinoue e ?uii/iiio iaiaio. Eioa?anii, /oi anee,
ii A?enoioaeth, a i?ioeanna iaiaia iaycaoaeueii auea?uaaao eeai
i?iaeaaaoe, eeai iieoiaoaeue, oi, ii A. Nieoo, iaiai iaeeiaeiai auaiaeai
e i?iaeaaoeo, e iieoiaoaeth. A iniiaa oeaiu naeaeee, niaeanii A. Nieoo,
eaaeeo oae iacuaaaiay noieiinoue, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia /oi
eiia, eae eiee/anoai o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a. Oaeei
ia?acii, /ai auoa noaiaiue ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e o?iaaiue iaeiieaiey
eaieoaea, oai aieueoa i?iaeoeoeee iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii. Aicieeaao
anoanoaaiiue aii?in: eaeei ia?acii a oicyenoaa aeieaeai eaeoe i?ioeann
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey eaieoaea iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie io?aneyie? A. Nieo ia
aeaeeo a yoii i?iaeaiu. Anee ia ?uiea oeaia oiaa?a ieacuaaaony auoa aa
“anoanoaaiiie oeaiu”, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony ii cao?aoai o?oaea,
eiee/anoai i?iaeaaoeia, aeaeathueo i?iecaiaeeoue e i?iaeaaaoue yoio
oiaa?, aic?anoao e eaieoae aoaeao iaeiieyoueny ia i?aaei?eyoeyo,
i?iecaiaeyueo eiaiii yoio oiaa?. Oaeei ia?acii, “iaaeaeeiay ?oea” ?uiea
naia io?aaoee?oao i?ioeann iaeiieaiey eaieoaea a ioaeiuo ?acia?ao e
ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

Eioa?anii, /oi i?e oaeie o?aeoiaea oicyenoaaiiie aeecie anyeea
aeaenoaey i?aaeoaeuenoa ii yeiiiie/aneiio ?aaoee?iaaieth neaaeoao
ioeaieaaoue eeoue iaaaoeaii, oae eae iie ia?ooatho yooaeoeaioth ?aaioo
“iaaeaeeiie ?oee” ?uiea e i?eaiaeyo e caiaaeeaieth i?ioeanna iaeiieaiey
eaieoaea e eae ?acoeueoao – e nieaeaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.
“Aeey oiai /oiau iiaeiyoue ainoaea?noai n naiie ieceie nooiaie
aa?aa?noaa aei aunoae nooiaie aeaaininoiyiey, ioaeiu eeoue ie?, eaaeea
iaeiae e oa?ieiinoue a oi?aaeaiee; ana inoaeueiia naeaeaao anoanoaaiiue
oiae aauae”, – ienae A. Nieo. Ionthaea ni a?aiaie A. Nieoa e aei iaoeo
aeiae iieuecoaony iiioey?iinoueth aeaaec i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee ii i?eioeeio “laisses fair”, /oi icia/aao “ionoue ana eaeao
naii niaie, anoanoaaiiui ia?acii, aac aiaoiaai i?eioaeaeaiey”. Nieo aue
noi?iiieeii iaoaiecia ?uii/iiai naii?aaoee?iaaiey ia iniiaa naiaiaeiuo
oeai, neeaaeuaathueony a caaeneiinoe io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

I oii, ianeieueei iiiaia?aiiui auei i?iieeiiaaiea A. Nieoa a
yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao niaea?aeaiea aai
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai o?oaea “Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa
ia?iaeia”, ninoiyuaai ec iyoe eiea:

1. “I?e/eiu oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e ii?yaeie, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui aai i?iaeoeo anoanoaaiiui ia?acii ?ani?aaeaeyaony
iaaeaeo eeannaie ia?iaea”.

2. “I i?e?iaea eaieoaea, aai iaeiieaiee e i?eiaiaiee”.

3. “I ?acaeoee aeaaininoiyiey o ?aciuo ia?iaeia”.

4. “I nenoaiao iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee (i/a?e enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneeo
o/aiee)”.

5. “I aeioiaeao ainoaea?y eee ainoaea?noaa (o/aiea i oeiainao)”.

Aaeai Nieo ia oieueei aienae naia eiy cieiouie aoeaaie a enoi?eth
yeiiiie/aneie iaoee, ii e aioae a iaa eae ia?aiioe?uaaoaeue,
caneoaeeaoee oeooe “iooea yeiiiieee”.

Cia/aiea yeiiiie/aneie eiioeaioeee, i?aaeeiaeaiiie A. Nieoii,
ianoieueei aaeeei, /oi inoaaony eeoue nineaoueny ia auneacuaaiea ii
yoiio iiaiaeo enoi?eea Aai?e Aieey, aaoi?a “Enoi?ee oeeaeeecaoeee a
Aiaeee”. Ii ienae: “Ia Aaeaia Nieoa iiaeii neacaoue, ia aiynue
ii?iaa?aeaiey, /oi yoio iaeeiieee oioeaiaeaoe ecaeaieai iaeiiai
ni/eiaiey aieueoa naeaeae aeey aeaaiaeainoaey /aeiaa/anoaa, /ai auei
eiaaea-eeai naeaeaii niaieoiii acyouie niiniaiinoyie anao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ethaeae e caeiiiaeaoaeae, i eioi?uo nio?aieeenue
aeinoiaa?iua naaaeaiey a enoi?ee”.

ss?eee, naiaia?aciue aeeaae a yeiiiie/aneoth iaoeo aian i?aaenoaaeoaeue
eeanne/aneie oeieu aiaee/aiei O. Iaeueoon. O?aeoao O. Iaeueoona “Iiuo i
caeiia ia?iaeiianaeaiey”, iioaeeeiaaiiue a 1798 aiaeo, i?iecaae e
i?iecaiaeeo ia /eoathuoth ioaeeeo oaeia iiuiia aia/aoeaiea, /oi
aeeneonnee ia yoie ?aaioa aaaeoony ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Aeeaiacii ioeaiie
a yoeo aeeneonneyo i?aaeaeueii oe?ie: io “aaieaeueiia i?aaeaeaeaiea”
aei- “aioeiao/iue a?aae”.

O. Iaeueoon aue ia ia?aui, eoi ienae i aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?iaeaiao, ii,
iiaeaeoe, aue ia?aui, eoi iiiuoaeny i?aaeeiaeeoue oai?eth, iienuaathuoth
caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey. *oi eanaaony aai nenoaiu
aeieacaoaeuenoa e noaoenoe/aneeo eeethno?aoeee, oi e iei oaea a oa
a?aiaia auea i?aaeuyaeaia ianna i?aoaicee. A XVIII-XIX aaeao oai?ey O.
Iaeueoona noaea ecaanoia aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi aa aaoi?
aia?aua i?aaeeiaeee ii?iaa?aeaiea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai oacena i oii,
/oi iooai nioeeaeueiiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai iiaeao
auoue oniaa?oainoaiaaii. Aeey yeiiiie/aneie aea iaoee o?aeoao O.
Iaeueoona oeaiai oaie aiaeeoe/aneeie auaiaeaie, eioi?ua auee
aiineaaenoaee eniieueciaaiu ae?oaeie oai?aoeeaie eeanne/aneie e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo oeie.

Eae iai ecaanoii, A. Nieo enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi iaoa?eaeueiia aiaaonoai
iauanoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niioiioaiea iaaeaeo iauaiii i?aaeiaoia
iio?aaeaiey e /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey. Aeaaiia aieiaiea iniiaaoaeue
eeanne/aneie oeieu oaeaeye eco/aieth caeiiiia?iinoae e oneiaee ?inoa
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, aii?inu aea, naycaiiua n caeiiiia?iinoyie
eciaiaiey /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey, ei i?aeoe/anee ia ?anniao?eaaeenue. Yoo
caaea/o e acye ia naay O. Iaeueoon.

N oi/ee c?aiey O. Iaeueoona, nouanoaoao i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
“einoeieoii i?iaeieaeaiey ?iaea” e ia?aie/aiiinoueth caiaeue, i?eaiaeiuo
aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Einoeieou canoaaeytho
/aeiaa/anoai ?aciiiaeaoueny n i/aiue aunieie nei?inoueth, “a
aaiiao?e/aneie i?ia?annee”. A naith i/a?aaeue caieaaeaeea, a oieueei iii
i?iecaiaeeo iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ethaeae i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, niiniaii
i?iecaiaeeoue yoe i?iaeoeou n ai?acaei iaiueoae nei?inoueth, “a
a?eoiaoe/aneie i?ia?annee”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ethaia oaaee/aiea iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey aoaeao ?aiueoa eee iicaea iiaeiuaii
oaaee/aieai /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e/eiie aaaeiinoe
yaeyaony niioiioaiea oaiiia i?e?inoa ianaeaiey e oaiiia i?e?inoa
aeeciaiiuo aeaa. Ethaay iiiuoea oeo/oeoue oneiaey aeecie iooai
nioeeaeueiiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey naiaeeony oai naiui ia iao aic?anoathuae
ethaeneie iannie.

Ioiineoaeueii ieceea oaiiu i?e?inoa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey O. Iaeueoon
naycuaaao n aeaenoaeai oae iacuaaaiiai caeiia oauaathuaai ieiaei?iaeey
ii/a. Niune yoiai caeiia ninoieo a oii, /oi eiee/anoai caiaeueiuo
oaiaeee, i?eaiaeiuo aeey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
ia?aie/aii. Iauai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeao ?anoe eeoue ca n/ao yenoaineaiuo
oaeoi?ia, e eaaeaeue neaaeothuee caiaeueiue o/anoie aeeth/aaony a
oicyenoaaiiue iai?io ana n aieueoei eiee/anoaii cao?ao, anoanoaaiiia
ieiaei?iaeea eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai caiaeueiiai o/anoea ieaea, /ai
i?aaeuaeouaai, a iiyoiio iauee o?iaaiue ieiaei?iaeey anaai caiaeueiiai
oiiaea a oeaeii eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth. I?ia?ann a iaeanoe
oaoiieiaee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aiiaua eaeao i/aiue
iaaeeaiii e ia niiniaai eiiiaine?iaaoue nieaeaiea ieiaei?iaeey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeaeyy ethaeae niiniaiinoueth e aaca?aie/iiio
?aciiiaeaieth, i?e?iaea /a?ac yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu iaeaaaao ia ?iae
/aeiaa/aneee ia?aie/eoaee, eioi?ua ?aaoee?otho ?ino /eneaiiinoe. N?aaee
yoeo ia?aie/eoaeae O. Iaeueoon auaeaeyao: ia?aie/eoaee ii?aeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a e neaainoue caei?iauey, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e nieaeaieth
?iaeaeaaiinoe, a oaeaea ii?i/ioth aeeciue e ieuaoo, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e
?inoo nia?oiinoe. Nieaeaiea aea ?iaeaeaaiinoe e ?ino nia?oiinoe a
eiia/iii eoiaa ii?aaeaeythony ia?aie/aiiinoueth n?aaenoa e
nouanoaiaaieth.

Ec oaeie iinoaiiaee i?iaeaiu a i?eioeeia iiaeii naeaeaoue niaa?oaiii
?acee/iua auaiaeu. Iaeioi?ua eiiiaioaoi?u e oieeiaaoaee O. Iaeueoona
oaeaeaee a aai oai?ee /aeiaaeiiaiaaenoie/aneoth aeieo?eio, eioi?ay
ii?aaaeuaaao ieuaoo e i?ecuaaao e aieiai eae iaoiaeo eeeaeaeaoeee
eceeoiaai ianaeaiey. Ae?oaea n/eoatho, /oi O. Iaeueoon caeiaeee
oai?aoe/aneea iniiau iieeoeee “ieaie?iaaiey naiuee”, eioi?ay oe?iei
eniieuecoaony a iineaaeiea o?eaeoeaoue eao ai iiiaeo ainoaea?noaao ie?a.
Nai aea O. Iaeueoon eeoue any/anee iiae/a?eeaae oieueei iaeii –
iaiaoiaeeii eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo caaioeoueny i naaa naiiio e iieiinoueth
ioaa/aoue ca naith iai?aaeoniio?eoaeueiinoue.

Aua iaeei i?aaenoaaeoaeue eeanne/aneie oeieu – Ae. ?eea?aei – ia
iieo/ee nenoaiaoe/aneiai ia?aciaaiey e aue i?ioanneiiaeueiui
ae?aeaaeeii. Neieioea i?eee/iia ninoiyiea, ii oaeaeny oeeinioneeie e
yeiiiie/aneeie oai?eyie e oieueei a 30 eao iioaeeeiaae naith ia?aoth
?aaioo. Naiui e?oiiui i?iecaaaeaieai Ae. ?eea?aei noaea iioaeeeiaaiiay a
1817 aiaeo ?aaioa “Ia/aea iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee e iaeiaiaiai
iaeiaeaiey”. Noaa a 1819 aiaeo /eaiii ia?eaiaioa, ii i?eieiae o/anoea a
?ac?aaioea iiiaeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

ssaeyynue no?iaei iineaaeiaaoaeai A. Nieoa e O. Iaeueoona, Ae. ?eea?aei
aian nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ?ac?aaioeo e ooi/iaiea ?acee/iuo
niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iaeai yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Enoiaey ec o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe e iauae eiioeaioeee eeanne/aneiai aiaeeca, ei auea
i?aaeeiaeaia oai?ey “n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae” (n?aaieoaeueiuo
i?aeiouanoa), eioi?ay noaea oai?aoe/aneie iniiaie iieeoeee
“o?eo?aaea?noaa” (naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee) e a nia?aiaiiuo aa?eaioao
eniieuecoaony aeey iainiiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee oae iacuaaaiie iieeoeee
“ioe?uoie yeiiiieee”.

Iauee niune yoie eiioeaioeee ninoieo a oii, /oi, anee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
?acee/iuo no?ai ia iaeaaatho eaeeo-eeai ia?aie/aiee ia aiaoithth
oi?aiaeth ae?oa n ae?oaii (iioeeiu, caeiiiaeaoaeueiua cai?aou ia yenii?o
eee eiii?o e o.ae.), yeiiiieea eaaeaeie no?aiu ia/eiaao iinoaiaiii
niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny ia i?iecaiaenoaa oao oiaa?ia, ecaioiaeaiea eioi?uo
o?aaoao iaiueoeo cao?ao ?aai/aai a?aiaie. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e aieaa
yooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth ?ano?nia e iaania/eaaao aieaa aunieee iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa, /ai aei niaoeeaeecaoeee. I?iaeaaay /anoue aeiiieieoaeueii
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, iaoeey iiaeao i?eia?aoaoue aieueoa oao
oiaa?ia, eioi?ua naia ia i?iecaiaeeo. I?e yoii ana o/anoieee aiaoiae
oi?aiaee ieacuaathony a auea?uoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey
iicaieyao no?aiai iio?aaeyoue ia iaiueoaa (a aiciiaeii, e aieueoaa)
eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, /ai aei niaoeeaeecaoeee, ieieiece?oy ?anoiaeu
?aai/aai a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey nicaeaiey aeaiiiai iauaia oiaa?ia.

I?aeoe/aneay i?iaeaia, eioi?ay auoaeaea ec oai?ee “ioiineoaeueiuo
ecaea?aeae”, ninoiyea a oii, /oiau, ai-ia?auo, caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie
iaoiaeaie niyoue aieueoeinoai ia?aie/aiee ia aiaoithth oi?aiaeth a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee e, ai-aoi?uo, oaaaeeoue eee canoaaeoue naeaeaoue oi aea
naiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa ae?oaeo no?ai, n eioi?uie oi?aotho aiaeeeneea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee. Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai Aaeeeia?eoaiee
i?aoniaei a i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee oai?ee Ae. ?eea?aei, oae eae iii
naii ia?eiaee/anee aaiaeeei ia?aie/aiey ia eiii?o ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia,
eaey ia iiaiaeo o ?acee/iuo neiaa iauanoaa. Ii ia ioeoeeaeueiii o?iaia
ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei ainoaea?noaai Aa?iiu o?eo?aaea?noai noaei
naiaia?aciui ciaiaiai aiaeeeneie iieeoeee a XIX aaea.

*aoaa?oue i?aaenoaaeoaeue eeanne/aneie oeieu – Aeae. N. Ieeeue –
iieo/ee ii?aceoaeueiia ii iauaio e niaea?aeaieth ia?aciaaiea e naie
ia?aua ?aaiou ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee iioaeeeiaae oaea a 16 eao.
Nia?aiaiieee iacuaaee aai iuneyuae iaoeiie. Aeae. N. Ieeeue neoaeee
aia/aea a Ino-Eiaeneie eiiiaiee, caoai aue /eaiii ia?eaiaioa, iaeiaei
ana naiaiaeiia a?aiy, a ii ?aaioae ii 14 /ania a nooee, oaeaeye
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ei auei iioaeeeiaaii iiiaeanoai ?aaio
ii oeeinioee, nioeeieiaee e yeiiiieea. Aaioeii aai iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe noaea iauaiiay eieaa “I?eioeeiu iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”
(1848), eioi?ay ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea auea yioeeeeiiaaeeae e
iniiaiui o/aaiui iiniaeai ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee a aieueoeinoaa no?ai
ie?a.

Nai Ieeeue noa?aeny any/anee ecaaaaoue oiiieiaiee i naiai aeeaaea a
?ac?aaioeo yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eeanne/aneiai oieea e aeaeae naith
caaea/o eeoue a iaienaiee iaiiaeaiiiai, aieaa nenoaiaoece?iaaiiiai
aa?eaioa ?aaio naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia n o/aoii iiaiai o?iaiy iao/iuo
ciaiee e ia?aaeiauo aeey aai a?aiaie eaeae. Iiyoiio iiiaeie oai?aoeeaie
“I?eioeeiu iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee” Ieeey ?anniao?eaathony a eo/oai neo/aa
eae oaeaioeeaay eiiieeyoeey. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea ei auei auneacaii
iiiai i/aiue oiieeo e oeaiiuo eaeae, iuneae, caia/aiee ii iiaiaeo
eeanne/aneiai ianeaaeey e caeiaeaiu iniiau ?yaea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
iiiyoee e iieiaeaiee, eioi?uo ia auei o i?aaeoanoaaiieeia e eioi?ua
noaee aeoeaii eniieueciaaoueny a yeiiiie/aneeo oai?eyo oaea a XX aaea.
Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ianeaaeea eeanne/aneie oeieu ai?acaei
?aciiia?aciaa e iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaii aua aeia?ui aeanyoeii eiai
oai?aoeeia yoiai iai?aaeaiey.

Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea aaeeiue
iioie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eae au ?acaeaeeeny ia aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo
iioiea. N iaeiie noi?iiu, auaeaeeeinue oaeia iai?aaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai
aiaeeca, eioi?ia aiineaaenoaee iieo/eei iaiauaiiia iacaaiea ia?enecia. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiyaeyaony oae iacuaaaiay ia?aeeiaeueiay oai?ey,
eioi?ay caoai i?aa?auaaony a e?oiiaeooth iaieeanne/aneoth oeieo.

Ooiie/aneee nioeeaeeci e eiiioieci

Nioeeaeenoe/aneea e eiiioienoe/aneea eaeae c?aee a iauanoaa ia/eiay n
XVI aaea. Ii iaeaieaa aeaaiaeaoiay aeey eo ?acaeoey ii/aa neiaeeeanue e
eiioeo XVIII – ia/aeo XIX aaea, eiaaea a iieiie ia?a i?iyaeeenue oaeea
iaaeaaiaeaeiua /a?ou aicieeoae eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu,
eae iaeiieaiea eaieoaea a ?oeao iaiiiaeo, oaeoaeaiea /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, iiey?ecaoeey aiaaonoaa, aaaenoaaiiia iieiaeaiea
i?ieaoa?eaa. Ana yoi aucaaei e?eoeeo eaieoaeecia. Ia aeaey, eaeei
ia?acii iiaeii oniaa?oainoaiaaoue neiaeeaoeany yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeyeenue iani?aaaaeeeauie, iiiaea auaeathueany oiu
/aeiaa/anoaa aunooieee iiai?ieeaie ooiie/aneeo iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
e yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai, iniiaaiiuo ia i?eioeeiao eieeaeoeaecia,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ?aaainoaa, a?aonoaa e oai naiui yeiau eeoaiiuo ii?ieia
ao?aeoaciiai no?iy.

Acaeyaeu nioeeaeenoia-ooiienoia ia iie?aeenue ia neieue-ieaoaeue
no?iaea oai?ee, ia eiaee iiae niaie yeiiiie/aneie iniiau, yoi auee
ia/oaiey e ?annoaeaeaiey oeeinioia, ?oeiaiaenoaiaaaoeony aeaaeie
iaia?aieyie, eaeaaeece?iaaiiuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie.

Ooiieci eae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia o/aiea aiciee aua a XV aaea. E
/eneo aai ia?auo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ioiineony aiaeeeneee aoiaieno e
ienaoaeue Oiian Ii?, iaienaaoee eieao “Ooiiey”, niaea?aeauoth iienaiea
eaeaaeueiiai no?iy a oaioanoe/aneie no?aia Ooiiee, aaea iao /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, i?iecaiaenoai e auo iaiauanoaeaiu, o?oae yaeyaony
anaiauae iaycaiiinoueth, a ?ani?aaeaeaiea inouanoaeyaony ii
iio?aaiinoyi.

Eoaeueyineee oeeinio e iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue, iiyo,
iiiao-aei.ieieeaiaoe, i?i-

aaaeoee 27 eao a oth?ueiao (aaea a iniiaiii e oai?ee), Oiiiaci
Eaiiaiaeea ( 1568—1639)

iaienae eieao “Ai?iae Nieioea”. A yoii /oaei-ai?iaea auea eaeaaeueiay
iaoeia. Ethaee aeeee aac naiae e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, aeaoae
ainieouaaei ainoaea?noai, iaycaoaeueiue o?oae aeeeeny 4 /ana a aeaiue,
iaoea e i?inaauaiea i?ioeaaoaee. Oau, ana yoi nouanoaiaaei oieueei a
aiia?aaeaiee aaieaeueiiai aaoi?a.

O?aioeoc Aaa?eyeue Aiiii aea Iaaee (1709—1785) n/eoae iniiaiui
yeiiiie/aneei ceii e?oiiia caieaaeaaeaiea. Enoiaey ec i?aaeiinueee, /oi
oi?ioea a?aaeaeaia aaaeiaa iaeeueiuo o?iaeaaa, ii i?aaeeaaae ia
inoaiaaeeaaoueny ia?aae oa?icaie iioa?e yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ai
eiy nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Iieuecothueeny ie?iaie ecaanoiinoueth o?aioeocneee oeeinio AEai-AEae
?onni (1712-1842) a naiai ni/eiaiee “?annoaeaeaiey i ia/aea e iniiaaieyo
ia?aaainoaa…” aeieacuaae, /oi aeaaiue enoi/iee yeiiiie/aneeo e
nioeeaeueiuo aaae – eiioeaio?aoeey nianoaaiiinoe a ?oeao iaiiiaeo, e
ionoaeaae i?aai ia?iaea ia ianeeuenoaaiiia ono?aiaiea iani?aaaaeeeainoe.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo e?eoeeia eaieoaeecia aue e oaaeoea?neee yeiiiieno AEai
Oa?eue Eaiia? Neiiiae aea Neniiiaee (1773-1842). Neniiiaee niinianoaiaae
ooaa?aeaeaieth a iauanoaaiiii iiaiee iiaiai iiieiaiey ae?aaia?eineiai
oa?ieia “i?ieaoa?eao” eae iaeiouaai, oaiaoaiiiai neiy ?aaioieeia. Ii
aeaeae a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee iaoeo i niaa?oainoaiaaiee nioeeaeueiiai
iaoaiecia ?aaee n/anouey ethaeae.

Ia aa?oeia ooiie/aneiai nioeeaeecia noiyo o?aioeocu Eeiae Ai?e
Nai-Neiii

(1760-1825), Oa?eue Oo?uea (1772-1837) e aiaee/aiei ?iaa?o Ioyi
(1771-1858). Ana iie i?aae?aeaee aeaaeue eaieoaeecia, ianoaeaaee ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiey iauanoaaiiie nenoaiu ai eiy nicaeaiey iiaie
iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeee, eioi?oth Nai-Neiii iacuaae eiaeono?eaeeciii,
Oo?uea – aa?iiieae, a Ioyi – eiiioieciii.

Oo?uea n/eoae ia?ae/iie y/aeeie aoaeouaai iauanoaa “oaeaiao”, a eioi?ie
ni/aoathony i?iiuoeaiiia e naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. Ii
iieaaae, /oi a ao-

aeooai iauanoaa o?oae noaiao iio?aaiinoueth e ianeaaeaeaieai, a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaaeaeo oinoaaiiui e oece/aneei o?oaeii en/aciao.

Nai-Neiii iieaaae, /oi a aoaeouai iauanoaa “eiaeono?eaeia” ao?aeoacey e
i?ieaoa?ee ia?acotho aaeeiue eeann. Iniiaiua /a?ou i?aaeeaaaaiie ei
nenoaiu Nai-Neiii aeaeae a iaycaoaeueiii o?oaea, aaeeinoaa iaoee e
i?iecaiaenoaa, iao/iii ieaie?iaaiee oicyenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiee
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Ioyi i?aaeeaaae nicaeaoue naiioi?aaeythueany “iinaeee iauiinoe e
nio?oaeie/anoaa», eeoaiiua /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, eeannia, yenieoaoaoeee
e ae?oaeo aioaaiieciia. Ii aeaaea iiiuoaeny inouanoaeoue naie
oeeaio?iie/aneea caiuneu ia i?yaeeeueiie oaa?eea, aaea neoaeee
oi?aaeythuei. Ioyi enoiaeee ec iaiaoiaeeiinoe iino?iaiey i?iiiaaaeoaiuo
nenoai ie?iui iooai, iin?aaenoaii ?ani?ino?aiaiey eaeae ?aaainoaa e
nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, aac ?aaiethoeee e aiei. E oaeiio auaiaeo
i?eoae e ?onni a eiioea naiae aeecie.

Aii/eth aeaey neaainoue, iaiainiiaaiiinoue oai?aoe/aneeo aicc?aiee
nioeeaeenoia-ooiienoia e aaniiiiuiua iiiuoee iino?ieoue ?aaeueiua
eiiioiu, noi?iiieee nioeeaeenoe/aneie eaeae iiiuoaeenue iiaeaanoe iiae
eiiioieci aieaa iaaeaaeiue ooiaeaiaio. Ca ?aoaiea yoie enoi?e/aneie
caaea/e acyeny iaiaoeeee o/aiue, oeeinio, yeiiiieno Ea?e Ia?en
(1818-1883), aeoaiei i?iieeioaoee a nooue oicyenoaa e au?aaioaaoee
nianoaaiiua nenoaio acaeyaeia ia oai?aoe/aneoth yeiiiieeo (iieeoe/aneoth
yeiiiieth). Ii iie?aeny a iniiaiii ia o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe,
aicc?aiey eeanne/aneie oeieu, ii nouanoaaiii eciaiee iiiaea eo
iieiaeaiey. A ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie eaeae, caiuneu ?acaeoie E.Ia?enii
oai?ee auee aeiiieiaiu e ianeieueei ia?a?aaioaiu O?eae?eoii Yiaaeuenii
(1820-1895) e Aeaaeeie?ii Eeuee/ai Eaieiui (1870—1924). Yoa oai?ey
iieo/eea iacaaiea iao/iiai nioeeaeecia (eiiioiecia) eee
ia?enecia-eaieiecia.

Niaianoii n Yiaaeuenii Ia?en iaienae “Iaieoano Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee”
(1848), aaea ?anniao?eaaeenue i?eioeeiu eiiioienoe/aneiai iauanoaa. *oi
aea auei ia/a?oaii ia ciaiaie iaieoanoa? Ioiaia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
caieth e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, aaaaeaiea eieeaeoeaiie, anai /eaiai
iauanoaa i?eiaaeeaaeauae nianoaaiiinoe , oeaio?aeecaoeey aeaiaa,
eaieoaea, o?ainii?oa a ?oeao iauanoaa, iaeeiaeiaay

iaycaiiinoue o?oaea aeey anao, ?aoaiea yeiiiie/aneeo aii?inia ii iauaio
ieaio.

“Iaieoano” inoaaaeny i?ia?aiiiie ?aaioie aeey eaaeaeiai ainoaea?noaa,
iuoaaoaainy iino?ieoue nioeeaeenoe/aneia e ia aai iniiaa
eiiioienoe/aneia iauanoai, ii ii ia niaea?aeae oai?aoe/aneiai
iainiiaaiey i?ia?aiiiuo o?aaiaaiee eiiioienoia.

Iaeaieaa iieii yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey E.Ia?ena auea eceiaeaia ai?acaei
iicaeiaa a oae e ia caeii/aiiie eieaa “Eaieoae” (ia?aue oii iiyaeeny a
1867 a., aeaa neaaeothueo oiia auoee oaea iinea nia?oe aaoi?a a 1885 e a
1894 a. niioaaonoaaiii).

Ia?ena oae iiiai e oae ?aciiia?acii oieeiaaee, /oi iiae ianeiaieyie
eioa?i?aoaoeee ii?ie o?oaeii iaia?oaeeoue nianoaaiiua acaeyaeu
iniiaaoaey ia?enecia.

E?iia oiai, E.Ia?en nicaeae nenoaio, ioaaouaathuoth ana nioeeaeueiua
iaoee, iiyoiio /enoi yeiiiie/aneee eiiiiiaio aai nenoaiu ne?uo
oeeinioneeie, nioeeieiae/aneeie, enoi?e/aneeie eaeayie. E iaeiiaoe, a
?innee, aaea, eae n/eoaaony, aia?aua a ie?a auea ia i?aeoeea ?aaeeciaaia
yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia ia?enecia, ioiioaiea e yoiio /aeiaaeo e aai
oai?eyi ai iiiaii iaiaeiicia/ii e ca/anooth auoaeaao ia ec nooe aai
oai?ee, a ec oiai, eae iiaeeye ia?eneci ia noaeueau ethaeae. Iiyoiio, ia
anooiay a aeeneonneth ii yoiio aii?ino, oi/aony caiaoeoue eeoue
neaaeothuaa. Ai-ia?auo, ia oaeo, /oi ana, /oi auei inayuaii eiaiai
E.Ia?ena a iaoae no?aia, eiaao ioiioaiea e ia?enecio. Ai-aoi?uo, ii
aeoaeia aiaeeca yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai E.Ia?en a?yae ee eiaao eiieo?aioia
n?aaee oai?aoeeia XIX aaea e yoio oaeo i?eciai i?ioanneiiaeueiuie
yeiiiienoaie ai anai ie?a.

E.Ia?en enoiaeeo ec eaeae eeanne/aneie oeieu i oii, /oi a iniiaa oeaiu
oiaa?a

eaaeeo oae iacuaaaiay noieiinoue (iaiiaay noieiinoue) eee oeaiiinoue
yoiai oiaa?a, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa o?oaea,
cao?a/aiiiai ia aai i?iecaiaenoai. Aeaeaa, a ioee/ea io eeanneeia ii
ooi/iyao, /oi cao?aou o?oaea, ii?aaeaeythuea aaee/eio noieiinoe,
yaeythony ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie, a iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiuie, oi anoue
/eneaiii ?aaiuie oiio eiee/anoao /ania ?aai/aai a?aiaie, eioi?ia
o?aaoaony a n?aaeiai aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a i?e aeaiiii o?iaia
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, eeoue iaaiiay ?aai/ay neea,
i?ieaoa?eao, i?iecaiaeeo noieiinoue.

Aoi?ui o/anoieeii yoiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeue,
eaieoaeeno eioi?ue yaeyaony nianoaaiieeii iniiaiiai aeaea aiaaonoaa,
nianoaaiieeii eaieoaea. Eaieoae aiieiuaaony a caeaieyo, iaoeiao,
i?oaeeyo, nu?uea, ai anai, n iiiiuueth /aai iaaiiua ?aaioieee
i?iecaiaeyo i?iaeoeoeeth. Oae enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue, /oi ana n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa neiioeaio?e?iaaiu a ?oeao iaeieo ethaeae, iiyoiio ae?oaea
ethaee auioaeaeaiu aeey auaeeaaiey i?iaeaaaoue naith ?aai/oth neeo
eaieoaeenoai. Eaieoaeeno, oae aea eae e ethaie iieoiaoaeue oiaa?a,
iiea/eaaao ?aai/oth neeo ii noieiinoe, eioi?ay ?aaia iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiiio ?aai/aio a?aiaie, cao?a/eaaaiiio ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey, iio?aaeyaiuo ?aai/ei e aai naiueae. ?aai/ee
o?oaeeony a oa/aiea ?aai/aai aeiy, i?iecaiaey aieueooth noieiinoue, /ai
noieo aai ?aai/ay neea. Oae eae nianoaaiieeii eaieoaea yaeyaony
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, oi e eceeoae noieiinoe, i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue,
i?enaaeaaaony eaieoaeenoii. I?enaaeaay i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue, /anoue
aa i?aaei?eieiaoaeue eaieoaeece?oao, oi anoue i?aa?auaao a
aeiiieieoaeueiua ii?oeee eaieoaea. Eaeao i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai
iaeiieaiey eaieoaea, iiyoiio, aeaaea anee ia?aiia/aeueii eaieoae aue
iieo/ai iooai o?oaeiauo oneeee naiiai eaieoaeenoa, ?aii eee iicaeii ii
noaiiaeony ?acoeueoaoii i?enaiaiey ieiaeia /oaeiai o?oaea.

Ii E.Ia?eno, eaieoaeeno i?e i?eiyoee ethauo oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee
?oeiaiaenoaoaony “aaniethoiui caeiiii” – iaeneiecaoeeae aaee/eiu
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. E yoiio aai oieeaao ia oieueei i?e?iaeiay
ae/iinoue, ii e eiieo?aioeey ni noi?iiu ae?oaeo eaieoaeenoia.
Naiaia?aciue anoanoaaiiue ioai? n?aaee eaieoaeenoia aaaeao e oiio, /oi
nio?aiyao naia iieiaeaiea a eeanna eaieoaeenoia eeoue oio, eoi ecaeaeaao
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeioth i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue, yenieoaoe?oy iaaiiue
o?oae .Oio eaieoaeeno, eioi?ue ia iaeneiece?oao i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue,
ia iiaeao iaeaieeaaoue eaieoae, oa?yao naie eiieo?aioiua iiceoeee, ?aii
eee iicaeii ieuaao e oauaaao ec ninoaaa eeanna eaieoaeenoia.

Oaeei ia?acii, e iaaiiua ?aaioieee, e eaieoaeenou yaeythony eae au
caeiaeieeaie nouanoaothuae nenoaiu, eioi?ay aeanoei caaeaao eo iiaeaee
iiaaaeaiey. Auoiae ec yoiai caieiooiai e?oaa caaeaaony naiei i?ioeannii
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ii ia?a
aiaae?aiey a i?iecaiaenoai ana aieaa niaa?oaiiuo iaoei e iaoaieciia ana
iaiueoa iio?aaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee a aeeaii o?oaea. Ana aieueoay /anoue
iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia auiaaeaao ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, ieoay e
oa?yy aiciiaeiinoue eiaaea-eeai a aoaeouai o?oaeeoueny. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu /ai auoa o?iaaiue iaeiieaiiiai eaieoaea, oai ino?aa eiieo?aioiay
ai?ueaa iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie ca aaee/eio i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe e a
eiia/iii eoiaa oai iaiueoa aeioiaeiinoue io aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a
i?iecaiaenoai. Aeey iieo/aiey eaaeaeie neaaeothuae aaeeieoeu aeioiaea
o?aaoaony aeeaaeuaaoue ia?aiia/aeueii ana aieueoa e aieueoa n?aaenoa.
?aioaaaeueiinoue eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee aoaeao iinoaiaiii nie?auaoueny,
a ia?niaeoeaa i?eaiaey e oiio, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa iaeiieaiea e
eaieoaeecaoeey noaioo iii?inoo aanniuneaiiuie. Eae oieueei ianooieo
oaeia iiey?iia ninoiyiea, eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia, eae
iieaaae E.Ia?en, i?eaeao eiiaoe.

Inoaiaony eeoue iooai nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee a ie?iaii ianooaaa
eeeaeaee?iaaoue nenoaio /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ay yaeyaony aeaaiui
ia?aie/eoaeai aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey, ia?aeoe e iauanoaaiiiio
?aaoee?iaaieth oicyenoaaiiie aeecie ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia ?aaiii?aaey
anao ethaeae e ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Oaeiaa oi?ioaiiay noaia ia?enenoneie
yeiiiie/aneie eiioeaioeee, eioi?oth i?e aeaeaiee iiaeii e?eoeeiaaoue,
aeiiieiyoue e oneiaeiyoue.

Eiia/ii aea, a ?aaeueiinoe ia?enenoneee aiaeec ai?acaei aeoaaea e
oai?aoe/anee

aieaa aeieacaoaeai, /ai iu aai eceiaeeee. Iiiooii noieo caiaoeoue, /oi
E.Ia?en ia oieueei eceaaaao yoo noaio, ii e ?ac?aaaouaaao ?yae
niaoeeaeueiuo oai?aoe/aneeo aii?inia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey yeiiiieee oiai
ia?eiaea. N?aaee yoeo aii?inia iiaeii iacaaoue oai?eth yeiiiie/aneiai
oeeeea, oai?eth aeioiaeia, oai?eth ca?aaioiie ieaou, oai?eth i?inoiai e
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, oai?eth caiaeueiie ?aiou. E?iia yoiai, ii
aeaeaao na?ueaciua enoi?e/aneea yeneo?nu a iaeanoue iieeoeee,
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa. Ii ana yoe aii?inu
?anniao?eaathony ei /a?ac i?ecio aai yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeoiaea e neoaeao
aeey iainiiaaiey ana oiai aea oacena i iaecaaaeiinoe nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee e iiaaaea iiaiai eiiioienoe/aneiai no?iy a ie?iaie enoi?ee.

Iineaaeothuay ?ac?aaioea yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ia?enecia aaeanue A. E.
Eaieiui

e ninoiyea a oii, /oi a XX aaea eaieoaeeci ia?aoae a naith iiaoth e
iineaaeithth oaco, oaco iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaeecia. A i?ioeanna
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau any oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, ii iiaieth A.
E.Eaieia, aaaeaony oaea ia iaeeeie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, a e?oiiuie
oe?iaie-iiiiiieenoaie. Iiiiiieeci a yeiiiieea i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth
iaoaiecia oeaiiia?aciaaiey, eiaaea i?aaei?eieiaoaee ia/eiatho ecaeaeaoue
oaea ia i?inoi n?aaeithth i?eaueue, a “iiiiiieueii aunieoth i?eaueue”.
Iiiiiieeci a yeiiiieea i?eaiaeeo e ia?aceoe?iaaieth
iiiiiieenoia-i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, caoi?iaaeeaaao oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann,
i?eaiaeeo e iaiauanoaeaieth eaieoaea ia aeaea, oioy oi?iaeueii ii
ii-i?aaeiaio iaoiaeeony a /anoiuo ?oeao. Oaeei ia?acii a naiii
eaieoaeecia oaea nicaeaiu ana oicyenoaaiiua i?aaeiinueee aeey
eiiioienoe/aneiai iauanoaa. Ii iiaieth A.E.Eaieia, E.Ia?en ia o/ae
oieueei iaeiiai iiiaioa – nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey ia iiaeao
i?iecieoe iaeiia?aiaiii ai anao no?aiao ie?a ec-ca oiai, /oi iie ?acaeou
ia?aaiiia?ii. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii niaa?oeoue ?aaiethoeeth a ioaeaeueii
acyoie no?aia (a ?innee), a caoai oaea caiyoueny iiaeaioiaeie
nioeeaeueiiai ia?aoiaea a ie?iaii ianooaaa.

O?oaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue iaaa?iyea, oae eae yoio aii?in o?aaoao i/aiue
na?ueaciie i?i?aaioee, ii iioiaea, /oi i?iaeieaeaoaeue eaieineeo eaeae
E. A. Noaeei ieii/aoaeueii ii?aae n eaeaae ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee e
ia?aoi?ioee?iaae i?iaeaio, i?aaeeiaeea eaeathiiyoaiiiai nicaeaiey
eiiioienoe/aneiai iauanoaa a ianooaaao ioaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa n
iii?ie ia nianoaaiiua neeu.

Caaa?oay e?aoeee aiaeec yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ia?enecia, noieo iaiiiieoue
/oi a o?oaeao iniiaiiieiaeieeia yoie eiioeaioeee iao ieeaeie aieaa eee
iaiaa aeaoaeueiie i?i?aaioee aii?ina i eiie?aoiuo iaoaieciao
yeiiiie/aneiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneie eee eiiioienoe/aneie
oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu. Ana ia?aie/eaaaony ioaeaeueiuie iieiaeaieyie e
no?acaie, aini?eyoea eioi?uo caaeneo io iauaai eiioaenoa oie eee eiie
ioaeeeaoeee. *oi aea eanaaony iineaaeothueo eioa?i?aoaoeee, oi iie
naiaeeeenue a iniiaiii e oeeoe?iaaieth iniiaiiieiaeieeia
eiiioienoe/aneie aeieo?eiu e e ooaa?aeaeaieyi, /oi ?aaeueiia
no?ieoaeuenoai eiiioienoe/aneiai iauanoaa no?iai neaaeoao eo
ianoaaeaieyi.

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