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Монополизм в экономике

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Iiiiiieeci a yeiiiieea.

 Ieai.

1.Aaaaeaiea.

2.Iiiyoea anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieee.

3.Ainoaea?noai e anoanoaaiiua iiiiiieee.

4.Iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee.

Aaaaeaiea.

I?aaeaea, /ai i?enooieoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii e aiaeeco anoanoaaiiie
iiiiiieee, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa iiaeaeue ?uiea ianiaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee, a ?aieao eioi?ie e nouanoaoao iiiiiieey, iaeiie ec aeaeia
eioi?ie yaeyaony anoanoaaiiay iiiiiieey. A i?eioeeia, eo/oei niiniaii

oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeaee ?uiea ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee yaeyaony
niiinoaaeaiea iineaaeiae n iiaeaeueth ?uiea niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee e
auyaeaiea ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ieie. Iiyoiio, ia iie acaeyae, iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeaea neacaoue ianeieueei neia i ?uiea niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee,
eioi?ue, a i?eioeeia, yaeyaony eaeaaeueiie iiaeaeueth, iineieueeo a
?aaeueiinoe ia nouanoaoao. Eoae, aeey iiaeaee ?uiea niaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea i?eciaee:

1.iaee/ea ia ?uiea iiiaeanoaa iacaaeneiuo i?iaeaaoeia e
iieoiaoaeae, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeo eee iieoiaao eeoue iaeoth
aeieth iauaai ?uii/iiai iau?ia aeaiiiai oiaa?a;

2.iaeii?iaeiinoue oiaa?a e iaeeiaeiaia aini?eyoea iieoiaoaeyie
i?iaeaaoeia;

3.ionoonoaea aoiaeiuo aa?uea?ia aeey anooieaiey a io?aneue iiauo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiiai auoiae ec io?anee;

4.iieiay eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue anao o/anoieeia ?uiea;

5.?aoeeiiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea anao o/anoieeia ?uiea.

Oaia?ue ia iniiaa ioee/ee ii auoaia?a/eneaiiui ioieoai iiiuoaainy

ia?eniaaoue iiaeaeue ?uiea ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee.

Aiai?y i ?uiea ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, iiaeii oaeoaeyoueny a
aiaeec, e i?eia?o, ieeaiiieee eee aea iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee,
eioi?ua yaeythony ?aaeueiuie noauaeoaie ?uiea ianiaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee, iaeiaei cao?aaeaaiea, oai aieaa e aiaeec, aeaiiuo
noauaeoia ia yaeyaony iaoae caaea/ae, iiyoiio ia?aie/einy
?anniio?aieai iniaaiiinoae /enoie iiiiiieee. Eoae, /oi aea oaeia
iiiiiieey? A i?eioeeia, iiiiiieeth iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
?uii/ioth no?oeoo?o, a eioi?ie iaeia oe?ia yaeyaony iinoaaueeii ia ?uiie
i?iaeoeoa, ia eiathuaai aeeceeo noanoeoooia. Ec aeaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeee
neaaeoao, /oi i?iaeoeo iiiiiieee oieeaeai a oii niunea, /oi ia
nouanoaoao oi?ioeo eee aeeceeo caiaieoaeae yoiai oiaa?a. N oi/ee c?aiey
iieoiaoaey, yoi icia/aao, /oi iao i?eaieaiuo aeueoa?iaoea, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai iieoiaoaeue aeieaeai i?eia?aoaoue i?iaeoeo o
iiiiiieenoa eee iaoiaeeoueny aac iaai. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue noauaeoo
?uiea niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, eioi?ue “niaeaoaaony n oeaiie”,
iiiiiieeno aeeeooao oeaio, oi anoue inouanoaeyao cia/eoaeueiue eiio?ieue
iaae oeaiie. E i?e/eia i/aaeaeia: ii auioneaao e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
eiio?iee?oao iauee iau?i i?aaeeiaeaiey. I?e ienoiaeyuae e?eaie ni?in
ia naie i?iaeoeo iiiiiieeno iiaeao aucaaoue eciaiaiea oeaiu i?iaeoeoa,
iaieioee?oy eiee/anoaii i?aaeeiaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia iiiiiieee yaeyaony
iaee/ea aa?uea?ia aeey aoiaea a io?aneue, oi anoue ia?aie/eoaeae,
eioi?ua i?aaeioa?auatho iiyaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?iaeaaoeia ia
?uiea iiiiiieueiie oe?iu. Aa?uea?u aeey aoiaea ia ?uiie iaiaoiaeeiu
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iiiiiieueiie aeanoe. Anee au aue aiciiaeai
naiaiaeiue aoiae ia iiiiiieece?iaaiiua ?uiee, oi yeiiiie/aneea
i?eauee, iieo/aaiua iiiiiieueiuie oe?iaie, i?eaeaeee au iiauo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia. Iiiiiieueiue eiio?ieue iaae oeaiie
ieii/aoaeueii au en/ac, oae eae ?uiee noaee au eiieo?aioiuie. N?aaee
iniiaiuo oeiia aa?uea?ia aeey aoiaea ia ?uiee, aeathueo aiciiaeiinoue
iiyaeoueny iiiiiieee e iiiiaathueo a? iiaeaea?aeeaaoue, iiaeii oeacaoue
i neaaeothuea:

1.Eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa, iieo/aiiua io i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iai?eia?,
ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe /anoi ?ac?aoatho onoaiaaeeaaoue nenoaiu
eaaaeueiiai oaeaaeaeaiey aaeeinoaaiiie oe?ia. I?aaiu aeanoe iau/ii
i?aaeinoaaeytho iiiiiieeth ia i?aai ieacuaaoue o?ainii?oiua oneoae,
oneoae nayce, oaeaea iniiaiua eiiioiaeueiua oneoae oaeea, eae
iauanoaaiiay aeaeaia, yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea, aiaeiniaaaeaiea e eaiaeecaoeey,
aaciniaaaeaiea. Ai O?aioeee n 1904 aiaea iioi?iiiue aecian
eiio?iee?oaony eiiiaieae “Aeaeaia?ae Ouethia?aen”, iiiiiieeae,
iieuecothuaeny ainoaea?noaaiiuie noaneaeeyie, eioi?ay i?iaea?o a?iau e
i?aaeinoaaeyao iioi?iiiua oneoae. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo, ec eioi?uo iaeaieaa
aaaeiui yaeyaony ii/oa, i?aaiu aeanoe naie ?oeiaiaeyo iiiiiieeyie.
Iiiaea ainoaea?noaa naie eiatho iiiiiieeth a i?iaeaaea e?aieeo
iaieoeia, oaeaea yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiuie eaaaeueiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
eai?iiai aeciana, i?aaiecoy ainoaea?noaaiiua eioa?ae.

2.Iaoaiou e aaoi?neea i?aaa, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho nicaeaoaeyi
iiauo

i?iaeoeoia eee i?iecaaaeaiee eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa e iocuee
eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa, /oiau i?iaeaaaoue eee i?aaeinoaaeyoue eeoeaicee
ia eniieueciaaiea

eo ecia?aoaiee e oai?aiee. Iaoaiou iiaoo oaeaea auaeaaaoueny ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee. Iaoaiou e aaoi?neea i?aaa iaania/eaatho
iiiiiieueiua iiceoeee oieueei ia ia?aie/aiiia /enei eao. Iinea enoa/aiey
n?iea aeaenoaey iaoaioa aa?uea? aeey aoiaea ia ?uiie en/acaao.

Eaeay iaoaioia e aaoi?neeo i?aa ninoieo a oii, /oiau iiiu?youe
oe?iu

e ioaeaeueiua ee/iinoe ecia?aoaoue iiau i?iaeoeou e i?ioeannu iooai
aa?aioe?iaaiey ecia?aoaoaeyi eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aaa ia oi, /oiau
?aaeeciaaoue ia ?uiea ieiaeu eo oneeee. Iaeiaei eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa
aa?aioe?othony oieueei ia ia?aie/aiiue ia?eiae, iiyoiio nicaeaaaaiay
oaeei ia?acii iiiiiieey yaeyaony a?aiaiiie.

Eiaaea eaeay-ieaoaeue oe?ia iacaeiiii aoi?aaaony ia ?uiie ioo?i
ia?ooaiey iaoaioa ae?oaie oe?iu, a? iiaoo i?eioaeeoue i?ae?aoeoue
i?iaeaaee ii ?aoaieth noaea. Iai?eia?, a 1985 aiaeo oaaea?aeueiue
noaeuey iinoaiiaee, /oi “Eiaeae ei?ii?aeoi” ia?ooee naiue iaoaioia,
auaeaiiuo oe?ia “Iiea?ieae ei?ii?aeoi”, i?iecaiaey e ?aaeecoy n 1976
aiae oioiaiia?aou iaiiaaiiie nu?iee. Eiaaea iinoaiiaeaiea noaea
aioei a neeo a oa/aiee aoi?ie iaaeaee yiaa?y 1986 aiae , “Eiaeaeo”, ia
aeieth eioi?iai e na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia i?eoiaeeeinue 25% aiaeiauo
i?iaeaae oioiaiia?aoia iiiaioaeueiie nu?iee, i?eoeinue i?ae?aoeoue
i?iecaiaenoai eae yoeo oioiaiia?aoia, oae e ie?iee aeey ieo.

3.Nianoaaiiinoue ia an? i?aaeeiaeaiea eaeiai-eeai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai

?ano?na. I?eia?ii /aai iiaeao yaeyoueny iieiaeaiea oe?iu “Aea Ae?n”ia
?uiea aeiacia, eioi?ay iaeaaeaao iiiiiieueiie aeanoueth ia aeiaciii
?uiea aeaaiaea?y a? eiio?ieth iaae i?iaeaaeaie ieiei 80% iaia?aaioaiiuo
aeiacia, aiaeiuo aeey ecaioiaeaiey ae?aaioeaiiinoae.

Eaeea-eeai oieeaeueiua niiniaiinoe eee ciaiey oaeaea iiaoo
nicaeaoue

iiiiiieeth. Oaeaioeeaua iaaoeu, ooaeiaeieee, nii?oniaiu eee “neeaee
iauanoaa” eaeie-ieaoaeue ae?oaie n?aaeu iaeaaeatho iiiiiieeae ia
eniieueciaaiea naieo oneoa.

A i?eioeeia, iiaeii e aeaeueoa i?iaeieaeeoue ia?a/eneaiea
iniaaiiinoae

iiaeaee ?uiea ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, iaeiaei ia neaaeoao
caauaaoue, /oi oeaeueth iaoae oa?aeoa?enoeee iiiiiieee yaeyaony
i?aaeeueiia iiieiaiea iniiaiuo /a?o iineaaeiae n oeaeueth auyaeaiey
iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee aeey i?aaeeueiie ioeaiee anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieee.

Iiaeaiaey eoia ioeaiea iiaeaee ?uiea ianiaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee,
neaaeoao

ni anae ni?aaaaeeeainoueth ioiaoeoue, /oi iiiiiieey e niaa?oaiiay
eiieo?aioeey yaeythony aeaoiy e?aeieie oi?iaie ?uii/iie no?oeoo?u.
?aaeueiua aea ?uii/iua no?oeoo?u iaoiaeyony iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy
e?aeieie neo/ayie.

 Iiiyoea anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieee.

Anoanoaaiiay iiiiiieey-yoi io?aneue, a eioi?ie aeieain?i/iua n?aaeiea
ecaea?aeee aeinoeaatho ieieioi oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iaeia oe?ia
ianeoaeeaaao aanue ?uiie oeaeeeii. I?eia?ii anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieee
iiaeao yaeyoueny aiaeiniaaaeaiea, oaeaoiiiay naycue, ii/oa a
i?aaeaeao eaeiai-eeai ioaeaeueiiai ?aaeiia. Neaaeoao iniai ioiaoeoue,
/oi a iiaeiaiuo io?aneyo iniaaiii y?ei au?aaeaia yeiiiiey,
iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii ianooaaa i?iecaiaenoaa, e a oi aea a?aiy
eiieo?aioeey iainouanoaeia. Iiiuoaainy iauynieoue, ii/aio aea a
anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieeyo iai?eaieaia eiieo?aioeey. I/aaeaeai oio oaeo,
/oi aeey iauanoaa iaeeaaeii eiaoue ianeieueei oe?i, niaaaeathueo auoiaua
e i?iiuoeaiiua iauaeou

a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai ?aaeiia yeaeo?e/anoaii eee aiaeie, oae eae aeey
iia?aoeee

iaae auoaoiiiyioouie aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee o?aaothony cia/eoaeueiua
iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee ia aaia?aoi?u, ianiniia e i/enoiia iai?oaeiaaiea,
aiaeii?iaiaeu e eeiee aunieiaieueoiie ia?aaea/e. Oaeiai ?iaea
ecaea?aeee iii?inoo ia iiae neeo ioaeaeueiie oe?ia, aeaenoaothuae a
io?anee, anee aeaaea oaeay oe?ia e iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa iiianoe
ecaea?aeee oaeiai ianooaaa, oi iie ana ?aaii ia aoaeoo iie?uou
aeioiaeaie io i?iecaiaenoaa, oae eae i?enoonoaea ianeieueeeo iinoaaueeia
aiaeu eee yeaeo?iyia?aee aeaeeo anth io?aneue ia noa?u aeeyiey
ioaeaeueiuo oe?i e ia?aie/eaaao oai naiui aeieaaia o/anoea eaaeaeie
oe?iu. A oaeeo oneiaeyo ioaeaeueiay oe?ia eniieuecoao ia iieiinoueth
naia iinoiyiiia iai?oaeiaaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ecaea?aeee ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oa?eou ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth e
aiaeo noaiiayony iaii?aaaeaiii auniee. Aeey iaaeyaeiinoe i?aaenoaaei
naaa oaeoth neooaoeeth, eiaaea a io?anee aeaenoaotho ianeieueei oe?i,
i?e/ai ana iie iaoiaeyony a iaeeiaeiaii iieiaeaiee. I?e yoii iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie oe?iaie nouanoaoao aeanoieay eiieo?aioeey e a noa?a
i?eia?aoaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, e a noa?a nauoa. A ?acoeueoaoa
eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie oe?iaie neaaua oe?iu noaiiayony
aaie?ioaie, aieaa neeueiua (aeey oiai, /oiau au aea?aeaoue aeaeueiaeooth
eiieo?aioeeth) neeaathony, ia?acoy /enooth iiiiiieeth. ?acaeaaynue,
/enoay iiiiiieey iiaeao no?aieoaeueii eiiiaine?iaaoue i?ioeua oauoee
ainiieueciaaoueny naiei iiaui iiiiiieueiui iieiaeaieai ia ?uiea,
iacia/ay iaiiia?ii aunieea oeaiu ia naie oiaa?u e oneoae. A i?eioeeia

/enoay iiiiiieey iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue e oniaoii ?acaeaaoueny, ia
iaiiny

i?e yoii iee eiai a?aaea io?anee. I?eia?ii oaeeo iiiiiieee iiaoo
yaeyoueny iiiiiieee a aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee eee aea a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa
auoiauo oiaa?ia. Iaeiaei a io?anee, eioi?ay e?aeia iaiaoiaeeia aeey
ianaeaiey ?aaeiia, /enoay iiiiiieey ia oieueei ia yooaeoeaia, ii e
oua?aia. Iiyoiio aeey oiai, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue ia?aciaaiey /enoie
iiiiiieee a oaeeo io?aneyo, eae aiaeiniaaaeaiea eee
yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea, i?aaeoaeuenoai iau/ii i?aaeinoaaeyao
eneeth/eoaeueioth i?eaeeaaeth iaeiie oe?ia iinoaaeyoue, iai?eia?,
aiaeo eee i?e?iaeiue aac. Ni naiae noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoai ii?aaeaeyao
aaia?aoe/aneoth noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe iiiiiieenoa, ?aaoee?oao ea/anoai
aai oneoa e eiio?iee?oao oeaiu, eioi?ua ii iiaeao iacia/eoue. Eoae,
ia?acoaony ?aaoee?oaiay eee ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaieciaaiiay iiiiiieey.

 Ainoaea?noai e anoanoaaiiua iiiiiieee.

A ?aciuo no?aiao ia?a/aiue anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee e eioaineaiinoue

ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a eo aeayoaeueiinoue iaiaeeiaeiau.
Ii, eae

i?aaeei, yoi io?anee, naycaiiua n aeiau/ae eee ia?a?aaioeie
yia?aaoe/aneiai nu?uey, i?aaeinoaaeaieai o?ainii?oiuo eee eiuo
eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa. Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoueth yoeo io?aneae aa?uee?otho io anaiauaiethuaai
?oeiaiaenoaa (iai?eia?, a ?aieao iaoeeiiaeueiuo io?aneae eee
i?aaei?eyoee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe) aei ?aaeaiaioaoeee eeoue
ioaeaeueiuo aniaeoia aeayoaeueiinoe /anoiuo eiiiaiee, nio?aiythueony
a yoeo io?aneyo (ii?aaeaeaiea aaaeiaeoeo i?eaioe?ia eo ?acaeoey).

A NOA iaoeeiiaeecaoeey a neeo enoi?e/aneeo i?e/ei ia i?eia?ae
nouanoaaiiuo ianooaaia. Caeanue aeoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noa
i?iyaeeinue a aieaa iyaeeo oi?iao. Iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii e oe?iei
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?eiaiyeinue a io?aneyo iauanoaaiiiai
iieueciaaiey. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai aaci-, yeaeo?i- e aiaeiniaaaeaiea,
oaeaea ?acee/iua io?anee nayce. Ana yoi eaieoaeiaieea io?anee n
iaaeeaiiui iai?ioii i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Iineieueeo eiieo?aioeey
iaeiioeiiuo oicyenoa a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai e oiai aea ?aaeiia a yoeo
io?aneyo aaaeao e aeoaee?iaaieth cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee,
/oi n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaa auei au /?acia?ii ?anoi/eoaeueiui, oi
ainoaea?noai, acya ia naay ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aaoee?othuea ooieoeee, i?eiyei
ia?u ii ia?aie/aieth caeanue eiieo?aioeee. A /anoiinoe iii inaiaiaeeei
yoe io?anee io aeaenoaey aioeo?anoianeeo caeiiia. Aieaa oiai, a
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a iii noeioee?iaaei a ieo oe?aieaiea ianooaaia
i?iecaiaenoa, /oi niinianoaiaaei ?inoo iauaiia iia?aoeee aioo?e iaeiiai
e oiai aea ?aeiia, nieaeaieth aaeeie/iuo caaea?aeae, oeo/oaieth
ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae. A iaiai ia ?yae i?eaeeaaee, a oii /enea
oeiainiauo, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ainoaea?noaii io?aneyi
iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey, iineaaeiea auee iaycaiu auiieiyoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey, iai?eia?, ianeoaeeaaoue ea/anoaaiii e a ethaia
a?aiy anao aac eneeth/aiey iio?aaeoaeae, ia?auathueony e iei ca
oneoaaie. Ainoaea?noaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiieeo yoeo io?aneae
i?iyaeyeinue i?aaeaea anaai a eo ?aaoee?iaaiee a iaeanoe oeiainia,
ca?aaioiie ieaou, oeai, oaeaea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
oneoa. E?iia oiai, eiee/anoai eaiiaiee e no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo
i?aaei?eyoee (iai?eia?, aacii?iaiaeia, AYN e i?i/eo iiaeiaiuo iauaeoia)
eiio?iee?iaaeinue i?aaiaie ianoiie eee oaaea?aeueiie aeanoe iooai
auaea/e ia ieo niaoeeaeueiuo ?ac?aoaiee- na?oeoeeaoia. Oeaeue oaeiai
?aaoee?iaaiey- iaania/eoue iauanoai (iniaaiii i?iiuoeaiiinoue) oaie
i?aeiouanoaaie, eioi?ua aeaao i?eia?aoaiea i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa
iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey ii ?acoiiui n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa
oeaiai. Iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi ?aaoee?iaaiea oaeiai oeia inouanoaeyaony
a eioa?anao e?oiiiai /anoiiai eaieoaea, a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao
iio?aaeythuaai i?iaeoeoeeth yoeo io?aneae. Iniiaiua ooieoeee eiio?iey
iaae oeaiaie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoaaie io?aneae iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey,
a /anoiinoe yeaeo?iyia?aee e i?e?iaeiiai aaca, aiceiaeaiu i
niaoeeaeueiua eiiennee ooaoia e Oaaea?aeueioth yia?aaoe/aneoth
eiienneth. ?aaoee?othuay aeayoaeueiinoue niaoeeaeueiuo eiiennee
ia?aie/aia iia?aoeeyie a i?aaeaeao ioaeaeueiuo ooaoia. Noa?a
?aaoee?iaaiey Oaaea?aeueiie yia?aaoe/aneie eiiennee- yoi iaaeooaoiay
oi?aiaey yeaeo?iyia?aeae e aacii, aeeth/ay e oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia yoo
i?iaeoeoeeth. Ii ia?a ?inoa iaaeooaoiuo iia?aoeee ooieoeee eiio?iey
iaae oa?eoaie ana aieueoa ia?aoiaeeee io eiiennee ooaoia e
Oaaea?aeueiie yia?aaoe/aneie eiiennee. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
oeai a io?aneyo iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey i?aneaaeiaaei aeaieioth
oeaeue. Ai-ia?auo, iii aeieaeii auei noeioee?iaaoue ?anoe?aiea
i?iecaiaenoa e nauo i?iaeoeoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie ai anao noa?ao
yeiiiieee, ii oeaiai, i?eaieaiui aeey eiiiaiee iio?aaeoaeae; e
ai-aoi?uo, iaania/eoue ii?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue eiiiaieyi io?aneae
iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey, niinianoaoy i?eaea/aieth a yoe io?anee
iiauo eaieoaeia. A iaeanoe oeaiiia?aciaaiey oaeia ?aaoee?iaaiea
inouanoaeyeinue, eae i?aaeei, iooai onoaiiaeaiey aa?oiaai i?aaeaea
oeaiu, eioi?ue oe?iu ia aeieaeiu i?aauoaoue i?e i?iaeaaea naiae
i?iaeoeoeee. Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii iino?iaiey oaeie oeaiu yaeyaony
aiciauaiea ecaea?aeae iethn “?acoiiay” i?eaueue. Iiae “?acoiiie”
i?eaueueth iiieiaaony oaeay ii?ia i?eauee, eioi?ay auoa i?ioeaioa,
iieo/aaiiai ii i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui iaeeaaoeeyi, ii ieaea n?aaeiae ii?iu
i?eauee ai anae ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aeiionoeiua ii?iu
i?eauee a?aiy io a?aiaie ia?aniao?eaathony. A caaeneiinoe io
yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u iie aa?uee?otho ii ?acee/iui ooaoai. A
iaaeooaoiie oi?aiaea i?eaueue iau/ii onoaiaaeeaaaony a ?acia?a 5-7% ia
iniiaiie eaieoae, eiiaaea /ooue auoa, ii ia aieueoa 12% (n?aaeiee
o?iaaiue i?eauee a ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe). Ii?i i?eauee a
io?aneyo iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey /aua anaai ?ann/eouaaaony ii
ioiioaieth e inoaoi/iie noieiinoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea (ca au/aoii
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee). Aianoa n oai, ?ac?aoaiiay ii?ia i?eauee
ia aa?aioe?oaony. Aa oaeoe/aneay aaee/ei caaeneo io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee
?aaiou oe?iu, io eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea, io oniaoiiai nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.
Iaaeinoaoie i?eauee a eaeie-eeai ia?eiae a?aiaie iau/ii ia iicaieyao
eiiiaine?iaaoue aa ecauoeii naa?o onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?iaoeaa a aieaa
iicaeiee ia?eiae. I/aiue /anoi ?aaoee?othuea eiiennee onoaiaaeeaatho
eeoue iauoth ii?io i?eauee aeey eiiiaiee, i?aaeinoaaeyy iineaaeiei
oe?ieoth naiaiaeo ?ac?aaioee eiie?aoiuo oa?eoia ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth
i?e oneiaee ia i?aauoaiey onoaiiaeaiiuo iaueo eeieoia. Ia?aie/aiea
?acia?ia i?eauee ii?aaeaeaiiui ii?iaoeaii ia?aaeei aucuaaao
no?aieaiea eiiiaiee oaaee/eaaoue ia ii?io i?eauee, aa ianno, /oi
aeinoeaaaony, aeaaiui ia?acii, iooai ?anoe?aiey nauo naiae i?iaeoeoeee,
eiiaaea aeaaea ca n/ao nieaeaiey oeai ia iaa. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee oa?eoia
eiiiaiee io?anee iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey o/eouaatho a iniiaiii 2
oaeoi?a: ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothuea yeiiiie/aneea
oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa a oe?ia, e oeaiiinoue oneoae, io?aaeathuae
aaee/eio e aeeiaieeo ni?ina. Eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeia “oeaiiinoe oneoae”
iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue ?aciua o?iaie oeai ia iaeio e oo aea i?iaeoeoeeth
a caaeneiinoe ia io ecaea?aeae, eeoue io oeaeae iio?aaeaiey.
Aiciiaeiinoue oaeie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oeai a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
iauyniyaony iiiiiieueiui iieiaeaieai eiiiaiee- i?iecaiaeeoaey ia
eaeii-eeai ?uiea.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia
o?iaaiue e niioiioaiea oeai a io?aneyo iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey.
Iaeiaei

ianooaau oi/iiai aeeyiey iinoiyiii iaiythony. Iieacaoaeai a yoii io
iioaiee i?eia? aaciaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aei 1935-1938a. ?aaoee?iaaiea

oeai ia i?e?iaeiue aac e yeaeo?iyia?aeth inouanoaeyeinue oieueei a
i?aaeaeao ioaeaeueiuo ooaoia ianoiuie aeanoyie eee niaoeeaeueiuie
eiienneyie. Ana iinoaaee ca i?aaeaeu ooaoa, eiaaoea a oi a?aiy
iaaieueoie iauai inoaaaeenue aia eiio?iey. E na?aaeeia 40-o aiaeia
aeaaiaea?y aeinoeaeaieyi a iaeanoe ia?aaea/e yeaeo?iyia?aee e
o?ainii?oe?iaee aaca ia aieueoea

?annoiyiey ?acia?u iaaeooaoiuo iia?aoeee cia/eoaeueii aic?inee. Eo
?ieue noaea noieue nouanoaaiiie, /oi a 1935a. ia Oaaea?aeueioth
yeaeo?e/aneoth eiiiaieth aia?aua auee aiceiaeaiu iaycaiiinoue
?aaoee?iaaoue oeaiu iaaeooaoiuo iinoaaie yeaeo?iyia?aee, a 1938a.- e
iaaeooaoiuo iinoaaie i?e?iaeiiai aaca. I?e yoii ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea oeai a i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?e?iaeiiai aaca ia?aiia/aeueii
?ani?ino?aiyeinue oieueei ia eiiiaiee caiyoua ianoiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai
aaca e inouanoaeythuea iinoaaee aaca ec iaeiiai ooaoa a ae?oaie.
Oeaiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae (aeiauo/eeia) aaca iaoiaeeeenue aia eiio?iey ni
noi?iiu Oaaea?aeueiie yia?aaoe/aneie eiiiaiee, /oi cae?aieyei eo
iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea i?e niaaaeaiee aacii?iaiaeiuo eiiiaiee e
onoaiiaeaiee oeai. Oaeia iieiaeaiea nio?aiyeinue a oa/aiee ii/oe aeaoo
aeanyoeeaoee, e oieueei a 1954a. iiae aeaaeaieai aacii?iaiaeiuo e
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo eiiiaiee, oaeaea e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo iio?aaeoaeae,
Aa?oiaiue noae NOA i?eiye ?aoaiea, eciaieaoaa yoo neooaoeeth.
Oaaea?aeueiay yeaeo?e/aneay eiiiaiey iieo/eea i?aai ?aaoee?iaaiey
ia?yaeo n oeaiaie iioiaie oi?aiaee ia oeaiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Oaia?ue
ethaua i?iaeaaee (aeaaea a caeaaeao), i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey oi?aiaee ca
i?aaeaeaie ooaoia, noaiiaeeenue iauaeoii ?aaoee?iaaiey ni noi?iiu
Oaaea?aeueiie yia?aaoe/aneie eiiiaiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa, ethaay oe?ia- i?iecaiaeeoaeue, aeaeathuay eciaieoue
oeaio, ii eioi?ie aac i?iaeaaaeny aacii?iaiaeiui eiiiaieyi, aeieaeai
aue i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iieo/eoue ?ac?aoaiea eiiiaiee. Iniiaiui
iai?aaeaieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe
i?e?iaeiiai aaca aeieaia a?aiy yaeyeinue naea?aeeaaiea ?inoa oeai, /oi
eiaei e iieiaeeoaeueiua (cia/eoaeueiue ?ino iio?aaeaiey i?e?iaeiiai
aaca ), e io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey. A /anoiinoe, ?acaoeaiee aioo?e
ooaoa ia ?aaoee?iaaeenue, oei ?anoe?aiea iinoaaie aaca aioo?e ooaoa a
oua?a iaaeooaoiie oi?aiaea. E?iia oiai, caieaeaiiua oeaiu ineaaeyee o
eiiiaiee- i?iecaiaeeoaeae noeioeu e ?anoe?aieth iieneiauo e
?acaaaei/iuo ?aaio, /oi aaei e nie?auaieth iaania/aiiinoe aeiau/e
?acaaaeuaaaiuo caiania. A iiiuoea i?aiaeieaoue iaaeaeaoaeueiua
iineaaenoaey ?aaoee?iaaiey auea aaaaeaia nenoaia aeaieiuo oeai ia noa?ua
e iiaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Io i?aeoeee onoaiiaeaiey Oaaea?aeueiie
yia?aaoe/aneie eiienneae aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo oeai aeey e?oiiaeoeo
aaciaeiauaathueo ?aeiiia ia/aee ia?aoiaeeoue e nenoaia aaeeiuo oeai aeey
oi?aiaee iaaeaeo ooaoaie. O?iaie oeai auee iiauoaiu. Ii ana yoe ia?u
ieacaeenue iaaeinoaoi/iuie, /oi ii?iaeeei ianoie/eaua o?aaiaaiey
ineaaeoue eee niyoue oeaiiaie eiio?ieue. A 80-a aiaeu a NOA iaiaoeeanue
oaiaeaioeey e aea ?aaoeyoeee; nie?auaieth aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a
yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. A yoio ia?eiae i?aaeoaeuenoaii auee
i?aaei?eiyou oaae, iaoneiaeaoea oneeaiea eiieo?aioiuo ia/ae a io?aneyo
iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey, a /anoiinoe auei cia/eoaeueii ineaaeaii
?aaoee?iaaiea aaciaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aiaeiae/iua i?ioeannu eiaee ianoi
e a ae?oaeo io?aneyo iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey (oaeaoiiiie nayce,
yia?aaoeea e o.i.). A oi aea a?aiy ianiio?y ia oaiaeaioeeth nieaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa iauanoai n/eoaao iaaeaeaoaeueiui iieiia
aea ?aaoee?iaaiea yoeo io?aneae. Eo cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aua aeieaia
a?aiy inoaaony noa?ie ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey, oioy iaoiaeu aai,
i/aaeaeii, aoaeoo iaiyoueny.

A /enea i?aiaeaaeathueo a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa a?aiaiiuo oi?i
?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a io?aneyo iauanoaaiiiai
iieueciaaiey nio?aiyaony oeene?iaaiea o?iaiy aeioiaea i?aaei?eyoee. I?e
yoii aeaaainoaoao eaeay ii?aaeaeaiey “ni?aaaaeeeaie oeaiu”, eioi?ay
eeoaao eiiiaieth-iiiiiieenoa ecaeaeaoue naa?oi?eaueue, ii iicaieyao ae
iaania/eoue aa iie?uoea ?anoiaeia ia i?iecaiaenoai e “ni?aaaaeeeaoth”
i?eaueue.

 Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieee.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae ?aaoee?iaaiey anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee yaeyaony
nicaeaiea aa?uea?ia ia iooe iiauoaiey oeai e ia?aie/aiey auionea
i?iaeoeoeee ni noi?iiu oe?iu, aiciaia?eaoaeny eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoa
anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieee ai a?aae iio?aaeoaeyi.

Iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee.

Aiai?y i ?ani?aaeaeaiee ?ano?nia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaii ?ano?nu ?ani?aaeaeythony ia eiieo?aioiuo ?uieao. I?eieiay ai
aieiaiea yoio oaeo, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ?aaioieeai i?aaiia
?aaoee?iaaiey neaaeoao nuieoe?iaaoue ?aaioo eiieo?aioiuo ?uieia a oao
naeoi?ao, aaea nouanoaoao anoanoaaiiay iiiiiieey. Eae e a neo/aa
eiieo?aioiuo ?uieia, ecaea?aeee aeieaeiu ieieiece?iaaoueny, oeaiu
aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyoueny ia iniiaa i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae. E?iia oiai
i?aaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey aeieaeiu niaethaeaoue aaeain iaaeaeo eioa?anaie
iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua aeaeatho ieceeo oeai, e yeiiiie/aneie
aeecianiiniaiinoueth i?iecaiaeeoaey. I?ia?aiia, aeaaii?eyonoaothuay
iio?aaeoaeyi iin?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey oeai ai?acaei ieaea
naaanoieiinoe, i?eaaaeao e nei?iio aaie?ionoao ?aaoee?oaiuo oe?i eee
iio?aaoao cia/eoaeueiiai oaaee/aiey iaeiaia aeey aiciauaiey oauoeia
i?iecaiaenoa. N o/aoii yoeo caia/aiee iaiaoiaeeii auiieiaiea
neaaeothueo iniiaiuo i?aaee ?aaoee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieee:

Oeaiu aeieaeiu auoue iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeaiu e i?aaeaeueiui
ecaea?aeeai. I?eaueue aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue oieueei ii?iaeueioth ii?io
i?eauee. I?iecaiaenoai aeieaeii auoue yooaeoeaiui.

Iiyniei auoa i?eaaaeaiiua i?aaeea.

I?aaeaea, /ai aeaaaoue eaeea-eeai a?aoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea
yooaeoeaiinoue oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia iniiaa i?eaeeaeaiey e i?aaeaeueiui
ecaea?aeeai, ?anniio?ei ?acee/iua aa?eaiou onoaiiaeaiey oeai e
oaaaeeiny, i?eaaaay e iiiiue a?aoeea, /oi oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia iniiaa
i?eaeeaeaiey e i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai yaeyaony iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui.

Eoae, ?anniio?ei aeueoa?iaoeau onoaiiaeaiey oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth
oe?iu- iiiiiieenoa.

E?eaua i?aaeaeueiuo e n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae (LRMC e LRAC niioaaonoaaiii)
aeey anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieee iieacaiu ia ?enoiea. Aeaenoaoy eae
?aoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee noauaeo, iiiiiieeno no?aieony e
iaeneiecaoeee naiae i?eauee e i?iecaiaeeo aei oi/ee, a eioi?ie MR
(i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae)= LRMC, i?e yoii auione iiiiiieee ninoaaeyao Qm e
eiaao oeaio Pm. I?e yoie oeaia iiiiiieey iieo/aao yeiiiie/aneea
i?eauee, iineieueeo Pm>LRAC, oi anoue oeaia aieueoa n?aaeieo
ecaea?aeae. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea noieue aunieay oeaia iai?eaieaia aeey
iio?aaeoaey, iiyoiio ?aaoee?othuea neoaeau no?aiyony cia/eoaeueii
iiieceoue a?, onoaiaaeeaay “iioieee” oeai. A naith i/a?aaeue oe?ia-
iiiiiieeno iiaeao nieceoue n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?iaeieaeay i?iecaiaeeoue nauoa Qm. Aa oeaeue, iaeiaei, caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oiau iaeneiece?iaaoue i?eauee, ia caieiaoueny iinoiyiiui
nieaeaieai n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae. A i?aaeea ioiineoaeueii onoaiiaeaiey
oeaiu neacaii, /oi oeaio ioaeii onoaiaaeeaaoue iaeneiaeueii
i?eaeeaeaiioth e i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai. A /oi aea aoaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue n oe?iie i?e onoaiiaeaiee oeaiu ia a? i?iaeoeoeeth ia
o?iaia i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae?

I?iaiaeece?oai yoio aa?eaio. Eoae, i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi auione i?iaeoeoeee
aue oaaee/ai aei yooaeoeaiiai o?iaiy Q*, niioaaonoaothuaai oi/ea A, a
eioi?ie aeieain?i/iua i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee (LRMC) ia?anaeathony n
e?eaie ni?in, eioi?ay iieacuaaao i?aaeaeueiue auea?uo iieoiaoaeae io
i?eia?aoaiey eaaeaeiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a. *oiau i?iaeaoue eiee/anoai
Q*, ?aaiia yooaeoeaiiio auioneo, oeaia aeieaeia auoue onoaiiaeai ia
o?iaia P*, /oi ?aaiyaony aeieain?i/iui i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai auionea
yoiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a. Iiea LRMC iinoiyiii oiaiueoaaony i?aaeaea, /ai
ia?ana/ue e?eaoth ni?ina, oe?ia ia iiaeao iie?uoue naie ecaea?aeee i?e
noieue ieceie oeaia. Eiaaea aeinoeaaaony Qm, LRAC (oi anoue n?aaeiea
ecaea?aeee) i?aainoiaeyo LRMC (i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee). Onoaiaaeeaay
P*=LRMC aeey aeinoeaeaiey auionea i?iaeoeoeee iau?iii Q*, oe?ia
noaeeeaaaony n oauoeaie. Eoae, anee au iiiiiieey i?eioaeaeaia auea
onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaio, ?aaioth i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai, oi aeey
i?iaeieaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe ae iio?aaiaaeenue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
noaneaeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaioieee ?aaoee?othueo neoaea aeieaeiu iuoaoueny
onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaiu, iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeaiiua e i?aaeaeueiui
ecaea?aeeai, ii aianoa n oai iaania/eaaoue iieo/aiea aeioiaea,
aeinoaoi/iiai aeey aiciauaiey ecaea?aeae. Iaeei ec niiniaia, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai iiaeii auei au yoiai aeiaeoueny, caeeth/aaony a eniieueciaaiee
aeaooeiiiiiaioiiai oa?eoa.

Aeaooeiiiiiaioiue oa?eo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio oeaiiia?aciaaiey,
i?e eioi?ie iieueciaaoaee ieaoyo oeene?iaaiioth noiio ca i?aai
anoaoue i ianeoaeeaaiea, caoai ieaoa aceiaaony ca iio?aaeaiea eaaeaeie
aaeeieoeu aeaiiiai aeaea oneoa, oi anoue ia?aiaiiay ieaoa. A neo/aa n
yeaeo?iyia?aeae, iai?eia?, auea au onoaiiaeaia oeene?iaaiiay ieaoa,
neaaeai, a 4 aeieea?a a ianyoe ca iiaeeeth/aiea e ioieoeeiaeueiie
yeaeo?e/aneie naoe, caoai -ioaeaeueii ecia?yaiay ii n/ao/eeo ieaoa ca
eaaeaeue eeeiaaoo-/an yeaeo?iyia?aee. Aeioiae io oeene?iaaiiie
ninoaaeythuae ieaou ca oneoao aeaaae au eiiiaiee aiciiaeiinoue
aicianoeoue naie ecaea?aeee aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee ia?aiaiiay
ninoaaeythuay auea au onoaiiaeaia ?aaiie i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai.
Iaeioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey eiiioiaeueiiai ianeoaeeaaiey eniieuecotho
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiioth nenoaio, i?e eioi?ie ianeieueei ia?auo
eeeiaaoo-/an yia?aee ioioneathony ii aieaa aunieie oeaia, oeaiu ia
aeiiieieoaeueiua aaeeieoeu yeaeo?iyia?aee onoaiaaeeaathony aeeaea e
i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai.

 Aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue, .ii iaiaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue  iiaeoiae
caeeth/aaony a onoaiiaeaiee oeai ia o?iaia n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae.

I?e onoaiiaeaiee oeaiu(Pr) ia o?iaia n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae(LRAC) eiaao
ianoi ioeaaay i?eaueue. I?e yoie oeaia iauai iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina
ninoaaeo Qr. Caiaoei, /oi ?r anoue ieieiaeueiay oeaia, iicaieythuay
iiiiiieee ?aaioaoue naiinoiyoaeueii, aac noaneaeee. Ionoue oeaia Pr
iaeia?yaony ?aaoee?othuae neoaeaie, oiaaea iiiiiieey iiaeao i?iaeaoue

an? eiee/anoai oiaa?a, eioi?ia ii iiaeaeaao auionoeoue, ii aeaiiie
oeaia, i?e/ai a yoii neo/aa oeai noaiiaeony e?eaie i?aaeaeueiiai
aeioiaea oe?iu-

iiiiiieenoa aieioue aei aaee/eiu auionea Qr. Anee oe?ia i?iecaaea

aieueoa Qr aaeeieoe i?iaeoeoeee, yoi i?eaaei au e iaaeaieth oeai e
yeiiiie/aneei oauoeai. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi oe?ia iaeneiece?oao
i?eauee i?e onoaiiaeaiee eiienneae oeaia(Pr), i?iecaiaey Qr aaeeieoe a
ianyoe i?e yoie oeaia, aeaaea anee Pr>LRMC i?e oaeii o?iaia auionea.

Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii oiiiyiooue, /oi nouanoaotho aeaa i?iaeaiu,
naycaiiua n oeaiiia?aciaaieai ia iniiaa i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae,
eioi?ua e ii?aaeaeytho io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu aeaiiiai oeia
oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

Ia?aay i?iaeaia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?e iau?ia auionea Qr,
oi

anoue i?e iau?ia auionea, niioaaonoaothuaio oeaiiia?aciaaieth ia
iniiaa

n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae, aaeeea aaee/eia nioeeaeueiuo iioa?ue

A iniiao aoi?ie i?e/eiu iieiaeai oio oaeo, /oi i?aaeaeueiua
ecaea?aeee

i?aaei?eyoee noa?u eiiioiaeueiiai ianeoaeeaaiey eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e
eciaiaieth ai a?aiaie. Eae i?aaeei, ia?aueaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
yeaeo?iyia?aee o?aaoao ai?acaei iaiueoeo cao?ao a ii/iia a?aiy, eiaaea
?aaioatho oieueei yooaeoeaiua i?aaei?eyoey, /ai a aeiaaiia a?aiy,
eiaaea aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ni?ina io?aneue eiiioiaeueiiai ianeoaeeaaiey
/anoi auioaeaeaia ?aaioaoue ia iieioth iiuiinoue. Oeaiu aeieaeiu
io?aaeaoue eciaiaiea aaee/eiu i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae ai a?aiaie; oeaiu,
aace?othueany ia n?aaeieo ecaea?aeeao, iau/ii ia iiaoo yoi naeaeaoue
aeieaeiui ia?acii.

 E?eoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oeaiiia?aciaaiey

anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee.

Iieeoeea ?aaoee?iaaiey oeaiiia?aciaaiey anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee ni

noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa ca/anooth aini?eieiaaony aeaeaei ia
iaeiicia/ii. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiiiai i?ioeanna
yaeyaony iauaeoii

ino?uo aeeneonnee. *anoue iieaieee nin?aaeioi/aia aie?oa caiooaiiiai
aii?ina i oi/iii ii?aaeaeaiee n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoa. Ae?oaie
na?ue?ciue aii?in naycai ni noeioeaie, onoaiaaeeaaaiuie i?aaeeaie
?aaoee?iaaiey oeai. Iai?eia?, iaeiei ec iauaeoia nii?ia yaeyaony aii?in
ia ioeai/iuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaieyo. Aii?in i oii, eoi aoaeao
ioaa/aoue ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?iiaoe, iio?aaeoaee eee niaeaaeaeueoeu
i?aaei?eyoey, yaeyaony oeaio?ii iieaieee. E?eoeee ?aaoee?iaaiey oa?eoia
ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi ca ioeaee i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee
aeieaeiu ioaa/aoue niaeaaeaeueoeu, ia iio?aaeoaee iin?aaenoaii
iiauoaiey oeai. Oiiiyiooua oi?aaeai/aneea i?iiaoe aeeth/atho a naay
/?acia?iua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a aoiiiua yeaeo?inoaioeee e eceeoiee
?ino i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae. E?eoeee aeieacuaatho, /oi
yeaeo?e/aneea eiiiaiee iaeaaeatho eaieoaeii aieueoei, /ai o?aaoaony,
iioiio /oi iie ia oi/ii ioeaieee ?aaeoeeth iio?aaeoaey ia aic?anoathuea
oa?eou ca eeeiaaoo-/an. N?aaeiea ecaea?aeee aeeth/atho a naay
aeueoa?iaoeaioth noieiinoue eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea. Oaaee/eaay noiio
eniieuecoaiiai eaieoaea, iiiiiieey iiaeao oaaee/eaaoue noiio ii?iaeueiuo
i?eaueae a aeieea?ao. Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou aei neo ii?
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi yoi i?eaiaeeo e aieaa eaieoaei?ieei iaoiaeai
i?iecaiaenoaa ii n?aaiaieth n oaie, eioi?ua i?aiaeaaeaee au a
ionoonoaea ?aaoee?iaaiey. Auai? ioiineoaeueii iayooaeoeaiuo
eaieoaei?ieeo iaoiaeia i?iecaiaenoa i?eaiaeeo e n?aaeiei ecaea?aeeai,
eioi?ua ieacuaathony auoa, /ai yoi auei au a eiii neo/aa.

I?e onoaiiaeaiee oeai ia o?iaia n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae o
oe?iu-iiiiiieenoa ioiaaeaao aeaeaiea a ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoa. Iiaeiaiia iauyniyaony i/aiue i?inoi: eiiioiaeueiay neoaeaa
ia ano?a/aao eiieo?aioeee, ethaia oaaee/aiea ecaea?aeae ec-ca
i?iiaoia a oi?aaeaiee ia aeeyao ia ii?io iieo/aaiie eie i?eauee n
aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea, iiea eiienney onoaiaaeeaaao oeaio, ?aaioth
n?aaeiei ecaea?aeeai. Iieeoe/aneay iiiiceoeey oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia iniiaa
n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae a iineaaeiea aiaeu iiiuoaeanue ia?aianoe oioy au
/anoue ecaea?aeae ieioiai oi?aaeaiey ia niaeaaeaeueoeaa
eiiiaiee-iiiiiieenoia. Iaiaaeaea?u ia?e?otho yoi oeacaieai ia oi, /oi
anee iie ia niiaoo iieo/aoue i?eauee, ei aoaeao o?oaeii i?eaea/ue
aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeeaae/eeia. Ea/anoai oneoa aoaeao nieaeaoueny eee
oa?eou ia yeaeo?e/anoai aoaeoo ?anoe au? aieueoa aeey iie?uoey
i?ioeaioia ca e?aaeeou, iineieueeo oe?iu aoaeoo auioaeaeaiu eo a?aoue,
ia iaoiaey aeinoaoi/ii iieoiaoaeae, e i?eia?o, ia naie aeoeee.

Oaia?ue ia?aoeiny ei aoi?iio i?aaeeo ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe

anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee, eioi?ia naycaii n ?aaoee?iaaieai ii?iu i?eauee.

A i?eioeeia, eiay oi/ioth eioi?iaoeeth i ?aniieiaeaiee e?eauo
ni?ina e n?aaeieo e i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, iioeiaeueioth oeaio
oiaa?a aua?aoue ianeiaeii. A ?aaeueiie aea yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia iaee/ea
anaiauaiethuae eioi?iaoeee i ni?ina e ecaea?aeeao i?aaenoaaeyaony
aanueia niiieoaeueiui. A ionoonoaea oaeie eioi?iaoeee iau/iie i?aeoeeie
onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu ia oiaa? yaeyaony a? einaaiiia au/eneaiea enoiaey ec
ii?iu i?eauee, iieo/aaiie oe?iie. Ii?i i?eauee- yoi a? aaeainiaay
i?eaueue ii ioiioaieth e nianoaaiiiio eaieoaeo i?aaei?eyoey, au?aaeaiiay
a i?ioeaioao. Oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi aaaae?iiay yeiiiie/aneay
eaoaai?ey aanueia iieacia eae oeaeue ?aaoee?iaaiey iiiiiieenoe/aneeo
no?oeoo?, iiiiaaao aiaeec nooe e iineaaenoaee aaaaeaiey ?acee/iuo oeai.
Anee oeaia oiaa?a onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiie n?aaeiei ecaea?aeeai
i?iecaiaenoa, oi oe?i a ea/anoaa eiiiainaoeee iieo/eo iaiaoiaeeiua
n?aaenoaa, iie?uaathuea aeueoa?iaoeaioth noieiinoue eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
eaieoaea iethn iaeoth i?eaueue io ?acoeueoaoia naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.
Anee oeai oiaa?a onoaiaaeeaaaony ieaea ioia/aiiiai o?iaiy, oi
iieo/aiiiai aeioiaea iiaeao ia oaaoeoue aeey iie?uoey anao ecaea?aeae
e cao?ao, aeeth/ay aeueoa?iaoeaioth noieiinoue cao?a/aiiiai eaieoaea. A
?acoeueoaoa aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea iiianao oauoee, /oi yaeony noeioeii
e nie?auaieth i?iecaiaenoaa. A nayce n yoei eiio?ieueiua i?aaiu
aeaenoaotho ii neaaeothuae noaia, a eioi?ie oneiaii iiaeii auaeaeeoue
iyoue yoaiia:

1.I?iecaiaeeony oae iacuaaaiay aaciaay ioeaiea nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea

oe?iu. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi ii ninoaaeyao 1200000 aeieea?ia.

2.Au/eneyaony n?aaeiyy ii?i i?eauee ia eaieoae, ainiiaenoaothuay
a

yoio iiiaio a yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia. I?aaeiieiaeei, ii ninoaaeyao 15%
a aiae.

3.Aeaeaa aaciaay ioeaiea aeey eiie?aoiie oe?iu oiiiaeaaony ia
ainiiaenoaothuoth ii?io i?eauee aeey au/eneaiey iauae noieiinoe
nianoaaiiiai eaieoae oe?iu a oaeouee iiiaio a?aiaie. A aeaiiii neo/aa
ii ninoaaeyao 180000 aeieea?ia a aiae. A ?anniao?eaaaiuo oneiaeyo yoie
noiiu aeinoaoi/ii aeey auieaou i?ioeaioia e caeiia, oaeaea
iieo/aiey iaeiae aeiee i?eauee, eiiiaine?othuae aeaaeaeueoeai
eiaanoe?iaaiiua a aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea n?aaenoa .

4.C oai eiio?ieueiua i?aaiu ?aeiiaiaeotho eiie?aoiie oe?ia
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny ii?aaeae?iiie oeaiu i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ath oiaa?ia e
oneoa. Yoa oeaia oi?ie?oaony enoiaey ec ioieoia 1- 3 e iicaieyao, ii
iiaieth oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia, eiiiaine?iaaoue ana ecaea?aeee
i?aaei?eyoey.

5.Ni a?aiaiai inouanoaeyaony oaeouay ei??aeoe?iaea e ioeaiea
ainiiaenoaothuae ia ?uiea ii?iu i?eauee e nii?yaeaiee a? n iacia/aiiie
oeaiie oiaa?ia eee oneoa eae a noi?iio a? iiauoaiey (i?e iaaeaiee
i?eaueae eiiiaiee ieaea nouanoaothuaai o?iaiy), oae e iiieaeaiey (i?e
i?aauoaiee i?eaueae eiiiaiee nouanoaothuaai ainiiaenoaothuaai o?iaiy).

 Iaaeinoaoee aeaiiiai iaoiaea e eneaaeaiey i?ioeanna
?aaoee?iaaiey .

O aeaiiiai iaoiaea au/eneaiey ii?iu i?eauee anoue ianeieueei
iaaeinoaoeia. A neeo oeaeiai ?yaea i?e/ei ?aaoee?iaaiea anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieee enoiaey ec iieo/aaiie eie ii?iu i?eauee ia anaaaea aeinoeaaao
oniaoa. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei yoiai ca/anooth yaeyaony iaee/ea oaeiai
iai?eyoiiai iioeaa, eae iiene iieeoe/aneie ?aiou. O iineaaeiaai anoue
aeaa aeueoa?iaoeau. Ia?aay caeeth/aaony a n?aueaaiee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae n eiio?ieueiuie i?aaiaie e a ?annoaiiaea ia
niioaaonoaothuea iinou caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe, eeai iii?inoo
icaeieioeaa, aeaaiaea?y /aio niioaaonoaothuea eiio?ieueiua no?oeoo?u
ioiinyony aieaa iyaei e aeaiiiio iiiiiieenoo. Auai?i/iua
i?aaenoaaeoaee e ainath?ie?aou ?aaoee?othueo neoaea, iiiiaay
oe?iai-iiiiiieenoai, a naith i/a?aaeue ?ann/eouaatho “i?ecaieeoueny” a
aeaiiuo iiiiiieueiuo no?oeoo?ao iinea enoa/aiey n?iea naieo
iieiiii/ee. Aoi?ay aeueoa?iaoeaa, iiene iieeoe/aneie ?aiou, i?eo?i/aia
e iio?aaeoaeyi e caeeth/aaony a

oii, /oi a iaeioi?uo noa?ao eiio?ieueiua i?aaiu auee iinoaaeaiu iiae
aeanoieee i?anneia ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaeae, /uee eioa?anu ninoiyo a
iaeneiaeueiii nieaeaiee oeai aac o/aoa iio?aaiinoae oe?i e aeaeiauo
i?aaei?eyoee ia aeieain?i/iuo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeao.

Ae?oaie i?iaeaiie, ia iaiaa aaaeiie, /ai i?aaeuaeouay, yaeyaony
iaaeinoaoie ciaiee ia enoeiiuo ii?iao i?eauee a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia naiii aeaea, ioeaiea nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, ii?iu
i?eauee e eiaanoe?oaiiai eaieoaea oe?iie-iiiiiieenoii ia anaaaea
iauaeoeaia. Ia i?aeoeea yoi iaeia ec neiaeiaeoeo caaea/. *ai aieueoa
aeiaaaeie e aeaiiuo, acyouo iaecaanoii ioeoaea, oai aieueoa aa?iyoiinoue
ioeaie e iai?iaeoiaiiuo ?aoaiee.

?anniao?eaay oe?io a ?aieao iiaeaee “ecaea?aeee iethn
i?eaueue”, ?aaoee?iaaiea ?uii/iiai i?ioeanna iiae?uaaao
iniiaiiieaaathuea

noeioeu ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Iineaaeiaa iauyniyaony i/aiue i?inoi:
anee

i?eaueue ethaie oe?iu i?aauoaao a? ecaea?aeee i ii?aaeae?iioth
oeene?iaaiioth aaee/eio, oi ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ieieiecaoeee
naieo ecaea?aeae. Oaeei ia?acii, nieaeathony noeioeu e nie?auaieth
cao?ao.

A nayce n iaaeinoaoeaie nouanoaotho ?acee/iua eneaaeaiey
i?ioeanna ?aaoee?iaaiey, aucaaiiua eniieueciaaieai iaaa?iuo aeaiiuo i
ii?ia i?eauee. Aica?auaynue e iaeiiio ec iaaaoeaiuo iiiaioia, eioi?ua
aiciee tho i?e eniieueciaaiee aeaiiiai iaoiaea, eiaiii, e aii?ino,
naycaiiiio n iai?aaeeueiie ioeaieie ii?iu i?eauee ia eaieoae,
i?eiiiiei, /oi aiieia aa?iyoii eniieueciaaiea a ?an/aoao yooaeoeaiinoe
?aaoee?iaaiey anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee caauoaiiuo (eeai caieaeaiiuo)
ii?i i?eauee ia eaieoae, eioi?ua iiaoo ia niioaaonoaiaaoue
aeueoa?iaoeaiie noieiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey. Aeaiiue iaaeinoaoie
i?iyaee naay ia i?aeoeea a 50- 60-a aiaeu, eiaaea ii?iu i?eauee a
yeaeo?iniaaaeaiee e yia?aaoeea auee neeueii caauoaiu, /oi iicaieeei n
eaaeinoueth iiaeeeciaaoue eaieoae ia no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo
yeaeo?inoaioeee. Yoi i?eaaei e ?anoi/eoaeueiui e eceeoiei aeiaeaieyi
eaieoaea a aeaiioth io?aneue. A ainueieaeanyoua aiaeu neooaoeey
eciaieeanue- ii?iu i?eauee ieacaeenue neeueii caieaeaiiuie. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai o?iaaiue eiaanoeoeee, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey io?anee nie?aoeeny. Aieaa oiai, ieceea oeaiu ia
oaeiai ?iaea oneoae ianee?otho ino?ioo i?iaeaiu. Ii ia?a noa?aiey e
aii?oecaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey ea/anoai oneoa ii yeaeo?iniaaaeaieth
ianaeaiey ?acei nieaeaaony; iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeenou i?aaeneacuaatho
na?ue?cioth iaoaaoeo yeaeo?iyia?aee i?e nouanoaiaaiee iaoaiecia
eneonnoaaiiiai iiaeaaeaiey ii?i i?eauee a io?anee. Oaeei ia?acii,
yooaeo eneonnoaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ii?iu i?eauee iineo iaithaeiue

oa?aeoa?, yooaeoeaiinoue ?uii/iiai i?ioeanna aaeaine?oao iaaeaeo
aeaoiy

e?aeiinoyie.

Iiieii eneaaeaiee, naycaiiuo n iaaa?iuie aeaiiuie i ii?ia
i?eauee, nouanoaotho eneaaeaiey, aucaaiiua oeaiiia?acothuae iiaeaeueth
“n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iethn i?eaueue”. Aieaa aeoaieia eco/aiea aeaiiie
i?iaeaiu i?eaiaeeo e ia?aaeienaeueiui ia ia?aue acaeyae ?acoeueoaoai.
Ieacuaaaony, /oi aeaaea aaniethoii oi/iay ioeaiea ii?iu i?eauee a oie
eee eiie noa?a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe naia ii naaa ia niiniaia
nicaeaoue yooaeoeaiua iaoaieciu eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iiai
i?ioeanna. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei yoiai yaeyaony eniieuecoaiay iiaeaeue
oeaiiia?aciaaiey, noi?ie?iaaiiay ii i?eioeeio “n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iethn
i?eaueue” e ia aeeth/athuay a ?anniio?aiea o?iaaiue i?aaeaeueiuo
ecaea?aeae. Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia iniiaaiee yoie iiaeaee i?aaeiieaaaao,
/oi i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoa iinoiyiiu e ia neeoeii
?aceoaeueii ioee/athony io n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae i?e ?anniao?eaaaiii
iau?ia auionea i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea oaeia iieiaeaiea aauae
aanueia eaeaaeece?iaaiii (oae, e i?eia?o, i?e onoaiiaeaiee ?acee/iuo
n?ieia aaiaea a yenieoaoaoeeth yeaeo?inoaioeee caaeathony niaa?oaiii
?acee/iua o?iaie i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae aeey iiauo e onoa?aaoeo
noaioeee). Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaoee?othuei i?aaiai i?eoiaeeony
aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue naith iieeoeeo oeaiiia?aciaaiey aeaaea a ?aieao
iaeiie io?anee, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e onoaiiaeaieth oeai ieaea o?iaiy
i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae e ionoonoaeth noeioeia e aaaaeaieth
i?ia?anneaiuo e ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee.

Eoae, iu ?anniio?aee aeaa eeth/aauo i?aaeea, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo
?aaoee?othony anoanoaaiiua iiiiiieee. *oi aea eanaaony o?aoueaai
i?aaeea, oiiiyiooiai i?aaeaea, eioi?ia caeeth/aei a naaa oio oaeo, /oi
i?iecaiaenoai aeieaeii auoue yooaeoeaiui, oi caeanue iaiaoiaeeii
i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea ?anoiaeu oe?i- iiiiiieenoia, ia ioiinyueany
iaiin?aaenoaaiii e i?iecaiaenoao. E oaeei ?anoiaeai iiaeii ioianoe
?anoiaeu ia ioaeaeeo ioena, ia iino?iaiea naoiu aeey ia?niiaea e oiio
iiaeiaiia. A i?eioeeia, ?aaoee?othuea neoaeau iiaee au cae?uoue aeaca ia
iiaeiaiiai aeae ecaea?aeee, anee au ia eo ianooaa, eioi?ue an?
aieaa e aieaa oaaee/eaaaony. Iiyoiio ?aaoee?othuea neoaeau ioeoeeaeueii
aeoeaioe?otho ia ieo aieiaiea e i?eioaeaeatho anoanoaaiiua iiiiiieee e
cia/eoaeueiiio nie?auaieth eo.

Iiaeaiaey eoia neacaiiiio, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi anoanoaaiiay
iiiiiieey-yoi aeiaieueii-oaee onoie/eaay oi?ia oicyenoaiaaiey, e a?yae
ee ii ecaeea?o naay, iiea nouanoaotho io?anee, iio?aaiinoue ianaeaiey a
i?iaeoeoeee eioi?uo noieue aaeeea, e iiea nouanoaoao aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
iauanoaa. Nouanoaoao iiiai nii?ia i niiniaao ?aaoee?iaaiey
anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee, e yoi iiiyoii, aaaeue, e iio?aaeoaee, e
iiiiiieenou, e naie eiiennee ii ?aaoee?iaaieth no?aiyony iieo/eoue
iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue. Iaeiaei yoi ia aaeeinoaaiiay i?e/eia
?aciiaeanee, aaaeue ia naiii aeaea nenoai ?aaoee?iaaiey anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieee aeaeaei ia niaa?oaiia. Iiyoiio, aa?iyoiaa anaai, /oi iaoiaeu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee aoaeoo
iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaoueny, oioy a?yae ee iiaeiaiiai ?iae ia?aiaiu
niiaoo oaeiaeaoai?eoue anao, neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoio aii?in aoaeao
iaeiei ec iniiaiuo a iieneiaii ieaia, e eioa?an iauanoaa

e iaio ieeiaaea ia oaaniao.

09.11.98a.
__________(Aooi?iaTH.A.)

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1.Eyiiaaee ?.IAEEIIIAEE, Noyiee E.A?TH “YEIIIIEEN”o.2.

2.Yaeaei Aeae.AeIEAI “IEE?IYEIIIIEEA”.

3.”Eo?n yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee”(iiniaea iiae ?aaeaeoeeae

i?io. *aio?eia I.I.,i?io.Eenae?aie A.A.).

4.”Ie?iaay yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey” N 7,1994.

5.Ae.I.Oaeiai “NIA?AIAIIAss IEE?IYEIIIIEEA: aiaeec e
i?eiaiaiea”o.2.

6.OEOA? e ae?. “YEIIIIEEA”.

7.”Eo?n ?uii/iie yeiiiieee”(iiae ?aaeaeoeeae i?io. A.E.?ocaaeia).

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