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Критика экономической теории К. Маркса

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23

?inneeneay yeiiiie/aneay aeaaeaiey ei. A.A.Ieaoaiiaa

Aunoay oeiea yeiiiieee “IE?AEN”

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee

ii oaia

“E?eoeea yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee E.Ia?ena ”

nooaeaioa a?. 33-10

Oeooeaaaa ?oneaia

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue – Aa?acei E.N.

Iineaa 1998Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea.

1. Aeia?aoey Ia?ena e oai?aoe/aneay aaca aai o/aiey

2. “Eaieoae” Ia?ena eae o?oae aeecie e iao/iia iainiiaaiea eaeae
“Iaieoanoa”.

Iniiaiay /anoue

1. Iniiaiua eaeae iauae eiioeaioeee Ia?ena.

2. O?oaeiaay oai?ey oeaiiinoe.

3. Aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa? o?oaea e iauyniaiea ?uii/iuo oeai.

4. *oi i?iaeaao ?aai/ee eaieoaeenoo?

5. Oai?ey eaieoaea.

6. Oi?iu yenieoaoaoeee o?oaea eaieoaeii.

7. Oai?ee i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

8. Oai?ey i?aa?auaiiuo oi?i.

9. Oai?ey ?aiou Ia?ena a n?aaiaiee n ?eea?aeeaineie oai?eae ?aiou.

10. Oai?ey e?ecenia Ia?ena

Caeeth/aiea

1. Ia?en ia?aae noaeii enoi?ee.

Aeia?aoey Ia?ena e oai?aoe/aneay aaca aai o/aiey

Ea?e Ia?en, eae iaeei ec caaa?oeoaeae eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee inoaaee caiaoiue neaae a enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iunee. Aai eaeae
auoiaeyo ca ?aiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai, ni/aoaynue n
oeeinioneeie, nioeeieiae/aneeie e iieeoe/aneeie.

Ea?e Ia?en ?iaeeeny 5 iay 1818 a. a iaiaoeeii ai?iaea O?e?a. Ii aue
aoi?ui ec aeaayoe aeaoae aaeaieaoa Aai?eoa Ia?ena, auoiaeoea ec naiuee
?aaaeia, ia?aoaaeoeo a 1816 a. ec eoaeaecia a i?ioanoaioeci.

A 1830—1835 a. o/eeny a aeiiacee ai?iaea O?e?a. N 1835 a. o/eeny ia
ioaeaeaiee i?aaa Aiiineiai oieaa?neoaoa, an 1836 ii 1841 a. eco/ae
i?aai, oeeinioeth, enoi?eth e enoi?eth eneonnoa a Aa?eeineii
oieaa?neoaoa, ii caaa?oaiee eioi?iai a1841a. iieo/ee noaiaiue aeieoi?a
ia oeeinioneii oaeoeueoaoa Eaineiai oieaa?neoaoa. Iieiaeie aeieoi?
oeeinioee (aiaeia naaiaeiyoiaai eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe), i?eaoaa a
Ia?eae iinea ieii/aiey oieaa?neoaoa, n aieiaie ooiaeeo a aeayoaeueiinoue
iiiai/eneaiiuo eiiioienoe/aneeo e?oaeeia. Iao ie iaeaeoaai niiiaiey a
oii, /oi Ia?en aini?eiye eo eaeae, a oaeaea eaeae eiiioienoia –
ooiienoia, i?e/ai a naiuo e?aeieo oi?iao. Iieiaeie aeieoi? oeeinioee
oaea oiaaea aini?eieiae ?aaiethoeeiiiue oa??i? eae oieaa?naeueiia
i?oaeea ?aoaiey anao nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai-“Iiaeiaii oiio, eae oeeinioey
iaoiaeeo a i?ieaoa?eaoa naia iaoa?eaeueiia i?oaeea, oae e i?ieaoa?eao
iaoiaeeo a oeeinioee naia aeooiaiia i?oaeea.” eee -“I?oaeea e?eoeee ia
iiaeao caiaieoue eiia/ii e?eoeee i?oaeeai, iaoa?eaeueiay neea aeieaeia
auoue ii?ieeiooa iaoa?eaeueiie aea neeie” e o.ae. o.a aua aei
oai?aoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaiethoeee e a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu (aeaiiiai a “Eaieoaea”) Ia?en oaea aa?ee a iaecaaaeiinoue yoiai.
Eae ni?aaaaeeeai caia/aee enneaaeiaaoaee aai o?oaeia, “Iaieoano”
iaienaiiue aei 1ai oiia “Eaieoaea”i?aaenoaaeye niaie naiaeeo iniiaiuo
?acoeueoaoia oai?aoe/aneiai ia?enecia – eioi?ua iicaea auee “iieo/aiu” a
“Eaieoaea”. O?oaeii oaea?aeaoueny io oiai, /oiau ia i?ioeeoe?iaaoue
I.Oaenee :” Oeeinioey anoue iouneaiea niiieoaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa
oiai, ai /oi aa?eoue einoeieoeaii.”

Ia?eno oaeaeinue ca ei?ioeee n?ie noaoue iaeiei ec eeaea?ia aeaiiiai
iai?aaeaiey, /oi e i?eaeaeei i?enoaeueiia aieiaiea iieeoeee. Ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi Ia?eno ia i?eoeinue iiiaaeaoue ca ?aoaoeo, i?iaeieaeaoue
aeayoaeueiinoue a Aa?iia noaei aeey iaai eceeoia iianiui e

E. Ia?en ia anth inoaeueioth naith aeeciue n 1850 ii 1883 iaoiaeeo
oaaaeeua a Eiiaeiia.

A eiiaeiineee ia?eiae aeecie E. Ia?en ieoao a /enea iiiaeo i?iecaaaeaiee
e “Eaieoae”, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaae eae o?oae anae naiae aeecie . *oi
eanaaony oeiainiaie noi?iiu aai aeecie a yoio

ia?eiae, oi iia neeaaeuaaeanue aanueia iai?inoi. Oae, n 1851 a. e a
oa/aiea aeanyoe eao E. Ia?en noaiiaeony nio?oaeieeii aacaou “Iueth-Ei?e
aeaeee o?eathi”, ii ec-ca oeiainiauo o?oaeiinoae ia i?ioyaeaiee
1852—1857 aa. auioaeaeai a iniiaiii caieiaoueny aeo?iaeenoeeie ?aaee
ca?aaioea, /oi ii/oe ia inoaaeyei a?aiaie aeey i?iaeieaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. I?aaaea, ianiio?y ia yoi, aio oaeaaony
iiaeaioiaeoue ?aaioo “E e?eoeea iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”, e i?e
niaeaenoaee O. Eannaey, oaiai?eaoaai iaeiiai ec aa?eeineeo ecaeaoaeae
i?eiyoue aa, a 1859 a. iia auea iioaeeeiaaia.

“Eaieoae” Ia?ena eae o?oae aeecie e iao/iia iainiiaaiea eaeae
“Iaieoanoa”.

Iaeiaei a 1862 a. ?ac?ua n O. Eannaeai, i?ae?auaiea n ia/aeii
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a NOA nio?oaeie/anoaa a “Iueth-Ei?e aeaeee o?e-athi”
aucaaee cia/eoaeueiua oeiainiaua cao?oaeiaiey, caoyioaoeany aei 1869 a.,
eiaaea ae?oa e ni?aoiee O. Yiaaeuen ?aoee yoo i?iaeaio, iaania/ea E.
Ia?ena aaeaaiaeiie ?aioie. Eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae, oeaiith iaeiiaa?iuo
oneeee e aoaeo/e iacaei?iaui, a 1867 a. ii ieii/aoaeueii io?aaeaeoe?iaae
e a oii aea aiaeo a Aaiao?aa ecaeae 1ue oii “Eaieoaea”. Aeaa ae?oaeo
oiia (n naiiai ia/aea auei caaeoiaii auionoeoue “Eaieoae” a o?ao oiiao)
ei a?aiaie ecaeaiey ia?aiai ia auee aioiau e ioaeeeaoeee eae aaeaeo
aieacie e oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaiee, oae e, nei?aa anaai, ec-ca iniciaiey
aaoi?ii iacaaa?oaiiinoe yoie ?aaiou.

I?e aeecie E. Ia?eno oae e ia oaeaeinue caaa?oeoue II e III oiia
“Eaieoaea”. Aua a iiya?a 1878 a. a ienueia I. Aeaieaeueniio ii ienae,
/oi e eiioeo 1879 a. iiaeaioiaeo e ia/aoe 2ie oii “Eaieoaea”, ii 10
ai?aey 1879 a. niiauae aio aea, /oi yoio oii iioaeeeoao ia ?aiaa /ai
eco/eo ?acaeoea e caaa?oaiea e?ecena aiaeeeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

E. Ia?ena ia noaei 14 ia?oa 1883 a. Aanue o?oae ii nai?o e iiaeaioiaea e
ioaeeeaoeee 2ai, eioi?ue auoae a naao a 1885 a. e 3ai(ecaeai a 1894 a.)
oiiia “Eaieoaea” acye ia naay Yiaaeuen. Ii-aeaeeiiio, a naiii aeaea,
aeiaieueii o?oaeii onoaiiaeoue, eaeay /anoue i?eoiaeeony ia aeieth
Yiaaeuena a i?iecaaaeaieyo Ia?ena, ii, i/aaeaeii, iia iaiaeiaaaeiay. Ii
/oi eanaaony “Eaieoaea”, ianiiiaiii e ae?oaia: yoe oiia— iinia?oiua. Eo
niaea?aeaiea auei ecaea/aii Yiaaeuenii ec ?oeiienae Ia?ena, aeaeaei ia
caeii/aiiuo.

Eae au oi ie auei, eiaiii “Eaieoae” niaea?aeeo a naaa oai?aoe/aneoth
aaco iao/iiai eiiioiecia, e i?e i/aaeaeiie oaiaeaioeeiciinoe oai ia
iaiaa i?aoaiaeoao ia no?iai iao/ioth iainiiaaiiinoue auaiaeia, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii e aiaeece?iaaoueny aeieaeai eae iao/iue o?oae,
iaienaiiue aani?eno?anoiui enneaaeiaaoaeai. Oaeaea e iu, iii?iaoai
ioieoe io i?aaeacyoiai ioiioaiey e Ia?eno e aeieacaoue ioeai/iinoue aai
oai?ee.oae neacaoue , “ia aoiaaa”, aano?aae?oynue io i?eaeaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa enoi?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Iniiaiay /anoue

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey iauae oai?ee Ia?ena

Ii i?eciaieth naiiai E. Ia?ena, eae o/aiue ii enoiaeee iaeiia?aiaiii ec
o?ao iao/iuo enoi/ieeia: aiaeeeneie eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee
Nieoa e ?eea?aei, iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioee Aaaaey e ooiie/aneiai
nioeeaeecia. O Nieoa e ?eea?aei ei caeinoaiaaiu o?oaeiaay oai?ey
noieiinoe, iieiaeaiey caeiia oaiaeaioeee ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea. O aoi?uo — eaeae aeeaeaeoeee e iaoa?eaeecia,
o o?aoueeo — iiiyoea eeanniaie ai?ueau, yeaiaiou nioeeieiae/aneiai
ono?ienoaa iauanoaa. Aaoi? “Eaieoaea” yaeyaony ia aaeeinoaaiiui a /enea
enneaaeiaaoaeae ia/aea e na?aaeeiu XIX a., ?anniao?eaaaoeo iieeoeeo e
ainoaea?noai eae aoi?e/iua yaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei, i?aaeii/eoaaoeo, neaaeoy i?e/eiii-
neaaenoaaiiiio iiaeoiaeo, eeanneoeoee?iaaoue yeiiiie/aneea eaoaai?ee eae
ia?ae/iua e aoi?e/iua, n/eoaaoeo yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu, eaieoaeeci e
niioaaonoaaiii ?uii/iue iaoaieci oicyenoaiaaiey a?aiaiiuie.

Iaeiaei oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a iaoiaeieiaee enneaaeiaaiey E. Ia?ena
caieiaao aai eiioeaioeey aacena e iaaeno?ieee, i eioi?ie ii cayaee aua a
1859 a. a ?aaioa “E e?eoeea iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”. Iniiaiay eaeay a
yoii i?iecaaaeaiee auea noi?ioee?iaaia oae: “A iauanoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa naiae aeecie ethaee anooiatho a ii?aaeaeaiiua,
iaiaoiaeeiua, io eo aiee ia caaenyuea ioiioaiey — i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiie nooiaie ?acaeoey eo
iaoa?eaeueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Niaieoiiinoue yoeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ninoaaeyao yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o
iauanoaa, ?aaeueiue aacen, ia eioi?ii aicauoaaony th?eaee/aneay e
iieeoe/aneay iaaeno?ieea e eioi?iio niioaaonoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?iu
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Niinia i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie
iaoneiaeeaaao nioeeaeueiue, iieeoe/aneee e aeooiaiue i?ioeannu aeecie
aiiaua. Ia niciaiea ethaeae

ii?aaeaeyao eo auoea, a, iaiai?io, eo iauanoaaiiia auoea ii?aaeaeyao eo
niciaiea”. Iaaeaeo oai, ii aieueoiio n/aoo, a eiioeaioeee aacena e
iaaeno?ieee i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea aeaoue yeiiiie/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth
enoi?ee n o/aoii ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, eioi?ay iiaeneacuaaao, ii caiuneo E. Ia?ena, i?ioeann
ia?aoiaea io eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecio, eai “ao?aeoaciie iauanoaaiiie
oi?iaoeeae, — ieoao ii, — caaa?oaaony i?aaeunoi?ey /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa”. Ii Ia?eno, iaaeeaeaeoe/aneee iiaeoiae e iaiainiiaaiiia
i?eciaiea caeiiia eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee oieaa?naeueiuie, ia
iicaieeee iiiyoue i?aaenoaaeoaeyi eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee,
eioi?ua nianoaaiii ioe?uee yoe caeiiu, /oi iie eiatho niaoeeoe/aneee e
i?aoiaeyuee oa?aeoa?.

Ia?auaynue e nooe ?anniao?eaaaiie eiioeaioeee E. Ia?ena, neaaeoao
caiaoeoue, /oi eaeay aiaeeca iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey eae /a?aaeiaaiey
aacena e iaaeno?ieee ia i?inoa a i?eiaiaiee. Iai?eia?,
“i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu caaenyo iaeiia?aiaiii io oaoie/aneie
iniauaiiinoe e io i?aaiecaoeee niaianoiiai o?oaea, eioi?ay a naith
i/a?aaeue caaeneo io caeiiia nianoaaiiinoe. Iineaaeiea i?eiaaeeaaeao e
th?eaee/aneie noa?a. Ii “i?aai — yoi /anoue ainoaea?noaa, a iineaaeiaa
ioiineony e iaaeno?ieea. Iu niiaa noaeeeaaainy n o?oaeiinoueth
ioaeaeaiey aacena e iaaeno?ieee”. Ii, ianiio?y ia yoi, n oao ii?, aea e
nae/an, “aeey ia?enenoa yeiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae icia/aao, /oi
i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ea?aao ?aoathuoth ?ieue, i?aaeii?aaeaeyy
nioeeaeueioth e iieeoe/aneoth no?oeoo?o, e iniiaiie oii? ii aeaeaao ia
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaaao, oeaeyo e i?ioeannao, eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e
eaieoaeenoaie e anaiauai iiae/eiaiee iaeiiai eeanna ae?oaiio”.

Ii oaaaeaeaieth E. Ia?ena, eaieoaeeci, y?a eioi?iai “aa?ao naia ia/aei a
XVI aaea”, eneeth/aao aoiaiecaoeeth iauanoaa e aeaiie?aoeth ec-ca
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e aia?oee ?uiea. A yoie
nenoaia o?oaeyony ?aaee i?eauee, eiaao ianoi yenieoaoaoeey iaeiiai
eeanna ae?oaei, a /aeiaae (e i?aaei?eieiaoaeue e ?aai/ee) noaiiaeony
/oaeaeui naiiio naaa, oae eae ia iiaeao naii?aaeeciaaoueny a o?oaea,
aeaa?aaee?iaaaoai eeoue a n?aaenoai nouanoaiaaiey a oneiaeyo
iai?aaeneacoaiiai ?uiea e aeanoeie eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. A /oi eanaaony
iiaeeeiiie naiaiaeu aia o?oaea, o.a. naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie, oi iii, ii
Ia?eno, “ia?eeii aiaaonoaa” noaiao ia i?e eaieoaeecia, a i?e eiiioiecia.
Iaeiaei o aaoi?a “Eaieoaea” aeaenoaeoaeueii “iao ieeaeeo oaaaeeoaeueiuo
aeaiiuo ie i oii iiiaioa, eiaaea eaieoaeeci ia?anoaiao
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, ie aeaaea i oii, /oi a aeaiiue eiie?aoiue iiiaio ii
aeieaeai ia?anoaoue ooieoeeiie?iaaoue”. Ia?en i?aaenoaaee ii?aaeaeaiiia
/enei aeiaiaeia, iicaieythueo n/eoaoue, /oi eaieoaeenoe/aneee no?ie
aoaeao ana ooaea e ooaea ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, iaeiaei ii ia aeieacae
yeiiiie/anee, /oi aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey eaieoaeecia ?ac?ooao aai.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi a aeiaiaeao E. Ia?ena i iaecaaaeiii e?aoa
eaieoaeecia aeaaiui yaeyaony ia ia?ooaiea ?uii/iuo i?eioeeiia
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia iaaeaeo eeannaie iauanoaa, a oi, /oi yoa
nenoaia ia iaania/eaaao iieiie caiyoinoe, oyaioaao e eieiieaeueiie
yenieoaoaoeee e e aieiai. Iauanoaaiiui eaeaaeii ii n/eoaao nioeeaeeci e
eiiioieci, iacuaay eo oacaie iaaioaaiienoe/aneiai eiiioienoe/aneiai
iauanoaa, i?e eioi?ii n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa ia aoaeoo aieaa iauaeoii
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?enaiaiey e eaaeaeue /aeiaae ia?aoao naiaiaeo.

Ai?i/ai, oaaaeaeaiiinoue E. Ia?ena a oi?aeanoaa eaeaaeia aaneeanniaiai
iauanoaa ceaeaeaony i?aaeaea anaai ia oai?ee eeannia, noaaoae
aeinoiyieai eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee aua ni a?aiai oeceie?aoia
e A. Nieoa. N/eoay naay iineaaeiaaoaeai “eeanneeia”, ii aeaenoaeoaeueii
caieiaeny “a iniiaiii i?iaeaiie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, a eiaiii ?inoa
aeaaininoiyiey e aeioiaea, a oaeaea i?iaeaiie ?ani?aaeaeaiey yoiai
?anoouaai aeioiaea iaaeaeo o?oaeii, eaieoaeii e caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie”,
o.a. iaaeaeo eeannaie. Ii oeaio?aeueiie eaeaae aai oai?ee eeannia
yaeyaony eeanniaay ai?ueaa n oaiaeaioeeae e oi?iuaieth e iiey?ecaoeee
iauanoaaiiuo a?oii aie?oa aeaaiuo eeannia iauanoaa.

Aua a “Iaieoanoa Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee” E. Ia?en ienae: “Enoi?ey anao
aei neo ii? nouanoaiaaaoeo iauanoa auea enoi?eae ai?ueau eeannia.
Naiaiaeiue e ?aa, iao?eoeee e ieaaae, iiiauee e e?aiinoiie, ianoa? e
iiaeianoa?uea, ei?i/a, oaiaoathuee e oaiaoaaiue iaoiaeeeenue a aa/iii
aioaaiiecia ae?oa e ae?oao, aaee iai?a?uaioth oi ne?uooth, oi yaioth
ai?ueao, anaaaea eii/aaoothny ?aaiethoeeiiiui ia?aono?ienoaii anaai
iauanoaaiiiai caeaiey eee iauae aeaaeueth ai?thueony eeannia”.

O?oaeiaay oai?ey i?ienoiaeaeaiey noieiinoe

Iaeiei ec e?aaoaieueiuo eaiiae yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ia?enecia yaeyaony
o?oaeiaay oai?ey i?ienoiaeaeaiey noieiinoe (oeaiiinoe). O?oaeiaoth
oai?eth noieiinoe Ia?en acye o ?eea?aei, iaeiaei, yoi ia nianai oae:
?eea?aei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi oiaa?u iaiaieaathony a eiee/anoaa,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiii o?oaeo, cao?a/aiiiio ia eo i?iecaiaenoai.
N(a):N(b)=L(a):L(b)

A oi a?aiy eae Ia?en ooaa?aeaeae a ienueia e Yiaaeueno -“Oeaiiinoue –
ia/enoi naiaeeony e eiee/anoao o?oaea, a?aiy eae ia?a o?oaea” e iauyniye
– aio i?iii?oeey iaiaia : A=oA. O.a. anee, iai?eia? 1 a. cieioa ?aaai 1
oiiia ae?ia, oi cia/eo, /oi ia i?iecaiaenoai 1a. cieioa cao?aoeee
noieueei aea a?aiaie, neieueei e ia ?oaeo 1o. ae?iaeoae.

Aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa? o?oaea e iauyniaiea ?uii/iuo oeai.

Noieue ?acee/iua aeaeu o?oaea i?e?aaieaaeenue ia iniiaa aaaaeaiiie
Ia?enii eaoaai?ee aeaienoaaiiinoe o?oaea – o?oaea i?inoiai e neiaeiiai,
a oaeaea eiie?aoiiai e aano?aeoiiai. Iai?eia? ecaioiaeaiea nooea – o?oae
a naiai eiie?aoiii aniaeoa, e a oi aea a?aiy yaeyaony o?oaeii
aano?aeoiui – naycaiiui n iaueie cao?aoaie ia?aia e ioneoe. A
aeaeueiaeoai ?a/ue eaeao eiaiii ia aano?aeoiii o?oaea. O?oae neiaeiue
?aaai iiiiiaeaiiiio i?inoiio o?oaeo. Iaiueoaa eiee/anoai neiaeiiai
o?oaea iiaeao auoue ?aaii aieueoaio eiee/anoao i?inoiai. *oi yaeyaony
neiaeiui e i?inoui o?oaeii ?aoaao “iauanoaaiiue i?ioeann”, eioi?ue e
onoaiaaeeaaao iaiaiiua i?iii?oeee ia ?uiea. O.a oaeoe/anee Ia?en ooiaeeo
io ioaaoa e io aeieacaoaeuenoaa naieo i?aaeiieiaeaiee, aaaeue oi, /oi
?uiie onoaiaaeeaaao oeaiu ia aeieacuaaao o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe
(oeaiiinoe) Ia?ena. Iaeiaei ianiio?y ia aacaeieacaoaeueiinoue oeacaiiiai
aeaeaiey o?oaea, i?eiai aai eae aeiioaco e aeaeiainy aeaeueoa, e aii?ino
oii, ii/aio oeaiiinoue naiiai o?oaea (ca?ieaoa) anaaaea iaiueoa
i?iaeoeoa o?oaea. Aaaeue ii Ia?eno oeaiiinoue i?iaeoeoa o?oaea ?aaia
cao?aoai aano?aeoiiai i?inoiai o?oaea.

*oi i?iaeaao ?aai/ee eaieoaeenoo?

Oiae ?annoaeaeaiey Ia?ena oaeia: anee au ?aai/ee i?iaeaaae eaieoaeenoo
naie o?oae, oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia iieo/ae au i?eauee. E
aeaenoaeoaeueii – anee ?aai/ee i?iecaiaeeo, iai?eia? 10 eiiao ca aeaiue,
oi ni?aaaaeeeaui ii Ia?eno auei au iieo/aiea ?aai/ei aeaiaaeiiai
yeaeaaeaioa ca 10 eiiao – oae eae oeaiiinoue nicaeaaony oieueei o?oaeii.
Ii yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aai/ee i?iaeaao
eaieoaeenoo, aieiaiea, – ia o?oae . a ?aai/oth neeo. Aaea ?acee/ea :
?aai/ay neea – yoi /aeiaae, iioaioeeaeueiue ?aaioiee, yoi niiniaiinoue,
aiciiaeiinoue auiieiyoue ?aaioo. ?aaiaeaaeaeaoe, iieoiay ?aaa, iieoiae
yoo niiniaiinoue – ?aa aue ?aai/ae neeie. O?oae aea – ?aaeeciaaiiay
niiniaiinoue auiieiyoue ?aaioo. Aii?in – /oi aea o?aaoaony eaieoaeenoo –
niiniaiinoue auiieiyoue ?aaioo? Ii eae caia/atho e?eoeee Ia?ena,
niiniaiiai eaioyy eaieoaeeno oio/an aea auaiieo, oae eae aio ia ioaeai
nai ?aaioiee, aio ana ?aaii – niiniaai ee ii eee a iaiueoae noaiaie
i?eniiniaeai aeey ?aaiou, eeoue au aai aiciiaeiinoue auea aiieiuaia a
i?iaeoeoao o?oaea ?aai/aai, a cia/eo ii caeioa?aniaai a o?oaea. Ia?en e
i?eaiaeee iiyoiio iiiaeanoai i?eia?ia “ii?aaiuaiey o?oaea eaieoaeii” ,
i/aaeaeii iuoaynue oeacaoue ia i?aeoe/aneia ionoonoaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
i?ieaoa?eai, caaeneiui io naiaai oicyeia, i?eaycaiiui e iaio iaaeaeeiuie
oeaiyie, n?aaieaay i?ieaoa?eao n ?aaaie aioe/iuo ainoaea?noa. Iaeiaei a
aeaeueiaeoai Ia?en anooiaao a i?ioeai?a/ea n naiei niaie: “Eaieoaeeno
iiea/eaaao, iai?eia? aeiaaioth oeaiiinoue ?aai/ae neeu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii
iio?aaeaiea aa eae e anyeiai oiaa?a- iai?eia? eioaaee a i?iaeieaeaiea
aeiy i?eiaaeeaaeeo aio.” Ii iio?aaeaiea eioaaee – yoi iio?aaeaiea o?oaea
eioaaee, ia ano aea ii aa a oa/aiea aeiy. Eiuie neiaaie, ?aai/ay neea
oioue e naeaaony aiaai, ii iieoiaaony e i?iaeaaony ana aea o?oae eee
eniieueciaaiea ?aai/ae neeu.

Oai?ee eaieoaea Ia?ena

Neaaeothuei oaeoi?ii i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony eaieoae, e niioaaonoaaiii
oai?ey eaieoaea oaeaea auea ia?ainiuneaia Ia?enii. Iau/ii iiae eaieoaeii
iiieiaaony ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e naiaio eiouanoao – aeaiueaai, caeaieyi,
i?oaeeyi o?oaea e o.ae. Au?aaeaaony yoi ioiioaiea a oii, /oi iai?eia?
aeaiueae ia iio?aaeythony, a eniieuecoony n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i?eauee,
eiuie neiaaie, eaa?oe?a naia ii naaa eaieoaeii ia yaeyaony, iia oieueei
oiaaea eaieoae, eiaaea iai?eia? naeaaony aiaai. Ia?en aea iiieiae
eaieoae eae ioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeaaeaeueoeai eiouanoaa e ?aai/ei, iaiyoui
aeey ?aaiou n eiouanoaii, aeaiueaaie e o.ae. Ioiioaiea yoi, ii iiaieth
Ia?ena, ia /oi eiia, eae yenieoaoaoeey o?oaea. Eioa?anii, aiaeeoaeue –
/anoiee ni naiae nianoaaiiie iaoeiie (iniiaiui eaieoaeii) e n aaiceiii a
aaiciaaea (iai?ioiui) – ii eiai yenieoaoe?oao, e aaea caeanue iaaiiue
o?oae? Iiaeii eiia/ii aic?aceoue , /oi ?ac iao iaaiiiai o?oaea, oi iao e
eaieoaea. Iaeiaei, o Ia?ena nouanoaoao aua iaeii iiiyoea eaieoaea –
naiiaic?anoathuay oeaiiinoue (noieiinoue), aiciiaeii iii ieaaeaony
niiniaiui eo/oa i?iynieoue nooue . Aiiaua, iiaeiaia iauai?eiyouo,
eiooeoeaii oaaaeuaaaiuo iiiyoee nianoaaiiuie, aeey Ia?ena iau/iia aeaei
e a i?eioeeia aeiioneaaony aeey o/aiiai i?e oneiaee ii?aaaeaiiinoe e
iaaiciiaeiinoe ainiieueciaaoueny oaea onoiyaoeieny, ii Ia?en yoei
aaconeiaii ceioiio?aaeyao,

Caoai Ia?en auaeaeyao i?eiaiaiiue e iio?aaeaiiue eaieoae – i?eiaiaiiue
eaieoae ?aaai iniiaiiio + iai?ioiue, a iio?aaeaiiue – io/eneaiey ia
aii?oecaoeeth (eciin iniiaiiai eaieoaea), ca?ieaoa, ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia –
eee oi, /oi yeiiiienou iacuaatho naaanoieiinoueth oiaa?a, i?yiuie
cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iu eiaai iaeii?aciaua,
aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou (eaieoae a iau/iii niunea) n ae?oaie – i?yiua
cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee. Eiaiii yoei
iiiyoeai e iia?e?oao Ia?en a 1ii oiia “Eaieoaea”. Eae iu aeaeei, o
Ia?ena yoe aeaa iiiyoey /anoi niaoeaathony: i?eiaiaiiue, iio?aaeaiiue, e
oai e oai – eaieoae, oioy a iaeiii neo/aa – aaeeiia?aiaiiua, a a ae?oaii
– oaeouea cao?aou. Ia?en oaeaea aaiaeeo eiioeaioeeth i?aaie/aneiai
no?iaiey eaieoaea. Ii Ia?eno, eaieoae aeaeeony ia iinoiyiiue e
ia?aiaiiue. Ia?aiaiiui eaieoaeii Ia?en iacuaae oo /anoue, eioi?ay
i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iieaou o?oaea (oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou). Iinoiyiiue
eaieoae, neaaeiaaoaeueii, – ana inoaeueiia. Caeanue Ia?ena ia niouaei
aeaaea oi, /oi iiae iinoiyiiui eaieoaeii iiieiaeanue oaeaea /anoue
iai?ioiiai (iai?eia? ?anoiae iaoa?eaeia ca iaeei oeeee), Ia?en
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iinoiyiiue eaieoae a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa ia
eciaiyao naiae oeaiiinoe, o.a i?inoi ia?aiinyo naith oeaiiinoue ia
i?iaeoeo, i?e/ai neieueei oiaiueoaaony o ieo, noieueei i?eaaaeyaony a
oeaiiinoe i?iaeoeoa. Iineieueeo a aeaiiii neo/aa iu ia iiaeai
i?aaeiieiaeeoue iio?aaeoaeueneoth oeaiiinoue, oi aeaeaai auaiae i oii,
/oi ii Ia?eno, cao?aou ia aii?oecaoeeth aeeth/athony a iaiiaoth
oeaiiinoue, a oeaio i?iaeoeoa. Ia?aiaiiue aea eaieoae “aini?iecaiaeeo
naie nianoaaiiue yeaeaaeaio, e naa?o oiai ecauoie, i?eaaai/ioth
oeaiiinoue”. I?eaaai/iay noieiinoue iiaeao auoue niaei i?e?aaiaia e
i?eauee e /oi aea iu iieo/aai? Eciaieeny ee eaieoae iooiai, /oi eaeay-oi
/anoue aai i?eianea i?eaueue? I/aaeaeii, /oi i?eaueue naia a eaieoae ia
aeiaaaeony. Ia?en aea n/eoaao, eciaieeanue oa /anoue eaieoaea, eioi?ay
eaeao ia iieaoo o?oaea, “oa, /oi i?aa?auaia a ?aai/oth neeo” ii ?aai/ay
neea aea ia oaaee/eeanue io i?eauee, aea e oiiae ca?aaoiie ieaou ia
oaaee/eeny ia aaee/eio i?eauee, eia/a ?aai/ea iieo/eee au iieiue
i?iaeoeo naiaai o?oaea. Ia?en ?annoaeaeaao oae: nia?aa aue eaieoae,
caoai eiaaea i?iaeoeo aue ecaioiaeai, iiyaeeanue i?eaaai/iay oeaiiinoue,
o.a. K==c+v caoai W(noieiinoue ii-iaiaoeee)=n+o+o(i?eaaai/iay
oeaiiinoue) I/aaeaeii Ia?en ia oieueei n cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai
niaoeaaao eaieoae, ii e n oeaiiinoueth eee oeaiie, cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai+i?eaueue = oeaia. Ec yoiai ?annoaeaeaiey o Ia?ena
auoiaeeo, /oi eaieoae anoue aaee/eia naiiaic?anoathuay! Eae y oaea
oiiieiae, eaieoae aue iaienai n oeaeueth aeieacaoue aeaaiue oacen
Iaieoanoa – oacen i oii, /oi yenieoaoaoeey o?oaea eaieoaeii eaaeeo a
i?e?iaea eaioaeecia, o.a. eciaiaiea status quo yaiethoeeiiiui iooai
iaaiciiaeii. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii aeieacaoue, /oi any i?eaueue
ii?iaeaeaaony aeeaui o?oaeii, a eaieoae i?e yoii ea?aao ianneaioth ?ieue
e ia ii?iaeaeaao i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Iiyoiio ei e auaeaeyaony oiiae
ca?aaioiie ieaou, (ia?aiaiiue eaieoae) e iooai iaoeo?iai aeiiaee?iaaiey
iiiyoeyie aeieacuaaaony aic?anoaiea ia?aiaiiiai eaieoaea a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oi?iu yenieoaoaoeee o?oaea eaieoaeii.

Neaaeothuei oaaii auei aaaaeaiea iiaiai aaaeiiai iiiyoey ia?eniaie
oai?ee, a eiaiii, ii?iu yenieoaoaoeee o?oaea eaieoaeii, eioi?ay ?aaia
ioiioaieth i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe e ia?aiaiiiio eaieoaeo. Caoai Ia?en
ia?aoiaeeo e aiaeeco ?aai/aai aeiy, eiaaea a?aiy ?aaiou aeaeeony ia
a?aiy iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?-aa iaiaoiaeeiiai i?iaeoeoa e
aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. A?aiy, cao?a/aiiia ia i?-ai iaiaoiaeeiiai
i?iaeoeoa eaieoaeenoii, iiea/eaaaony , oi a?aiy, eioi?ia ?aai/ee
ecaioaaeeaaao i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo, ii ?aaioaao ia eaieoaeenoa
aanieaoii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee eaieoaeeno oaaee/eo ?aai/ee aeaiue ,
aic?anoao aeiiieieoaeueiue i?iaeoeo, e neaaeiaaoaeueii ii?ia
yenieoaoaoeee. Aio ii/aio, eae iauyniyao Ia?en, eaieoaeenou anaaaea
noa?aeenue oaaee/eoue ?aai/ee aeaiue. Ii oaaee/eaaoue ?aai/ee aeaiue
aaneiia/ii iaaiciiaeii, iiyoiio eaieoaeenou oaaee/eaatho ii?io
yenieoaoaoeee ae?oaei niiniaii.

Anee iaaiciiaeii oaaee/eoue i?eaaai/iia ?aai/aa a?aiy, oi ii/aio au ia
iii?iaiaaoue oiaiueoeoue iaiaoiaeeiia ?aai/aa a?aiy, eioi?ia anoue ia
/oi eiia, eae a?aiy, a oa/aiea eioi?iai ?aai/ee auiieiyao yeaeaaeaio
naiae ca?aaioiie ieaou. Oiaaea aic?anoao aeiaaai/iia a?aiy e
niioaaonoaaiii i?iaeoeo – i?eaueue eaieoaeenoa. Aio ii/aio ca?ieaoa
anaaaea i?eaeeaeaaony e i?iaeeoi/iiio ieieioio. Iaeiaei iaiueoa ieieioia
?aai/aio ieaoeoue iaeuecy , e eaieoaeeno auioaeaeai eaeoe ia iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ?aai/aai. I?e iiauoaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea, ?aai/ee o?aoeo iaiueoa a?aiaie ia i?-ai iaiaoiaeeiiai i?iaeoeoa,
ii?ia yenieoaoaoeee iiauoaaony.

Oai?ee i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

Oo i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue, eioi?oth eaieoaeeno iieo/aao io oaeeeiaiey
?aai/aai aeiy, Ia?en iacuaae AIN , oo, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa nie?auaiey
iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aai/aai a?aiaie – IIN. Caeanue iu aeaeei i/a?aaeiia
i?ioeai?a/ea o Ia?ena. Aeiionoei 12 /aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue, ec ieo 6
/ania – iaiaoiaeeiia ?aai/aa a?aiy. Iaoaiecaoeey o?oaea nie?auaao aai
aei 3 /ania, ii?ia yenieoaoaoeee noaiiaeony ?aaia (9:3) – 300%, aianoi
100%. oeaiiinoue i?iaeoeoa ii oai?ee Ia?ena ?aaia a?aiaie cao?a/aiiiio
ia aai i?iecaiaenoai. Oa 6 /ania auee oai naiui i?inoui aano?aeoiui
o?oaeii, eioi?ui oieueei e iiaeao auoue ecia?aia oeaiiinoue – o.a. C
/ana iaoaiece?iaaiiiai o?oaea inoaeenue ?aaiu 6 /anai i?inoiai. Eiuie
neiaaie, aaee/eia iaiaoiaeeiiai a?aiaie inoaeanue ?aaia a /anai. Ioeoaea
aea acyeanue IIN, anee ?aai/ee aeaiue oae e inoaeny 12 /ania. Iaeiaei 12
/ania neiaeiiai o?oaea ?aaiu 24 /anai i?inoiai. A anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue
oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe a 4 ?aca, oiaaea 12 /ania neiaeiiai
o?oaea aoaeoo ?aaiu 48 / i?inoiai, ec ieo iaiaoiaeeiia ?aai/aa a?aiy ==
6/, o.a. ii?ia yenieoaoaoeee == 48:6=800%. 48 /aniaie aeaiue yaeyaony,
eiia/ii, ia?aaeueiui, caoi ?ino IIN aeieacuaaao, /oi a i?eaaai/iii
i?iaeoeoa inouanoaeyaony yeiiiiey o?oaea, a ia aeiiieieoaeueiay cao?aoa
o?oaea. E /aio yoe ana oeo?ioiiua ?an/aou? Aeey oiai, /oiau aeieacaoue
ionoonoaea yenieoaoaoeee o?oaea eaieoaeii. *oi Ia?en iiae?acoiaaae iiae
yenieoaoaoeeae? Yoi i?enaiaiea eaieoaeenoii /anoe i?iaeoeoa o?oaea aac
iieaou, o.e. aanue i?iaeoeo nicaeaaony oieueei o?oaeii! Oaia?ue iu
aeaeei, /oi eaieoae iaeaaeaao naiae nianoaaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth,
i?aa?auay o?oae i?inoie a o?oae neiaeiue , aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiie,
i/aaeaeii, /oi a i?eaaaeaiiii iaie i?eia?a a cia/eoaeueiii ?inoa IIN
“iiaeiai” ia ?aai/ee a eaieoae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai auoa IIN, /ai aieaa
aunieioaoiieiae/ii i?iecaiaenoai, oai ia aieueooth aeieth i?eauee eiaao
eaieoae n iaeiie noi?iiu, n ae?oaie – neiaeiue o?oae iiea/eaaaony ia
ii?yaeie auoa i?inoiai, eiuie neiaaie, i?e iiauoaiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea auea?uaatho eae eaieoae, oae e o?oae,
nicaeathony oneiaey “nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa” eaieoaea e o?oaea.

Oai?ey i?aa?auaiey oi?i

Ia?en aaconeiaii aeaeae e ae?oaea neaaua ianoa naiae oai?ee. A /anoiinoe
, i/aaeaeiui auei ianiioaaonoaea caeiia o?oaeiaie noieiinoe oiio, /oi
iaaethaeaeinue a ?aaeueiinoe. A o?aoueai oiia, inoaaoeiny a /a?iiauo
iaa?ineao, aaea ii caiuneo Ia?ena aeieaeia auea auoue iae?iyeiiiie/aneay
iiaeaeue ia?enecia, ii auioaeaeai ionooieoue io caeiia o?oaeiaie
noieiinoe e aaanoe iiiyoea oeaiu i?-aa, ii eioi?ie oiaa?u e
iaiaieaathony ia ?uiea, i?aaaea ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi oeaia i?-aa anoue
i?aa?auaiiay oi?ia o?oaeiaie oeaiiinoe, oaia?ue o Ia?ena oiaa?u
i?iaeathony c+V+P, aaea ? – i?eaueue ii n?aaeiae ii?ia (a ia ii ii?ia
yenieoaoaoeee) eae a 1ii oiia. Ia?en oaea ia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi caeii
o?oaeiaie oeaiiinoe aeaenoaoao i?yii, ii eneaaeaaony ?acee/iuie
oaeoi?aie. “ A naiai i?aa?auaiiii aeaea, a oi?ia i?eauee,i?eaaai/iay
oeaiiinoue oaeoe/anee ne?uaaao naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, oo?a/eaaao naie
oa?aeoa?, noaiiaeony iaociaaaaiie”, Ia?en oeacuaaao, /oi ii?ia
i?eaaai/iie oeaiiinoe iaeeiaeiaa aeey anao io?aneae, “enoiaey ec
i?aaeiinueee eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e o?aaiiaaoeaaiey
iooai eo iinoiyiiie iea?aoeee ec iaeiie io?anee a ae?oaoth” (3ee oii,
aeaaa10), iaeiaei noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui Ia?eniai caaeoaeaeaiea –
iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu au?aaieaaao iieaoo o?oaea, ii ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eee iauoth au?aaioeo. Ia?en aiaeece?iaae
i?aa?auaiea oeaiiinoe aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Caaea/a iainiiaaiey
i?aa?auaiey oeaiiinoae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai nu?uey ia auea ?anniio?aia
Ia?enii aiiaua.

Oaiaeaioeey ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth

Eae e ?eea?aei, Ia?en aeieacuaae oaiaeaioeeth ii?iu i?eauee e
iiieaeaieth, ia?aciaaieth n?aaeiae ii?iu i?eauee. Eiathuaany ?acee/ea a
eo noaeaeaieyo ninoieo ia oieueei a oie ia ia?aue acaeyae oi?iaeueiinoe,
/oi E. Ia?en ?anniao?eaaao ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaaeaeo naeoi?aie yeiiiieee
iauae iannu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, aAe. ?eea?aei — i?eauee, ii i?aaeaea
anaai a oieeiaaiee nooe caeiia oaiaeaioeee ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth.

Yoi ?anoiaeaeaiea oaeiai: Ae. ?eea?aei o?aeooao oeacaiioth oaiaeaioeeth
eae neaaenoaea eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau, auioaeaeathuae eaieoaeenoia
iai?aaeyoue naie eaieoae a aieaa i?eaueueiua “ieoe” yeiiiieee, /oi
iaoneiaeeaaao ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiue yooaeo iinoaiaiiiai nieaeaiey ii?iu
i?eauee, oneeeaaaiue o?aaiaaieai cao?ao “ana aieueoaai e aieueoaai
o?oaea”, ii anyeee ?ac i?a?uaaaiue “aeaaiaea?y oniaa?oainoaiaaieyi a
iaoeiao… a oaeaea ioe?uoeyi a aa?iiiie/aneie iaoea”. Ii Ia?eno aea
(aeaau 13—15 oiia 3), “aeaei” ianoieo i?eioeeieaeueii eia/a, eai a aai
o?aeoiaea oaiaeaioeey ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth — yoi “enoi?e/aneee
oaiiiai iaoaiecia naii?ac?ooaiey eaieoaeecia /a?ac iaecaaaeiia a iiaiia
ca onoie/eaie “ii?iie i?eauee” eciaiaiea i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea
a iieueco oaaee/aiey a aai iauai iauaia aeiee iinoiyiiiai e
niioaaonoaaiii oiaiueoaiey aeiee ia?aiaiiiai eaieoaea, yaeythuaainy
aiaeaeaeaiiui enoi/ieeii i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe”, a iineaaeiyy —
“?oeiaiaeyuei iioeaii, i?aaeaeii e eiia/iie oeaeueth eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa” (aeaaa 11, oii 1).

Oai?ey ?aiou o Ia?ena.

Nooue oai?ee ?aiou a “Eaieoaea” ii/oe aiaeiae/ia oai?ee ?aiou Ae.
?eea?aei. ?acieoea a aeiiieiaiee E. Ia?ena i nouanoaiaaiee ia?yaeo n
“aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie” ?aioie ?aiou “aaniethoiie”. Aicieeiiaaiea
iineaaeiae aaoi? “Eaieoaea” naycuaaao ni niaoeeoe/anee ieceie a
naeueneii oicyenoaa i?aaie/aneie no?oeoo?ie eaieoaea e n /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoueth ia caieth. A nayce n ia?aui oaeoi?ii, iieaaaao ii,
oeaiiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee anaaaea auoa aa “oeaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa”, a a neeo aoi?iai oaeoi?a a naeueneii oicyenoaa ia iiaeao
n?aaaouaaoue iaoaieci “ia?aeeaa eaieoaea”, eioi?ue au aeiaae ii?io
i?eauee caeanue aei n?aaeiaai iieacaoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa nianoaaiiee
caiee iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue o?aaiaaoue n oa?ia?a-a?aiaeaoi?a a?aiaeioth
ieaoo, i?aauoathuoth anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue ?aiou, o.a. iieo/aoue
naa?oi?eaueue aiaeiae/ii oie, /oi i?eiineo i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo
eo/oaa ea/anoai (ieiaei?iaeea) caiee eee ?aciioaeaeaiiinoue caiaeueiuo
o/anoeia io ?uieia nauoa.

Ia?enenoeay oai?ey e?ecenia.

Ia iniiaaiee iiiaiia?aciuo i?iyaeaiee caeiia

oaiaeaioeee ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth E. Ia?en auaeaeaaao oai?eth
oeeeee/iinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey i?e eaieoaeecia, o.a. yaeaiee,
oa?aeoa?ecoaiuo ei eae “yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu”. Oeaio?aeueiay eaeay yoie
oai?ee, iai?aaeaiiie ia auyaeaiea iniaaiiinoae aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna a oneiaeyo yeiiiieee naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee, ninoieo a oii,
/oi aeinoeaeaieth iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney e iineaaeiaaoaeueiiio
yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo i?aiyonoaotho aioo?aiia i?enouea aioaaiienoe/aneiio
eaieoaeenoe/aneiio iauanoao i?ioeai?a/ey – oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa
aacioiineoaeueii e iaee/eth yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. Eae ieoao A.
Eaiioueaa, “aunooiay i?ioea ?annoaeaeaiee AEaia Aaoenoa Nyy i naaaeaiee
a eiia/iii n/aoa aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa iauanoaa e aeioiaeai, Ia?en…
nicaeae iniiaiiieaaathuoth noaio, iienuaathuoth acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
io?aneyie, auioneathueie n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeiaou
iio?aaeaiey”. Iaeiaei cia/aiea aai noaiu, a eioi?ie yeiiiieea aeaeeony
ia aeaa iiae?acaeaeaiey, naiaeeony aeaeaei ia oieueei e ioia?aaeaieth
?acee/ee iaaeaeo i?inoui e ?anoe?aiiui oeiaie aini?iecaiaenoaa, ii e e
iiiuoea ieii/aoaeueii oaaaeeoue /eoaoaey a oaoaeueiii oa?aeoa?a
“iniiaiiai i?ioeai?a/ey eaieoaeecia” — i?iecaiaeeoue ia aeey
iio?aaeaiey, a ?aaee i?eauee.

N yoei Ia?en e naycuaae yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
iauanoaa.

Caeeth/aiea

1. Ia?en ia?aae noaeii enoi?ee.

Oai?/aneia ianeaaeea E. Ia?ena eiaao iiiai iauaai n aeinoeaeaieyie aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ii “eeanne/aneie oeiea” yeiiiie/aneie iunee, iniaaiii
A. Nieoa e Ae. ?eea?aei. Iaeiaei eo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea
iiceoeee, eae iieaaae aaoi? “Eaieoaea”, noaee eeoue aa?oeiie iniia
“ao?aeoaciie” yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, e iinea eo o?oaeia “eeanne/aneay
iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey” yeiau naay en/a?iaea. Oaea a aeaaa 1 oiia 1
“Eaieoaea” E. Ia?en cayaeyao, /oi “aoeueaa?iue yeiiiieno” ioioae io
i?eioeeiia Nieoa—?eea?aei, eaii?e?oao “?aaeueiua” e “ii?aaeaeythuea
oaeoi?u”, neieueceo ii iiaa?oiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee e eiaao aeaei n
noauaeoeaiui ioiioaieai e aeaiaaeiui ecaea?aeeai yeiiiie/aneeo aaaioia.
I?e yoii “aoeueaa?iue yeiiiieno”, ii Ia?eno, yaeyaony au?aceoaeai
ao?aeoaciie (eeanniaie) eaeaieiaee e ii aeaiiie i?e/eia (aeaaea ia eiay
iaia?aiee auoue iai?aaaeeaui) eeoai aiciiaeiinoe oieeiaaoue
?aaeueiinoue iauaeoeaii.

A naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi oai?ey Ia?ena oaeaea yaeeanue
eeoue eeanniaie eaeaieiaeae – oieueei ae?oaiai eeanna (i?ieaoa?eaa). Eae
aaeei caiaoee iaeei ec nia?aiaiiuo aaoi?ia : “Oai?ey Ia?ena iaaa?ia
iioiio /oi aanneeueia”. Oeacaiiua auoa i?ioeai?a/ey a iino?iaiee oai?ee,
iainii?eiua i?eciaee oaiaeaioeeiciiai iiaeoiaea e cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiinoe
eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia, iaia?aiiia oneiaeiaiea e aaaaeaiea aano?aeoiuo
yiie?e/anee ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo iiiyoee, yaiia ianiioaaonoaea
?aaeueiinoe – aio iaiieiue ia?a/aiue oiai a /ai iaaeiytho Ia?ena. O/aiue
iiaeao aeiioneaoue ioeaee ii ia eiaao i?aai ia iaaeia?iniaanoiinoue e
oaiaeaioeeiciinoue. Eae au oi ie auei, aai yeiiiie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea,
oeeinioneea aicc?aiey ieacaee noieue cia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia oiu
ethaeae eae i?ioeiai oae e ianoiyuaai aaea, /oi ioeacaoue Ia?eno a
cia/eoaeueiinoe aai o?oaeia iaaiciiaeii. A ioaao ia ?ao?iniaeoeaiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iai?aaiou Ia?ena, caiaoei, /oi Ia?enia iinooeao i
i?ieaoa?neie ?aaiethoeee a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?aiao aue ioaa?aioo a
?innee – ?aaiethoeey i?iecioea a naiie ionoaeie e iai?ieaoa?ece?iaaiiie
no?aia Aa?iiu. Eae aeo?iaeenoo Ia?eno iaaiciiaeii ioeacaoue a
oaaaeeoaeueiie neea oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea i?eaaaeaiiiai a aai ?aaioao –
ea?oeiu iaieuaiey e aeaa?aaeaoeee i?ieaoa?eaoa e o.i. I/aaeaeii, /oi
eeoue iaaeinoaoi/iui ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nee, eae ooaa?aeaeaao
I.Aeaoa, aeaiiua i?eia?u iauyniaiu auoue ia iiaoo – aeaei a
aeaenoaeoaeueii oeuie/aneii e aan/aeiaa/iii oa?aeoa?a i?iecaiaenoaa
nia?aiaiiiai Ia?eno eaieoaeecia. Oai ia iaiaa, ia?aeia/ea ecaanoiue
aoi?eci *a?/eeey i aeaiie?aoee, aic?acei, /oi eaieoaeeci – naiia ooaeoaa
iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai, ii ae?oaea – aua ooaea.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. I.Aeaoa “Yeiiiie/aneay iuneue a ?ao?iniaeoeaa”

2. B.H. Einothe “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”

3. A.Iaeueao?ae “Yeiiiie/aneay iuneue io oa?aiiia aei iaoeo aeiae”

4. E. Ia?en “Eaieoae”

5. E.Ia?en, O. Yiaaeuen “Iaieoano eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee”

6. I.A. Oeoiaa “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”

7. ss.N. ssaeaa?ia “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”

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