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Конкуренция и ее влияние на рыночную цену

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EIIEO?AIOeEss

E AA AEEssIEA IA
?UII*IOTH OeAIO

IEAI

Aaaaeaiea 3

Ae.1.Iauea oai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey
eiieo?aioeee e oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

$1.Ye. eaoaai?ey eiieo?aioeee. 4

$2.Ye. eaoaai?ey oeaiu. 13

$3.Acaeiinaycue eiieo?aioeee e oeaiiia?aciaaiey.19

Ae.2.Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey eiieo?aioeee e ?uii/iiai
oeaiiia?aciaaiey a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea.

$1.I?iaeaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey eiieo?aioeee e 28 oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

$2.Iniaaiiinoe oeaiiia?aciaaiey n oi/ee 32 c?aiey
eiieo?aioeee a *oaaoneie ?anioaeeea.

Caeeth/aiea 34

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

A i?ioeii a niaaoneie eeoa?aoo?a i?aiaeaaeaee iaaaoeaiua ioeaiee
eiieo?aioeee.Ni?aai/ieee, neiaa?e e o/aaiua iiniaey ii iieeoyeiiiiee
nioeeaeecia ?aaoey?ii iiiaauaee ian i iieiii ono?aiaiee eiieo?aioeee e
caiaia aa aaneiioeeeoiui (eee iaeieiioeeeoiui – n iiaaaeeoaeyie e aac
iiaaaeaeaiiuo) nioeni?aaiiaaieai a niaaoneie yeiiiieea. Iocaaoeeaoeey
eiieo?aioeee eae ao?eaoo aaneiia/iie caiaaeiie nenoaiu oicyenoaiaaiey,,
ii n/anoueth, iaaeaaeii ioaeaeaiiie io ian “aeaeaciui caiaaanii””, eiaea
ianoi e a iauaeaiiii niciaiee. Iiiaeo ethaeae aiiaua ioaaei neiai
“eiieo?aioeey” – a iae aeaeaeny oi/ue-a-oi/ue aacaeaeinoiue Iieio,
i?eiinyuee iaen/eneeiua no?aaeaiey (e nia?oue) nioiyi ouny/ /anoiuo
o?oaeaieeia, ii iioai?noaothueo iaaieueoie eo/ea iai?ioenouo (e ia
/enouo ia ?oeo) aecianiaiia, oae neacaoue “aeaeueoeia”, niiniaiuo ia
ethaie i?inoaiie a eo i?iaeaeaeaiee e aa?oeiai oniaoa e iaiaauaiey.

Naaiaeiy oaeea iaeaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i eiieo?aioeee iniiaaiiua ia
yeaiaioa?iie iaeioi?ie?iaaiiinoe niaaoneeo ethaeae i iiaeeeiiuo ?aaeeyo
eiieo?aioeee a no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie, yenieoaoe?othony
?acaa /oi iaiiiai/eneaiiuie i?ioeaieeaie auno?iai ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea. AEeciue iiaeneacaea, /oi eiaiii aeaaiaea?y eiieo?aioeee e ia
aa iniiaa ainoaea?noaa n ?uii/iie i?eaioaoeeae e iaania/eaaee aeaeaeaiea
aia?aae.

Iaaeaaeiui eiaeeeaoi?ii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eiieo?aioeee n/eoaaony
o?iaaiue oeai. Ii e?aeiae ia?a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua iieiaeaiey, eanathueany
eiieo?aioeee, aace?othony ia yoie oi/ea c?aiey.

Eiaiii i?eioaeeoaeueiay neea i?aaei?eieiaoue yia?ae/iua oneeey,
/oiau nieceoue naie ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa aei ieieiaeueiiai
o?iaiy. Eiuie neiaaie, oa?ica ia?iiiuo iioa?ue canoaaeyao
i?aaei?eieiaoaey “aeiaeoueny iaaiciiaeiiai” e iiaeiaiaoue naie
ecaea?aeee e ieceei ?uii/iui oeaiai. A.Oi?ae ioia/ae “oioy ?anoiaeu e
iiaeaeathony oi/iiio au/eneaieth”, “ii ieeoi ia naaoa ia ciaao eaeiau
iie iiaoo auoue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”. O.o. eiaiii ?uii/iia
niia?ie/anoai oeai i?eioaeaeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaey ia?aoeoueny e naiei
ne?uoui ?aca?aai. I?e ionoonoaee aea eiieo?aioiuo nee i?aaei?eyoea
ia?aaeei aieueoa caaioeoueny ia iainiiaaiee i/a?aaeiiai iiauoaiey oeai
ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth (aae?anoaiii auoanoiyuai aaaeiinoaai eee
iauanoaaiiiio iiaieth), /ai i iieneao aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aca?aia
nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae.

Ec anaai auoa eceiaeaiiiai aeaeii, /oi eco/aiea eiieo?aioeee e aa
aeeyiey ia ?uii/ioth oeaio yaeyaony

a ianoiyuee iiiaio aeooaeueiie caaea/ae yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. A
naiae ?aaioa y iinoaaeea oeaeueth ii?aaeaeeoue: /oi yaeyaony
eiieo?aioeeae e ?uii/iie oeaiie, eaeia aeeyiea iie ieacuaatho ae?oa ia
ae?oaa e eae yoi i?iyaeyaony a yeiiiieea ?innee.

Ae.1. Iauea oai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey
eiieo?aioeee e oeaiiia?aciaaiey

41. Yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey eiieo?aioeee.

?uii/iue oa?aeoa? yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee icia/aao naiaiaeo auai?a
aeey iieoiaoaey e i?iaeaaoea. Iaoaieci ?uiea aeaenoaoao /a?ac
niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao iaiaoiaeeioth
iiaeaeaeiinoue oeai, eiieo?aioeeth oiaa?ia e, cia/eo,
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Iiae eiieo?aioeeae iiieiaaony iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuee iaoaieci
naiaiaeiie ninoycaoaeueiinoe, niia?ie/anoaa oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae, oe?i
a oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey eo/oeo ?acoeueoaoia naiae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A i?ioeanna eiieo?aioeee aaaeaony ai?ueaa ca iaeaieaa
auaiaeiua oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa oiaa?ia, noa?u i?eeiaeaiey
eaieoaea, ca i?aainoiaenoai a ?aoathueo iaeanoyo IOI. A ?uii/iie nenoaia
iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea eiieo?aioeee – ai?ueaa ca iio?aaeoaey, aieaa
iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea aai iio?aaiinoae. Yoi ai?ueaa ca aeieth ia ?uiea,
oniao eioi?ie caaeneo io aeaoaaeciu e ea/anoaa oiaa?a. Eiieo?aioeey a
nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeeciaaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aiana ia anoue ninoycaiea
ii ieeiieeneiio i?eioeeio: aaaeia ia iiaaaea, a o/anoea. Eiieo?aioeey
i?aa?auaao iio?aaeoaey a ia?eei i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A caaeneiinoe io niioiioaiey iaaeaeo eiee/anoaii i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
eiee/anoaii iio?aaeoaeae ?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu eiieo?aioiuo
no?oeoo?.

I. Aieueoia /enei naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaeioi?iai
iaeii?iaeiiai oiaa?a, c iaeiie noi?iiu, e ianna iainiaeaiiuo
iio?aaeoaeae aeaiiiai oiaa?a – n ae?oaie. No?oeoo?a naycae oaeiaa, /oi
eaaeaeue iio?aaeoaeue a i?eioeeia iiaeao i?eia?anoe oiaa? o ethaiai
i?iecaiaeeoaey, niia?acoynue n nianoaaiiie ioeaieie iieaciinoe oiaa?a e
aai oeaiie. Eaaeaeue i?iecaiaeeoaeue iiaeao i?iaeaoue oiaa? ethaiio
iieoiaoaeth, ciia?acoynue oieueei n nianoaaiiie auaiaeie. Ie iaeei ec
iio?aaeoaeae ia i?eia?aoaao neieue-eeai nouanoaaiioth aeieth iauaai
iauaia i?aaeeiaeaiey e ie iaeei ec i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia iiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?eoue neieueei-eeai nouanoaaiioth aeieth iauaai ni?ina.
Aeaiiay no?oeoo?a ?uiea ii?iaeaeaao, oae iacuaaaioth, niaa?oaiioth
eiieo?aioeeth.

II. Naiaia?aciui e oe?iei ?ani?i?no?aii?iiui oeiii ianiaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee, iaaethaeathuaeny i?aeoe/anee ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao,
yaeyaony iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey. A ecaanoiie ia?a iia iaiiieiaao
niaa?oaiioth eiieo?aioeeth. Iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony n?aaieoaeueii aieueoei /eneii i?iaeaaoeii, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyo aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou (aeaineoth iaeaaeaeo,
iaaaeue, eieae). Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey yaeyaony iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey i?iaeaae e iaiiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee.

III. Ia?iiiia /enei iainiaeaiiuo iio?aaeoaeae e iaeia eiee/anoai
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue
cia/eoaeueioth aeieth iauaai ni?ina. Oaeay no?oeoo?a ?uiea ii?iaeaeaao
oae iacuaaaioth, ianiaa?oaiioth eiieo?aioeeth – ieeaiiieeth.

IY. I?aaeaeueiui neo/aai aeaiiie no?oeoo?u, eiaaea ianna
iio?aaeoaeae i?ioeainoieo aaeeinoaaiiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue, niiniaiue
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iauee ni?in anao iio?aaeoaeae, yaeyaony iiiiiieey.

Nouanoaotho aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu iaoiaeia eiieo?aioeee: oeaiiaua e
iaoeaiiaua. Oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niia?ie/anoai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ca ecaea/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee ia iniiaa
oiaiueoaiey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, nieaeaiey oeai ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth aac eciaiaiey aa
anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa.

Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey aeeth/aao: a) eciaiaiea naienoa i?iaeoeoeee, a)
i?eaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ea/anoaaiii iiauo naienoa, a) nicaeaiea iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey oao aea iio?aaiinoae, ia nouanoaiaaaoeo
?aiueoa, ae) iaiiaeaiea naienoa oiaa?a, yaeythueony neiaieii iiaeu,
i?anoeaea (eciaiaiey eaaceea/anoaa oiaa?a), a) niaa?oainoaiaaiea oneoa,
niioonoaothueo oiaa?o (aeaiiino?aoeey, onoaiiaea, aa?aioeeiue ?aiiio,
ae?.).

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii iniiaiua aeaeu eiieo?aioiuo no?oeoo?:

Oneiaey niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee ii?aaeaeythony neaaeothueie
i?aaeiinueeaie:

1. Aieueoia eiee/anoai i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae, ie iaeei ec eioi?uo
ia eiaao caiaoiiai aeeyiey ia ?uii/ioth oeaio e eiee/anoai oiaa?a. A
oneiaeyo /enoie eiieo?aioeee eaaeaeay ec iiiai/eneaiiuo oe?i auioneaao
ianoieueei iaaieueooth /anoue i?iaeoeoeee, /oi oaaee/aiea eee
oiaiueoaiea a? auionea ia aoaeao ieacuaaoue iuooeiiai aeeyiey ia iauaa
i?aaeeiaeaiea, eee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeaio i?iaeoeoa. Oi anoue,
ioaeaeueiue eiieo?e?othuee i?iecaiaeeoaeue niaeaoaaony n oeaiie;
eiieo?aioiay oe?ia ia iiaeao onoaiaaeeaaoue ?uii/ioth oeaio, ii iiaeao
oieueei i?eniiniaeoueny e iae.

Oe?ia iiaeao iieo/eoue oo aea naioth oeaio ca aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee
eae i?e aieueoai, oae e i?e iaiueoai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Cai?aoeaaoue
aieaa aunieoth oeaio, /ai nouanoaothuay ?uii/iay oeaia, auei au
aaniieacii. Iieoiaoaee ia eoiyo ie/aai o oe?iu ii oeaia 3,05$, anee
iiiaeanoai a? eiieo?aioia i?iaeatho eaeaioe/iue i?iaeoeo ca 3$.
Iaiai?io, aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi oe?ia iiaeao i?iaeaoue noieueei,
neieueei iia n/eoaao iaiaoiaeeiui, iia ia aoaeao i?iaeaaaoue aeaiiue
oiaa? ii 2,95$, oae eae yoi i?eaaae?o e oiaiueoaieth i?eauee.

2. Eaaeaeue i?iaeaaaoe i?iecaiaeeo iaeii?iaeiue i?iaeoeo, eioi?ue ie a
eaeii ioiioaiee ia ioee/ei io i?iaeoeoa ae?oaeo i?iaeaaoeia. Aneaaenoaea
noaiaea?oecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ionoonoaoao iniiaaiea aeey iaoeaiiaie
eiieo?aioeee.

3. Aa?uea?u aeey aoiaea a ?uiie (e ooiaea n iaai) ionoonoaotho: iao ie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo, ie oaoiieiae/aneeo, ie oeiainiauo i?aiyonoaee,
eioi?ua iiaee au iiiaoaoue aicieeiiaaieth iiauo oe?i e nauoo eo
i?iaeoeoeee ia eiieo?aioiuo ?uieao.

4. Ieeaeeo eneonnoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey, eee oeaiu
ia nouanoaoao e ?ano?nu – ia?aiaiiua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa – iiaeeueiu.

5. Eaaeaeue i?iaeaaaoe e iieoiaoaeue aeaaeaao iieiie e i?aaeeueiie
eioi?iaoeeae i oeaia, eiee/anoaao i?iaeoeoa, cao?aoao, e ni?ina ia
?uiea.

Iao?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi ie iaeei ?aaeueiue ?uiie ia oaeiaeaoai?yao
anai ia?a/eneaiiui oneiaeyi. Iiyoiio noaia niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee
eiaao a iniiaiii oai?aoe/aneia cia/aiea. Iaeiaei iia yaeyaony eeth/ii e
iiieiaieth aieaa ?aaeueiuo ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?. E a yoii a? oeaiiinoue.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee oaeiaii
ainiieueciaaoueny e?eauie ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ia ?enoiea niaiauaiu e?eaay iauaai ni?ina iiiaeanoaa iio?aaeoaeae e
e?eaay iauaai i?aaeeiaeaiey iiiaeanoaa i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Oi/ea
ia?ana/aiey e?eauo ii?aaeaeyao ?aaiiaanioth oeaio oiaa?a, i?e eioi?ie
iauee iauai ni?ina niaiaaeaao n iauei iauaiii i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Anee oeaia oiaa?a ?aaia p1, oi anoue auoa ?aaiiaaniie, oi iauee
iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue oi/ea b ia e?eaie SS, a
iauee iauai ni?ina – oi/ea a ia e?eaie DD. A ?acoeueoaoa aoaeao eiaoue
ianoi i?aauoaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii. Ia ?en.1 yoio ecauoie
i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aaai aeeeia io?acea ab. I?aeoe/anee yoi au?aceony a ?inoa
caiania oiaa?a o i?iecaiaeeoaeae. I?iecaiaeeoaee caeioa?aniaaiiua a
i?iaeaaea oiaa?a, aoaeoo auioaeaeaiu nieaeaoue oeaio. Oiaiueoaiea oeaiu
i?eaaaeao e nieaeaieth iauaia i?aaeeiaeaiey e oaaee/aieth iauaia ni?ina.
A ?acoeueoaoa iiae aicaeaenoaeai eioa?ania i?iecaiaeeoaeae a ?aaeecaoeee
i?iecaaaeaiiiai oiaa?a e eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae a iaeneiecaoeee
iio?aaeoaeueneie auaiaeu onoaiiaeony ?aaiiaanea ni?ina e oeaiu
i?aaeeiaeaiey a iauaia q0 i?e oeaia p0.

Anee oeaia oiaa?a ?aaia p2, oi anoue ieaea ?aaiiaaniie, oi ni?in –
oi/ea d ia e?eaie DD – aoaeao i?aauoaoue i?aaeeiaeaiea – oi/ea n ia
e?eaie SS, e ia ?uiea aoaeao eiaoue ianoi aeaoeoeeo. Ia ?en.1 aeaoeoeeo
?aaai aeeeia io?acea cd. Ia i?aeoeea yoi aoaeao au?aaeaoueny a ?aceii
oiaiueoaiee caiania oiaa?ia o oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. *oanoaoy iiauoaiiue
ni?in, i?iecaiaeeoaee aoaeoo iiauoaoue oeaio oiaa?a e oaaee/eaaoue iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Oaaee/aiea oeaiu i?eaaaeao e nieaeaieth
iauaia ni?ina. A ?acoeueoaoa iiae aeeyieai eioa?ania i?iecaiaeeoaeae a
?inoa aeioiaea e iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae, io?aaeaaiiai e?eaie ni?ina,
onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaanea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey a oi/ea a.

Oaeei ia?acii, aneaaenoaea naiaiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey oeaiu oiaa?a,
?aaoee?othuaai iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae e i?iecaiaeeoaeae, ia ?uiea
onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaanea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e oeene?oaony
?aaiiaaniay oeaia. No?iai aiai?y, yoi ?aaiiaanea aeeiaie/aneia, a oi/ea
?aaiiaaney – eeoue “oi/ea i?eoyaeaiey” ?uii/iuo nee.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey e?aeia ?aaeea a
nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea, iaeiaei iia ano?a/aaony, iai?eia? a naeueneii
oicyenoaa: i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu, eoeo?ocu e o.i..

Aioeiiaeii /enoie eiieo?aioeee yaeyaony /enoay iiiiiieey. Iiiiiieey
aicieeaao, eiaaea a neeo ?acee/iuo i?e/ei ia ?uiea oiaa?a nouanoaoao
aaeeinoaaiiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue – iiiiiieeno, niiniaiue oaeiaeaoai?eoue
iauee ni?in anae iannu iio?aaeoaeae aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Ionthaea
neaaeoao, /oi i?iaeoeo iiiiiieee oieeaeai a oii niunea, /oi ia
nouanoaoao oi?ioeo eee aeeceeo caiaieoaeae. Iieoiaoaeue aeieaeai
iieoiaoue i?iaeoeo o iiiiiieenoa eee iaoiaeeony aac iaai. Oi, /oi ia
nouanoaoao aeeceeo caiaieoaeae iiiiiieece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, eiaao
aaaeiia cia/aiea n oi/ee c?aiey ?aeeaiu. A caaeneiinoe io oeia
i?aaeiieaaaaiiai i?iaeoeoa eee oneoae oe?ia iiaeao caieiaoueny eee iao
oe?ieie ?aeeaiie e aeayoaeueiinoueth ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa. Iai?eia?,
/enoue iiiiiieeno, i?iaeathuee i?aaeiaou ?ineioe iia au inouanoaeyoue
oe?ieoth ?aeeaio, n oai /oiau oaaee/eoue ni?in ia naie oiaa?. Aiciiaeii
oiaaea aieueoaa eiee/anoai ethaeae caoioyo i?eia?anoe eo, iiaeao auoue
ioeacaaoenue io iooaoanoaey. A oi aea a?aiy oaeaoiiiie eiiiaiee,
yaeythuaeny aaeeinoaaiiie a iaaieueoii ai?iaea iaca/ai ?aeeaie?iaaoue
naie oneoae, oae eae ethaee eiatho i?aaenoaaeaiey i ieo e ciatho, o eiai
iie aeieaeiu eo i?eia?aoaoue.

Anee /enoua iiiiiieenou ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai
iieueciaaiey caieiathony ?aeeaiie, aa?iyoii, oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue iineo
nei?aa oa?aeoa? nayce n iauanoaaiiinoueth ?aaee i?anoeaea, a ia
aunieieiieo?aioiue, eaeie yaeyaony, e i?eia?o, ?aeeaia neaa?ao.

Aanueia nouanoaaiiui yaeyaony ia oieueei aaeeinoaaiiue
i?iecaiaeeoaeue, ii e aieueoia /enei iainiaeaiiuo iio?aaeoaeae oiaa?a,
oi anoue eiieo?aioeey iio?aaeoaeae. A oneiaeyo iiiiiieueiiai ?uiea
iio?aaeoaee, eae iau/ii, iaeneiece?otho naith iio?aaeoaeueneoth auaiaeo,
a i?iecaiaeeoaeue – naith i?eaueue.

Aneaaenoaea aieueoiai /enea iio?aaeoaeae ie iaeei ec ieo a
ioaeaeueiinoe ia ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia oi?ie?iaaiea
?uii/iie oeaiu. Ia ?uiie aicaeaenoaoao iauee ni?in iiiaeanoaa
iio?aaeoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecoaiue, eae iau/ii, e?eaie ni?ina.

Oe?ia-iiiiiieeno, eae e ethaay oe?ia, oa?aeoa?ecoaony e?eaie iaueo
cao?ao. A neeo iniaaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai cai?ina e i?aaiecaoeee
aeciana oaeaeueiua cao?aou oe?iu ianoieueei iecee, a ianooaa
i?iecaiaenoaa ianoieueei aaeee, /oi oe?ia noiaea auoanieoue eiieo?aioia
n ?uiea e caoaaoeea aai oeaeeeii. Anooieaiea a oneiaeyo /enoie iiiiiieee
caaeiee?iaaii. Nouanoaotho aa?uea?u, yeiiiie/aneea, oaoie/aneea,
th?eaee/aneea eee ae?oaea, ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aiyonoaey aeieaeiu
nouanoaiaaoue, /oiau oaea?aeeaaoue iiauo eiieo?aioia io anooieaiey a
io?aneue, anee iiiiiieey niae?aaony i?iaeieaeeoue naia nouanoaiaaiea.

Ia iiiiiieueiii ?uiea ni?in iio?aaeoaeae, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
ano?a/aaony n i?aaeeiaeaieai oe?iu-iiiiiieenoa, n ae?oaie. Iaoaieci
acaeiiaeaenoaey iio?aaeoaeae e aaeeinoaaiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey ia
iiiiiieueiii ?uiea i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io neo/ay niaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee.

Ioaeaeueiua iio?aaeoaee, ia eiathuea aiciiaeiinoe ieacuaaoue
aeeyiey ia ?uii/ioth oeaio, auioaeaeaiu iiaeno?aeaaoue naie cai?in iiae
oeaio, i?aaeeaaaaioth iiiiiieenoii. Ni naiae noi?iiu, iiiiiieeno,
niiniaiue oaeiaeaoai?eoue iauee ni?in iio?aaeoaeae, oae auae?aao iauai e
oeaio, i?e eioi?ie oiaa? aoaeao iieiinoueth eoieai iio?aaeoaeyie, /oiau
iaeneiece?iaaoue naith i?eaueue.

Iio?aaeoaee auae?atho iauai ni?ina a niioaaonoaee n oeaiie,
i?aaeeaaaaiie iiiiiieenoii. Iiiiiieeno ?aaoee?oao oeaio oae, /oiau
iio?aaeoaee i?eia?aoaee aanue iauai aai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ia iiiiiieueiii
?uiea iio?aaeoaee ianneaiu – iiaeno?aeaatho iauai ni?ina iiae ?uii/ioth
oeaio, iiiiiieeno aeoeaai e auae?aao ia oieueei iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii
e ?uii/ioth oeaio, iiaoaeaeay iio?aaeoaeae i?eia?aoaoue oio iauai
oiaa?a, eioi?ue ii i?aaeeaaaao.

Eiay aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue ni?inii iin?aaenoaii ?uii/iie oeaiu,
iiiiiieeno oae auae?aao iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey (e ni?ina), /oiau
iaeneiece?iaaoue naith i?eaueue.

Iio?aaeoaee, ia eiay aiciiaeiinoue aeeyoue ia oeaio, oai ia iaiaa
iaeneiece?otho naith iio?aaeoaeueneoth auaiaeo, auae?ay iauai ni?ina a
niioaaonoaee n oeaiie. Iaeiaei iie aeaeatho yoi a i?aaeaeao,
onoaiaaeeaaaiuo iiiiiieenoii. A oneiaeyo iiiiiieueiiai ?uiea aii?in i
oii, eaeiaa ooieoeey i?aaeeiaeaiey oe?iu-iiiiiieenoa, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
iaei??aeoai. En/acaao naii iiiyoea ooieoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iiyoiio i?e
aiaeeca iiiiiieueiiai ?uiea oaeoe/anee ?anniao?eaaaony iiaaaeaiea
oe?iu-iiiiiieenoa ia ?uiea.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeaeia aa?uea?ia, i?aiyonoaothueo anooieaieth
a io?aneue:

-yeiiiiey, iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa: nia?aiaiiay
oaoiieiaey a iaeioi?uo io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa oaeiaa, /oi yooaeoeaiia
iaeicao?aoiia i?iecaiaenoai iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi, oieueei anee
i?iecaiaeeoaee yaeythony /?acau/aeii e?oiiuie eae a aaniethoiii
au?aaeaiee, oae e ioiineoaeueii ?uiea. I?eia?aie oaeeo io?aneae
yaeythony aaoiiiaeeueiay, aethieieaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Anee e i?eia?o ia
anai ?uiea ooieoeeiie?otho 3 e?oiiua oe?iu e eaaeaeie i?eiaaeeaaeeo
i?eia?ii 1/3 yoiai ?uiea, oi i?iieeiooue iiaui eiieo?aioai ia aeaiiue
?uiie /?acau/aeii o?oaeii: iaeeea oe?iu ia a ninoiyiee iieo/eoue oaeie
yeiiiiee ia ecaea?aeeao, eae aaaeouay “o?ieea” e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iauaia i?eauee, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey auaeeaaiey e ?anoe?aiey. Aeey
aoiaeaeaiey a io?aneue a aeaea e?oiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey i/aiue o?oaeii
iaeoe oaeie iauai aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ue aoaeao iaiaoiaeei aeey
oiai, /oiau i?eia?anoe iai?oaeiaaiea, niiinoaaeiia n oai, eioi?ia
iaeiieaii ethaui ec /eaiia “o?ieee”.

-anoanoaaiiua iiiiiieee: iau/ii yoei io?aneyi ainoaea?noai
i?aaeinoaaeyao eaeea-eeai i?eaeeaaee. Ii a iaiai ia yoi eneeth/eoaeueiia
i?aai iii inoaaeyao ca niaie i?aai ?aaoee?iaaoue aeaenoaey oaeeo
iiiiiieee, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue ceioiio?aaeaiey iiiiiieueiie aeanoueth,
eioi?oth iii i?aaeinoaaeei. I?eia?aie anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee iiaoo
neoaeeoue oae iacuaaaiua i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey –
yeaeo?e/aneea e aaciaua eiiiaiee, aaoiaoniua oe?iu, i?aaei?eyoey
aiaeiniaaaeaiey e nayce.

Anoanoaaiiua iiiiiieee eiatho ieceea i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee e
n/eoatho auaiaeiui ?anoe?youe i?iecaiaenoai. A ?acoeueoaoa oeaiiaay
eiieo?aioeey ia ia aeeciue, a ia nia?oue eiaao oaiaeaioeeth aniuoeaaoue,
eiaaea nouanoaoao ?yae oe?i a yoeo io?aneyo eiiioiaeueiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey. Neaaenoaeai iiaoo neoaeeoue oauoee, aaie?ionoai aieaa
neaauo niia?ieeia e aiciiaeiia neeyiea ooeaeaaoeo. ?acaeaathuayny /enoay
iiiiiieey iiaeao no?aieoueny eiiiaine?iaaoue i?ioeua oauoee e
iieiinoueth ecaea/ue ec naiaai iiaiai iieiaeaiey ainiiaenoaa ia ?uiea,
iacia/ay iaiiia?iua oeaiu ia naie oiaa?u e oneoae.

*oiau ecaaaeaoue yoeo iaaeaeaoaeueiuo aeey iauanoaa ?acoeueoaoia,
ainoaea?noai e i?aaeinoaaeyao ei ?yae i?eaeeaaee a iaiai ia
aiciiaeiinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey ea/anoaa e eiio?iey oeai, eioi?ua iie iiaoo
iacia/aoue.

-ainoaea?noai iiaeao oaeaea auaeaaaoue iaoaiou e eeoeaicee, nicaeaaay
eaaaeueiua aa?uea?u aeey anooieaiey a io?aneue.

Auaeaaay iaoaiou ainoaea?noai no?aieony caueoeoue ecia?aoaoaey io
iacaeiiiiai caoaaoa i?iaeoeoa eee oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna
eiieo?e?othueie oe?iaie, eioi?ua ia o/anoaiaaee a ?anoiaeao a?aiaie,
oneeee e aeaiaa, eioi?ua iioee ia aai ?ac?aaioeo.
Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa, eiia/ii, eaaeeo a iniiaa ?ac?aaioee
i?eaiaeiie aeey iaoaioiaaiey i?iaeoeoeee. Oe?iu, eioi?ua aeinoeaatho
iiiiiieueiie noaiaie aeanoe iooai eo nianoaaiiie
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou eee iooai iieoiee iaoaioia ae?oaeo,
iaoiaeyony a no?aoaae/aneii iieiaeaiee, oe?aieyy e oneeeaay naith
?uii/ioth iiceoeeth. I?eauee, iaania/aiiua iaeiei aaaeiui iaoaioii,
iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey oiai, /oiau oeiaine?iaaoue
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth ?aaioo, o?aaoaioth aeey ?ac?aaioee
i?eaiaeiie aeey iaoaioiaaiey i?iaeoeoeee. Iiiiiieueiay aeanoue
aeinoeaiooay aeaaiaea?y iaoaioai, aiieia iiaeao oneeeaaoueny.

Anooieaiea a io?aneue iiaoo auoue ia?aie/aiu ainoaea?noaii iooai
auaea/e eeoeaicee. Iai?eia?, eeoeaicee ?aaeei- e oaeaaeceiiiui
noaioeeyi, o/aaiui caaaaeaieyi.

-oe?ia, aeaaeathuay eee eiio?iee?othuay nu?uea, eioi?ia yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui ninoaaeythuee aeey i?iaeoeoeee, iiaeao i?aiyonoaiaaoue
nicaeaieth eiieo?e?othueo oe?i.

-niia?ieee oe?iu iiaoo auoue ono?aiaiu iin?aaenoaii aa?anneaiuo,
aeanoieeo aeaenoaee. I?eau/iui i?eaiaie yaeythony iiiioaiee i?iaeoeoa,
aeaaeaiea ia iinoaaueeia ?ano?nia e aaiee, /oiau ioeacuaaoue a
iaoa?eaeao e e?aaeeoa, ia?aiaieaaiea aaaeouaai ia?niiaea, ?aceia
nieaeaiea oeai, caaeoiaiiia /oiau aeiaanoe aei aaie?ionoaa eiieo?aioia.
Oioy iiiaea ec yoeo aniaeoia ia/anoiie eiieo?aioeee yaeythony
iacaeiiiuie eee a?aie/aueie n aaccaeiieai, iie i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoa,
/ai enoi?e/aneee eioa?an. Iai?eia?, oioy oaaea?aeueiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai cai?auaao nieaeaiea oeai, iai?aaeaiiia aeey
ineaaeaiea eiieo?aioeee, eae iiaeii ia i?aeoeea i?iaanoe ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo caeiiiie oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeeae, iniiaaiiie ia i?aeiouanoaao a
ecaea?aeeao, e oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeeae, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey oiai, /oiau
naeaeaoue aaie?ioaie niia?ieeia?

Iaeiaei aa?uea?u aeey anooieaiey a io?aneue, eioi?ua yaeythony
i/aiue cia/eoaeueiuie a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea, iiaoo ieacaoueny
i?aiaeieeiuie a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea. Nouanoaothuea iaoaioiua
i?aeiouanoaa iiaoo auoue iaieaeaiu iin?aaenoaii ?ac?aaioee iiaie e
ioee/athuaeny, oioy e niiniaiie neoaeeoue caiaieoaeai i?iaeoeoeee. Iiaoo
auoue iaeaeaiu iiaua enoi/ieee no?aoaae/aneiai nu?uey. Iiiiiieey a
niunea iaeiioe?iaiiie io?inee i?iaeieaeaoue nouanoaiaaoue naa?o
ioiouaiiiai ae a?aiaie oieueei n naieoeee eee n iiiiuueth
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iai?eia?, iiiiiieey ii/oiaie neoaeau ia aeinoaaeo
ia?aieeanniie ii/ou.

Naiaia?aciui e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oeiii ianiaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee, iaaethaeathuainy i?aeoe/anee ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao,
yaeyaony, oae iacuaaaiay, iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey. A ecaanoiie,
ia?a, iia iaiiieiaao niaa?oaiioth eiieo?aioeeth:

– aieueoia eiee/anoai iio?aaeoaeae e i?iecaiaeeoaeae;

– aa?uea?u aeey aoiaea ia ?uiie e auoiaea n iaai ieieiaeueiu;

– eaaeaeay oe?ia aini?eieiaao oeaiu ae?oaeo oe?i eae caaeaiiua e
?aaoee?oao oieueei naith oeaio.

Ii ana aeaei a oii, /oi a oneiaeyo iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee
ia o?aaoaony i?enoonoaey nioai eee ouny/ oe?i, aeinoaoi/ii n?aaieoaeueii
aieueoiai eo /enea, 25-70. Eaaeaeay oe?ia auioneaao naie nianoaaiiue
i?iaeoeo, a ana aianoa – oiaa?u iaeiie oiaa?iie a?oiiu. Oiaa?,
auioneaaiue eaaeaeie oe?iie, ianeieueei ioee/aaony io oiaa?a oie aea
a?oiiu, auioneaaiuo ae?oaeie oe?iaie. Yoi, eae i?aaeei, oiaa?u (eee
oneoae) a?oiiu iaeiiai iacia/aiey – i?ioeaaeeoaeueiua iaieoee,
eaea?noaa, aaicei ?aciuo ia?ie e o.i. Oiaa?u a?oiiu yaeythony aeeceeie
caiaieoaeyie, ii ioee/athony iaeei io ae?oaiai ea/anoaii eniieiaiey,
oiaeiaeie, aeecaeiii, oiaa?iui ciaeii, iineai?iaeaaeiui ianeoaeeaaieai e
o.i. E ii/oe ia ?acee/athony oeaiie. Eaaeaeay oe?ia yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeai naiaai oiaa?a e a yoii niunea
iiiiiieenoii.

Iaee/ea aieueoiai eiee/anoaa i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
eaaeaeay oe?ia iaeaaeaao cia/eoaeueii iaaieueoie aeieae ?uiea e eiaao
i/aiue ia?aie/aiiue eiio?ieue iaae ?uii/iie oeaiie. E?iia oiai
i?aeoe/anee eneeth/aaony oaeiue naiai? oe?i n oeaeueth ia?aie/aiey
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e eneonnoaaiiiai iiauoaiey oeaiu.

Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey i?iaeoeoa i?e iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee
iiaeao i?eieiaoue ?yae ?acee/iuo oi?i:

A Ea/anoai i?iaeoeoa. “?aaeueiua ?acee/ey”, aeeth/athuea
ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe, iaoa?eaeu, aeecaei e ea/anoai ?aaio,
yaeythony e?aeia aaaeiuie noi?iiaie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee. Iai?eia?,
ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u iiaoo ?acee/aoueny n oi/ee c?aiey iiuiinoe
aiia?aoo?u, i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, a?aoe/aneiai auaiaea e noaiaie eo
“i?eaioe?iaaiiinoe ia iio?aaeoaey”. A ethaii ai?iaea iaoiaeeony
iiiaeanoai caeoni/iuo. A iaeiie ec ieo i?e i?eaioiaeaiee aaiao?aa?ia
i?eaeaaony aieueoaa aieiaiea a?iiaoo naieo aoei/ae, a ae?oaie – ea/anoao
naieo ?oaeaiiuo eioeao.

A Oneoae. Oneoae e oneiaey – aaaeiua aniaeou aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
i?iaeoeoa. Iaoiaeeoaeueiinoue e oneoaeeeainoue neoaeaueo iaaaceia,
?aiooaoeey oe?iu ii ianeoaeeaaieth iieoiaoaeae eee iaiaio aa i?iaeoeoia,
iaee/ea e?aaeeoa yaeythony aniaeoaie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee i?iaeoeoa,
naycaiiuie n oneoaaie.

A I?iaeoeou iiaoo auoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu ia iniiaa ?aciauaiey e
aeinooiiinoe. Oae aaoicai?aaea, iaoiaeyuayny ia iaeiie ec aeaaiue
aaoiiaaeno?aeae no?aiu iiaeao i?iaeaaaoue aaicei ii aieaa aunieie oeaia,
/ai, oa eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a 2-3 ei io aaoiaaia.

A Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey i?iaeoeoa a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iiaeao oaeaea
yaeyoue ?acoeueoaoii iieiuo ?acee/ee, nicaeaiiuo iin?aaenoaii ?aeeaiu,
oiaeiaee eniieueciaaiey oi?aiaie ia?ee e oi?aiaiai ciaea. Eiaaea oa eee
eiay ia?ea aeaeeinia eee aeooia naycuaaaony n eiaiai eaeie-eeai
ciaiaieoinoe, oi yoi iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia o?iaaiue ni?ina.

Ec iienaiey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoe i?iaeoeoa neaaeoao, /oi a
oneiaeyo iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee oeaiiaoth eiieo?aioeeth
niioonoaoao iaoeaiiaay.

Anooieoue a io?aneue n iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeeae
ioiineoaeueii eaaei. Iaeioi?oth o?oaeiinoue iiaoo nicaeaoue iio?aaiinoue
iieo/aiey i?iaeoeoa, ioee/iiai io i?iaeoeoa eiieo?aioa, e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aeeaiu.

I?eciaee iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeeee a iaeaieaa /enoii aeaea
ano?a/aaony a ?icie/iie oi?aiaea, eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Co?oeoo?a ?uiea, i?e eioi?ie ianeieueei iacaaeneiuo oe?i
oaeiaeaoai?ytho iauee ni?in iiiaeanoaa iio?aaeoaeae iau/ii iacuaaaony
ieeaiiieeae. *enei oe?i eieaaeaony iaaeaeo aeaoiy iiethnaie – iiiiiieeae
e iiiiiieueiie eiieo?aioeeae : 2-20. Iiyoiio iiaaaeaiea eaaeaeie ec ieo
ieacuaaao caiaoiia aeeyiea ia iieiaeaiea ae?oaeo oe?i ia ?uiea. A
?acoeueoaoa eaaeaeay ec oe?i-ieeaiiieenoia iniciaao naith caaeneiinoue
io ae?oaeo. Iniciaiea acaeiicaaeneiinoe ieeaiiieenoia e aiciiaeiinoue
yaiie eee iayaiie eii?aeeiaoeee niaianoiuo aeaenoaee yaeyaony eeth/aaui
iiiaioii a ieeaiiiee/aneii iiaaaeaiee.

Ii oeio i?iaeoeoeee iau/ii ?acee/atho /enooth ieeaiiieeth e
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiioth (ii i?iaeoeoai) ieeaiiieeth. *enoay ieeaiiieey –
i?iecaiaeyuay iaeii?iaeiue i?iaeoeo . A yoii neo/aa oeaia oiaa?a ia
?uiea i?eia?ii aaeeiay. I?eia?ii oaeiai ?uiea yaeyaony ?uiie oeaiaioa,
i?iaeoeoeee oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, noaeaeeoaeiie e o.i. Ieeaiiieey,
i?iecaiaeyuay ?aciiia?acioth i?iaeoeoeeth iaeiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
iacia/aiey yaeyaony aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie. Oeaiu oiaa?ia ia oaeii ?uiea
iau/ii ?ani?aaeaeythony ii oeaiiaui eeanoa?a – a?oiiai oeai ia
iaeiioeiiua, ii iaiaeii?iaeiua oiaa?u. Iai?eia?, oeaiiaua a?oiiu ia
aaoiiiaeee ?aciuo eeannia.

Ii /aio aea ii?aaeaeaiiua io?anee ninoiyo oieueei ec ianeieueeeo
oe?i? Ioaao caeeth/aaony a yeiiiiee ecaea?aeae, nouanoaiaaiee aa?uea?ia
aeey anooieaiey e neeyiey.

I?e aeiaieueii noaaeeueiii ?uii/iii ni?ina ana iiiaeanoai oe?i n
iaaieueoeie ?acia?aie i?aaei?eyoey ia niiaeao auaeeoue. Auaiaeiia
?anoe?aiea aei aieueoeo ?acia?ia i?aaei?eyoee iaeioi?uo oe?i iaecaaaeii
aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ca n/ao eiieo?aioia. ?aaeecaoeey yooaeoa ianooaaa
i?iecaiaenoaa iaeioi?uie oe?iaie i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi /enei eiieo?e?othueo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaeiia?aiaiii nie?auaaony aneaaenoaea aaie?ionoaa eee
neeyiey.

Enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue oae, /oi n oa/aieai a?aiaie ai iiiaeo
io?aneyo iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann naeaeae ana aieaa e aieaa
aeinoeaeeiui yooaeo ianooaaa. Iai?eia?, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua iiaen/aou
aiai?yo i oii, /oi a aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a NOA a ia?eiae aa
noaiiaeaiey nouanoaiaaei aieueoa 80 oe?i. N aiaeaie ?acaeoea oaoiieiaee
ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aaie?ionoaa e neeyiey ineaaeee ai?ueao iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Oaia?ue ia aeieth “Aieueoie o?ieee” – “Aeaeaia?ae
iioi?c”, “Oi?ae” e “E?aenea?” – i?eoiaeeony ieiei 90% i?iaeaae
i?iecaaaeaiiuo a NOA aaoiiiaeeae.

Nouanoaoao e ?yae ae?oaeo aa?uea?ia: aeaaeaiea iaoaioaie e
eiio?ieue iaae no?aoaae/aneeie nu?ueai /?acau/aeii aaaeii a
yeaeo?iieea, oeie/aneie e aethieieaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oaeaea oeiainiaua
aa?uea?u a aeaea ia?iiiuo ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio, /oi eiaei ianoi a
i?iecaiaenoaa neaa?ao.

Ieeaiiieey nouanoaoao, eiaaea iaeia /enei oe?i ainiiaenoaoao ia
?uiea iaeii?iaeiiai eee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Ieeaiiieey
aicieeea aeaaiaea?y neeyieyi e ?acee/iui aa?uea?ai aeey anooieaiey,
oaeei, eae yooaeo ianooaaa, iaoaiou eee aeaaeaiea nu?ueai.

A yoie aeaaa auee ?anniio?aiu 4 iniiaiuo aeaea

eiieo?aioeee. Eae eoia a oaaeeoea 1 i?eaaaeaiu eo iniiaiua ea/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee:

Oei eiieo-

?aioiie

no?oeoo?u Eie-ai i?i-

ecaiaeeoaeae

e noaiaiue

?aciiia?ac.

i?iaeoeoeee Noa?a yeiiiieee,

aaea aeaaiui

ia?acii,

ano?a/aaony Noaiaiue eiio?iey ca oeaiaie ni noi?iiu

oe?iu Iaoiaeu

ia?eaoeiaa

Niaa?oai-

iay

eiieo?ai-oeey Iiiai i?i-ecaiaeeoaeae

iaeii?iaeiie

i?iaeoeoeee

Naeueneia oicyenoai:

i?iec-ai ioaieoeu,

eoeo?ocu e o.i. Ionoono-aoao I?iaeaaea

/a?ac oi-aa?iua

ae?aee eee

aoeoeeiiu

Ianiaa?oaiiay eiieo-?aioeey:

1.Iiiiiieenoe/aneay

eiieo?aioe.

2.Ieeaiiieey

Iiiai i?iecai- aeeoaeae, eaaeaeue naie i?iaeoeo a iaeiie oiaa?iie a?oiia

a)ianeieueei

i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaeiiai

i?iaeoeoa

a)ianeieueei

i?iecaiaeeoaeae ?acee/iuo iiaeaeae iaeiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoa

?icie/iay oi?aiaey: i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, aaicei

e o.i.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue: noaeaeeoaeiay,

oeie/aneay

Aaoiiiaeee,

eiiiuethoa?u

N?aaeiyy

?aeeaia,

niia?ie/anoai a

ea/anoaa,oi?aa-eyaiua oeaiu

Iiiiiieey Iaeei i?iecai-

aeeoaeue iaeii?iae-iiai i?iaeoeoa,

ia eiathuaai

aeeceeo ca-

iaieoaeae Ianoiay oaeaoiiiay naoue, yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey,aaciniaaaeaiea e
i?i/ea nenoaiu

iauanoaaii.oneoa A i?eioeeia

cia/eoaeueiay, eiio?iee?oaony

ainoaea?noaii ?aeeaia e

niaa?oainoaiaaiea

ianeoaeeaa iey

42. Yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey oeaiu.

Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu – aeaei aaaeiia. I?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii ia
oieueei i?iecaanoe, ii e nauoue oiaa? n auaiaeie aeey naay, aicianoeoue
?anoiaeu e iieo/eoue i?eaueue. Oeaia neoaeeo enoiaeiui iiiaioii a
ieaie?iaaiee oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Caauoaiea oeaiu
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi oe?ia iiaeao ieacaoueny ca ai?oii ?uiea,
caieaeaiea aea iaecaaaeii i?eaaaeao e aaie?ionoao. Aecianiaiu, ia
aeaaeathuea eiaeeie e aeeaeaeoeeie oeaiiia?aciaaiey, ieacuaathony
ianinoiyoaeueiuie eiieo?aioaie. Oeaiiia?aciaaiea – iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo
yeaiaioia i?ia?aiiu ia?eaoeiaa. Oeaia a eiia/iii n/aoa io?aaeaao,
ianeieueei i?aaeeueii auea ?ac?aaioaia e oniaoii auea ?aaeeciaaia yoa
i?ia?aiia. Anee oiaa? ?aaeecoaony ii iaia/aiiie oeaia, yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oniaoa, anee aea iio?aaeoaeue ieacuaaaony
i?eia?aoaoue i?iaeoeoeeth ii yoie oeaia, yoi iaoaea/a. *a?ac oeaio
?aaeecothony iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia ii?aaeaeyao yooaeoeaiinoue yoie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Oeaia – oaeoi?, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeythuee ia i?eaueueiinoue,
iineieueeo: ai-ia?auo, i?eaueue anoue ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiia?iie
au?o/eie io i?iaeaae e noiia?iuie cao?aoaie, ai-aoi?uo, io o?iaiy oeaiu
caaenyo iauaiu i?iaeaae.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea – aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiue i?ioeann, aaeaeo oiai, /oi
oeaia – iiiaioaeoi?iia yaeaiea. Iia iiaeao niaa?oaoue aeaeaeaiea a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?aieoeao. Ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue oeaiu ii?aaeaeyaony
ecaea?aeeaie ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee.

Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa iiae?acaeaeythony ia iinoiyiiua,
ia?aiaiiua e aaeiaua. Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee – oa /anoue cao?ao, eioi?ay
inoaaony iaeciaiiie ii aaee/eia iacaaeneii io ?acia?ia i?iecaiaenoaa
(ieaoa ca a?aiaeo iiiauaiey, aii?oecaoeey, oaieiniaaaeaiea e o.i.).
Ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee – oa /anoue cao?ao, eioi?ay iaiyaony ii aaee/eia a
caaeneiinoe io ianooaaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaeiaua ecaea?aeee – noiia
iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae.

Oeaia aeieaeia aicianoeoue aaeiaua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey e iaania/eoue iaeioi?oth i?eaueue. Iaeneiaeueiay
a?aieoea oeaiu caaeaaony ni?inii.

Iauanoai eiaao iiiaeanoai iio?aaiinoae, ii eaaeaeay iio?aaiinoue a
ioaeaeueiinoe eiaao naie i?aaeae. Ni?in anoue caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
eiee/anoaii oiaa?a, eioi?ie ianniaue iio?aaeoaeue aeia?iaieueii iieoiaao
a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai ia?eiaea, e oeaiie aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Iiiai/eneaiiua
oaeou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo /ai auoa oeaia
oiaa?a, oai iaiueoa aai iieoiatho, e /ai ieaea oeaia, oai aieueoa aai
iieoiatho. A yoio e caeeth/aaony ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea ianniaiai
iio?aaeoaey: i?e oeene?iaaiiii iio?aaeoaeueneii athaeaeaoa iauai
iio?aaeaiey aeaiiiai oiaa?a oai ieaea, /ai auoa oeaia oiaa?a e iaiai?io.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey aieueoeinoaa oiaa?ia iieacaoaee ni?ina i?e
oaaee/aiee ni?ina no?aiyony aiec ii i?yiie eee eciaiooie eeiee (?en.2a).
Yoa e?eaay au?aaeaao oeaio ni?ina – iaeneiaeueioth oeaio, eioi?oth
niaeanai caieaoeoue iieoiaoaeue i?e iieoiea aeaiiiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a.

?en.2a

Oeaia nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue “ia?ac” oiaa?a a aeacao iio?aaeoaeae.
Iineaaeiea /anoi oaa?aiu, /oi oeaia iai?yioth naycaia n ea/anoaii. Eae
neaaenoaea – nieaeaiea oeaiu iiaeao i?eaanoe ia e oaaee/aieth, a e
oiaiueoaieth /enea iieoiie, oae eae iieoiaoaee iiaoo n/anoue yoi
nieaeaiea ?acoeueoaoii oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

Iieoiea oiaa?ia iniaiai ?iaea ii iniaui i?anoeaeiui oeaiai, eae
/anoi n/eoatho iio?aaeoaee, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aunieii iieiaeaiee,
noaoona iieoiaoaey. I?anoeaeiay oeaia – oeaia ia ecaeaeey i/aiue
aunieiai ea/anoaa, iaeaaeathuea eaeeie-oi iniauie, iai?aacieaeaiiuie
naienoaaie eee i?eciaeaie, yoi oeaia oieeaeueiuo oiaa?ia. E?eaay ni?ina
ia oaeea oiaa?u i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.2a.

Iacia/ay oeaio ia i?anoeaeiua oiaa?u, ioaeii o/eouaaoue, /oi ni?in
ia ieo ii?aaeaeyaony eae oaeoi?aie yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a
(ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue iieoiaoaeae, acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue oiaa?ia e o.i.),
oae e /enoi ineoieiae/aneeie iiiaioaie.

*oanoaeoaeueiinoue iieoiaoaeae e eciaiaieth oeai n oi/ee c?aiey
iauaia iieoiie ii?aaeaeyaony oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoue. Oeaiiaay
yeanoe/iinoue – noaiaiue eciaiaiey ni?ina a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey
oeaiu. Iia ?ann/eouaaaony eae ioiioaiea eciaiaiey ni?ina (a i?ioeaioao)
e eciaiaieth oeaiu (a i?ioeaioao) ii oi?ioea:

N1-N2

Oeaiiaay N1+N2 _ ,

= Oe1+Oe2

yeanoe/iinoue Oe1-Oe2

aaea N1 – aaee/eia ia?aiia/aeueiiai ni?ina,

N2 – aaee/eia eciaieaoaainy ni?ina,

Oe1 – o?iaaiue ia?aiia/aeueiie oeaiu,

Oe2 – o?iaaiue eciaieaoaeny oeaiu.

Eae i?aaeei, yeanoe/iinoue au?aaeaaony io?eoeaoaeueiuie aaee/eia.
Ni?in yeanoe/ai a oii neo/aa, anee iieacaoaeue yeanoe/iinoe aieueoa
aaeeieoeu, oi anoue iaaieueoia eciaiaiea oeaiu aea/ao ca niaie
nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea ni?ina. Iayeanoe/iue ni?in eiaao ianoi, anee
eciaiaiea oeaiu ia neacuaaaony caiaoii ia ni?ina (yeanoe/iinoue iaiueoa
aaeeieoeu). Oieoa?iue ni?in iaaethaeaaony oiaaea, eiaaea noaiaiue aai
eciaiaiey niioaaonoaoao noaiaie eciaiaiey oeaiu (yeanoe/iinoue ?aaia
aaeeieoea).

Ia yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina aeeytho acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue oiaa?ia e
aaaeiinoue iio?aaiinoe. Oae, anee caiaoii iiaei?iaeaao aiayaeeia,
iieoiaoaee i?aaeii/ooo naeieio eee aa?aieio. Anee aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu
ionoonoaoao, oi iieoiaoaeue auioaeaeai ie?eoueny n iiaie oeaiie. Ii yoi,
a naith i/a?aaeue, naycaii n aaaeiinoueth aai iio?aaiinoe, oae eae a
neo/aa oiaa?a ia ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieoiea iiaeao auoue ioeiaeaia.
Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina iiaeao iaiyoueny aeey iaeiiai eoiai aea ecaeaeey a
caaeneiinoe io ianooaaa eciaiaiey oeaiu.

Oeaia ni?ina yaeyaony oieueei iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo, oi?ie?othueo
?aaeueioth oeaio oiaa?a. Aoi?ie ninoaaeythuae yaeyaony oeaia
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Oeaia i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?acoaony ia iniiaa cao?ao
i?iecaiaeeoaey. I?e yoii iia ia ?aaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui cao?aoai o?oaea,
a neeaaeuaaaony iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?yaea oaeoi?ia: iiiaiia?acey oneiaee
?acee/iuo a?oii i?iecaiaeeoaeae, i?e eioi?ue nicaeaaony aeaiiue oiaa?;
noaiaie acaeiicaaeneiinoe oiaa?ia, eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo cao?ao,
ii?aaeaeythueo oeaiu ie?iaiai ?uiea. Oeaia i?aaeeiaeaiey – yoi
ieieiaeueiay oeaia, ii eioi?ie i?iaeaaaoe niaeanai i?iaeaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aeaiiiai oiaa?a. E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey no?ieony
ii caeiio i?aaeeiaeaiey: iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a oaaee/eaaaony i?e
oaaee/aiee oeaiu e oiaiueoaaony i?e aa nieaeaiee.

Anee iaeiaeeoue ae?oa ia ae?oaa aeaa a?aoeea, iaicia/athuea
niaieoiiue ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeiiai e oiai aea oiaa?a, iieo/ei
a?aoee, iieacuaathuee iaeiia?aiaiiia iiaaaeaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey
eioa?anothuaai oiaa?a. A eaeie-oi oi/ea aeaa e?eaua ia?anaeoony.

A oi/ea ano?a/e ni?in eiee/anoaaiii ?aaai i?aaeeiaeaieth (Q1) e
oeaia P1 aunooiaao eae o?aaiiaaoeaathuay oeaia, eee oeaia ?aaiiaaney.
I?e aieaa aunieie oeaia aicieeaao ecauoie i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii.
Yoio ecauoie a ?acoeueoaoa eiieo?aioeee i?iaeaaoeia aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue nieaeaieth oeaiu. I?e oeaia ieaea o?aaiiaaoeaathuae
ni?in i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea. A yoii neo/aa eceeoae ni?ina e
eiieo?aioeey iieoiaoaeae aoaeao oieeaoue oeaio aaa?o. Eeoue a oi/ea A
aeinoeaaaony ?aaiiaanea nee e onoie/eaay oeaia, eioi?ay iiaeao
nio?aieoueny.

Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?e oeaia ?aaiiaaney onoaiaaeeaaaony
?aaainoai ia iieoiie e i?iaeaae – oaeia ?aaainoai nouanoaoao i?e ethaie
oeaia. I?e oeaia ?aaiiaaney eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie
iio?aaeoaee iaia?aiu i?iaeieaeaoue aeaeaoue caeoiee, aoaeao
niioaaonoaiaaoue oiio eiee/anoao i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeoaee
iaia?aiu i?iaeieaeaoue iinoaaeyoue ia ?uiie. Oieueei i?e oaeie oeaia
aoaeao ionoonoaiaaoue oaiaeaioeey e iiauoaieth eee iiieaeaieth oeaiu. Ii
yoi eeoue /anoe/iia ?aaiiaanea ia aaeeie/iii ?uiea. Iaaei o/eouaaoue,
/oi oeaiu ia ?uiea iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee aneaaenoaea
eciaiaiee a i?aaeeiaeaiee e ni?ina oiaa?ia.

O.i. ?uii/iay oeaia – yoi oeaia oiaa?a, eioi?ay neeaaeuaaaony iiae
aeaenoaeai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony
eoiey-i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua oeiu oeai:

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay oeaia = noiia anao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae oe?iu
+

iaeeaeaaiay i?eaueue.

Iioiaay oeaia – yoi oeaia, ii eioi?ie i?iaeatho oiaa? e?oiiuie iioiauie
ia?oeyie eiiiaieyi, eioi?ua caieiathony ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae.
Neeaaeuaathony iia ec oeaiu i?iecaiaeeoaey iethn i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
ia?eaoeiaiaua ?anoiaeu iioiaeea e aai i?eaueue.

?icie/iay oeaia – yoi oeaia ii eioi?ie, i?iaeaaea aaaeaony ioaeaeueiuie,
iaaieueoeie ia?oeyie a ?icieoeo. Ninoieo iia ec iioiaie oeaiu iethn
oi?aaeai/aneea, ia?eaoeiaiaua e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu oe?iu e aa
i?eaueue.

Aacenioth oeaio eniieuecotho aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ni?oa eee ea/anoaa
oiaa?a. Aa niaeanotho ia ia?aaiai?ao iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai,
e iia neoaeeo iniiaie aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu oaeoe/anee iinoaaeaiiiai
oiaa?a, eiaaea naienoaa iineaaeiaai ioee/athony io iaiai?aiiuo a
eiio?aeoa.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oiaa?u ecaioaaeeaatho n o/aoii niaoeeoeee
iieoiaoaey, i?aeoeeotho aeiaiai?iua oeaiu.

Ie?iaay oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io aeaea oiaa?a: ii iaeiei
(iau/ii nu?ueaaui) – o?iaiai oeai no?ai-yenii?oa?ia eee
no?ai-eiii?oa?ia, ii ae?oaei – oeaiaie ae?ae, aoeoeeiiia, a ii aioiaui
ecaeaeeyi – oeaiaie oiaa?ia aaaeoueo a ie?a oe?i, niaoeeaeece?othueony
ia i?iecaiaenoaa e yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee aeaiiiai aeaea.

Iiieiaeueiay oeaia ioaeeeoaony a i?aeneo?aioao, ni?aai/ieeao, ae?aeaauo
eioe?iaeao.

Neieuecyuay oeaia onoaiaaeeaaaony aeiaiai?ii a caaeneiinoe io iaeioi?uo
oneiaee (ae?aeaaie eioe?iaee, eioeyoeee e o.ae.) ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo
(iai?eia?, iinoaaee oiaa?ia iieoiaoaeth, oaeoe/aneiai iieo/aiey oiaa?a e
o.ae.); ia?aaeei iia yaeyaony ?uii/iie ia aeaiioth aeaoo.

Ni?aai/iay oeaia (iniaua aeaeu – iiieiaeueiay, i?aeneo?aioiay) iau/ii
io?aaeaao o?iaaiue oaeoe/anee caeeth/aiiuo naeaeie ca iaeioi?ue i?ioeue
ia?eiae (iaaeaeth, ianyoe) e eniieuecoaony a ia?aaiai?ao aeey
onoaiiaeaiey enoiaeiie oeaiu; /aua anaai i?eiaiytho i?e n?i/iie
i?iaeaaea iaaieueoeo ia?oee oiaa?ia, i?e aieueoeo ia?oeyo e iae
i?eiaiytho oa eee eiua neeaeee. Ni?aai/iua oeaiu ?aaoey?ii ioaeeeotho
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ecaeaiey III.

A ie?a aeciana aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oeaiiaay no?aoaaey,
caeeth/athuayny a onoaiiaeaiee oeaiu, ioaa/athuae eioa?anai e
i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaey.

Iieeoeea ieceeo oeai ninoieo a eniieueciaaiee ieieiaeueiuo oeai aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iaeioi?uo oaeoe/aneeo e no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae oe?iu:
i?iieeiiaaiea ia ?uiie, oaaee/aiey aeiee a nauoa oiaa?ia ia iai,
auoaniaiea eiieo?aioia, iieo/aiea aunieie i?eauee ca n/ao ?inoa iauaia
?aaeecaoeee, nauoa onoa?aeie e caeaaeaeie i?iaeoeoeee, a oae aea ?aoaiey
oeiainiauo aii?inia a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo.

Iieeoeea aunieeo oeai caeeth/aaony a onoaiiaeaiee iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiuo oeai eee eniieueciaaiee aeey iiauoaiey oeai ?acee/iiai ?iaea
iaaeaaaie e i?aiee n oeaeueth iieo/aiey auno?iai e cia/eoaeueiiai
yooaeoa io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia eee oeacaiey oneoa.

Inouanoaeyaony eeoue i?e aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey i?iaeaaoea oneiaeyo, e
eioi?ui, a /anoiinoe ioiinyony:

-aunieia ea/anoai e iiaecia i?iaeoeoeee, neaaay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
oiaa?ia, ionoonoaea aiaeiaia e caiaieoaeae;

-iiiiiieenoe/aneay eee aeeceay e iae no?oeoo?a ?uiea, neaaay
yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ii oeaia, iacia/eoaeueiay ?uii/iay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey;

-iaeay inaaaeiieaiiinoue iieoiaoaeae i oiaa?a e ae?oaeo oneiaeyo
?uiea, iaee/ea iniaiai e?oaa iio?aaeoaeae i?anoeaeiuo oiaa?ia e ae?.

Iieeoeea aunieeo oeai i?iaiaeeony eeoue a oa/aiee ia?aie/aiiiai
ia?eiaea a?aiaie, iiea ia ?uiea ia aicieeaao eiieo?aioiay neooaoeey,
eioi?ay i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth oeaiu eee ooiaeo iinoaaueea n aunieie
oeaiie n ?uiea.

Iieeoeea aeaeeo oeai ninoieo a iaiaa?e?iaaiee oeaiaie e a
i?iaaaeaiee oeaiiaie no?aoaaee a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e ?uii/iuo oneiaee. Iia eniieuecoaony /aua anaai i?e
?aaeecaoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo (aiana?eeiuo) oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeaia eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaony oeaiiaie
iieeoeeie, o/eouaathuae ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, o?iaaiue oeai
eiieo?aioia, eiiuthieoo?o ?uiea, iaaeaaaee e neeaeee a iieueco naieo
iin?aaeieeia,

?anoiaeaie ia ?aeeaio e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa e o.ae.

Oeaia – aaaeiaeoee oicyenoaaiiue ia?aiao?, eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
noeioee?othuay e ?aaoee?othuay ?ieue. Iia au?aaeaao oneiaey
oicyenoaiaaiey, iaania/eaay ia oieueei oiaa?iiaiai, ii e
aini?iecaiaenoai iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, neoaeeo i?eaioe?ii oicyenoaiaaiey,
neioace?oy oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa, ni?in, i?aaeeiaeaiey, o?aaiaaiey
iio?aaeoaeae ?uiea.

43. Acaeiinaycue eiieo?aioeee e

oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

A i?aaeuaeoueo ia?aa?aoao iu ?anniio?aee yeiiiie/aneea iniaaiiinoe
eiieo?aioeee e oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Eaeia aea aeeyiea iie ieacuaatho ae?oa
ia ae?oaa? Ia yoio aii?in y e iii?iaiaaea ioaaoeoue a yoii ia?aa?aoa.

?anniio?ei, eae onoaiaaeeaaao oeaio oe?ia a oneiaeyo ?acee/iuo oi?i
eiieo?aioeee.

A oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee aeey i?iaeaaoea
(i?iecaiaeeoaey) oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caieiatho ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iineieueeo a oneiaeyo /enoie eiieo?aioeee i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?aeoe/anee ia
iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia o?iaaiue ?uii/iie oeaiu, oi eiaiii o?iaaiue
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea e ia
?acia? i?eauee, e ia aiciiaeiinoe ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa, e ia oi,
inoaiaony ee oe?ia aiiaua ia aeaiiii ?uiea eee auioaeaeaia aoaeao aai
iieeiooue.

Ia ?uiea niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee oe?ia ia iiaeao aeeyoue ia oeaio,
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaeaao ethaia eiee/anoai naiae i?iaeoeoeee ii
iaeiie e oie aea oeaia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae io
i?iaeaaee aeiiieieoaeueiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee aoaeao i?e ethaii
iauaia iaeeiaeia, o.a. i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae aoaeao ?aaai oeaia: MR = P
(?en.3.1a) e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?yioth eeieth, ia?aeeaeueioth ine O.

?anniio?ei o?e aiciiaeiuo ?uii/iuo neooaoeee.Ia ?en.3.1a eeiey
oeaiu e i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea ?aniieaaaaony auoa e?eaie n?aaeieo
ecaea?aeae, o.a. a oi/ea ?aaiiaaney I oe?ia aoaeao iieo/aoue i?eaueue.
I?e iioeiaeueiii iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa Q1 n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee aoaeoo
?aaiu N1, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaeiaua ecaea?aeee ninoaayo ieiuaaeue
i?yiioaieueieea OC1LQ1. Aaeiaay i?eaueue – ieiuaaeue i?yiioaieueieea
N1P1ML.

Iaeiaei a yoii neo/aa iiaua oe?iu, i?eaea/aiiua aiciiaeiinoueth
iieo/eoue naa?oi?eaueue, aoaeoo no?aieoueny a yoo io?aneue.
I?aaeeiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ia/iao ?anoe, e a ?acoeueoaoa eiieo?aioeey
iaaeaeo oe?iaie i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth oeaiu e en/aciiaaieth i?eauee.

Ia ?en.3.1a iieacaia ia?aoiay neooaoeey : n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee i?e
ethaii iauaia i?aauoatho ?uii/ioth oeaio. A yoii neo/aa i?e iioeiaeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaa oe?ia eeoue ieieiece?oao naie oauoee (ieiuaaeue
i?yiioaieueieea P2C2LM) ieieiaeueia eiaiii i?e iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa Q2).
Oe?iu, ieacaaoeany a oaeii iieiaeaiee ooiaeyo n ?uiea, i?aaeeiaeaiea
i?iaeoeoeee nie?auaaony e , i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo, oeaia ia/eiaao
aic?anoaoue, iiea i?aaeaeueiay oe?ia ia aoaeao iieo/aoue i?eaueue.

Iaeiiaoe, eiaaea eeiey i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea eeoue eanaaony e?eaie
n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae (?en.3.1a), i?eaueue ?aaia aaeiaui ecaea?aeeai. Oae
eae a yoii neo/aa ia iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeee e eciaiaieth /enea
ooieoeeiie?othueo a io?anee oe?i, aeaiiay io?aneue iaoiaeeony a
ninoiyiee iieiiai aeieaia?aiaiiiai ?aaiiaaney (MC=MR=P=AC).

I?e oaaee/aiee oeaiu oe?ia aoaeao i?iaeaeaaoueny aaa?o ii e?eaie
MC. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ainoiaeyuay aaoaue e?eaie i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae
(auoa oi/ee I) yaeyaony oaeoe/anee e?eaie aa e?aoeia?aiaiiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iniaay ?ieue niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee caeeth/aaony a iiaeaea?aeaiee
ia ?uiea ?aaiiaaniie oeaiu: anee oeaia iiaeieiaaony, oi i?aaeeiaeaiea
i?aauneo ni?in e oneeeony niia?ie/anoai i?iaeaaoeia, no?aiyueony naeoue
oeaiu. A eoiaa ia/eiaaony aeaeaeaiea oeaiu e oi/ea ?aaiiaaney, o.a. e
aaee/eia noieiinoe. A aieueoeinoaa i?iiuoeaiiuo io?aneae eiieo?aioeey
i?e aeiaeaieyo eaieoaea i?eaiaeeo e oaiaeaioeee nieaeaiey oaeaeueiuo
n?aaeieo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa. A yoeo oneiaeyo iaeia eee ianeieueei
oe?i ?anoe?ytho auione i?iaeoeoeee aei i?aaeaeia caaiaaaiey nouanoaaiiie
/anoe ?uiee. Eae neaaenoaea, ?ac?ooaaony niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey e iu
eiaai ae?oaie aa aeae: ianiaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey

?anniio?ei oaia?ue, eae onoaiaaeeaaaony oeaia a oneiaeyo /enoie
iiiiiieee. Eniieuecoai aeey yoiai oaea ciaeiiue aiia?ao e?eauo
ecaea?aeae, oeai e aeioiaea.

Ioiaoei, /oi e?eaay ni?ina iiiiiieenoa niaiaaeaao n e?eaie
io?aneaaiai ni?ina e iiyoiio yaeyaony oauaathuae: iiiiiieenou, ia/eiay n
iaeneiaeueiie oeaiu ca ia?aoth i?iaeaiioth aaeeieoeo oiaa?a, iiieaeatho
oeaio aeey i?iaeaaee eaaeaeie iineaaeothuae aaeeieoeu. Ionthaea
neaaeoao, /oi i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae noaiiaeony iaiueoa, /ai oeaia
(n?aaeiee aeioiae) aeey eaaeaeiai o?iaiy auionea e?iia ia?aiai. I/aiue
aaaeii ioiaoeoue: aeey oiai, /oiau ?aaeeciaaoue i?aaeaeueiue i?iaeoeo,
iiiiiieeno auioaeaeai nieaeaoue oeaio ia oieueei ia iaai, ii e ia ana
i?aaeuaeouea aaeeieoeu oiaa?a. Ienoiaeyuay e?eaay iiiiiieenoe/aneiai
ni?ina icia/aao, /oi aunieea oeaiu naycaiu n ieceeie iauaiaie i?iaeaae
e, iaiai?io, ieceea oeaiu – n aieueoeie iauaiaie i?iecaiaenoaa. E aua
iaeii aaaeiia caia/aiea: iineieueeo ec i?aaeuaeouaai neaaeoao, /oi
e?eaay i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea i?ioiaeeo ieaea e?eaie ni?ina (aaeiaiai
aeioiaea), i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae ?aiueoa aeinoeaaao ioeaaie ioiaoee; a
yoii neo/aa aaeiaue aeioiae ia?anoaao iaeneiece?iaaoueny e ni?in
noaiiaeony iayeanoe/iui, o.a. aeaeueiaeoaa nieaeaiea oeaiu ia i?eaiaeeo
e ?inoo aaeiaiai aeioiaea. I?aaenoaaei yoi ia ?en.3.1.

?en.3.1.

E?eaay MR (i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae) i?ioiaeeo ieaea e?eaie ni?ina.
O/anoie AA e?eaie D icia/aao yeanoe/iue ni?in n iieiaeeoaeueiui
i?e?inoii MR; o/anoie AN icia/aao iayeanoe/iue ni?in, oae eae MR oaea
aeinoeaea ioeaaie ioiaoee. I?e iiieaeaiee oeaiu aei iayeanoe/iie iaeanoe
aaeiaue aeioiae aoaeao oiaiueoaoueny. Ionthaea neaaeoao aaaeiia i?aaeei:
Iaeneiece?othuee i?eaueue iiiiiieeno anaaaea aoaeao no?aieoueny
ecaaaaoue iayeanoe/iiai io?acea aai e?eaie ni?ina a iieueco iaeioi?ie
eiiaeiaoeee oeaia-eiee/anoai ia yeanoe/iii io?acea.

Anee iiiiiieeno no?aieoueny e i?eauee ii aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoue
eaaeaeoth iineaaeothuoth aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee aei oao ii?, iiea aa
?aaeecaoeey iaania/eaaao aieueoee i?e?ino aaeiaiai aeioiaea, /ai
oaaee/aiea aaeiauo ecaea?aeae. O.a., oe?ia aoaeao ia?aueaaoue
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee aei oaeiai iauaia, i?e eioi?ii i?aaeaeueiue
aeioiae ?aaai i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai. ?anniio?ei ?en.3.2.

Anee oe?ia a oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeey, eiaaea naiaiaeiia
anooieaiea e ianniaue auoiae canoaaeee au aa ?aaioaoue i?e iioeiaeueiie
ii?ia au?aaioea, i?iecaiaeeea au aei oie oi/ee, a eioi?ie oeaia auea au
?aaia i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai. O.A. ia iaoai ?enoiea yoi aue au iauai
QcPc i?e oeaia Qm.

Iaeiaei oe?ia-iiiiiieeno i?ae?aoeo auione i?iaeoeoeee a oi/ea Qm
oae eae caeanue ia?anaeathony e?eaua MR e MC, o.a. iiiiiieeno ni/oao
auaiaeiui i?iaeaoue iaiueoee iauai i?iaeoeoeee e iacia/eoue aieaa
aunieoth oeaio, /ai naeaeae au eiieo?e?othuee i?iecaiaeeoaeue. Oeaia,
i?e eioi?ie iiiiiieeno aoaeao iaeneiece?iaaoue niaieoiioth i?eaueue,
onoaiiaeony a oi/ea Pm. Aaee/eia i?eauee ia aaeeieoeo oiaa?a iieacaia
io?aceii APm, a niaieoiiua iiiiiieueiua i?eauee – i?yiioaieueieeii
APmBC.

Ec iaoaai aiaeeca ynii, /oi iiiiiieeno onoaiaaeeaaao ia iaeaunooth
oeaio, eae yoi iau/ii i?eiyoi n/eoaoue. Iiiiiieeno iia onoaiiaeoue
oeaio, anee aiai?eoue i ?en.3.2, ia o?iaia ai?acaei eaaaa ii e?eaie D,
ii ii yoiai ia aeaeaao, o.e. i?eaueue a yoii neo/aa ia iaeneiece?oaony.
Iiiiiieeno neaaeoao oaa?aeiio i?aaeeo MR=MC, iaeneiece?othuaio
niaieoiiua i?eauee.

Iineieueeo iiiiiieueiay aeanoue iaae ?uieii aoaeoaeueia
aeey iio?aaeoaeae, ainoaea?noai iau/ii no?aieoueny ?aaoee?iaaoue /enoua
iiiiiieee. Aeaeaao iii yoi a ?aciuo oi?iao. Iaeia ec ieo – eiio?ieue
iaae oeaiaie. Aeiionoei, ainoaea?noai oeene?oao oeaiu iiiiiieenoa ia
o?iaia, niioaaonoaothuai MC=D. MC ia?anaeaao D a oi/ea, niioaaonoaothuae
iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa Qe e oeaia Pe, caoeene?iaaiiie ainoaea?noaii. Eae
aeaeii oeaia yoa ai?acaei ieaea, a iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ai?acaei aieueoa,
/ai a neo/aa aaneiio?ieueiinoe iiiiiieenoa. Iieo/eo ee ii i?e oaeii
eiio?iea i?eaueue caaeneo io oiai, aaea i?ieaeao e?eaay ATC. A iaoai
neo/aa iia ieacaeanue ieaea e?eaie D a oi/ea eanaiey iineaaeiae n e?eaie
IN. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iiiiiieeno aoaeao ana oaee ecaeaeaoue i?eaueue i?e
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa Qa. Aa aaee/eia ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee iaicia/aia
io?aceii PfPeEF. A oaeeo neo/ayo aiai?yo i ii?iaeueiie, eee
“ni?aaaaeeeaie” i?eauee iiiiiieenoa. Eae aeaeii, iia ai?acaei iaiueoa
o?iaiy, niioaaonoaothuaai neooaoeee, eiaaea iiiiiieeno ia
eiio?iee?iaaeny. Anee aea a oi/ea eanaiey MC e D e?eaay ATC ieaaeaony
auoa D, iiiiiieeno auioaeaeai aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoue naaa a oauoie. *oiau
i?eaueue ana aea iiyaeeanue, aio i?eaeaony caiyoueny nieaeaieai
ecaea?aeae e naaanoieiinoe, iiauoay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea eee
oiiaeiioaea/o oae, /oiau e?eaay ATC iionoeeanue ieaea D a oi/ea MC=D.

Iiiiiieeno iiaeao oaaee/eoue naie i?eauee, caieiaynue oeaiiaie
aeene?eieiaoeeae, i?e oneiaee, anee aio oaeanony auaeaeeoue iieoiaoaeae
ia iniiaa ?acee/iie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e i?iaeoeo eee oneoaa ia iiaoo
eaaei ia?aiauaiu iaaeaeo eciee?iaaiiuie ?uieaie. I?e anao i?i/eo ?aaiuo
oneiaeyo caieiathueeny aeene?eieiaoeeae iiiiiieeno aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoue
aieueoee iauai i?iaeoeoeee, /ai ia caieiathueeyny aeene?eieiaoeeae
iiiiiieeno.

?anniio?ei oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia ?uiea iiiiiieenoe/aneie
eiieo?aioeee. Enoiaeiue oneiaey: e?eaay ni?ina aeey oe?iu ia niaiaaeaao
n e?eaie io?aneaaiai ni?ina, ii e ia yaeyaony ai?eciioaeueiie e?eaie,
eae i?e eiieo?aioeee niaa?oaiiie. Iaeeii e?eaie – iaiaa e?ooie, /ai o
iiiiiieueiie oe?iu, ii ana-oaee ninoaaeyao iieiaeeoaeueiue oaie n inueth
O, oae eae oe?ia ia ?uiea iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee iaeaaeaao
iaeioi?ie aeanoueth. ?anniio?ei ?en.3.3.

E?eaay ?uii/iiai ni?ina D1 eiaao iaeeii aiec, ii ia niaiaaeaao n
e?eaie MR, iaeeii eioi?ie – aieaa e?ooie. Iaeneiece?othuay i?eaueue
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa Qm iaoiaeeony a oi/ea ia?ana/aiey MC e MR.
Iineieueeo niioaaonoaothuay oeaia i?aauoaao n?aaeiea iauea ecaea?aeee
(ATC), oe?ia ca?aaaouaaao i?eaueue, iaicia/aiioth i?yiioaieueieeii. Aei
neo ii? yoio ?enoiie iioiae ia i?aaeuaeouee. Iaeiaei e?eaay ni?ina, n
eioi?ui noaeeeaaaony i?iaeaaaoe a oneiaeyo iiiiiieenoe/aneie
eiieo?aioeee iaiiiai aieaa yeanoe/ia, /ai i?e /enoie iiiiiieee, iioiio
/oi i?iaeaaaoe a oneiaeyo /enoie eiieo?aioeee noaeeeaaaony n
ioiineoaeueii aieueoei /eneii eiieo?aioia, i?iecaiaeyueo acaeii
caiaiythuea oiaa?u. Oaia?ue i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eiieo?aioeey iaino?yaony,
e aeaaiaea?y eaaeiio aeinooio ia ?uiie a niia?ie/anoai aeeth/athony
iiaue oe?iu. Ii ia?a auionea eie iiauo oiaa?ia oe?ia aoaeao oa?youe
naith aeieth ?aaeecaoeee ia ?uiea, e aa e?eaay ni?ina aoaeao niauaoueny
aiec, aeiionoei, aei iieiaeaiey D2. Caeanue oe?ia oaea aoaeao ianoe
oauoee. I/aaeaeii, /oi oe?ia aoaeao iinoaaeyoue oiaa?u ia ?uiie aei oao
ii?, iiea aa yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue noaiao ?aaiie ioeth.

Ia ?en.3.4 a oi/ea A ioia/aii ninoiyiea oe?iu, eiaaea iia
iaoiaeeony iieo/aao ioeaaoth i?eaueue, oae eae e?eaay n?aaeieo
ecaea?aeae eeoue nii?eeanaaony n e?eaie ni?ina. Oio oaeo, /oi e?eaay AON
ieaaea ia iioneaaony ieaea e?eaie D2, ia iicaieyao oe?ia iaaeayoueny ie
ia eaeoth i?eaueue, a eeoue ieieiecaoeeth oauoeia a oi/ea A. I?eiyoi
n/eoaoue, /oi a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e
aacoauoi/iinoe oe?i, aeaenoaothueo ia ?uieao iiiiiieenoe/aneie
eiieo?aioeee. Ethaia ioeeiiaiea io ?aaiiaaney iiaeao i?eaanoe oe?io e
oauoeai. A neo/aa iieo/aiey i?eaueae a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea (e?eaay D1
ia ?en.3) iiaeii iaeeaeaoue, /oi yeiiiie/aneea auaiaeu aoaeao
i?eaeaeaoue iiauo eiieo?aioia, aiciiaeii aei oaeie noaiaie, /oi oe?ia
noaiao oa?iaoue oauoee (e?eaay D2 ia ?en.3.3). A neo/aa aacoauoi/iinoe
en/aciooue noeioeu, aeey anooieaiey a io?aneue aua aieueoaai /enea oe?i.
A neo/aa iieo/aiey oauoeia a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea iiaeao i?iecieoe
iooie eiieo?aioia ec io?anee, /oi i?eaaaeao e oiaiueoaieth
eiieo?e?othueo i?iaeoeoia e oaaee/aieth aeiee ?uiea o inoaaoeony oe?i,
/oi i?eaaaeao e oiio, /oi oauoee iinoaiaiii onooiyo ianoi ii?iaeueiui
i?eaueyi.

Oaeei ia?acii, a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea oe?ia, aeaenoaothuay a
oneiaeyo iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee, iiaeao eeai iieo/eoue
yeiiiie/aneoth i?eaueue, eeai noieeiooueny n oauoeaie. A aeieain?i/iii
aea ieaia yoe eieaaaiey au?aaieaathony e onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaanea a
oii neo/aa, eiaaea e?eaay ni?ina yaeyaony eanaoaeueiie e e?eaie n?aaeieo
ecaea?aeae (?en.4). Eae eaaei caiaoeoue ii yoiio ?enoieo, ethaie, e?iia
QB, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaiaeeo oe?io e oauoeai. A neo/aa ?aaiiaaney a
aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea ?uiie iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee aoaeao a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie iaiiieiaoue ?uiie niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, ioee/ea
ninoieo eeoue a ia aaniethoii yeanoe/iie e?eaie ni?ina a ia?aii neo/aa.

Ia yoii i?eia?a i/aiue oi?ioi i?iyaeyaony i?aaeei aoiaea iiauo
oe?i ia ?uiie e auoiaea ec iaai. Iiyaeaiea oe?i a io?anee, eae e auoiae
ec iaa, ?aaoee?oaony aaee/eiie i?eauee, ia iieo/aiea eioi?ie iiaeii
?ann/eouaaoue. Anee i?eaueue auoa aeinoeaiooie oe?iaie i?e iaeeo/oai
aeueoa?iaoeaiii eniieueciaaiee eo eaieoaea, i?iecieaeao i?eoie oe?i a
io?aneue, anee ieaea – iooie. Niioaaonoaaiii io?aneue aoaeao
iaoiaeeoueny a ?aaiiaanee eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iiaui oe?iai aoaeao
iaauaiaeii a iae iiyaeyoueny, a noa?ui – ec iaa auoiaeeoue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eioeei iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee ?aaoee?oao
?ani?aaeaeaiea eaieoaeia ii noa?ai i?eeiaeaiey oi/ii oae aea, eae ii
?aaoee?oao ?aoaiey a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa e oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Oae
iae?iyeiiiieea niueaaony n iee?iyeiiiieeie, oae ?aaioaao ?uii/iue
iaoaieci.

Inoaaony aua ?anniio?aoue iiaeaeue ?uiea ieeaiiieee. Aei neo ii?
iao aaeeiie oai?ee ieeaiiieee, a nouanoaotho ianeieueei aa iiaeaeae. Yoi
naycaii n oai, /oi ieeaiiieey caieiaao eae au i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo iiaeaeyie /enoie iiiiiieee e iiiiiieenoe/aneie
eiieo?aioeee.Nouanoaoao, iai?eia?, e “aeanoeay” ieeaiiieey, i?e eioi?ie
aeaa eee o?e oe?iu aeaeyo aanue ?uiie , e “?anieua/aoay”, eiaaea,
neaaeai, oanoue-naiue oe?i aeaeyo 70% ?uiea, a oi a?aiy eae ia
iiiaeanoai iaeeeo oe?i i?eoiaeeony anaai 30%. Ieeaiiieey aeeth/aao e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth i?iaeoeoa, e noaiaea?oecaoeeth. Iia ioaaouaaao eae
neo/ae, eiaaea oe?ia aeaenoaotho a oaeiii naiai?a, oae e oa, a eioi?uo
iie aunooiatho iacaaeneii. Aa?uea?u aeey aoiaea iiaoo auoue ?aciuie ii
i?i/iinoe. O.a. aaeeiiai iaoaiecia iiaaaeaiey ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo oe?i ia
nouanoaoao. Anaiauay caaeneiinoue e iaiiiai/eneaiiinoue, ianiiniaiinoue
oe?i i?aaeneacaoue n oaa?aiiinoue ioaaoiua aeaenoaey aa eiieo?aioia
aeaeaao oaeoe/anee iaaiciiaeiui ioeaieoue ni?in e i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae,
n eioi?ui noaeeeaaaony ieeaiiieeno.

Iu ?anniio?ei aeaa iiaeaee ieeaiiieee: oeaiiia?aciaaiea,
iaoneiaeaiiia oaeiui niaeaoaieai, e iiaeaeue eiio?iey oeai e ecaea?aeae.
Ia?aay iiaeaeue aeiaieueii i?inoi, iioiio /oi i?aeoe/anee niaiaaeaao n
iiaeaeueth /enoie iiiiiieee. Anee, aeiionoei, o?e oe?iu A,A,A yaeythony
iieiuie oicyaaaie io?anee e i?iecaiaeyo iaeii?iaeioth i?iaeoeoeeth, oi
eaaeaeay ec ieo iinea caeeth/aiiiai oaeiiai niaeaoaiey aoaeao
no?aieoueny oaea?aeeaaoue naith e?eaoth ni?ina eae /enoue iiiiiieeno.
Yoa e?eaay e iineaaeothuee iaoaieci oeaiiia?aciaaiey oaea iieacaiu (ni.
?en.3.2). Eiia/ii eaeay-oi oe?ia iiaeao iiaeaeaoueny eneooaieth nieceoue
oeaio, a yoii neo/aa niia?ieee iioa?ytho aeieth ?uiea e eo e?eaua ni?ina
iieaeoo eaaaa; ii oiaaea e iie naie /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy noaioo
nieaeaoue oeaiu, /oiau oaea?aeaoueny ia ?uiea. Anee aeiaiai? i oeaiao
e?aiie, oi ?en.3.2 aoaeao aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaoue neooaoeeth ia
ieeaiiieenoe/aneii ?uiea. I?aiyonoaeyie aeey iniiaaiiie ia oaeiii
naiai?a ieeaiiieee yaeythony ?acee/ey a ni?ina e ecaea?aeeao, iaee/ea
aieueoiai /enea oe?i, iioaiie/anoai iin?aaenoaii oeaiiauo neeaeie,
yeiiiie/aneea niaaeu e aioeo?anoianeea caeiiu.

Aoi?ay iiaeaeue aieaa eioa?ania. Ionoue io?aneue oaeaea ninoieo ec
3-o oe?i A,A,A. Nouanoaoao aeaa aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioa ?aaae?iaaiey
eiieo?aioia iaeiie ec yoeo oe?i i?e eciaiaiee aa oeaiu. Iaeia ec
aiciiaeiinoae naiaeeony e oiio, /oi anee oe?ia A iiieceo oeaio, oi A e A
iineaaeotho aa i?eia?o e iiyoiio aic?inoee aneaaenoaea iiieaeaiey oeaiu
ni?in ?ani?aaeaeeony iaaeaeo anaie oe?iaie, e oe?ia, eioi?ay ia?aie
iiieceea oeaio, aeinoaiaony eeoue /anoue aic?inoaai ni?ina. A anee yoa
aea oe?ia iiauneo oeaio, ae?oaea oe?iu iiaoo e ia iineaaeiaaoue ca iae,
iiyoiio ni?in ia aa i?iaeoeoeeth nie?aoeony aieaa ?acei, /ai yoi
i?iecioei au a neo/aa iauaai iiauoaiey oeaiu(?en.3.5).

Ec a?aoeea aeaeii, /oi eaaeaeie oe?ia a oneiaeyo ieeaiiieenoe/aneie
no?oeoo?u ?uiea e?eaie ni?ina DD1 (ii ioiioaieth e oi/ea A, o.a. o?iaith
onoaiiaeaoaeny oeaiu ?0) i?aaenoaaeyaony a noi?iio iiauoaiey oeaiu
i/aiue yeanoe/iie (iieiaie) – io?acie ED. A noi?iio aea iiieaeaiey oeaiu
– iayeanoe/iie (aieaa e?ooie) – io?acie ED1. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, a oi/ea E
onoaiiaeaoaeny io?aneaaie oeaiu e?eaay ni?ina oe?iu-ieeaiiieenoa eiaao
ia?aaea, iaoneiaeeaathuee onoie/eainoue io?aneaaie oeaiu.

Yoa onoie/eainoue, eee aeanoeinoue ieeaiiieueiie oeaiu (ia o?iaia
?0) aoaeao iiiyoiaa, anee aieiaoaeueii ?anniio?aoue e?eaoth
i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea ieeaiiieee. I?eaeiaeueiiio oa?aeoa?o “eiiaiie
e?eaie” ni?ina niioaaonoaoao e naiaia?aciay eiioeao?aoeey e?eaie
i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea ieeaiiieee, ninoiyuay ec o?ao io?aceia: MR, AB,
MR1. Iniaaiii eioa?anai io?acie AA, i?aaenoaaeaiiue a aeaea
aa?oeeaeueiie eeiee. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, nouanoaotho ?acee/ey a
yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth ieeaiiieeee a noi?iio iiauoaiey
(auoa ?0) e a noi?iio iiieaeaiey oeaiu (ieaea ?0). Yoe ?acee/ey e
i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi e?eaay i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea eiaao ?ac?ua,
i?aaenoaaeaiiue aa?oeeaeueiui io?aceii AA. A i?aaeaeao yoiai io?acea
e?eaay i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae iiaeao niauaoueny e aaa?o, e aiec, ii yoi
ia iiaeeyao ia o?iaaiue neiaeeaoaeny ieeaiiieueiie oeaiu P0: ia?ana/aiea
aa?oeeaeueiiai io?acea i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea e e?eaie MC ana a?aiy
aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ia iaeiii e oii aea o?iaia (?0) e iaeciaiiii iauaia
auionea i?iaeoeoeee (Q0).

N?aaenoaii, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ieeaiiieenou iiaoo
eii?aeeie?iaaoue naia iiaaaeaiea a iaeanoe oeai, ia anooiay a i?yiie
oaeiue naiai?, yaeyaony eeaea?noai a oeaiao, i?e eioi?ii e?oiiaeoay eee
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiay oe?ia a io?anee i?aaei?eieiaao eciaiaiea oeai, a
ae?oaea oe?iu neaaeotho ca iae.

I?e oeaiiia?aciaaiee ii i?eioeeio “ecaea?aeee iethn”, eee iaeeaeee,
ieeaiiieenou aeey oiai, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue oeaio, ioeaieaatho naie
ecaea?aeee ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee i?e iaeioi?ii ieaiiaii o?iaia
i?iecaiaenoaa e aeiaaaeytho “iaeeaeeo” a ?acia?a ii?aaeaeaiiiai
i?ioeaioa.

?anniio?ei eae aea oai?ey i?iyaeyaony ia i?aeoeea:

O?iaaiue oeai, eae aeaeii, yaeyaony iaaeaaeiui eiaeeeaoi?ii
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eiieo?aioeee, ii e?aeiae ia?a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua
iieiaeaiey, eanathueany eiieo?aioeee, aace?othony ia yoie oi/ea c?aiey.
Iaeiaei i?aaei?eyoey ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ecaaaatho aa?anneaiie oeaiiaie
iieeoeee. I?e/eia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iie aiyony naiae oycaeiinoe
eae ?ac a yoie noa?a, iineieueeo eiieo?aiou iiaoo ioaaoeoue aeanoei e
auno?i. Oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey iiaeao a ethaie iiiaio noaoue
?ac?ooeoaeueiie ni anao noi?ii. E?iia oiai, iiieaeaiea oeai iinea eo
iiauoaiey ia?aoeii eeoue n aieueoei o?oaeii. Nei?inoue ?aaeoeee
eiieo?aioia ia eciaiaiea oeai aic?anoaao n oeo/oaieai naoae
eiiioieeaoeee. I?aaei?eyoey iuoathony ecaaaeaoue oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee n
iiiiuueth aeiaiai?ia, i?aaeaea anaai iooai caeeth/aiey oeaiiauo
ea?oaeae, n?aaee eioi?uo iniaaiii aeaenoaaiiuie yaeythony neiaeeeaou. Eo
/eaiu ioeacuaathony io nianoaaiiie ?aaiou ia ?uieao nauoa e i?iaeatho
oiaa? (iaeii?iaeiua i?iaeoeou oeia oaey, oaeia?aiee) /a?ac
oeaio?aeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth. Iiaeiaii ea?oaeueiui aeiaiai?ai
aeaenoaotho oaeiue niaeaoaiey, ia?aeeaeueiia (aaeeiiia?aciia) iiaaaeaiea
eiieo?aioia, a oaeaea i?eciaiea aaaeouae ?iee e?oiiaeoaai eiieo?aioa.

Aeieaia a?aiy nouanoaiaaei iiaiea, /oi oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey
aa?aioe?iaaia a oao io?aneyo, aaea eiaaony iiiai iaeeiaeiauo e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eae ?ac i?aaei?eyoey yoeo io?aneae
neeiiythony e iaoeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee.

A ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo oneiaeyo oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey au?aaeaaony n
?aciie eioaineaiinoueth. Yoa no?oeoo?a ?uiea iaei, /oi aiai?eo i neea
eiieo?aioeee. Oa?aeoa?iu a?aiy io a?aiaie i?ienoiaeyuea oeaiiaua aieiu,
eioi?ua, eae i?aaeei, eii/athony /a?ac ei?ioeia a?aiy. A i?iiaaeooea
iaaeaeo ieie iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue noieeiiaaiey ae?oaiai ?iaea, iai?eia?
?aeeaiiua aaoaeee.

Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e oi?aiaeae. I?iecaiaeeoaeue oioae au eiio?iee?iaaoue
aeaa oeaiu: iioiaoth e ?icie/ioth oeaio. Au?o/ea aai caaeneo io ia?aie
oeaiu. ?icie/iay oeaia aeeyao ia iiceoee?iaaiea oiaa?a.
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiiaeo ainoaea?noa cae?aieyao i?aai oi?ie?iaaiey
?icie/iie oeaiu ca i?aaei?eyoeyie ?icie/iie oi?aiaee. Yoi ia?aie/eaaao
aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaey. Ii iiaeao i?aaeiieiaeeoue, eaeoth oeaio
iacia/eo oi?aiaey i?e iau/iie oi?aiaie iaoeaiea e aai iioiaie oeaia.
Iaeiaei ii ia iiaeao eneeth/eoue, /oi iaeioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaee
eniieuecotho aai oiaa? a ea/anoaa i?eiaiee, /oiau i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue
auaiaeiinoue iieoiie o ieo. Ae?oaea i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo iineaaeiaaoue eo
i?eia?o. Oaeei ia?acii, oeaia oiaa?a iionoeony aei oaeiai o?iaiy,
eioi?ue ia niioaaonoaoao eiioeaioeee ia?eaoeiaa i?iecaiaeeoaey. Oeaia,
?aeiiaiaeoaiay i?aaei?eyoeai, iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia oi?aiaeae aeey
iieaca auaiaeiinoe oi?aiauo oeai (/a?ac iiieaeaiea oeai ii n?aaiaieth n
?aeiiaiaeoaiuie).

Oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey i?ienoiaeeo ia noaaie?othueo ?uieao,
o/anoieee eioi?iai caeioa?aniaaiu a nio?aiaiee naieo aeieae ?uiea.
I?eia?ii oiio yaeythony e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee
(iio?aaeoaeueneea ?uiee). N iiiiuueth ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i eiiia?aoeee
iaeua i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaee iuoathony aeinoe/ue oaeeo i?aeiouanoa a
?aoeeiiaeecaoeee niaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iicaieeee au ei aeinoieii
ano?aoeoue no?aoaaee e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ae.2. Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey eiieo?aioeee e ?uii/iiai
oeaiiia?aciaaiey a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea

41. I?iaeaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey eiieo?aioeee ia i?ioeann oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

Aiai?y i ?uiea, ia?aaeei, /oi iiaeii oaeaeaoue ii iiiaei
ioaeeeaoeeyi, iiae?acoiaaatho iiae yoei oieueei oiaa?iue ?uiie, oi anoue
noa?o onoie/eaiai iaiaia i?iaeoeoeeae e oneoaaie (i?aaeiaoaie
iio?aaeaiey e n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa). ?acaeoua ?uii/iua ioiioaiey
i?aaeiieaaatho iinoiyiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea e acaeiinaycue ?uiea oiaa?ia e
?uieia eaieoaea, o?oaea, e?aaeeoiiai e aaethoiiai, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo
iaania/eaaaony ia?aiauaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. Aiaoiei i?iyaeaieai
yoeo noa? ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee yaeythony oiaa?iiaiaiiua ae?aee, oiiaeiaay
e aaethoiua ae?aee, ae?aea o?oaea, ?acaaoaeaiiay e?aaeeoii-aaieianeay e
aaethoii-oeiainiaay nenoaiu.

Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea yeiiiieeie iniiaaii ia ae?oaeo
i?eioeeiao. Ia i?eciaaay e aeaaea i?eciaaay iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, iii i?aaeiieaaaao ?aciauaiea, ni/aoaiea e
eniieueciaaiea iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa (iaoa?eaeueiuo e
oeiainiai-aeaiaaeiuo, i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e ?aai/ae neeu), niaeanii
oaceno i aieaa iieiii o/aoa eioa?ania iauanoaa, ec aaeeiiai oeaio?a,
naiaey ia iao caeii noieiinoe, iaoaiecia oeai eae ?aaoeyoi?a
i?iecaiaenoaa. O/ao ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aa?auaaony i?e oaeii
iiaeoiaea a aeiaaeueioth caaea/o, ii?aaeaeyaioth aee?aeoeaie i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe “iiauoaiey aeaaininoiyiey o?oaeyueony” e cae?aieyaioth a
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ieaiiauo caaeaieyo, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo i?aaei?eyoeyi,
io?aneyi e ?aaeiiai. Oi?aaeythuea no?oeoo?u (aaeieieno?aoeaiua,
ieaie?othuea) noaiiayony caaiii, iiin?aaenoaothuei i?iecaiaeeoaey e
iio?aaeoaey e ii?aaeaeythuei iauaiu e ninoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e
iio?aaeaiey, a oai naiui e i?iii?oeee iaiaia. Iauaeoeaii (yeiiiie/anee,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii e oaoie/anee) yoie noaia niioaaonoaotho iaeiiiaeaeaeiua
(“noaaeeueiua”, “iaeciaiiua”) oeaiu, onoaiaaeeaaaiua naa?oo a
oeaio?aeeciaaiiii ii?yaeea. Enoiaey ec yoiai n/eoaeinue, /oi a iaoae
no?aia nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu eiieo?aioeee ia eiatho i?aeoe/aneiai
cia/aiey a aeayoaeueiinoe nioeeaeenoe/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee. Aua a ia/aea
80-o aiaeia ainiiaenoaiaaei iiaiea, /oi aii?inu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?iu
a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an eeoue aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
oao iaoeo i?aaei?eyoee, i?iaeoeoeey eioi?uo auoiaeeo ia aiaoiea ?uiee.

Neiaeeaoayny a no?aia nenoaia oeai auea iino?iaia eiaiii ia oaeeo
i?eioeeiao ieaiiaiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey. A iniiaa aa eaaeao oaa?aeua
i?aeneo?aiou oeai, onoaiaaeeaaaiua a iniiaiii ainoaea?noaii. Oae, aei
1990 aiaea oeaio?aeueiuie e ?anioaeeeaineeie i?aaiaie ooaa?aeaeaeinue
90% oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey e 86%
– ia oiaa?u ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey.

A yoeo oneiaeyo i?iaeoeoeey ?aaeeciauaaeanue eeoue ii oeaiai,
caoeene?iaaiiui a i?aeneo?aioa. Eciaiaiea oeaiu aiciiaeii oieueei n
?ac?aoaiey i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey. Oeaia yaeyaony iaeciaiiie a oa/aiee
ianeieueeeo eao. Eciaiaiea oeai, eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeyaony iooai eo
aaeeiia?aiaiiiai ia?aniio?a. Enoiaeiie aacie oeai yaeyeenue “iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiua” cao?aou, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeeo naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa, ?ann/eouaaaiay eae n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay aaee/eia.

Ec neacaiiiai iao?oaeii iiiyoue, /oi ?uii/iia e oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ”
i?aeneo?aioiia oeaiiia?aciaaiea ianiaianoeiu. Cia/eo, ia?aoiae e ?uieo
o?aaoao ei?aiiuo eciaiaiee a nenoaia oeai, ioaaouaathueo i?aaeaea anaai
iaoaieci oeaiiia?aciaaiey, ii iaecaaaeii iaoneaaeeaathueo nouanoaaiiua
naeaeae a i?iii?oeeyo e o?iaiyo oeai. Ii yoi ia?ac?uaii naycaii n
ninoiyieai yeiiiieee, aa no?oeoo?ie, nenoaiie oicyenoaaiiuo naycae.

Aiaae?aiea ?uii/iuo i?eioeeiia oi?ie?iaaiey oeai i?aaeiieaaaao
acaeiioaycaiioth ia?ano?ieeo anaai oeaiiaiai iaoaiecia iioiauo,
caeoii/iuo, ?icie/iuo oeai e oa?eoia.

E?iia ia?aniio?a iniia oeaiiia?aciaaiey, naycaiiiai n aiaae?aieai
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoi?iu oeai aeeeoiaaeanue
iaaeinoaoeaie, naycaiiuie n onoa?aieai oeai, ia?ooaieai i?iii?oeee,
niioiioaiee oeai e o.ae. Iai?eia?, iioiaua oeaiu ioi?aaeenue io naiae
aacu. Iiiaea ec ieo ia iie?uaatho cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee.
Oeaiu ia oaieue, iaooue, aac e yeaeo?iyia?aeth ia iaania/eaaee
naiioeiaine?iaaiey oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneiai eiiieaena, nicaeaaaee
eeethceth aeaoeaeciu e iaenoiueiinoe i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, ia i?eaioe?oy
i?aaei?eyoey ia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee. Iioiaua
oeaiu ia i?iaeoeoeeth iaoeiino?iaiey au?inee ia a ia?o aa ea/anoaa e
iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa, a aiciauay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua cao?aou
i?aaei?eyoee, neeaaeuaathueany a ?acoeueoaoa aacoicyenoaaiiinoe,
iayeiiiiiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey oiieeaa, yia?aee, nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

Iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue oaeoth nenoaio oeai, eioi?ay au iieiinoueth
io?aaeaea cao?aou, iieii/eea n ?ac?uaii noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa e
iio?aaeaiey e iaania/eea yeiiiie/aneee aaeain eioa?ania i?iecaiaeeoaey e
iio?aaeoaey, yeaeaaeaioiinoue a ioeaiea o?oaea eae a i?iecaiaenoaa, oae
e ia ?uiea.

Aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay nenoaia oaeoe/anee eoeueoeae?iaaea
iiiiiieeci.

Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea e yeiiiie/aneay iuneue a iaoae no?aia, e
niaeaeaieth, eiaee eeethci?iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, eae aoaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue ia?aoiae e ?uieo. Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy n/eoaeinue, /oi
no?aia aua aeieai aoaeao cae?uoa io eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee e eo?n
iaoae aaethou aoaeao eneonnoaaiii caieaeai ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o.
Iaeiaei aeeciue iieacaea, /oi aeinoaoi/ii auno?i, aoeaaeueii a oa/aiee
iieooi?a eao yoio oaeoi? i?aeoe/anee naaaeai e ioeth. E naaiaeiy iaoa
ia?iaeiia oicyenoai noieeioeinue n oaeoi?ii iaeanoi/aiiie eiino?aiiie
eiieo?aioeee. Ii a noa?a i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee e a
yeiiiie/aneie iunee yoi ionoaaaiea aua aeieai nio?aiyeinue, e
i?iaeieaeaeenue aeeneonnee i oii, eae ai?ioueny n iiiiiieeciii. A
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ianiio?y ia iiiiiieueiinoue /anoue i?aaei?eyoee ia
iieo/aao i?eauee. Iai?eia?, naeueoiciaoeiino?iaiea. Iaeii i?aaei?eyoea
i?iecaiaeeo ea?oioaeaoai?i/iua eiiaaeiu, iaeii – eueiioai?i/iua, aeaa –
ca?iioai?i/iua. E ana aea iie oauoi/iua. Oa aea neooaoeey a
noaieino?iaiee, iaoeiino?iaiee e o.ae.

A iaoae no?aia a eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai noi?ie?iaaeny i?ioeann
onoie/eaiai iia?aaeathuaai ?inoa oeai ii n?aaiaieth n ?inoii aeioiaeia.
Yoi i?eaaei e iinoiyiiiio nieaeaieth ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, a caoai
e e iaaeaieth iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e/eiie oaeiai iieiaeaiey yaeeanue
iaaiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey a iaoae yeiiiieea a ei?ioeea n?iee
eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu, aeey oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?ie iaiaoiaeeiu ia?iiiua
n?aaenoaa. Ca n/ao yoeo n?aaenoa iiaeii auei au inouanoaeoue
?aeiino?oeoeeth i?aaei?eyoee, nieceoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oeaiu
ia i?iaeoeoeeth, oai naiui ?anoe?ea ni?in. A yoio ia?eiae iaiaoiaeeii
auei au ianuoeoue ?uiie oiaa?aie i?e ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiuo oeaiao ia
nieaeay aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey, e iaeiia?aiaiii oaeiaeaoai?eoue
iio?aaiinoue a i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee, iaania/eaay
aiciiaeiinoe noaaeeueiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoee. Oieueei i?e oaeeo oneiaeyo
i?aaei?eyoey iiaee anooieoue a eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao ia iniiaa
niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e nieaeaiey aai ecaea?aeae. E
niaeaeaieth, yeiiiieea ?innee ia ?aniieaaaao oaeeie aiciiaeiinoyie, a
iaauaiioth eiino?aiioth iiiiuue a iaiaoiaeeiii iauaia iia ia iieo/eea.

Nae/an noi?ie?iaaeny yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci, a eioi?ii eaaeaeie
i?aaei?eyoea auioaeaeaii aanoe naay eae iiiiiieeno: iiauoaoue oeaiu e
nie?auaoue i?iecaiaenoai, /oiau iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue
ca?aaioiie ieaou e i?eauee. Eiaiii yoio i?ioeann ?inoa oeai yaeyaony
iniiaiie i?e/eiie eioeyoeee.

Aiciiaeiinoue iiauoaiey o?iaiy oeai i?aaei?eyoeyie, iaeiaei,
naea?aeeaaaony nouanoaothuei ni?inii e caeanue iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie
aicieeaao eiieo?aioeey, /oiau a iaeiaiueoae noaiaie iiauneoue naie
oeaiu. Yoa eiieo?aioeey aicieeaao i?aaeaea anaai a i?iecaiaenoaa
eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee, ii aiciiaeiinoe i?aaei?eyoey aanueia ia?aie/aiu.
Ai-ia?auo, o ieo i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaotho eaeea-eeai iaeiieaiey ia
aeaeueiaeoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea e ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, eai i?eaueue
eaeao i?aaeaea anaai ia iio?aaeaiea, ai-aoi?uo – eioeyoeey auno?i
iaanoeaieaaao iaeiieaiey; a-o?aoueeo – a oneiaeyo nieaeathuaainy ni?ina
ionoonoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaenoaa e a-/aoaa?ouo,
?acia?u oaei?iaeaiee iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia ianoieueei
cia/eoaeueiu, /oi ia iiaoo auoue i?aiaeieaiu oieueei ca n/ao
niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?i?aeoi? Aunoae oeieu yeiiiieee ii iao/iui aii?inai A.sseiaeaa,
ioeaieaay aeeyiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo oaiaeaioeee ia eiieo?aioioth
neooaoeeth a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea a 1992-1994 aa, auaeaeee 4 aeaaiuo
oaeoi?a, i?aiyonoaothueo eee niinianoaothueo oi?ie?iaaieth a ?innee
eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao:

– i?iiuoeaiiue niaae, nie?auaiea ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina e
niioonoaothuea ei e?eceniua yaeaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa`;

– aunieoth eioeyoeeth e oeiainiaoth ianoaaeeueiinoue;

– aeinoaoi/ii eeaa?aeueiia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea e
iinoaiaiiia naeeaeaiea aioo?aiieo e ie?iauo oeai;

– einoeoooeeiiaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey.

Aiaeec ninoiyiey eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu ia ?uieao oiaa?ia e
oneoa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ianiio?y ia i?eaaoecaoeeth e naycaiiia n
iae ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea nee ia ?uiea, ia o?iaia iiaeio?aneae ia?aaeei
iaaethaeathony i/aiue aunieea iieacaoaee eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa –
/oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aunieii o?iaia iiiiiieecia. Oae, a oeie/aneie e
iaooaoeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ec 29 iiaeio?aneae 10 ioiinyony e
aunieieiioeaio?e?iaaiiui, oi anoue aeiey o?ao e?oiiaeoeo i?aaei?eyoee
i?aauoaao 68% i?iecaiaeeiie iiaeio?aneueth i?iaeoeoeee. A iaoeiino?iaiee
e iaoaeiia?aaioea oi aea iiaeii neacaoue e i 32 ec 99 iiaeio?aneae. A
/a?iie iaoaeeo?aee – 3 ec 10, a oeaaoiie – 18 ec 23. A oiieeaiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 6 eo 13.

Nae/an aeaenoaotho aioeiiiiiieueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, Eiieoao ii
aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeea, Oeac I?aceaeaioa i nicaeaiee aiaathaeaeaoiuo
oiiaeia noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee.

42. Iniaaiiinoe oeaiiia?aciaaiey n oi/ee c?aiey eiieo?aioeee
a *oaaoneie ?anioaeeea

A *oaaoneie ?anioaeeea a oeaeii iaaethaeathony oa aea oaiaeaioeee a
eiieo?aioeee e oeaiiia?aciaaiee, /oi e ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a oeaeii.

Neooaoeeth n oeaiiia?aciaaieai a eiieo?aioiuo oneiaeyo oooaeoaao
oio oaeo, /oi eiathony oaeea e?oiiua iiiiiieenou eae i?aaei?eyoey
iieieiia?a?aaaouaathuae, oiaeaaiae/aneie io?aneae; oeaaicaaiaeu oaeaea
aeaenoaotho eae ieeaiiieenou i?e oaeiii naiai?a. Ia oeo/oatho neooaoeee
e iaee/ea oaeeo anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee eae aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiia
oicyenoai, o?ainii?o, naycue. Aio ianeieueei oeie/iuo i?eia?ia:

Iieiei e iiei/iua i?iaeoeou noiyo ia aoi?ii ianoa iinea oeaaa e a
iaaeaeaeea “canoieiua” a?aiaia auee naiuie aeinooiiuie aeey ianaeaiey.
Ii nae/an ni?in ia ieo oaea ia oio ec-ca iinoiyiii ?anooueo oeai.
Neiaeiinoe ni nauoii auioaeaeatho iiiaea iieieicaaiaeu naea?aeeaaoue ii
ia?a aiciiaeiinoe ?ino caeoii/iuo oeai ia nu?uea e aieueoiio
iaoaeiaieuenoaeth aai iinoaaueeia. Iaeiaei i/a?aaeiia oaei?iaeaiea
yeaeo?iyia?aee, aaca e aiaeu aea/ao ca niaie e iiaia eciaiaiea oeai ia
iieiei e i?iaeoeou aai ia?a?aaioee. Anee caoiaa?eaaiea iieieii, eae
i?aaeei, ia i?ienoiaeeo (“aaaeue ieoue-oi /oi-oi iaaei”), oi n ianeii
aicieeatho i?iaeaiu – ia 7 ieoya?y 1995 a. o /aaiena?neiai iieieicaaiaea
neiieeinue aai ia 2,5 ieeeea?aea ?oaeae. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aea aai iiea ia
i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca aieueoiai iauaia ia ianoiii ?uiea ianea Ia?eeneie
?anioaeeee. Ii/aio aea ai?iieieicaaiae auioaeaeai neoiaoue iieiei ii?ie
a oneiaeyo ia?aecauoea? Ana aeaei a oii, /oi iinoaaueee iieiea aeaaeatho
?aoathuei i?aaii aieina, oae eae iie aeaaeatho eiio?ieueiui iaeaoii
aeoeee, ca /oi a naia a?aiy oae ao?ii “aiaaae” n i?aaeoaeuenoaii
E?anoueyineee nithc *oaaoee. Aeoeee aeiaeeenue, a i naiai iaauaiee
aeoiaoue e ia eioa?anao iiauoaiey ni?ina ii/aio-oi caauee.

E?oiiaeoee a ?innee e Aa?iia oeie/aneee i?aaei?eyoea “Oeii?ii” ana
aeoeaiaa aeeth/aaony a eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao. Oae iii inaieei i?aia?aou,
iiauoathuea o?iaeaeiinoue ?anoaiee ia 10-35%. Naaanoieiinoue ia?aaioee
eioi?uie, ii n?aaiaieth n eiii?oiuie, ieaea a n?aaeiai a 10 ?ac. A
?acoeueoaoa ca?oaaaeiua eiiiaiee, ?aiaa iiiiiieueii iinoaaeythuea
aa?aeoeeaeu ia ?inneeneee ?uiie, noieeioeenue n ?aaeueiie iianiinoueth
iioa?youe aai. Ia aeaeay n yoei nie?eoueny iie ia/aee caieiaoueny
ia/anoiie eiieo?aioeeae: oaaeoea?neay oe?ia “Neaa Aaeaa” iiaeaioiaeea e
ioi?aaeea iio?aaeoaeyi e a Ieienoa?noai naeueneiai oicyenoaa ieiei 200
ienai n eiaeiie eioi?iaoeeae i i?iaeoeoa “Oeii?iia”. I?aaenoaaeoaeue
oe?iu “Iiioanaioi” (NOA) iauyaee i iaaeaeueiie iooaaea a Ia?eae anai ,
eoi eoieo aieaa 5 oiii aa?aeoeeaeia aai oe?iu. Iaeiaei, anee a yoie
“noaaoea” i?aaei?eyoea auoei iiaaaeeoaeai, oi a ae?oaie iia yaii
i?iea?aea – ia auaea?aeae oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee iya/eoaeue-iiiiia?,
i?eiaiyaiua i?e nicaeaiee ioeaiai?iaeaaaiuo aeeeaoia, ?aeaoiuo ei?ionia.
Oe?ia “Aethiii” aua?ineea ia ?inneeneee ?uiie naie i?iaeoeo ii aieaa
ieceei oeaiai.

*oaaoey yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei i?iecaiaeeoaeai oiaey. Yoi iiaoaeaeaao
ioaeaeueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae io?aneae aunooiaoue ia ?uiea ii?ie eae
iiiiiieenou. Oae, iai?eia?, a yoii aiaeo onoaiiaea ?aaeecaoeeiiioth
oeaio ia?aiia/aeii ia o?iaia 21740 ?oaeae ca eeeia?aii aaceniiai oiaey,
iie caeioa?aniaaee iiiaea ieacaaiaeu e oa a naith i/a?aaeue ia?a/eneeee
ei aaainu. Iaeiaei iiaunea oeaio aei 25-30 oun ?oaeae, yoe
i?iecaiaeeoaee ioioaioee ia oieueei naieo iieoiaoaeae, ii e eeeaioia
ae?oaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaeaaiae/aneie io?anee.

O.i. ec anaai auoa ia?a/eneaiiiai aeaeii, /oi a *oaaoee
oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia eiieo?aioiie iniiaa ?acaeoi iaaeinoaoi/ii, ai iiiaeo
io?aneyo i?aaei?eyoey oae e ia iao/eeenue i?eioeeiai ?uii/iiai
oeaiiia?aciaaiey e ia iiaoo anooieoue a ?aaiineeueioth ai?ueao ni naieie
eiieo?aioaie, iniaaiii n eiino?aiiuie.

Caeeth/aiea

E niaeaeaieth eeoue iaaeaaii iu iniciaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue
yeiiiie/aneiai ni?aaiiaaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eo eiieo?aioeee aeey
oniaoiiai ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Oaeay iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iauyniyaony i?aaeaea anaai iaaiciiaeiinoueth aoc aeaenoaaiiie nenoaiu
iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia. A iaaeaaiai i?ioeii aeiieie?iaaei no?aieaiea
noaeaeaoue noa?aeiai yoie nenoaiu noeioeu, onoaiaaeeaaaiua “naa?oo”, a
aee?aeoeaiii ii?yaeea. Ii yooaeoeaiinoue oaeie nenoaiu auea aanueia
ia?aie/aia.

Eiaiii i?eioaeeoaeueiay neea eiieo?aioeee iiaoaeaeaao oe?iu
i?aaei?eieiaoue yia?ae/iua oneeey, /oiau nieceoue naie ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa aei ieieiaeueiiai o?iaiy. Eiuie neiaaie, oa?ica
ia?iiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo iioa?ue ai iiiaeo neo/ayo canoaaeyao
i?aaei?eieiaoaey “aeiaeoueny iaaiciiaeiiai” e “iiaeiaiaoue” naie
ecaea?aeee e ieceei ?uii/iui oeaia.

Aeey ?acoeueoaoeaiiai ?aoaiey aii?inia oeaiiia?aciaaiey a oneiaeyo
eiieo?aioeee iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoueny a i?eioeeieaeueiii ieaia: eeai
iu, aua ia nicaeaa oneiaee aeey eiieo?aioeee, auaeaeaaai eae
ia?aii/a?aaeioth caaea/o a? ia?aie/aiea, eeai iu n/eoaai, /oi
eiieo?aioeeth oioy e ioaeii ?aaoee?iaaoue, ii a iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie
noaiaie nio?aiyy aa noeioee?othuoth ?ieue . Iianiinoue ia?aiai iiaeoiaea
nouanoaoao.

O ian io/aoeeai i?iyaeyaony no?aieaiea eae-oi iaieoe i?iaeaio
eiieo?aioeee. *anoi oi?ie?iaaiea ?uiea naycuaatho aeaaiui ia?acii ni
naiaiaeiui oeaiiia?aciaaieai. Yoi iaeii ec e?aeia oi?iuaiiuo iiieiaiee
?uiea: aeaaaeoa, iie, ioionoei oeaiu e naeaeaai iieiinoueth
naiinoiyoaeueiuie i?aaei?eyoey. Eoae, yeiau, i?eeaeai e ?uieo.

Yoi ia i?inoi caaaeoaeaeaiea, ii aoeueaa?ecaoeey iiiyoey ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee. Iniiaa ?uii/iie yeiiiieee – eiieo?aioeey. Oieueei ia oiia
?uii/iie eiieo?aioeee e “?aaioatho” naiaiaeiua oeaiu. Anee aeaoue oeaiai
naiaiaeo e nio?aieoue iiiiiieeci, oi yoi oooaeoeo iieiaeaiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?uii/iie yeiiiieee/O/. iiniaea.-*aaiena?u.-1995.

2. Aecian. Yeiiiieea. ?uiie./ Neiaa?ue oa?ieiia.-I.-1994.

3. Aaeueia?ei A.I., Eaiaoueaa N.I., Ii?aoiia A.E. Iee?iyeiiiieea: A 2-o
o.-NIa.-1994.O.1.

4. Aeeooaeue A., O??oaai O. I?aeoe/aneee ia?eaoeia.-I.-1995.

5. Aeieai Y.Ae. Iee?iyeiiiieea.-Nia.-1994.

6. Ea?eia E. Iieiei aiiaue iiaei?iaeaei//Niaaoneay *oaaoey.-?201.-1995.

7. Eo?n yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee /Iiae iauae ?aae. i?io. *aio?eia
I.I.:Ee?ia,1994.

8. Einaaa A. A nii?a oicyenoa n iieieicaaiaeii i?iea?ae
iieoiaoaeue//Niaaoneay *oaaoey.-?91.-1995.

9. Einaaa A. Oyioo aic, eae eaaaaeue, ?ae e uoea //Niaaoneay
*oaaoey.-?116.-1995.

10.Eueaia TH.A. Iniiau yeiiiieee e i?aaiecaoeee aeciana.-NIa.-1992.

11.Iaeeiiaee E.?., A?th N.E. Yeiiiieen: I?eioeeiu, i?iaeaiu e
iieeoeea.-I.: ?anioaeeea, 1992.

12.Iiaeeia A.A. ?aaoee?iaaiea oeai – oneiaea noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee
?innee//Oeiainu.-?10.-1994.

13.Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeaea.-I.-1992.

14.Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.-I.-1994.

15.Inieei A., Oi?ioaaeia I. Iiiiiieenoii auoue iiaeii. Ceioiio?aaeyoue
iaeuecy//Eiiia?naiou.-?34. -1995.

16.Iaeaeeaa E. Nioeeaeueiay caueoa – eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee// Yeiiiieno.-?5.-1994.

17.?uii/iay yeiiiieea:Iniiau aeciana-O.2 /.1.-I.-1992.

18.?uii/iay yeiiiieea:Iniiau aeciana-O.2 /.2.-I.-1992.

19.Naoei Ae. *oiau ia oicyeie/aee a /oaeii aeiia //Niaaoneay
*oaaoey.-?241.-1995.

20.Nieiaueaa A.,?uaaeeei A., Aeyeei A. Iniiau ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa.-I.-1992.

21.Noa?iaeoa?ianeay E. Io iiiiiieecia e eiieo?aioeee.-I.-1990.

22.Oineeia A. Eo?n i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.-I.-1993.

23.Yaain Aeae.I., Aa?iai A. Ia?eaoeia.-I.-1993.

24.sseiaeaa A. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea naeaeae e ?acaeoea eiieo?aioeee a
?inneeneie yeiiiieea //YEI.-?3.-1995.

\PAGE 15

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