.

Кейнсианские и неокейнсианские теории экономических циклов

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 844
Скачать документ

Oaeoeueoao iaiaaeaeiaioa

Iai?aaeaiea – “Iaiaaeaeiaio”

eo?n 1.

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii iae?iyeiiiieea

ia oaio:

Eaeineaineea e iaieaeineaineea oai?ee yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia

Auiieiee: Iaaeaaaeaa Ae.

I?iaa?eea: Oooa?i A. A.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

1997

Copyright © Aeaieea Iaaeaaaeaa, IMISP

NIAeA?AEAIEA

TOC \o “1-3” 1. Eiioeueniue iiaeoiae e iauyniaieth aecian-oeeeeia
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648614 PAGEREF _Toc390648614 3

2. Eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiioeuenu e eaeineaineay oai?ey aecian-oeeeea
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648615 PAGEREF _Toc390648615 3

2.1 Oeeee /enouo eiaanoeoeee a caianu GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648616
PAGEREF _Toc390648616 4

2.2 Iiaeaeue ioeueoeieeeaoi?a-aenaea?aoi?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648617
PAGEREF _Toc390648617 5

3. Iaieaeineaineea oai?ee iaaeaeinoe oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648618 PAGEREF _Toc390648618 5

3.1 O?oaeiaua eiio?aeou GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648619 PAGEREF
_Toc390648619 5

3.2 ?ieue i?ionithcia a onoaiiaeaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390648620 PAGEREF _Toc390648620 6

3.3 Iayaiua eiio?aeou GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648621 PAGEREF
_Toc390648621 7

3.4 Yooaeoeaiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648622 PAGEREF
_Toc390648622 7

3.5 Ecaea?aeee iaith e aiaoiea yooaeou niaieoiiiai ni?ina GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390648623 PAGEREF _Toc390648623 9

3.6 Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey e?oaeuo oeai) GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648624
PAGEREF _Toc390648624 10

3.7 Caiacaeuaaiea oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648625
PAGEREF _Toc390648625 10

3.8 Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey eieaeueiuo ?uieia) GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390648626 PAGEREF _Toc390648626 11

3.9 Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey eceeoea eaieoaea) GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390648627 PAGEREF _Toc390648627 11

3.10 Iie niia?aaeaiey (eae aicieeatho oeeeeu) GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648628
PAGEREF _Toc390648628 12

3.11 Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey iaia?aoeiinoe eiaanoeoeee) GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390648629 PAGEREF _Toc390648629 12

4. Aeaeeia?aoey GOTOBUTTON _Toc390648630 PAGEREF _Toc390648630 12

Eiioeueniue iiaeoiae e iauyniaieth aecian-oeeeeia

A iaeioi?uo ?aiieo enneaaeiaaieyo eieaaaiee aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaaeinue aeaoa?ieienoneei oai?eyi, niaeanii eioi?ui
yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu iiyaeythony ?aaoey?ii, i?e/ai aeey anao oeeeeia
oa?aeoa?iu iaeie e oa aea naienoaa.

Iaeiaei iicaeiaa auynieeinue, /oi aecian-oeeeeu ia aeaiiino?e?otho
ioaeiie ?aaoey?iinoe, /oi e iineoaeeei i?e/eiie ?acaeoey “eiioeueniuo
oai?ee” aecian-oeeeea. Niaeanii yoei oai?eyi, ec-ca aicaeaenoaey
neo/aeiuo eiioeuenia ia yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio i?ienoiaeeo oeeeee/iue
ioeeee, caoooathuee ni a?aiaiai. Iaeiaei aecian-oeeeeu aicieeatho
aiiaue, eae neaaenoaea iiyaeaiey iiauo eiioeuenia, ia?ooathueo
yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea. Oaeei ia?acii, oeeeee/iinoue ?acaeoey,
iaaethaeaaiay a yeiiiieea, anoue ?acoeueoao aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieeo
na?ee iineaaeiaaoaeueii aicieeathueo iacaaeneiuo eiioeuenia. Eaaeaeue ec
oaeiai ?iaea eiioeuenia, eee oieia, caoai ?ani?ino?aiyaony a yeiiiieea,
i?e/ai niinia ?ani?ino?aiaiey caaeneo io no?oeoo?u yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaiu.

Aeinoieinoaa: Nouanoaiaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, iniiaaiiuo ia yoie
oai?ee, aeathueo ?acoeueoaou noiaeea n ?aaeueiuie. Ianeiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, eaeea eiioeuenu aucuaatho eieaaaiey, /aai iaeuecy auei
neacaoue i aeaoa?ieienoneeo oai?eyo.

Yeiiiie/aneea eieaaaiey iiaoo aucuaaoueny oieaie o?ao oeiia:

oiee i?aaeeiaeaiey (oaoiieiae/aneea naeaeae, eeeiaoe/aneea eciaiaiey,
iiyaeaiea iiauo enoi/ieeia nu?uey, eee, iaiai?io, eo en/aciiaaiea)

iieeoe/aneea oiee (eieaaaiey iaiaiiiai eo?na, eieaaaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeaiaa, eciaiaiey a oeneaeueiie iieeoeea)

oiee ni?ina (eciaiaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eee iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia)

Eaeineaioeu o?aaeeoeeiiii oaeaeytho iniiaiia aieiaiea oieai ni?ina, a oi
a?aiy eae yeiiiienou eeanne/aneiai iai?aaeaiey iai?ioea, aieueoa
aieiaiey oaeaeytho oieai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiioeuenu e eaeineaineay oai?ey aecian-oeeeea

Nai Eaein n/eoae eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu iniiaiui enoi/ieeii
eiioeuenia, aucuaathueo yeiiiie/aneea eieaaaiey. Eaein iiae/a?eeaae, /oi
?aoaiey ia eiaanoeoeeyo caaenyo io iaeeaeaaiie i?eaueueiinoe, iaeiaei
naie yoe iaeeaeaiey, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaonoie/eau. Eaein, iienuaay
eciai/eainoue iaeeaeaiee, aiai?ee, /oi eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?aoaiey caaenyo
io “aeeaioiiai /oouey” i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, o.a., io eo iioeiecia eee
ianneiecia ioiineoaeueii aoaeouaai:

“Aa?iyoii, aieueoeinoai iaoeo ?aoaiee niaa?oeoue eaeia-eeai iiceoeaiia
aeaenoaea, ana iineaaenoaey eioi?iai i?iyayony ii enoa/aiee iiiaeo
aeiae, iiaeneacaii “aeeaioiui /ooueai” — aiacaiiui aioo?aiiei aeaeaieai
eo/oa /oi-eeai i?aaei?eiyoue, /ai aacaeaenoaiaaoue, a ia au/eneaieyie
n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie i?eauee, oiiiaeaiiie ia niioaaonoaothuea aa?iyoiinoe.
N iiiiuueth nianoaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?iniaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeue no?aieony
oaaaeeoue naiiai naay, inoaaaynue aani?eno?anoiui e ene?aiiei. I?e yoii
aai aeaenoaey iniiauaathony ia oi/iuo ?an/aoao i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?eauee
ia aieaa, /ai aeaenoaey eaeie-eeai yeniaaeeoeee i?e iiaeaioiaea
iooaoanoaey e THaeiiio iiethno. Oaeei ia?acii, anee “aeeaioiia /oouea”
i?eooieeinue e aioo?aiiee iioeieci iiaeaae, ia inoaaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeth
a ea/anoaa eiiiana ie/aai, e?iia iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaeeaeaiey,
i?aaei?eyoea oayiao e oi?ao, oioy no?ao iioa?ue iiaeao auoue ia aieaa
iainiiaaiiui, /ai iaaeaaeaeu ia i?eaueue a i?aaeiea a?aiaia”. (John M.
Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (London:
Macmillan, St. Martin’s Press, 1973), pp. 161-162)

Oaeei ia?acii, Eaein iiae/a?eeaae, /oi eiaanoeoeeyi i?enoua
iaonoie/eainoue e yoi aeaao iniiaaiey n/eoaoue eo iniiaiui oaeoi?ii,
niiniaiui iauynieoue aecian-oeeeeu. Ii n/eoae, /oi eieaaaiey a o?iaia
eiaanoeoeee, iaoneiaeaiiua “aeeaioiui /ooueai”, i?eaiaeyo e naeaeaai a
niaieoiiii ni?ina, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e a niaieoiiii auionea. A iniiaa
iiaeoiaea Eaeina eaaeeo aeiioaca i iaaeinoaoi/iie aeaeinoe iiieiaeueiie
ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?eaiaeyuae e oiio, /oi eieaaaiey niaieoiiiai ni?ina
i?iyaeythony a eieaaaieyo auionea, a ia a i?inoii eciaiaiee o?iaiy oeai.

Oeeee /enouo eiaanoeoeee a caianu

Aa?aa?aeneee yeiiiieno Eeieae Iaoeea? a naiai enneaaeiaaiee iieacae, /oi
eieaaaiey ?acia?ia eiaanoeoeee a caianu iiaoo ninoaaeoue iaaeinoathuaa
caaii a iauyniaiee acaeiinayce eciaiaiee eiaanoeoeee a iniiaiie eaieoae
e i?ioeanna aicieeiiaaiey aecian-oeeeeia.

Aeey /anoiuo oe?i iiaeaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy caiania
ninoaaeyao /anoue eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie no?aoaaee. Ca
iaiaeeaeaiiui oaaee/aieai ni?ina neaaeotho noieue aea iaiaeeaeaiiua
oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa e nie?auaiea caiania. E iaiai?io, ca
nie?auaieai ni?ina eaeoo iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e oaaee/aiea caiania.
Oae eae oe?iu iau/ii no?aiyony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue caaeaiiue o?iaaiue
caiania ioiineoaeueii auionea, oi a ioaao ia iacaieaie?iaaiiia
oaaee/aiea eee oiaiueoaiea caiania (a ?acoeueoaoa iaiaeeaeaiiiai oiea)
oe?ia niioaaonoaaiii eciaieo iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iai?eia?, n ia/aeii
iaiaeeaeaiiie ?aoeannee o oe?iu ia/ioo iaeaieeaaoueny caianu. Iicaeiaa
oe?ia nie?aoeo i?iecaiaenoai eae ec-ca oiai, /oi oiae ni?in ia aa
i?iaeoeoeeth, oae e aeey oiai, /oiau ecaaaeoueny io iaeiieaiiuo a ia/aea
?aoeannee caiania.

Oaeia iiaaaeaiea oe?iu a ioaao ia eciaiaiea caiania yaeyaony
iioaioeeaeueiui enoi/ieeii aicieeiiaaiey oeeeeia.

Eeieae Iaoeea? nicaeae iiaeaeue, iieacaaooth, /oi eieaaaiey ?acia?a
eiaanoeoeee a caianu iiaoo auoue i?e/eiie aecian-oeeeeia. (ni.
I?eeiaeaiea 1)

Iaaeinoaoee: Oaeay oai?ey iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaia eeoue e ia?aie/aiiiio
eiee/anoao oe?i.

Iiaeaeue ioeueoeieeeaoi?a-aenaea?aoi?a

Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, iaaeaeo oaiiii ?inoa eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia
e eciaiaieai iauaia niaieoiiiai auionea nouanoaoao oaniay naycue.
I?aaeiieiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio aeaeaaiue iauai eaieoaea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iinoiyiioth aeieth auionea, eaaei a iniiao iiaeaee
aenaea?aoi?a eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna.

Eniieuecoy iiaeaeue aenaea?aoi?a eiaanoeoeee, Iieue Naioyeuenii ec
Iana/onaoneiai oaoiieiae/aneiai einoeoooa iiiuoaeny iauynieoue
aicieeiiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo eieaaaiee. Aai iiaeaeue ieacaeanue
ii?aceoaeueii noiaea n iiaeaeueth eiaanoeoeee a caianu. (ni. oaeaea
I?eeiaeaiea 1)

A oa/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie eaeay aenaea?aoi?a auea
aeaaainoaothuae a iauyniaiee oeeeeia. Ecaanoiue a?eoaineee yeiiiieno ny?
Aeaeii Oeen ienae: “Aeaaioth i?e/eio eieaaaiee neaaeoao eneaoue ai
aeeyiee, eioi?ia ieacuaatho ia eiaanoeoeee eciaiaiey iauaia
auionea.”(John R. Hicks, A Contribution to the Theory of the Trade
Cycle, 3-rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956), p 37.)

Aeinoieinoaa: Iiaeaeue aeaao ?acoeueoaou aeeceea e ?aaeueiinoe.

Iaaeinoaoee: Aeaiiay iiaeaeue i?aaeneacuaaao oeeeeu aieaa aeeeoaeueiua,
/ai ia naiii aeaea enoiaey ec i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea ieaie?iaaiey
eiaanoeoeee.

Iaieaeineaineea oai?ee iaaeaeinoe oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou

Eaeineaineia i?aaeiieiaeaiea i iaaeaeinoe iiieiaeueiuo oeai e ca?ieaou
ia eiaei aaeaeaaoiuo iee?iyeiiiie/aneeo iniia, ca /oi iia iaiaeiie?aoii
iiaeaa?aaeanue e?eoeea. A ?aieao iaieaeineaineeo oai?eyo naeaeaia
iiiuoea iaeoe oai?aoe/aneia iauyniaiea iaaeaeinoe iiieiaeueiuo ca?ieao e
oeai. Naaiaeiy aeoeaii ianoaeaeathony aeeyiea o?oaeiauo eiio?aeoia,
?ieue i?ionithcia, “ecaea?aeee iaith”, yooaeoeaiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

O?oaeiaua eiio?aeou

Aaaeiaeoei aniaeoii nenoaiu caeeth/aiey aeieain?i/iuo eiio?aeoia
yaeyaony oi, /oi o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou i?aaeii?aaeaeai eiio?aeoaie,
a ia onoaiaaeeaaaony ia ?uiea eaaeaeue aeaiue eee eaaeaeue ianyoe. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa eciaiyaony iaaeinoaoi/ii auno?i aeey
oiai, /oiau onoaiiaeeinue ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea o?oaea.

A aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai ?ani?ino?aiaia nenoaia
caeeth/aiey eaaaeueiuo o?oaeiauo eiio?aeoia, a eioi?uo o?iaaiue
ca?aaioiie ieaou onoaiaaeeaaaony, eae i?aaeei, ia ia?eiae io iaeiiai
aiaea aei o?ao eao. A o?oaeiauo eiio?aeoao iau/ii ii?aaeaeytho
ianeieueei ia?aiao?ia: o?iaaiue iiieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou eee
aeeiaieeo iiieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou ia ia?eiae aeaenoaey eiio?aeoa;
i?aaeei eiaeaene?iaaiey, naycuaathuaa eciaiaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou n
i?ioeie eioeyoeeae; oneiaey ia?acaeeth/aiey eiio?aeoa,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuea i?iaaaeaiea iiauo ia?aaiai?ia i o?oaeiaii eiio?aeoa
a neo/aa, anee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee eee eaeie-eeai ae?oaie
iae?iyeiiiie/aneee ia?aiaiiie i?aauneo ca?aiaa iaiai?aiiia cia/aiea.

Eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey Noyiee Oeoa?a, aei oao
ii?, iiea o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou i?aaeii?aaeaeai, aeaiaaeiay
iieeoeea, aeaaea a oneiaeyo ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iaeeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo
aaaioia, i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieyi iauaia auionea. Neieuecyuay nenoaia
caeeth/aiey o?oaeiauo eiio?aeoia iicaieyao iiiyoue, ii/aio aicaeaenoaea
aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee ia yeiiiieeo ieacuaaaony oniaoiui ia i?ioyaeaiee
ianeieueeeo ia?eiaeia. Aeaeii Oyeei? ec Noyioi?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa a
?yaea ?aaio iieacae, /oi anee ?aai/eo eioa?anoao ioiineoaeueiue o?iaaiue
iiieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou (ioiineoaeueii ca?aaioiie ieaou ae?oaeo
?aai/eo), a caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia i?ienoiaeeo ia iaeiia?aiaiii e n?iee
eo aeaenoaey ia?anaeathony, oi aeeeoaeueiinoue aicaeaenoaey aeaiaaeiie
iieeoeee ia o?iaaiue auionea iiaeao cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaoue ia?eiae
aeaenoaey naieo o?oaeiauo eiio?aeoia.

Iaaeinoaoee: A ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo iaiiaeaiey eiio?aeoia ca n/ao eo
iau/iiai ia?acaeeth/aiey e caeeth/aiey iiauo aeinoaoi/ii aeey
eiiiainaoeee eciaiaiey ni?ina. Oae, i?e oaaee/aiee ni?ina e ?inoa oeai
oe?iu ieeoi ia iaoaao iaiyoue iiauo ?aai/eo, a oi a?aiy eae noa?ua
aoaeoo ?aaioaoue ca ieceoth ca?ieaoo. Anee aea ni?in nieceony e
i?aaeaeueiue i?iaeoeo o?oaea iacia/eoaeueii nieceony ca n/ao iaaeaiey
oeaiu, oi oaieea iaaieueoia /enei ?aai/eo, oe?ia niiaeao ainnoaiiaeoue
?aaainoai i?aaeaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa o?oaea ca?ieaoa.

?ieue i?ionithcia a onoaiiaeaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou

Aua iaeia i?e/eia aeanoeinoe ca?aaioiie ieaou – iiiiiieueiay aeanoue
i?ionithcia. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa /eaiia i?ionithca ii?aaeaeyaony ia
?aaiiaaneai iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai, a a oiaea ia?aaiai?ia
iaaeaeo eeaea?aie i?ionithcia e ?oeiaiaenoaii oe?iu. Caeeth/aaiue a
eoiaa eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai? ca/anooth iiaeieiaao ca?aaioioth ieaoo auoa
?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy, ii iaeiia?aiaiii iicaieyao oe?ia ?aoaoue aii?in i
eiee/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiuo ae ?aaioieeia. ?acoeueoaoii a yoii neo/aa
yaeyaony oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa iaiyouo ?aaioieeia e ?ino aac?aaioeoeu
iaeeaeaiey.

I?ionithcu iiaoo oaeaea aeeyoue ia ?acia? ca?ieaou ia i?aaei?eyoeyo,
aaea iao i?ionithciiai aeaeaeaiey, iineieueeo oa?ica iauaaeeiaiey
?aaioieeia oe?iu a i?ionithcu iiaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo
auoa ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy. Aieueoeinoai oe?i io?eoeaoaeueii ioiinyony e
i?ionithcai. Iineaaeiea ia oieueei niinianoaotho ?inoo ca?aaioiie ieaou,
ii e oe?aieytho iiceoeee ?aai/eo a oiaea ia?aaiai?ia ii iiiaei ae?oaei
aii?inai, oaeei eae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy e oneiaey
o?oaea. Oe?ia iiaeao i?aaeii/anoue ieaoeoue naiei ?aai/ei aunieoth
ca?aaioioth ieaoo, /oiau iie /oanoaiaaee naay oaeiaeaoai?aiiuie e ia
aeaeaee iiiuoie iauaaeeieoueny a i?ionithc.

Aeinoieinoaa: Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a no?aiao n ?acaeoui i?ionithciui
aeaeaeaieai, iie iiaoo ea?aoue cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue.

Iayaiua eiio?aeou

Noi?iiieee oai?ee iayaiuo eiio?aeoia ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi a yeiiiieea
nouanoaoao anneiao?e/iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?enea iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e eo
iaieiaoaeyie. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ?aai/ea e ?eneo ia neeiiiu, a oe?iu
iaeo?aeueiu ii ioiioaieth e iaio. A ?aieao oaeiai ?iaea i?aaeiieiaeaiey
o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia oieueei ii?aaeaeyao
noaiaea?o eiiiainaoeee ca auiieiaiea ?aaio, ii oaeaea neoaeeo iaeie
no?aoiaie noiiie io ?enea, naycaiiiai n eciaiaieai aeioiaea, /oi
iniaaiii aaaeii ec-ca ionoonoaey o ?aai/eo aeinooia e oeiainiaui ?uieai,
aaea iie au iiaee oiaiueoaoue naie ?enee ae?oaeie niiniaaie. A
/anoiinoe, oe?iu n oeaeueth caueou io eieaaaiee aeioiaea ia neeiiiuo e
?eneo ?aai/eo iiaoo niaeaneoueny iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iinoiyiiue o?iaaiue
?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, aeaaea ianiio?y ia aiciiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea
oiee. Oaeia niaeaoaiea iiaeao auoue oi?iaeueii aeeth/aii a o?oaeiaua
eiio?aeou, a iiaeao iayaii io?aaeaoueny a iiaaaeaiee oe?iu i?e
onoaiiaeaiee o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou, oioy oi?iaeueiia o?oaeiaia
niaeaoaiea iiaeao i?e yoii ionoonoaiaaoue.

Iaaeinoaoee: O?aaiaaiey ?aai/eo e oe?ia i no?aoiaaiee eo io ?eneia
aeieaeiu auoue aeeth/aiu a ca?aaioioth ieaoo i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ia
aueeaaoueny a eaeea-eeai niaeaoaiey. A aeaiiie neooaoeee aac?aaioiua
i?inoi aoaeoo ia niaeaniu ia nouanoaothuoth ca?aaioioth ieaoo, oae eae
aoaeoo aeaeaoue i?eaeeceoaeueii oaeoth ca?ieaoo e aeiiieieoaeueii
no?aoiaeo io ?eneia, /oi ninoaaeo a noiia aieueoa, /ai ?aai/ea iieo/atho
nae/an.

Ionoonoaoao oai?aoe/aneia eee yiie?e/aneia iainiiaaiea ?eneia. Iau/ii a
eiio?aeoa oeacuaaaony ia oieueei iinoiyiiay ca?ieaoa, ii e iinoiyiiue
o?iaaiue caiyoinoe.

Yooaeoeaiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa

Ethaee neeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii niiniaiinoyi eae a
?acoeueoaoa iao/aiey, oae e io i?e?iaeu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eaaeaeue
?aai/ee iiaeao i?eeaaaoue ?aciua oneeey aeey auiieiaiey oie eee eiie
?aaiou. I/aaeaeii, /oi oe?iu caeioa?aniaaiu eae a aieueoeo niiniaiinoyo
?aai/aai, oae e iaeneioia i?eeaaaaiuo ei oneeee. Iaeiaei ioneaaeeaaiea
yoeo ia?aiaiiuo o?oaeiiinouanoaeii e aei?iai. Iaaethaeaiey oaeiai ?iaea
yaeythony enoiaeiie oi/eie oai?ee yooaeoeaiie ca?aaioiie ieaou,
iuoathuaeny iauynieoue iaaeaeinoue ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou aieueoeie
cao?aoaie ia ioeaieo oneeee e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ioaeaeueiuo
?aaioieeia.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei oai?ee i aeeyiee ca?aaioiie ieaou ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

I?eiaieoaeueii e ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai, ecaanoii, /oi ca?ieaoa
cia/eoaeueii aeeyao ia ieoaiea. Aunieiiiea/eaaaiua ?aai/ea iiaoo
iicaieeoue naaa eo/oa ieoaoueny, a aieaa caei?iaua ?aai/ea ?aaioatho
aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueii. A neaai?acaeouo no?aiao oe?ia iiaeao iaia?aiii
ieaoeoue ca?ieaoo auoa ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ca?ieaou
?aai/eo. Iaeiaei, yoi ia eiaao cia/aiey aeey ?acaeouo no?ai, aaea
?aaiiaaniue o?iaaiue ca?ieaou iaiiiai auoa o?iaiy, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey
caei?iaiai ia?aca aeecie.

Aeinoieinoaa: Iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oaeoaie.

Aeey ?acaeouo no?ai aieaa iiaeoiaeeo oai?ey, ooaa?aeaeathuay, /oi
aunieea ca?aaioee nie?auatho oaeo/anoue ?aai/ae neeu. ?aai/ea
oaieueiythony ii iiiaei i?e/eiai – /oiau caiyoue eo/oea aeieaeiinoe a
ae?oaeo oe?iao, niaieoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth i?eaioaoeeth, ia?aaoaoue a
ae?oaie ?aeii no?aiu. *ai aieueoa oe?ia ieaoeo ?aai/ei, oai aieueoa o
ieo noeioeia inoaoueny a oe?ia. Onoaiaaeeaay aunieoth ca?ieaoo,
?aaioiaeaoaeue nie?auaao oaeo/anoue eaae?ia e i?e yoii nie?auaao a?aiy,
cao?a/eaaaiia ia i?eai e iao/aiea iiauo ?aai/eo.

Aeinoieinoaa: Oiaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oaeoaie.

Iaaeinoaoee: Caeanue i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi aeey ?aai/aai, eioi?iio ieaoyo
?aaiiaanioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo ana ?aaii, i?iaeieaeaoue ee ?aaioaoue eee
auoue oaieaiiui. Ii yoi ia oae ii oie i?inoie i?e/eia, /oi ono?ienoai ia
?aaioo naycaii n aieueoeie ecaea?aeeaie. Oae /oi, aeaaea anee iaeioi?ia
a?aiy ?aai/aio aoaeoo ieaoeoue ca?ieaoo ieaea ?aaiiaaniie, ii ana ?aaii
eaeie-oi n?ie i?iaeieaeeo ?aaioaoue ia oe?io.

O?aouey oai?ey ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi n?aaeiaa ea/anoai ia?niiaea a oe?ia
caaeneo io iieo/aaiie ei ca?ieaou. Anee oe?ia nie?auaao ca?aaioioth
ieaoo, eo/oea ?aaioieee iiaoo ia?aeoe ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo, oae /oi a
oe?ia inoaioony oieueei ooaeoea, ia eiathuea aeueoa?iaoea. Yeiiiienou
iacuaatho oaeie ioai? io?eoeaoaeueiie naeaeoeeae. Auiea/eaay ca?ieaoo
auoa ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy, oe?ia iiaeao ecaaaeaoue io?eoeaoaeueiie
naeaeoeee, oeo/oeoue ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa ?aaioathueo e oai naiui
iiauneoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

Iaaeinoaoee: A aeaiiii neo/aa iai?aaiia?ii ?anniio?aiea neooaoeee ia
iaeiii ?uiea o?oaea. Caeanue o?aaoaony i?iaanoe ?acaeaeaiea ii
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/eo. Aaconeiaii, ea/anoai ia?niiaea caaeneo io
ca?ieaou, ii yoi ia eiaao ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e iauyniaieth aac?aaioeoeu.
A aeaiiii neo/aa aac?aaioiua aoaeoo iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aai/ea, /oi
anaai eeoue icia/aao iaee/ea no?oeoo?iie aac?aaioeoeu. E oiio aea, /oiau
i?aaeioa?aoeoue i?eai ia ?aaioo iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ca aunieoth
ca?ieaoo, oe?ia i?eaeaony i?iaiaeeoue ioai?, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaee/ea
ianeieueeeo ianaycaiiuo ?uieia o?oaea.

*aoaa?oay oai?ey ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aunieay ca?aaioiay ieaoa iiauoaao
noa?aoaeueiinoue ?aaioieeia. Oai?ey enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi oe?iu ia iiaoo
aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii eiio?iee?iaaoue o?oaeiaua oneeey caiyouo, e /oi
naie ?aai/ea ii?aaeaeytho, ianeieueei eioaineaii ei ?aaioaoue. ?aai/ea
iiaoo ?aaioaoue eioaineaii, a iiaoo oaeeeaaoue io ?aaiou, ?eneoy auoue
ca yoi oaieaiiuie. Yeiiiienou iacuaatho oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue ia/anoiiai
iiaaaeaiey ii?aeueiui ?eneii. Oe?ia iiaeao naeaaeeoue i?iaeaio
ii?aeueiiai ?enea, onoaiiaea aieaa aunieoth ca?ieaoo. Auiea/eaay
aunieoth ca?ieaoo, oe?ia iiaoaeaeaao ?aai/eo ia oeeiiyoueny io ?aaiou,
oai naiui iiauoay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

Iaaeinoaoee: A yoie neooaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey aoaeao
caaenaoue io ca?aaioiie ieaou. Oiaaea e e?eaay ni?ina ia o?oae,
yaeythuayny i?iecaiaeiie io i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee aoaeao caaenaoue
io ca?aaioiie ieaou. A a yoii neo/aa aanniuneaiai iiene aac?aaioeoeu ia
noaoe/iii a?aoeea ?uiea o?oaea. Aeaiiay iiaeaeue ia eiaao niunea i?e
eniieueciaaiee o?aaeeoeeiiiie iiaeaee ?uiea o?oaea.

Ana yoe oai?ee yooaeoeaiie iieaou o?oaea aaeeiu a oii, /oi oe?ia
?aaioaao aieaa yooaeoeaii, anee iia ieaoeo naiei ?aai/ei aieaa aunieoth
ca?ieaoo, o.a. /oi iiaeaea?aeaiea o?iaiy ca?ieaou auoa ?aaiiaaniiai
eiiaaea ioaa/aao eioa?anai oe?iu. ?acoeueoaoii oaeiai ?iaea aeanoeinoe
ca?ieaou yaeyaony aac?aaioeoea iaeeaeaiey.

Nouanoaotho iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee yooaeoeaiie ca?aaioiie ieaou.
I?aaaea, a ieo ia o/eouaaaony caaeneiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee io
ca?ieaou, /oi eeoaao eo niunea. E ?aaeueiinoe iie ieeaeiai ioiioaiey ia
eiatho, iiyoiio caeanue y ?anniao?eaaoue eo ia aoaeo.

Ii/aio ia neaaeoao ?aai/ei ?aaioaoue ca ca?ieaoo ieaea ?aaiiaaniie,
iineieueeo oiaaea eo ia aoaeoo auaiiyoue ec oe?i, e iei aoaeoo eo/oa
ioiineoueny, oe?ia aoaeao auno?aa ?acaeaaoueny, iie niiaoo auae?aoue
eo/oaa ianoi ?aaiou?

Ecaea?aeee iaith e aiaoiea yooaeou niaieoiiiai ni?ina

Iaeia ec i?e/ei oiai, /oi oeaiu ia eciaiythony iaiaaeeaiii ia
i?ioyaeaiee e?aoein?i/iuo a?aiaiiuo i?iiaaeooeia, caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi aeey eciaiaiey oeai iaaei iieoe ia ii?aaeaeaiiua cao?aou. Eciaiaiea
oeai iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue io oe?iu ?annueee iiauo eaoaeiaia,
?ani?aaeaeaiey iiauo i?aen-eenoia n?aaee oi?aiauo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?iu
eee ?ania/aoee iiauo iaith, anee ?a/ue eaeao i ?anoi?aia. Yeiiiienou
aeaee anai cao?aoai ia eciaiaiea iiieiaeueiuo oeai iauaa iacaaiea
“ecaea?aeee iaith”.

I?yiua ecaea?aeee oe?iu, aicieeathuea ec-ca eciaiaiey ath oeai ia naith
i?iaeoeoeeth aeinoaoi/ii iaeu. Iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaeaeaoue oi?aiaua
aaoiiaou, i?iniio?aoue e ia?aia/aoaoue eaoaeiae oiaa?ia, ?anoi?aiai
neaaeoao eciaieoue naie iaith e o.i. A?aai?e Iyieueth ec Aa?aa?aeneiai
oieaa?neoaoa, Aeaeicao Aea?eioo e Aeaeaiao Eaeeai ec Aa?eee iieacaee,
/oi aeaaea i/aiue iaeua “ecaea?aeee iaith” iiaoo eiaoue aieueoia
aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio.

Eae ecaanoii, aieueoeinoai oe?i aeaenoaoao a oneiaeyo iiiiiieee eee,
/aua, iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee. Iiiiiieece?iaaiiua oe?iu ia
i/aiue-oi caeioa?aniaaiu a eciaiaiee oeai, eiaaea ni?in ia aeaaa,
eioi?ua iie i?iecaiaeyo, iaiyaony. Ii i?e/eia eneaaeaiey iiiiiieueiie
oeaiu auaiaea io eciaiaiey oeaiu aeey iauanoaa iiaeao auoue
cia/eoaeueiie aeaaea a oii neo/aa, eiaaea auaiaea aeey oe?iu aoaeao
iaaaeeea.

Anee oe?iu iaioioii i?eaaaatho e iauyaeaiiui ecaea?aeeai, iie iiaoo
nio?aiyoue noa?ua oeaiu, oioy oaeay noaaeeueiinoue e nii?yaeaia ni
cia/eoaeueiuie iauanoaaiiuie cao?aoaie. I?e iiauoaiee ni?ina oe?iu
aiieia iiaoo n/anoue auaiaeiui inoaaeoue oeaiu ia i?aaeiai o?iaia, a ia
iiaeieiaoue eo aei o?iaiy, eioi?ue niioaaonoaiaae au eciaieaoaiony
ni?ino. Ni?in oaaee/eony, iaeiaei iiieiaeueiua oeaiu inoaioony
iaeciaiiuie, e a ?acoeueoaoa i?iecieaeao oaaee/aiea niaieoiiiai auionea.

Aeinoieinoaa: Iauyniytho eiathuoth ianoi i?aeoeeo iinoiyiiuo
iiieiaeueiuo oeai.

Iaaeinoaoee: Ia iauyniyao, ii/aio iiieiaeueiua oeaiu aeanoeea aeaaea a
oao oe?iao, aaea ecaea?aeee iaith ii/oe ?aaiu ioeth (oi?aiaey /a?ac
Internet).

Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey e?oaeuo oeai)

A aieueoeinoaa eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai nouanoaoao neaaeothuay i?aeoeea,
eae iaoiae i?eaea/aiey eeeaioia. Oeaiu ia oiaa?u e oneoae iacia/athony
ia?aae e?oaeui /eneii. (Iai?eia?: 499$, 1.99$, 49$, 99$, 0.99$) A oaeeo
neo/ayo iioa?e io oiaiueoaiey /enea eeeaioia, ana?ueac iiaa?eaoeo, /oi
99$ – yoi cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa noa, aoaeoo iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai
aiciiaeiay auaiaea io eciaiaiey oeaiu aneaae ca eciaiaieai iauaia
ni?ina.

Ia iiiaea oiaa?u oeaiu aa?oony i?inoi e?oaeua, iai?eia?: 5$, 10$. Oae,
noieiinoue aeinoaaee oiaa?a ii Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai (eiioeiaio)
ninoaaeyao 5$. Yoa oeaia ia eciaiyeanue oaea iiiai eao.

Aeaeaa, iiiaea iio?aaeoaee ouaoaeueii ieaie?otho naie o?aou e iie aoaeoo
iai?eyoii oaeeaeaiu, oaeaeaa iiaue oeaiiee n au?inoae oeaiie. Iiyoiio, a
?icie/iie oi?aiaea, /anoi iiaeaea?aeeaatho iinoiyiioth oeaio ia oiaa?u.
Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony aacao e aeo?iaeia. Ni?in ia ieo iinoiyiii iaiyaony
aeaaea a oa/aiee aeiae, a oeaia inoaaony iinoiyiiie aiaeu.

Caiacaeuaaiea oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou

Yeiiiie/aneea aaaiou ia onoaiaaeeaatho oeaiu e ca?aaioioth ieaoo
iaeiia?aiaiii. Iaiai?io, ei??aeoe?iaea oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou ii
yeiiiieea a oeaeii i?ienoiaeeo eae au nooiai/aoi, n ii?aaeaeaiiui
caiacaeuaaieai. Caiacaeuaaiea iaoneiaeeaaao iaaeeaiiia oa/aiea i?ioeanna
eciaiaiey iauaai o?iaiy oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou, aeaaea ianiio?y ia oi,
/oi eciaiaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou i?ienoiaeeo
/anoi.

Aaeeiiee/iia oaaee/aiea oeai eaeie-ieaoaeue ioaeaeueii oe?iie aoaeao
icia/aoue iiauoaiea ioiineoaeueiuo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth yoie oe?iu, /oi
i?eaaaeao aa e iioa?a eeeaioia. (Anee au yoio i?ioeann i?ienoiaeee
neio?iiii, ana oe?iu iiaee au iiaeiyoue oeaiu iaeiia?aiaiii, inoaaeyy
ioiineoaeueiua oeaiu aac eciaiaiee.) Iauee o?iaaiue oeai iiauoaaony
iaaeeaiii a ?acoeueoaoa iaaieueoiai nooiai/aoiai ?inoa oeai. Iiauoaiea
oeai i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiii, oae eae ie iaeia oe?ia ia aeaeaao ia?aie
iauyaeyoue i cia/eoaeueiii iiauoaiee oeai.

Yoi caiacaeuaaiea i?iyaeyaony e a ii?aaeaeaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou.
?anniio?ei, e i?eia?o, eae io?aaeaaony ia yeiiiieea nie?auaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa, aaaeouaa e nieaeaieth niaieoiiiai ni?ina, /oi, a
naith i/a?aaeue, o?aaoao i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai nieaeaiey iiieiaeueiie
ca?aaioiie ieaou aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iieiie caiyoinoe. Eaaeaeue ?aai/ee
iiaeao auoue aioia iieoe ia nieaeaiea naiae iiieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie
ieaou i?e oneiaee i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai nieaeaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou
inoaeueiuo ?aai/eo. Ii ie iaeei ?aai/ee ia aeaeaao ia?aui iiianoue iiae
yoi nie?auaiea, eioi?ia icia/aao ionoue a?aiaiiia, ii nieaeaiea aai
ioiineoaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou. Iineieueeo ii?aaeaeaiea aaee/eiu
ca?aaioiie ieaou ?anoyiooi ai a?aiaie, iaaeaeaiea eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai
?aai/aai ia?aui eaeoe ia nieaeaiea naiae ca?aaioiie ieaou iaoneiaeeaaao
oi, /oi iauee o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou iaaeeaiii ?aaae?oao ia eciaiaiea
niaieoiiiai ni?ina. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, nooiai/aoinoue onoaiiaeaiey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ca?aaioiuo ieao yaeyaony i?e/eiie iaaeaeinoe iauaai
o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou a yeiiiieea.

Iaaeinoaoee: Ia i?aeoeea niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey – aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeeia
yaeaiea. Oiaa?u /anoi aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu, aneaaenoaea /aai oeaiu ia ieo
onoaiiaeaiu ?aciua. Iiyoiio yooaeo io iiauoaiey oeai aeieaeai auoue
iaiaa caiaoai, /ai caeanue ooaa?aeaeaaony.

Yoa oai?ey ia iauyniyao ayceinoue oeai a neo/aa nieaeaiey ni?ina. Oiaaea
oeaiu iaiaoiaeeii nieceoue e oio, eoi naeaeaao yoi ia?aue, iieo/eo
iaeaieueooth i?eaueue. A nieaeaiea oeai ia yoio oiaa? i?eaaaeao e ?inoo
ni?ina ia iaai e iaaeaieth ni?ina ia inoaeueiua oiaa?u, /oi niiaa
auciaao nieaeaiea oeai. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue
oaiaeaioeey e nieaeaieth oeai, /aai ia i?aeoeea, e niaeaeaieth, iao.

Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey eieaeueiuo ?uieia)

Eaaeaeay oe?ia i?iecaiaeeo caeoiee eiiieaeoothueo, iaoa?eaeia e
iai?oaeiaaiey a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai n?iea. Iinea oaaee/aiey ni?ina ia
oaieue /a?ac iaaeaeth i?iecieaeao ?ino oeai ia iaai (ia ae?aeaauo, a
oeai aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe). Aua /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy yoi iiauneo
oeaiu ia noaeue, iioii ia eiiieaeoothuea e o.ae. Yoio n?ie iiaeao, ii
iiei iiaen/aoai, ninoaaeyoue aei iieoaiaea a neo/aa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Aeaei a oii, /oi i?e iacia/aiee oeai ia oiaa? oe?iu ia ?oeiaiaenoaothony
iauei o?iaiai oeai, eioeyoeeae, aac?aaioeoeae eee ni?inii ia inoaeueiua
oiaa?u. Eiatho cia/aiea oieueei ni?in ia oiaa? oe?iu, oeaiu ia
eiiieaeoothuea, oeaiu o eiieo?aioia. Oi anoue oeaiiia?aciaaiea
i?ienoiaeeo ia eieaeueiuo ?uieao, a ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo ieie
i?ienoiaeeo n iiiiuueth iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiauo iineoaeae – oiaa?ia (a
neo/aa iaaeoiaa?iuo ?uieia) eee aeaiaa (a neo/aa iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo
?uieia eee ?uieia oiaa?ia-caianoeoaeae), eioi?ua aeaeaathony n ia i/aiue
aieueoie nei?inoueth, iniaaiii oiaa?u.

Nei?inoue ia?aaea/e oeaiiaie eioi?iaoeee aannii?ii caaeneo io eiie?aoiuo
oneiaee a yeiiiieea.

Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey eceeoea eaieoaea)

Oeaiu ia ?uieao iaiythony i?e cia/eoaeueiii eciaiaiee caiania. Oi anoue,
a?oai aiai?y, aei oao ii?, iiea caianu ia eii/aony, oe?iu ia ia/ioo
iiauoaoue oeaiu, a aei oao ii?, iiea ia caauethony neeaaeu, oe?iu oeaiu
ia ia/ioo nieaeaoue. Yoi iicaieyao eaeie-ieaoaeue oe?ia, iieo/eaoae (io
ainoaea?noaa) a iieaoo oneoa neieueei-oi naaaeaiaia/aoaiiuo aeaiaa
oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaenoai. E aio eae: ia ?uiea iaoa?eaeia aeey yoie oe?iu
o i?iaeaaoeia anoue caianu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eoieaiu. I?iaeaaoeu
iinea yoiai iiaoo eeai iiauneoue oeaiu, eeai oaaee/eoue auione ca n/ao
caiana iaoa?eaeia o naieo iinoaaueeia. Inoaiiaeony yoio i?ioeann eeoue
/a?ac ianyoe-ae?oaie. Ana yoi aiciiaeii ca n/ao iieiiai eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae (a NOA iie eniieuecothony a n?aaeiai ia
70-90%) a ei?ioeii ia?eiaea.

Ii/aio iau/ii auaiaeii ia iieiinoueth eniieueciaaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
iiuiinoe? Iia eaaeaony, i?e/eia aio a /ai: oeaiu ana a?aiy iiauoathony e
iiieaeathony. E iieo/aaony oae, /oi ecaea?aeee niaea?aeaiey eeoiaai
eaieoaea iie?uaathony i?eaueueth io aai eniieueciaaiey a ia?eiaeu
aunieeo oeai. I/aaeaeii, /oi ec niia?aaeaiee iai?a?uaiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiue
eceeoae eaieoaea auaiaeai. A i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi 10-30 i?ioeaioiue.

Iie niia?aaeaiey (eae aicieeatho oeeeeu)

Ec-ca aiciiaeiinoe eciaiaiey ?aaeueiie neooaoeee a yeiiiieea iiaoo
aicieeaoue aecian-oeeeeu. Yoi iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ec-ca ia?aeinia a
yeiiiieea. A iaeiii aa naeoi?a eee ia iaeiie oa??eoi?ee ca n/ao
eiuaeoeee aeaiaa io ainoaea?noaa e auoyaeaaiey ?ano?nia e oiaa?ia ec
ae?oaeo naeoi?ia a iaiai ia yoe aeaiueae i?ienoiaeeo ?ino iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa. A ae?oaeo aea naeoi?ao – iaiai?io. Eiaaea aea neooaoeey
aiiaue eciaieony, i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu naeoi?ia-aeiii?ia
au?anoao, /oi noaiao oieeaoue neooaoeeth iacaae, /oi auciaao nieaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa ii anae yeiiiieea. Eciaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo ca
n/ao iaee/iuo caiania.

?acoeueoao aeenaaeaina a yeiiiieea oaeia: ?anoao a?aiy iaeeaeaiey
oiaa?a, iiyaeyaony aeaoeoeeo, auaeaeyaony a ioaeaeueioth oneoao n?i/iia
i?aaeinoaaeaiea oiaa?a. Ana yoi iiaeieiaao oeaiu. Eee iaiai?io:
caoiaa?eaaiea, iaaiciiaeiinoue iieaoeoue eiiieaeoothuea, iaieaoaaee.
Iinea yoiai oeaiu nieaeathony.

Iia eaaeaony, /oi eiaao niune i?iaiaeeoue ia aeiaaeueiia
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, a eiuaeoeee aeaiaa eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
?aaeiiao.

Iie niia?aaeaiey (oai?ey iaia?aoeiinoe eiaanoeoeee)

Anee a ?acoeueoaoa noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiieee eiaanoeoeee au?inee, oi
io?eoeaoaeueiiai yooaeoa ia aoaeao. Noaiao auaiaeii oioy au /anoe/ii
eniieueciaaoue iiaue eaieoae, iiyoiio niaaea a i?ioeaiaan a?aiaiiiio
?inoo auoue ia aeieaeii. Anee eiaanoeoeee auee aeinoaoi/ii aaeeee, oi
iiaeieiaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey, /oi iiaeao oaaee/eoue auione
iieiie caiyoinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, iao i?eioeeieaeueiiai cai?aoa ia
i?aauoaiea auionea iieiie caiyoinoe e aai ?ino a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea
naa?o anoanoaaiiiai. Yoi aiciiaeii ca n/ao oaaee/aiey eiaanoeoeee a
oua?a /anoiiio iio?aaeaieth. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeeoue
oi?ne?iaaiioth eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth, ca n/ao iioa?ae aeey iauanoaa. Ii
e?aeiae ia?a, iia oae eaaeaony.

Aeaeeia?aoey

AAEUeIA?EI A. I., A?AAAIIEEIA I. E., EAONNEEE A. E., OA?ANAAE* E. N.,
Iae?iyeiiiieea. NIa.: 1994.

AeIEAI Y. Aeae. Iae?iyeiiiieea. NIa.: 1994.

IYIEUeTH I. A. Iae?iyeiiiieea. I.: 1994.

IA*EIIEEIA A. I. Iae?iyeiiiieea. NIa.: 1993.

NAEN Aeae. Iae?iyeiiiieea. Aeiaaeueiue iiaeoiae. – I.: 1996.

ABEL A. B., BERNANKE B. S. Macroeconomics. A-W P.C.

BYRNS R. T., STONE G. W. Macroeconomics. S, F&Co.: 1982

LIPSEY R. G. An introduction to Positive Economics. W&N.: 1983

BBA 1996/97

Yeiiiieea no?. PAGE 12

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020