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История Российского предпринимательства

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Aaaaeaiea.

Ca iineaaeiea 10 eao a iaoae no?aia i?iecioei iiiai ia?aiai, iie ia
iiaee ia cao?iiooue iaoo yeiiiieeo, a a ianoa n iae e ?acee/iua oi?iu
nianoaaiiinoe. Ii, eiaaea i?ienoiaeyo e?oiiua nioeeaeueiua iiaeaeaeee
oeia oao, /oi iu ia?aaeeaaai naaiaeiy, aaaeii a ioeaieao i?ienoiaeyuaai
ia aiaaeaoue a e?aeiinoe eae aeooiai iai?eyoey ianoiyuaai, oae e aai
aaciaeyaeiie aiieiaaoeee. ?uii/iua ioiioaiey i?eaiaeyo iuia e
ainnicaeaieth ia iiaie, eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneie iniiaa einoeoooa
ioa/anoaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. *oiau eo/oa iiiyoue, /oi niiniaai
aeaoue iauanoao yoio nioeeaeueiue oaiiiai, eaeeie ?aaeueiuie- eae
iiceoeaiuie, oae e iaaaoeaiuie- iineaaenoaeyie aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny
aai naii?aaeecaoeey, aaaeii i?enoaeueiaa aniio?aoueny a
eaieoaeenoe/aneia i?ioeia no?aiu, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ?aaeee iiuoa,
iaeiieaiiiai ioa/anoaaiiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii ca aaea aai
aeiniaaoneie enoi?ee.

Iiuo yoio, eiia/ii aea, ia niiniaai aeaoue ioaaoa ia ana aieiothuea ian-
nia?aiaiieeia- aii?inu. Ii ciaeiinoai n iei iicaieyao aeoaaea oynieoue
oaeea aaaeiua e naaiaeiy i?iaeaiu eae, iai?eia?, iaoeeiiaeueiay
iaioaeueiinoue e aa i?iyaeaiey a ioiioaieyo n i?aeoeeie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iauaa e niaoeeoe/aneia a enoi?ee ?inneeneie
eiiia?oeee a n?aaiaiee aa n caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie e aia?eeaineie.

Iaiau/aeii oe?ieei aue e aeeaiacii i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo noaeaa iyo?ia
?inneeneiai aeaeiaiai ie?a. Iaeie iiaeiyeenue ia aa?oeiu oniaoa,
aeaaininoiyiey e i?eciaiey, eiay ca nieiie iaia?aiaieoaeueiue,
eaaeiaaniue aaaaae ?uoea?ae oaea/e e eoie?ia n/anoeeaiai noa/aiey
ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ae?oaea aeiaeeenue oiai aea, aeaaiaea?y oio, oaeaioo,
?aaeeiio oii?noao e o?oaeiethaeth. Iooaaiaeiie ieoueth iaeieo neoaeeea
/anoue, ae?oaeo aea, iai?ioea- aan/anoea. ?acei ?acee/aeenue yoe ethaee
e ii naiaio eoeueoo?iiio o?iaith, oeaiiinoiui i?eaioaoeeyi.

Aeoeeiia?iua eiiiaiee.

Oniaoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ai 2-e iieiaeia XIX — ia/aea XX aa. ai

iiiaii naycaiu n ?acaeoeai aeoeeiia?iie oi?iu i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Aeoeei-

ia?iua eiiiaiee — aaaeiaeoee einoeooo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, iicaieythuee

aeeoioee?iaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aaaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai oicyenoaa
eaieoae. Naii

iiiyoea «aeoeeiia?iay eiiiaiey», eae ai?i/ai e nai i?aaiaie i?eioeei, ia

eioi?ii iia iniiaaia (ia?aie/aiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeoeeiia?a
noieiinoueth i?e-

iaaeeaaeaueo aio aeoeee) ecaanoiu a ?innee n XVIII a., a oa/aiea
eioi?iai a

no?aia aeaenoaiaaei ianeieueei aeoeeiia?iuo i?aaei?eyoee. Aia?aua yoa
ii?ia

iieo/eea th?eaee/aneia cae?aieaiea a iaeiii ec oeacia Aeaenaiae?a I a
1805 aiaeo.

A niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a ioia/aaony, /oi i?iaicaeaoaiea yoiai
i?eioeeia a

?innee i?iecioei ia iienoieaoey ?aiaa, /ai a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Ii
aeaenoae-

oaeueiia ia/aei i?aaiaiio ioi?ieaieth yoie oi?iu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeoea-

iinoe iieiaeee iaieoano 1 yiaa?y 1807 a. «I aea?iaaiiuo eoia/anoao iiauo

auaiaeao, ioee/eyo, i?aeiouanoaao e iiauo niiniaao e ?ani?ino?aiaieth e
oneea-

ieth oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee». Ei onoaiaaeeaaeinue ianeieueei ?iaeia
«eoia/aneeo

oiaa?euanoa», eioi?ua aeaenoaiaaee ia iniiaa niaoeeaeueiuo aeiaiai?ia
iaaeaeo eo

o/anoieeaie — «oiaa?euaie». «Oiaa?euanoai iieiia» i?aaenoaaeyei niaie
iau-

aaeeiaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ioaa/aaoeo ii aeaeai anai naiei eiouanoaii.

O/anoiee oaeiai i?aaei?eyoey ia iia iaeiia?aiaiii o/anoaiaaoue a
ae?oaii. A

«oiaa?euanoaa ia aa?a» iiieii «oiaa?euae» iiaei o/anoaiaaoue
ia?aie/aiiia

/enei aeeaae/eeia, ioaa/aaoeo ii aai aeaeai eeoue noiiie naieo aciinia e

eiaaoeo i?aai o/anoaiaaoue e a ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, ii i?e
yoii

ia eiaaoeo i?aaa aieina a oi?aaeaiee eie. E?iia oiai ?ac?aoaeanue e
nianoaai-

ii aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia ~ «oiaa?euanoai ii o/anoeai eee eiiiaiey». A
ioee/ea

io ia?auo aeaoo, yoio ?iae aeayoaeueiinoe «ia i?yii i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
caiyoeyi

eoia/anoaa» e aeiioneaeenue e iaio o/anoieee «ec anao ninoiyiee» (o.a.
nineiaee).

Oaeoe/anee iaieoano 1 yiaa?y 1807 a. oaeei ia?acii caoeene?iaae
nouanoai-

aaiea aeaoo aeaeia eaieoaeenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee — oi?aiauo aeiiia e
aeoeeiia?-

iuo eiiiaiee. Ioiineoaeueii iineaaeieo iauaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao auee
ecaanoiu

oa?ieiu «oiaa?euanoai ii o/anoeai» e «eiiiaiey ia aeoeeyo». Naia?aoiia
(o.a.

/anoiii?aaiaia) caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai eniieueciaaei oaeaea neaaeothuea
oi?iu: «aeoee-

iia?iay eiiiaiey», «aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai», «oiaa?euanoai ia iayo». Ana
iie

auee a iauai oiaeaeanoaaiiu. A i?aeoeea aeoeeiia?iiai o/?aaeeoaeuenoaa
noaee

iinoaiaiii ?acee/aoueny «aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa» e «iaaaua oiaa?euanoaa».
Io-

ee/ea aoi?uo io ia?auo caeeth/aeinue aeaaiui ia?acii a n?aaieoaeueii
oceii e

onoie/eaii ninoaaa iaeueeia. Iaaaua oiaa?euanoaa, eae i?aaeei, aicieeaee
a

?acoeueoaoa i?aia?aciaaiee naiaeiuo oe?i (oi?aiauo aeiiia). Eo iae
(aeoeee)

auioneaeenue eiaiiuie e a aunieie eoith?a, ia?ai?iaeaaea eo
ia?aie/eaaeanue.

Aei 1836 a., eiaaea aue i?eiyo aeoeeiia?iue caeii, aeaenoaiaaaoee
aieioue aei

1918 a., a ?innee auei o/?aaeaeaii 58 eiiiaiee, ec ieo 41 ioe?uea
aeaenoaey.

N?aaee o/?aaeeoaeae e aeoeeiia?ia auei iiiai aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo
/eiiaieeia e

i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?enoie?aoee, /oi noaei neaaenoaeai acaeiiiai?aaeaiiuo
oaiaeai-

oeee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ianiiiaiia caeioa?aniaaiiinoue iacaaiiuo
eaoaai?ee eeoe

a iieo/aiee aeiiieieoaeueiuo — e aanueia cia/eoaeueiuo — aeioiaeia.
Iaaei nea-

caoue, /oi aeoeeiia?iia o/?aaeeoaeuenoai a ioee/ea io eoia/aneeo
i?iiuneia, a

aeacao aeai?yinoaa ecia/aeueii eiaei eoaea aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiue i?aie.
Ianii-

iaiia e caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?oeiaiaenoaa eiiiaiee a i?eaea/aiee e aa
aeayoaeue-

iinoe aeeyoaeueiuo naiiaieeia n oeaeueth iieo/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?eaeeaaee.

Iaaei neacaoue, /oi yoa oaiaeaioeey ieacaeanue naienoaaiia ?acaeoeth
aeoeeiia?iiai

i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee anae aai enoi?ee. Oaeiai ?iaea
i?eaeeaaee

iiaee caeeth/aoueny a i?aaeinoaaeaiee i?aaa ia iiiiiieueioth
aeayoaeueiinoue a ii?a-

aeaeaiiie noa?a a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea, inaiaiaeaeaiea io
iaeiaia e nai?-

ia, i?yiua ainoaea?noaaiiua noaneaeee e i?i/aa.

Yoa oi?ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa auno?i caaiaaaea iiioey?iinoue o
ioaeeee,

i?e/ai ianoieueei, /oi i?eaaei e ?inoo noieiinoe eo aeoeee, ?acaeoeth
oi?aiaee

eie e a eiia/iii eoiaa — iaauaaeiio aaeeioaaeo.

?acaeoea yoeo i?ioeannia eiaei ?acoeueoaoii no?aieaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa
peaea-

iiioe?iaaoue eo, iinoaaeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aiee. Oae iiyaeeny
iiaeienaiiue

Ieeieaai 1 6 aeaeaa?y 1836 a. caeii “I oiaa?euanoaao ii o/anoeai eee
eiiiaie-

yi ia aeoeeyo». Caeii caoeene?iaae eiioeanneiiiue (o.a. ?ac?aoeoaeueiue)
i?ei-

oeei o/?aaeaeaiey aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee, ainiiaenoaiaaaoee, ai?i/ai, a
oio ia?e-

iae a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ae?oaeo no?ai. Caeii onoaiaaeeaae
eneeth/eoaeueii eiai-

iie oei aeoeee. Onoaa eiiiaiee, ?aaii eae e aai eciaiaiey
ooaa?aeaeaeenue eiia?a-

oi?ii. A iaeanoe aeoeeiia?iiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aieioue aei 1917 a.
i?iaeieaeaee

nouanoaiaaoue iiiai/eneaiiua ia?aie/aiey aeey aeayoaeueiinoe
aeoeeiia?iuo i?aae-

i?eyoee, iiiaea ec eioi?uo auee aeaeea?e?iaaiu aua Caeiiii 1836 aiaea.
Yoi e

?ac?aoeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? o/?aaeeoaeuenoaa, e iaycaoaeueiue eiaiiie oei
aeoeee

(/oi iaoiaeeeinue eeoue i?aeoeeie naia?aoiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa),
ia?aie/aiea

i?aa e ?acia?ia caieaaeaaeaiey a oeaeii ?yaea ?aaeiiia, iaoeeiiaeueiua e
aa?ienii-

aaaeiua ia?aie/aiey ii ninoaao aeoeeiia?ia e i?aaeaiee e o.ae. A 1905 a.
aeaaea

auei aaaaeaii iieiaeaiea ia iaycaoaeueiii auyniaiee /a?ac Ieienoa?noai
aioo?ai-

ieo aeae “aeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe e eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey o/?aaeeoaeae”.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iieiaeaiey aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee i?eaaaeai
iaaieueooth

auaea?aeeo ec caienee Niaaoa nuacaeia i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
oi?aia-

ee, iai?aaeaiiie a ethia 1912 a. iaeiia?aiaiii a Niaao ieieno?ia e
Ieienoa?no-

ai oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A iae eiinoaoe?iaaeinue, /oi a ?innee “ii

iauaio i?aaeeo anyeia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai aneaaenoaea oiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi

aeoeey aai iiaeao ieacaoueny a ?oeao eeoea, ia?aie/aiiiai a naiae
i?aainiiniaiin-

oe, ?anniao?eaaaony a ioiioaiee i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aio a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa,
iaeii-

a?aiaiii eae aa?ae, eiino?aiaoe e eeoei iieueneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, e e
iaio

i?eiaiythony a niaieoiiinoe ana ia?aie/aiey, nouanoaothuea aeey yoeo
eaoaai?ee

ianaeaiey».

A 1914 a. auea i?aaei?eiyoa aeaaea iiiuoea eiaeeoeoee?iaaoue
iiiai/eneai

ia?aie/eoaeueiua i?aaeea aeey aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee.

Aeaeii THc e Iiai?inneeneia Aeoeeiia?iia Iauanoai.

Aeaeii THc — o/?aaeeoaeue Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa eaiaiiioaieueiiai,
aea-

eaciiai e ?aeueniaiai i?iecaiaenoa, iniiaaoaeue e
aee?aeoi?-?anii?yaeeoaeue caai-

aea — ?iaeeeny a 1814 a. a a.Ia?oe?-Oeaeaee, iaeiii ec naiuo aieueoeo e
aiaaouo

i?iiuoeaiiuo ai?iaeia THaeiiai Oyeuena, iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai e?ay Aiaeee.
Aei ian

aeioee i/aiue neoiua naaaeaiey i aai aeecie e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe

ia ?iaeeia. A ?innee Aeaeii THc iiyaeeny aia?aua oaea a c?aeii aic?anoa,
eiaaea

aio auei 55 eao, ii noi?ie?iaaeny eae ee/iinoue, a ca iea/aie aue
aiaaoue

aeeciaiiue iiuo. Ecaanoii, /oi Aeaeii THc ?iaeeeny a naiuea eiaeaia?a,
noiyaoaai

ai aeaaa iaeiiai ec iaaaeeoo ?ae/aneeo caaiaeia a. Ia?oe?a. Ii iieo/ee
aeiiaoiaa

ia?aciaaiea e a thiioaneea aiaeu ?aaioae iiae ia/aeii naiaai iooea,
eioi?ue a oi

a?aiy aue eiaeaia?ii ia caaiaea Naeoa?oa. Iciaeiieaoenue ia i?aeoeea n
iaoae-eo?ae/aneei aeaeii, Aeaeii THc aiineaaenoaee ia?aoiaeeo ia caaiae
Yaae Aaee.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy ii iniiauaaao nianoaaiiia iaoaie/aneia
i?iecaiaenoai a

Iueth-Ii?oa. Aeaeii THc auno?i noaaeo aeaei ia oaa?aeoth iiao. Eiaiii a
yoio ia?eiae

?ane?uaaaony aai oaeaio ecia?aoaoaey e i?aaiecaoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa.
Aeae.THc aia-

?aua a Aiaeee ono?aeaaao iiaeuaiioth iaoeio i?yiiai aeaenoaey. A eiioea
50-o

aiaeia ii iinooiaao ia ?aaioo a ea/anoaa eiaeaia?a ia Ieeueaieueneee
aeaeacii?i-

eaoiue caaiae, a a 1860 a. noaiiaeony aai aee?aeoi?ii. «THcianeea»
eaoaou aeey

aeaeueiiaieiuo oyaeaeuo i?oaeee, ecaanoiia aeaoeua aiaeeeneiai
ecia?aoaoaey, ii-

yaeythony eiaiii a yoe aiaeu. Ii oaeaea iinayuaao iiiai a?aiaie
i?eaioiaeaieth

?aoeaioo?u a?iie aeey iaoeaee noaeia e oi?oiauo oe?aieaiee.

A oa aea 60-a aiaeu XIX a. ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai, icaai/aiiia
i?iaeaiie

a?iie?iaaiey aiaiiuo ei?aaeae, eneaei iiaeoiaeyuee aeey yoeo oeaeae
iaoa?eae e

caaiaeu-ecaioiaeoaee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. A nayce n yoei Aaeie?aeoaenoai
i?iaaei

?yae eniuoaiee a?iie?iaaiiie noaee o?aioeocneiai e aiaeeeneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iaeoeoeey Ieeueaieueneiai caaiaea, ia eioi?ii ?aaioae Aeae.THc,
oniaoii eo

auaea?aeaea e, ii iiaieth oea?neeo aiaiiuo /eiiaieeia, ieacaeanue
iaeaieaa i?i/-

iie e iaaeaaeiie.

A yoii ianoa iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue iaaieueoia ionooieaiea. Aiaeeeneee
enoi?ee

Aeae.Aanoaoae noaaeo iiae niiiaiea iaaeaaeiinoue iiaeiaiuo eniuoaiee. A
aeaiiii

neo/aa ii nnueaaony ia iaioeao eiio?-aaeie?aea Oienoaaea, a eioi?ii
iienuaaao-

ny, eae a 1864 a. ia aiaeeeneii oeioa i?iaa?yeanue i?i/iinoue a?iie.
I?eaaaeai

yoi iienaiea e iu. A?iie?iaaiiay iaoeaea iiaeaaoeaaeanue ia ai?oa noa?uo

aea?aayiiuo aiaiiuo ei?aaeae, aeeth/ay aeaaea o?aaaou ia?acoea 1810 a.,
e iano?a-

eeaaeanue n ?annoiyiey a 200 y?aeia ec 9-oe aetheiiauo aeaaeeinoaieueiuo
i?oaeee.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi 9-aetheiiaua nia?yaeu auee naeaeaiu ec noaee, a ia
/oaoia,

onoa?aaoay eiino?oeoeey i?oaeee nieaeaea iaaeaaeiinoue i?iaiaeeiuo
eniuoaiee:

/anoi nia?yae i?inoi cano?aaae a a?iia ia iieiooe.

Eae au oi ie auei, Aaeie?aeoaenoai, nnueaynue ia ?acoeueoaou
nianoaaiiuo

ianeaaeiaaiee, i?eciaei ieeueaieueneoth noaeue eo/oae e iaeaieaa
i?i/iie. E a

?acoeueoaoa ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?acianoeei ia yoii caaiaea aiaiiue
caeac n

oeaeueth oe?aieaiey a?iiae oi?oa «Eiinoaioei» a a. E?iiooaaeoa. Oae,
aia?aua

noaeueaa aiaeeeneiai ecia?aoaoaey e i?aaiecaoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa Aeaeiia
THca ia?a-

naeeanue n eioa?anaie ?innee. Eiaiii a yoe aiaeu ii aeecei nioaeny n
?onneeie

aiaiiuie eiaeaia?aie aaia?aeii Oioeaaaiii e iieeiaieeii Aa?iii.
Iineaaeiee

e i?aaeeiaeee Aeaeiio THco i?eiyoue ia naay eniieiaiea aeiaiai?a,
eioi?ue caeeth-

/eei i?aaeoaeuenoai n eiycai Na?aaai Ei/oaaai a 1868 aiaeo. Niaeanii
aeiaiai?o

ei. Ei/oaae iaycaeny iino?ieoue ia thaa ?innee caaiae aeey auaeaeee
aeaeaciuo

?aeuenia. Ii ia noiaa nia?aoue eaieoae, ii aac iniaiai niaeaeaiey
ia?aonooiee

eiioeanneth aiaeeeneiio eiaeaia?o. Aeae.THc a naith i/a?aaeue iaoae yoi
i?aaeeiaea-

iea aanueia caiai/eaui e ia?niaeoeaiui. E, eae iau/ii, ii n i?enouae aio

iaen/a?iaaiie yia?aeae e aeoaieei ciaieai aeaea aa?aony ca inouanoaeaiea
eaeae.

Ianoieueiie eieaie aiaeeeneiai eiaeaia?a noaiiaeony enneaaeiaaiea
o?aioeocneiai

aaieiaa Ea Iea 1837 a., iinayuaiiia eco/aieth iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo
thaeiie

iaei?inneeneie noaie. A iai, a /anoiinoe, ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi i?e?iaea
iaea?eea

yoio e?ae ia?aieeanniui oaeai, ii ia iaaeaeeea aai aiaaouie caeaaeaie
aeaeaciie

?oaeu. A oa/aiea aeanyoeeaoee i?eaiai? ecaanoiiai niaoeeaeenoa ieeoi ia
?aoaeny

inii?eoue. I?aaeeueiinoue auaiaeia o?aioeocneiai aaieiaa, eacaeinue au,
iiaeoaa?ae-

aeaea e iaoaea/a n iino?ieeie eacaiiiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai caaiaea,
?aaioaaoaai ia

ianoiii nu?uea, a Eene/ainea.

Aeae.THc oacaeaao a Iiai?inneth, /oiau naiinoiyoaeueii ?acia?aoueny a
yoii

iai?inoii e ?eneiaaiiii aeaea. Ii aieiaoaeueii ianeaaeoao ianoiinoue,
iniao?eaaao

caeaaee eaiaiiiai oaey e aeaeaciie ?oaeu, iiae?iaii ?anni?aoeaaao
aeeoaeae ie-

?anoiuo aea?aaaiue. Ana yoi e i?eaaei Aeae. THca e oaa?aeiio ?aoaieth
i?eiyoue

eiioeanneth. Ii caeeth/ee aeiaiai? n ?onneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii, eioi?ue
aue auni-

/aeoaa ooaa?aeaeai 18 ai?aey 1869 aiaea* Aeiaiai? iiaeienaee ieieno?
iooae niia-

uaiey aaia?ae-eaeoaiaio I.I.Iaeueieeia, ieieno? oeiainia,
noaon-nae?aoa?ue

I.O.?aeoa?i e aeiaa?aiiue Aeae.THca Yiiaioee Eeoa Aaaea?. Ii aeiaiai?o
aaee-

eia?eoaineee iiaeaeaiiue Aeaeii THc i?eieiae ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai
ia?aciaaoue

aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai ni neeaaei/iui eaieoaeii a 300.000 o.no. (eee 3
iei.

?oa.)** aeey ?ac?aaioee eaiaiiiai oaey e iniiaaiey ?aeueniaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia

thaa ?innee a Aaoiooneii oacaea Aeaoa?eiineaaneie aoaa?iee. A oa/aiea
o?ao

ianyoeaa ni aeiy ooaa?aeaeaiey aeiaiai?a Aeae.THc iaycai aue
ia?a/eneeoue a iaeei ec

caa?aie/iuo aaieia ia n/ao Iauanoaa 500.000 o. no., ec eioi?uo 20.000
aeieaeiu

auee inoaaaoueny a aaiea aei iieiiai ono?ienoaa aeiiaiiuo ia/ae. Aeaeii
THc

iaycuaaeny aanoe ?ac?aaioeo eaiaiiiai oaey, aeiau/a eioi?iai aeieaeia
auea

aeinoeaaoue 2.000 o*** a aeaiue, a oa/aiea aeaayoe ianyoeaa ionoeoue a
iieiue oiae

aeiiaiiua ia/e aeey auieaaee /oaoia, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?uo
aeieaeia auea

auoue ia iaiaa 100 o aaeaiaaeaeueii, a oa/aiea aeaoo eao caaa?oeoue
iino?ieeo

?aeueniaiai caaiaea, ?aaioathuaai ia ianoiii nu?uea, a oaeaea ono?ieoue
iaoaie/an-

eea ianoa?neea aeey ioaeae caaiaea.

Ni naiae noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoai aacaiciacaeii onooiaei Iauanoao caiee
e aa

iaae?a a ie?anoiinoyo Acianei-Oa?ueeianeie ae.ae., aa?aioe?iaaei a
oa/aiea aeanyoe

eao iiioaeioth i?aieth a 50 eii. naa?o noieiinoe ?aeuenia a aeaea
noaneaeee ia

________________________________________________________________________
___

* Niauoey, eiaaoea ianoi a ?innee, aeaoe?othony ii theeaineiio
eaeaiaea?th, a a Aiaeee — ii a?aai?eaineiio e niioaaonoaaiii iiia/athony
eae «no.no.» e «i.no.»

** Eo?n ?oaey ii ioiioaieth e ooioo noa?eeiaia: 96 ?oa.= 10 o.no.

*** Iaeia aiaeeeneay oiiia ?aaiyeanue 62 ioaeai.

eiee/anoai ia aieaa 3000.000 ioae. a aiae. I?e/ai yoa i?aiey aeieaeia
auea

auiea/eaaoueny Iauanoao ca eaaeaeua 100.000 ioae. aeaenoaeoaeueii
auaeaeaiiuo e

i?eiyouo ia aeaeaciua aei?iae ?aeuenia. I?aaeoaeuenoai oaeaea aeaaaei
Iauanoao

i?aai aaniioeeiiiai aaica ec-ca a?aieoeu anao aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee,
iaiaoiaeeiie

aeey ono?ienoaa e ia?aiia/aeueiiai aeaenoaey caaiaeia e eiiae. THco
?ac?aoaeinue

ia?aciaaoue iauanoai aeey nii?oaeaiey aeaeaciie aei?iae
i?ioyaeaiiinoueth aei

85 aa?no io iaeiiai ec ioieoia Acianei-Oa?ueeianeie ae.ae. a iai?aaeaiee
e ono?ae-

aaaiui caaiaeo e eiiyi. Aeey yoeo oeaeae i?aaeoaeuenoai auaeaeyei
Iauanoao nnoaeo

a 3/4 oneiaeaiiie iiaa?noiie noieiinoe, eioi?ay ia aeieaeia auea
i?aauoaoue

63.000 ?oa. ca aa?noo. I?e/ai nnoaea auiea/eaaeanue i?aaeoaeuenoaii, eae
iiae/a?-

eeaaeinue a aeiaiai?a, iaeiia?aiaiii n oieaoie Iauanoaii inoaeueiie
/aoaa?oe.

Eaieoae, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey iino?ieee aeaeaciie aei?iae ia?aciauaaeny
iooai

auionea iaaa?aioe?iaaiiuo aeoeee.

E, iaeiiaoe, aeaonoi?iiiaa niaeaoaiea iaiaa?eaaei th?eaee/aneoth
noi?iio aeay-

oaeueiinoe Iiai?inneeneiai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa. Iii auei iniiaaii
niaeanii

aiaeeeneei caeiiai ia iauanoaao 1862 a. e 1867 a., a aai ioiioaiey n
o/?aaeaea-

ieyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee ?aaoee?iaaeenue caeiiaie
?innee-

neie Eiia?ee.

Ono?iea a ?innee ana aeaea, naycaiiua n caeeth/aieai aeiaiai?a,
Aeae.THc aic-

a?auaaony a Eiiaeii e aeaeaao ana aiciiaeiia aeey nei?aeoaai ia?aciaaiey
nieeae-

iie eiiiaiee, iineieueeo ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai noaaeei aai a i/aiue
aeanoeea

a?aiaiiua ?aiee. Onoaa Iiai?inneeneiai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa aue i?eiyo

29 iay 1869 a. (i.no.). I?e aai ia?aciaaiee a /enei iniiaiuo
iiaeien/eeia-aeoee-

iia?ia aoiaeeee neaaeothuea eeoea: Aeaieee Ao/, aa?iiao (100 aeoeee);
Oiian

A?anne, yneaae?, a?aaeaeaineee eiaeaia? (200 aeoeee); Aeaenaiae?
Ioaeeae,

a?aaeaeaineee eiaeaia? (100 aeoeee); Oiian A?anne ie., yenaae?, /eai
ia?eaiai-

oa (50 aeoeee); *a?euec O.Ao/, yneaae? (100 aeoeee); A.N.Oyeciai,
aa?iiao (40 ae-

oeee); Aeaeicao Oeoai?o, yneaae?, a?aaeaeaineee eiaeaia? (100 aeoeee).
Eaieoae

Iauanoaa aue iiaeaeai ia 6.000 aeoeee aeinoieinoaii 50 o.no. eaaeaeay. A
ia?aii

auionea auei 3.400 aeoeee, ?acaeaeaiiuo ia aeaa ?ac?yaea: A
(i?eaeeaae?iaai-

iua) e A (iau/iua). Ia?aiia/aeueii niaeanii onoaaa aeeaeaeaiae
aeoeeiia?ia

onoaiaaeeaaeny a ?acia?a 10% aiaeiauo. Ii iinoaiiaeaieth i?aaeaiey
Iauano-

aa io 5 aeaeaa?y 1871 a. (i.no.) ii?aaeaeyeenue iniaua i?eaeeaaee e
i?aeiouano-

aaiiua i?aaa aeoeee ?ac?yaea A. Eo aea?aeaoaeyi aa?aioe?iaaeny aeioiae a
15 %

aiaeiauo.

Niaeanii onoaao i?aaeaiea ian/eouaaei 6 /aeiaae, ec eioi?uo /aoaa?i
ecae?a-

eenue aeoeeiia?aie ?ac?yaea A e aeaia — aeoeeiia?aie ?ac?yaea A (aeaa
iineaaeieo

yaeyeenue aee?aeoi?aie-?anii?yaeeoaeyie caaiaea). Ia?aiia/aeueii a
i?aaeaiea ii

?ac?yaeo A aioee: ny? Oeeueyi Naenoiinoie Oyeciai, Oiian A?anne ie.,
Iooiia?

Aa?i, aaia?ae-iaei? (?onneee iiaeaeaiiue). Ii ?ac?yaeo A a i?aaeaiea
auee

eca?aiu Aeaeii THc e Aeaeii Ae?ao Ao/. Ii/aoiui aee?aeoi?ii Iauanoaa
noae ei.

Ei/oaae, /uee iaycaiiinoe ia?aie/eaaeenue i?aaii i?enoonoaey e niaauaiey
a

canaaeaieyo i?aaeaiey n aianaieai aai iiaiey a i?ioieie. Ei. Ei/oaae ia
ian

ioaaonoaaiiinoe a ea/anoaa aee?aeoi?a. Ii oneiaeyi, iiaeienaiiui 28 iay
1869 a.

(i.no.) aee?aeoi?ai-?anii?yaeeoaeyi iacia/aeinue 1.000 aeoeee ?ac?yaea
A, eioi?ua

n/eoaeenue oiea/aiiuie ii ia?eoeaoaeueiie oeaia. A aeaeueiaeoai eo
ianeaaeieee,

aoiaeeaoea a ninoaa i?aaeaiey Iauanoaa, noaee e?oiiuie aea?aeaoaeyie
aeoeee: a

?oeao naiuee THcia auei nin?aaeioi/aii a 1914 a. 136.450 aeoeee, a o
Ao/ae —

40.000 aeoeee. Ia auieaoo aeaeiaaiuey Aeae.THco e Aeae.Ao/o auaeaeyeanue
noiia a

1.000 o. no. a aiae. Ia ieo aiceaaaeenue ioaaonoaaiiua iaycaiiinoe
iaaethaeaiey ca

caaiaeii e oi?aaeaiea aeaeaie Iauanoaa.

Aeae.THc aian ia n/ao Iauanoaa noiio a 50.000 o. no. a aaiee?neee aeii
«Martin

& Co.» A Eiiaeiia, aeaaeaeueoeu eioi?iai aiineaaenoaee oaeaea noaee
e?oiiaeoeie

aea?aeaoaeyie aeoeee Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa. A 1914 a. a ?oeao
Aeaeaeina

Ia?oeia auei nin?aaeioi/aii 83.400 aeoeee. Niaeanii aeiiieieoaeueiui
oneiaeyi,

iiaeienaiiui anei?a iinea aeiaiai?a, ec oeacaiiie auoa noiiu 20.000 o.
no.

auee ia?aaeaiu a Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie ?inneeneie Eiia?ee ia eiy
ieieno?a

oeiainia. I?aaeoaeuenoai, i?eaeaaay ia?iiiia cia/aiea ?acaeoeth
eaiaiiioaieue-

iuo ?ac?aaioie e no?ieoaeuenoao /oaoiiiieaaeeueiiai e ?aeueniaiai
caaiaea ia thaa

?innee, a oaeaea o/eouaay aaaeiinoue no?ieoaeuenoaa niaaeeieoaeueiuo
iooae, a caith

i/a?aaeue ieacuaaei aeiiieieoaeueioth iiiiuue Iauanoao a aeaea nnoaeu a
500.000 e?a-

aeeoiuo ?oaeae iinea oiai, eae Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai oiio?aaeo ia
oeacaiiua

oeaee ia iaiaa iieiaeiu naiaai iniiaiiai eaieoaea, o.a. nauoa iaeiiai
ieeeeiia

?oaeae.

Naeaeaa ana iaiaoiaeeiia ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiii yoaia, Aeae. THc n
aieiaie ooiaeeo

a i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaioo. Aeaa /?acau/aeii oyaeaeuo, ianuuaiiuo aei
i?aaeaea aiaea

ooei ia no?ieoaeuenoai ia?aie aeiiiu. 24 ai?aey 1871 a. (no.no.) auea
caaeooa ia/ue.

Oau, ia aeieth aiaeeeneiai eiaeaia?a auiaea ai?ueeay iaoaea/a n ia?aie
ieaaeie,

/a?ac o?e aeiy ?aaioa ia/e auea inoaiiaeaia iinea oiai, eae auynieeinue,
/oi

iaaiciiaeii aeaeueoa iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ioaeioth oaiia?aoo?o. A eiia/iii
eoiaa o?aai-

aaeanue na?ueaciay ia?ano?ieea aeiiiu. Ii o Aeae. THca ia iionoeeenue
?oee, e ii

iiyoue yia?ae/ii aa?aony ca aeaei. Aiaeeeneee eiaeaia? n oii?noaii e ii
iiiao

?aaioaao iaae oniaa?oainoaiaaieai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna: ii
aeiaeaaaony ii-

oeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou ia/e, cia/eoaeueii oeo/oaao ninoaa oeoou,
?aaoee?oao

aeoouea. Ii aeaaiue aai oniao caeeth/aeny a oii, /oi aia?aua a ?innee a
aeaeaciii

i?iecaiaenoaa eniieueciaae ieia?aeueiia oiieeai — eien. Aoi?e/ii aeiiia
auea

caaeooa 24 yiaa?y 1872 a. e n yoiai a?aiaie caaiae aacinoaiiai/ii ai ana
aic?anoath-

ueo ?acia?ao ieaaee /oaoi. Iiiooii caiaoei, /oi ia Noeeineii caaiaea
Ianoooi-

aa, iniiaaiiiai iaeiia?aiaiii n THcianeei, i?aaeeueiay auieaaea auea
aeinoeaio-

oa oieueei a 1887 aiaeo.

O?iiieiaey noaiiaeaiey e ?anoe?aiey i?aaei?eyoey aiai?eo i oii, /oi
?inney

a eeoea Aeaeiia THca i?eia?aea ia oieueei oaeaioeeaiai eiaeaia?a, ii e
yia?ae/iiai

i?aaei?eieiaoaey, oniaoii e a naeaoua n?iee i?aaieciaaaoaai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue

i?ioeann iiiaii?ioeeueiiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiaeiaoa. Ii i?eia?ae
ecaano-

iinoue a iaoae no?aia e aioae a aa enoi?eth oai, /oi ia?aui onoaiiaee
auieaaeo

a iaoe?iuo ?acia?ao /oaoia ec ianoiuo ?oae, ia ianoiii ieia?aeueiii
oiieeaa e

ia?a?aaioeo aai a aeaeaci e noaeue.

Iaeiia?aiaiii ni no?ieoaeuenoaii aeiiiu aicaiaeeeny
aeaeaciaeaeaoaeueiue e

?aeuenii?ieaoiue caaiae n iiaeniaiuie oeaoaie: iaoaie/aneeie
ianoa?neeie, eoc-

iyie, aiaeiea/eie, aiaeiiaii?iie naoueth. ?aeueniaue caaiae aue iouai a
1873 a., n

yoiai aea aiaea ia/aoa ?ac?aaioea eaiiy, ecaanoe, aeeiu e i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiaoii?-

iiai ee?ie/a. A 1874 a. THcianeee caaiae ia/eiaao auaeaeeo ni?oiaiai
aeaeaca, a

1876 a. — caaeoaaaony aoi?ay aeiiia, a 1879 a. — ia/eiaao i?iecaiaeeoue
ia?aaioea-

aue /oaoi. A oii aea aiaeo auea iieo/aia ia?aay ieaaea ia?oaiianeie
noaee, a n

1880 a. Aeae.THc ia?aoiaeeo ia i?iecaiaenoai noaeueiuo ?aeuenia, eioi?ua
ia onooia-

ee ii ea/anoao ?aeuenai aiaeeeneeo caaiaeia.

?inney noaea aeey Aeaeiia THca aoi?ie ?iaeeiie, aai naiuey (a o iaai
6uei

/aoaa?i nuiiaae) iieeioea ?iaeiua ianoa THaeiiai Oyeuena e ia?anaeeeanue
a iiaue

ai?iaeie ia thaa ?innee, aicieeoee aoeaaeueii ia ionoii ianoa.
Ie?oaeathuea

ciaee aiaeeeneiai eiaeaia?a eae yia?ae/iiai, i?aaei?eei/eaiai,
oeaeaono?aieai-

iiai /aeiaaea n o?acaui ?an/aoii e oiaieai oaaaeuaaoue ia?niaeoeao, a a
aeoaeia

aeooe ii aue ia/oaoaeai. Aeaeii THc aeaeae, /oiau ?onneee eaiaiiue
oaieue

oniaoii au eiieo?e?iaae a N?aaeecaiiiii?uea n aiaeeeneei, a ?onneee
/oaoi

iieueciaaeny oaeei aea oniaoii a Iaoa?ao?aa, eae e aiaeeeneee. Ii no?iee
aeaeaei

eaeouea, ii aiieia ?aaeueiua ieaiu, anee iiniio?aoue ia aeeiaieeo ?inoa
i?iec-

aiaenoaa (ni. oaae. ? 1)8. Aeae. THc ia/oae aeiaanoe aeiau/o eaiaiiiai
oaey aei 45 iei.

ioae a aiae, a auieaaeo /oaoia —aei 15 iei. Aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo
ieaiia ii a

ethia 1889 a. i?eaue a Iaoa?ao?a, ii aiacaiii caaieae e neii/aeny 17
ethiy 1889

a. (no.no) a ainoeieoea «Aiaeaoa?». Eoiaii e naiaia?aciui iaiyoieeii aai
aeaaae-

oeaoeeaoiae aeayoaeueiinoe noae oi?ioi ono?iaiiue caaiae, aie?oa
eioi?iai au?in

iiiaiouny/iue ai?iae.

Oaaeeoea ? 1 (a ioaeao)

Aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee 1873 1883 1893 1895

Oaieue 2,959,198 10,513,069 28,222,681 34,122,913

?oaea aeaeaciay 690,587 2,798,290 12,759,355 15,361,694

*oaoi 388,647 1,590,453 7,322,435 10,154,145

*oaoi ia?aaioe – 35,453 150,741 266,648

Noaeue ia?oai – 1,119,163 4,817,157 5,349,533

?aeuenu 816,447 3,522,648 3,994,453 145,328

AEaeaci ioaeeeia 212,722 583,645 615,787 759,690

E eiioeo XIX a. ca i/aiue ei?ioeee n?ie iaei?inneeneay aieay noaiue,
auaeaeai-

iay ciieiui thaeiui nieioeai i?aia?aceeanue: a iaeiaaea aacethaeiii
ianoa aue

iino?iai caaiae, aeathuee ?aaioo ianeieueeei ouny/ai /aeiaae, e aiciee
iaeeaeai-

iue ai?iae, iacaaiiue eiaiai aiaeeeneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey «THciaea».
AEeoaee

ie?anoiuo aea?aaaiue aua a 60-a aiaeu XIX a. ia oiio?aaeyee aeaeaciuo
oei ia

eieanao oaeaa. A nionoy anaai 30 eao a yoie ianoiinoe auei iino?iaii 10
oaieueiuo

oaoo, 6 ec eioi?uo auee aeaenoaothueie. I?e oaooao ?aaioaee iiaeuaiiua e

aiaeiioeeaiua iaoeiu iiuiinoueth niioaaonoaaiii 1.056 e.n. e 1.306 e. n.
Aicaeaa-

eye yoi ia?iiiia i?aaei?eyoea THcia iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae. Aai
aeiiaiiua oeaoa

ian/eouaaee 6 ia/ae iauaiii io 3.288 aei 13.440 eoa. oooia. I?e ieo auei

onoaiiaeaii 14 eaoia?ianeeo aicaeooiiaa?aaaoaeae, eioi?ua ioaieeaaeenue
eieio-

ieeiauie aacaie, e 10 aicaeooiaeoaiuo iaoei. A ia/aea XX a.
i?iecaiaeeoaeue-

iinoue aeiiaiiuo ia/ae aeinoeaaea 70 oun. ioaeia a nooee. *oaoi
inaiaiaeaeaeny io

na?u i?e iiiiue 2 eieeaeoi?ia aieinoueth 8.000 ioaeia eaaeaeue. Ianoiay
aeaeac-

iay ?oaea, eneeth/eoaeueii a ia?aia a?aiy oiio?aaeyaoayny aeey auieaaee
/oaoia,

ia iioa?yea naiaai cia/aiey e aiineaaenoaee. Iia oea a aeaei aianoa n
aieaa

aiaaoie e?eai?iaeneie ?oaeie a i?iii?oeee 1/3 ia?aie ia 2/3 iineaaeiae.
Oaeay

i?eianue oieueei oeo/oeea ea/anoai /oaoia.

Ioaeeeiaiaia aeaeaci i?iecaiaeeeinue a 20 iaueiiaaiiuo ioaeeeiaiauo
ia/ao,

noaeue ioeeaaeanue a II ia?oaiianeeo ia/ao ia eeneii iiaeo, i?e/ai i?e
eaaeaeii

auei ii 4 aaia?aoi?a. A a ia/aea XX a. noaeue ia/aee ieaaeoue ia
THcianeii

caaiaea e aannaia?ianeei niiniaii. Iauay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaeacii?ieaoiiai

ioaeaea a yoi a?aiy aeinoeaaea 10 iei. ioaeia a aiae, a eenoii?ieaoiiai
e e?iaaeueii-

ai — aei 2.750 oun. Ia caaiaea aeaenoaiaaei 494 eieniaaeueiua ia/e n
aiciiaeiie

au?aaioeie aei 25 iei. ioaeia a aiae.

I?ieaoiue noai ?aeuenii?ieaoiiai ioaeaea, iiuiinoueth a 1.400 e.n.,
aue inia-

uai i?eai?aie aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai iiaeaaaiey ?aeuenia. A ia/aea XX a.
ii iia

ia?aeaouaaoue a nooee aei 75 oun. ioaeia ?aeuen. THcianeee caaiae
aeaaeae nianoaaiii

auno?iaiiuie aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuie iooyie ii?iaeueiie eieae, eioi?ua auee
ni-

aaeeiaiu n iiaie Aeaoa?eieineie aei?iaie, iino?iaiiie a 1881-1884 aiaeu.
Aai

iiaeaeaeiie ninoaa ian/eouaae 15 ia?iaicia e 35 aaaiiia. Iniai
iiae/a?eiai, /oi

caaiae, ana aai ianoa?neea e aeaaiua aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua ia?aacaeu
inaauaeenue

yeaeo?e/anoaii.

Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai ?ac?aaaouaaei ea?uea?u, a eioi?uo aeiauaaee
ecaano-

eiaue e aooiaue eaiaiue, uaaaiue, ianie, aeeio. A 1909 a. auione ee?ie/a

ninoaaee 2.450 oun. oooe, a iaaaoaiie ecaanoe — 67 oun. ioaeia.

Ii ninaaenoao n THcianeei aicieeei ianeieueei iaeeeo eeoaeiuo e
iaoaie/an-

eeo caaiaeia, iieo/aaoeo oaieue, /oaoi, aeaeaci e noaeue io aeaaiiai
i?aaei?eyoey

Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa.

A ?acee/iuo ai?iaeao eiia?ee — Iaoa?ao?aa, Iineaa, Oa?ueeiaa, Aa?oaaa,

Eeaaa, ?inoiaa-ia-Aeiio, Aeeueii, Aaeo, Aeaenaiae?ianea, Ia?eoiiea e a
I?e-

aieaeneii ?aeiia — Iiai?inneeneia Iauanoai eiaei naie
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee eiieoao, a aai ioe?uoea i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue onoaaii
Iaua-

noaa, aue o/?aaeaeai I?aaeaieai. Eiieoao, iainiiaaaoeeny ia Ii/oaineiE
oeeoea,

yaeyeny i?aaenoaaeoaeai ii caeacai e aeaeai Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa, ii
ia

iaeaaeae ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuie ooieoeeyie ii oi?aaeaieth caaiaeii. Aeey
?oeiaiaeno-

aa aeaeaie ia i?aaei?eyoeyo a THciaea auei nicaeaii Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea.

A eiioea XIX a. ia THcianeii caaiaea e a aai ianoa?neeo o?oaeeeinue
5.689 /a-

eiaae, a ee?ie/iii ioaeaeaiee — 62 ?aaioieoeu, 35 aaeia ?aai/eo auee
caiyou ia

oai?ea eiioi?, iaoeiiuo caeaiee e i?. Ia oaieueiuo oaooao ?aaioaei 3.160
/a-

eiaae, a eaoii ooao oaaee/eaaeny aua i?eia?ii ia 500 /aeiaae, eioi?ua a

iniiaiii auee caiyou ia iino?ieeao e ae?oaeo aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ?aaioao. A
a

ia/aea XX a. ia caaiaea e ?oaeieeao o?oaeeeinue oaea nauoa 15 oun.
/aeiaae. Iauea

aaeaaiaeiua noiiu ca?aaioiie ieaou a eiioea XIX a. 1913 a. ninoaaeee
7.075.684 ?oa-

eae. Ieaoa naeaeueiuo ?aaio eieaaaeanue a i?aaeaeao io 20 aei 150 ?oaeae
a ianyoe a

caaeneiinoe io neiaeiinoe iia?aoeee e eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/aai,
aaeaiany/iay ca?a-

aioiay ieaoa — io 15 aei 60 ?oa., a iiaeaiiay — io 60 eii. aei 2.500.
Aaeiaai

?aai/eo, oia?oeo io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa, iacia/aeenue iainee io 5 aei 25
?oaeae a

ianyoe. Ioiaoei, /oi ia THcianeii caaiaea i?aeoeeiaaee auaea/o
aaeeiia?aiaiiuo

iiniaee. Oae, iai?eia?, a 1897 a. auei auaeaii iiniaee ia noiio nauoa
5.000 ?oa-

eae. Aieaa oiai, ?aai/ea caaiaea iau/ii no?aoiaaeenue ia neo/ae nia?oe e
eiaa-

eeaeiinoe a I ?inneeneii No?aoiaii Iauanoaa. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii
iiae/a?e-

iooue, /oi THcu oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaee yenoaineaiua oi?iu ?o/iiai
iaeiiiea/eaa-

aiiai o?oaea, /oi i?eiineei ei aeiiieieoaeueioth i?eaueue.

Caaiaeioi?aaeaiea i?aaeinoaaeyei ?aai/ei aanieaoiua eaa?oe?u n
aea?iaui

ioiieaieai e aiaeith. Aeey aeaeathueo eiaeenue ieaoiua eaa?oe?u, ii
oaeaea n

aea?iaui ioiieaieai io 1 aei 4 ?oaeae a ianyoe. Ana ioa?inu e ia/enoiou
io

eaa?oe? e n oeeoe iinaeea aaeaaeiaaii oaiceeenue e aeano?oeoi?o, a
eioi?ii naeeaa-

eenue. Eaoii aea caaiaeneea oeeoeu e oa??eoi?ey, i?eeaaathuay e aeiiai,
iieeaaeanue

aiaeith n aeiaaaeaieai iaacca?aaeeaathuae aeeeinoe. Eiienney ii
enneaaeiaaieth

iieiaeaiey ai?ii?aai/eo thaa ?innee, ?aaioaaoay ia caaiaeao e ?oaeieeao
Iiai-

?inneeneiai Iauanoaa aaniie 1905 a., inoaaeea iiae?iaiua iienaiey aeeeeu

?aai/eo. Iiieii /anoiuo aeiiia eiaeenue ioaeaeueiua aeaaiono?iaiiua 2-o
e 4-o

eaa?oe?iua aeiieee, eaa?oe?u a 1,5—2 eiiiaou n eooiae (n oeaiaioiui eee

caieyiui iieii) e eaca?iu. Ii iiaieth eiiennee, ana oeiu aeeeeu auee a
oie

eee eiie noaiaie aeaaiono?iaiiu, ii eaca?iu, eae iiae/a?eeaaeinue,
ioee/aeenue

oaniioie. Aieaa oiai, aanieaoiua eaa?oe?u e eaca?iu i?aaeinoaaeyeenue
aeaeaei ia

anai ?aai/ei.

Aeaaeaeueoeu Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa oaeaeyee aeinoaoi/iia ii oai
a?aiaiai

aieiaiea, eae au iu nae/an neacaee, nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iui aii?inai
aeecie

?aai/aai. Nia?aiaiieee ia?aaeei n ainoi?aii ioia/aee yoo noi?iio
aeayoaeueiinoe

Iauanoaa. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi o ieo auee aeinoaoi/iua iniiaaiey. Ii, eae
oae

iiaaeinue, ia?yaeo n oi?ioei ninaaenoaoao iai?aiaiii e ieioia. Iniai
iiae/a?eeaa-

einue, /oi ii aeaaiono?ienoao THciaea auea auoa iiiaeo aieueoeo
aoaa?ineeo

ai?iaeia oeaio?aeueiie ?innee. Iia /aoei aeaeeeanue ia aeaa /anoe:
oi?ioi iono?iai-

ioth «aiaeeeneoth eieiieth» e, ii n?aaiaieth n iae, iaiaa
aeaaiono?iaiiua

?onneea eaa?oaeu, iaeei ec eioi?uo iieo/ee ia/aeueii ciaiaieoia iacaaiea
«Ni-

aa/aaea». I?aaaea, ia yoii nia?aiaiieee i?aaeii/eoaee oiae/eaaoue.
Ai?iae i/aiue

auno?i ?in: anee a eiioea XIX a. a iai i?iaeeaaei aianoa n ?aai/eie 25
oun.

/aeiaae, oi oaea a 1911 a. ii ian/eouaae 50 oun. aeeoaeae. A THciaea
iainiiaaeinue

ianeieueei aaieia, auei ioe?uoi ioaeaeaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaiea,
eiaeanue

ii/oiai-oaeaa?aoiay noaioeey n iaaeaeoia?iaeiui niiauaieai, auee
auno?iaiu

ainoeieoeu, a oii /enea e ii oeio aiaeeeneeo, ?aniieaaaeinue iiiaeanoai
?onneeo

eaaie, ii a oiaea a?aiy e o?aioeocneeo aooaoiuo, e iaiaoeeeo ieaiuo
aa?ia. A

ia?aaia n ieie o?aeoe?u, a eioi?uo aieei oi?aiaaee ?onneie aiaeeie.
Caiaoei,

/oi ieee ia oieueei ?inneeneea ?aai/ea, ii e eiino?aiiua eiaeaia?u,
eioi?uo

ia?aaeei ca yoo i?iaeiiinoue ioi?aaeyee aeiiie. A eiioea XIX a. a.
Ia?oe?-Oeaeaee,

ioeoaea iaae?aeny aeaaiui ia?acii eiaeaia?iue ia?niiae THcianeiai
caaiaea,

THCIAEA.

i?ineaaeeny eiaiii ii yoie /anoe. Aieaa oiai, eae ioia/atho aiaeeeneea
enoi?e-

ee, iueyinoai noaei iaeiie ec i?e/ei aunieie nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey a
ai?iaea.

Iaaaceiu THciaee i?iaeaaaee oi?ioea e naaaeea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua
oiaa?u,

ca aeia?iea/anoaaiiinoueth eioi?uo iaaethaeae aaoa?eia?iue a?a/.
Iiai?inneeneia

Iauanoai ?aniieaaaei nianoaaiiui Aeaenaiae?ianeei eiaieai, eioi?ia
oaeiaea-

oai?yei ioaeaeu ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo, a oaeaea nauaaei naie i?iaeoeou ia
?uiie.

Aaca?, ?aaioaaoee ii aine?anaiueyi, aue aeinooiai aeey iiiaeo. Oai
iiaeii auei

i?eia?anoe oiaa?u ii oeaiai ia auoa, /ai a Oa?ueeiaa. Ia oa?ia «Ianee» —

Iauanoai ?acaiaeeei ieaiaiiie neio, iii eiaei eiiiue e ieaiaa?aiiue
caaiaeu,

ia?iaoth ioeiiieueioth iaeueieoeo. Caaiaeioi?aaeaiea auno?ieei ia
aaciianiii

aeey caaiaea ?annoiyiee aieith, ioa?inu io eioi?ie aaeaaeiaaii
naeeaaeenue a aea-

no?oeoi?a. A ai?iaea auei o/?aaeaeaii Iauanoai iio?aaeoaeae,
?aniieaaaaoaa

aeaoiy iaaaceiaie n ioaeaeaieyie ia ie?aeiao. Ana oiaa?u a iaaaceiao
Iauanoaa

i?iaeaaaeenue ii oia?aiiui oeaiai. Aai iaeueeaie ninoiyee aieueoae
/anoueth

caaiaeneea ?aai/ea. Aieaa oiai, caaiaeioi?aaeaiea, o/eouaay
eeeiaoe/aneea onei-

aey ?aaeiia, a eaoiee ia?eiae aanieaoii auaeaaaei ?aai/ei /ae, eioi?ue
aioiaee-

ny e?oaeinooi/ii, a oaeaea oieiaeioth aace?iaaiioth aiaeo,
i?ieeiy/aiioth a ini-

auo eioeao, a caoai inaaaeaiioth aioneaieai aicaeooa iiae aeaaeaieai.

Ii aeaaiui aeinoeaeaieai Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa, eae iai
i?aaenoaaeyaony,

auea iino?ieea caaiaeneie aieueieoeu, eioi?ay ?aniieaaaeanue a /aou?ao
caeaieyo e

auea ?ann/eoaia ia 100 e?iaaoae. THcianeay aieueieoea n/eoaeanue iaeiie
ec eo/oeo

a ie?oaa, iia eiaea i?ae?aniia oe?o?ae/aneia ioaeaeaiea. Ia niaea?aeaiea
aieue-

ieoeu ooiaeeei io 60.000 aei 75.000 ?oa. a aiae. A iae ?aaioaei 6
a?a/ae, 2 i?i-

aeci?a e 33 neoaeaueo. Ia ca?ieaoo a?a/ai a niaieoiiinoe o?aoeeinue
16.000 ?oa.

a aiae. A 1895 a. /enei noaoeeiia?iuo aieueiuo ?aaiyeinue 728 /aeiaae,
aiaoeaoi?-

iuo — 26.250 /aeiaae. Ana aeaeu iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue (ea/aiea a
aieueieoea,

i?eai aieueiuo e iinauaiea eo ia aeiio), ?aaii eae e auaea/a
iaaeeeaiaioia,

i?iaiaeeeenue aanieaoii. Caaiaeioi?aaeaiea auno?ieei oi?ioi
aeaaiono?iaiiua

ieaoiua (aoiae — 5 eii.) iauanoaaiiua aaie n ioaeneei e aeaineei
ioaeaeaieyie.

Ia eo iino?ieeo auei eno?a/aii 20.000 ?oaeae.

Ae?oaei ia iaiaa aaaeiui aeinoeaeaieai Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa noaea
i?aa-

iecaoeey ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey aeey ?aai/eo. I?e caaiaea eiaeinue 1
aeaaiay e 3 oeeeaeueiua oeieu, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia ie?aeiao ai?iaea.
Caeaiea aeaaiie oeieu,

eae ienaee nia?aiaiieee, ?aniieaaaei aieueoei aeoiaui caeii, aunieeie,
i?i-

noi?iuie e naaoeuie eeannaie. Eo?n aeaaiie oeieu aue 4-o eaoiei n aeaoiy

ia?aeeaeueiuie eeannaie (anaai 6), oeeeaeueiua ian/eouaaee ii 2 eeanna
eaae-

aeay. Noieiinoue anao o/eeeuiuo caeaiee inoaaeea ieiei 75.000 ?oaeae., a
?anoiae

ia eo niaea?aeaiea, eneeth/ay ?anoiaeu ia ioiieaiea, inaauaiea e
niaea?aeaiea

caeaiee, o?aaiaae noiiu i?eia?ii a 13.000 ?oaeae. A 1897 a. 18 o/eoaeae
iao/aee

a caaiaeneeo oeieao 387 iaeue/eeia e 250 aeaai/ae. Ieaoa ca iao/aiea
?aaiyeanue

5 ?oaeyi a aiae, i?e/ai aeaoe aaeia e ne?io io iaa inaiaiaeaeaeenue. A
THciaea

eiaeenue oaeaea iaeia aiaeeeneay e ianeieueei /anoiuo oeie.

Aeaaiono?ienoai oa??eoi?ee caaiaea e ai?iaea oaeaea iaoiaeeeinue a
oeaio?a aie-

iaiey caaiaeioi?aaeaiey. Iiai?inneeneia Iauanoai ?acaeei iauanoaaiiue
ia?e

iauae ieiuaaeueth 6 aeanyoei, iaeio aai noi?iio iiuaae aieueoie
eneonnoaaiiue

i?oae (iiaa?oiinoue aiaeu ieiei 20 aeanyoei), a eioi?ii ?aai/ea e
aeeoaee ai?iaea

iiaee oaeeoue ?uao, eoiaoueny a niaoeeaeueii auno?iaiiuo ieaao/eo
eoiaeueiyo e

eaoaoueny ia eiaeeao. Aeaaeaeueoeu Iauanoaa ii ia?a naieo nee
caaioeeenue e i

aeinoaa ?aai/eo, i?e yoii ia iaaei caauaaoue, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i ?oaaaea
aaeia. Eaoii a

ia?ea iinoiyiii ea?ae ethaeoaeueneee i?eano? ec ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo
caaiaea. A

eiioea XIX a. caaiaeioi?aaeaieai aicaiaeeeinue aeaa caeaiey,
i?aaeiacia/aaoeony aeey

/aeiuo. Ii caaa?oaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa yoe ioee/ii iai?oaeiaaiiua /aeiua
iinoo-

ieee a aaaeaiea Iauanoaa o?acainoe. Ii, eae ioia/aea Eiienney ii
enneaaeiaaieth

iieiaeaiey ai?ii?aai/eo, a ia/aea XX a. yoe caaaaeaiey, e niaeaeaieth,
iinaua-

eenue iaei. Aieueoay oea?eiaue, ?aniieiaeaiiay a oeaio?a THciaee, ieiae
niaiano-

iuo oneeee ?aai/eo e aeaaeaeueoeaa caaiaea. Ia aa iino?ieeo auei
cao?a/aii

100.000 ?oaeae, i?e/ai 3/7 /anoe noiiu nia?aee naie ?aai/ea, 1/7 /anoue

iinooieea io aeeoaeae ai?iaea e 3/7 iiaea?oaiaaee oicyaaa. Iiieii iaa
eiaeinue

aua aeaa oea?eae i?e oeieao. E, iaeiiaoe a iaaaceiao Iiai?inneeneiai
Iauanoaa

nouanoaiaae eieaeiue neeaae e aeaeeioaea.

Any enoi?ey caaiaea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea,
iniiaaiiia

Aeae.THcii, iinoiyiii ?anoe?yeinue. A ecaanoiie noaiaie yoi auei
iaoneiaeaii

oai oaeoii, /oi ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai, e?aeia caeioa?aniaaiiia a
?acaeoee

nianoaaiiiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai e ?aeueniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia thaa
?innee, iinoi-

yiii ieacuaaei anaia?ioth iiiiuue THcianeiio caaiaeo. Niaaoneee enoi?ee

E.O.Aeiaeei iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ia?aaiaoe thaeiie iaoaeeo?aee aue iaeiei
ec naiuo

?aiieo iauaeoia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee. A yoeo oeaeyo a 70-80-a
aiaeu

i?ioeiai aaea i?aaeoaeuenoai oe?iei eniieueciaaei nnoaeu e i?iyaeyei
iaiaeoth

ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue a iaoiaeaeaiee niiniaia eacia/aeneiai
oeiaine?iaaiey. Oae,

iai?eia?, a 1873 a. Aeae.THco aeiiieieoaeueii auea auaeaia aeieain?i/iay
nnoaea iiae

caeia aeoeee n?ieii ia 7 eao. Eae ioia/ae E.O.Aeiaeei, «yoi aue iaeei ec
ia?auo

neo/aaa auaea/e iaonoaaiuo nnoae, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoee ia/aeo oe?ieie eo
i?aeoe-

ee». Aanueia oa?aeoa?ai e ae?oaie neo/ae, ioiinyueeny e 1876-1883
aiaeai, eiaaea

THcianeee caaiae iieo/ee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue caeac ia ecaioiaeaiea
?aeuenia ia

2.700 oun. ioaeia ii aunoae oeaia 2 ?oa. 30 eii. ca ioae. A aeaiiii
neo/aa ?a/ue oea

oaea ia aaaine?iaaiee ii eacaiiui caeacai, eioi?ua iau/ii
iaania/eaaeenue

caeiaii caaiaeia. E oaeie oi?ia /anoi i?eaaaaee e ae?oaea i?aaei?eyoey
oyaeaeie

i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Eiaiii a yoe aiaeu ?aeuenii?ieaoiue oeao Iiai?inneeneiai

Iauanoaa ?aaioae aeaaiui ia?acii ii eacaiiui caeacai, aeiey eioi?uo
i?eia?ii ?aaiyeanue 78% io anae i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii i?e yoii
neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi n?aaiaieth ni noa?uie o?aeueneeie caaiaeaie,
eioi?ua a 1880-1882 aiaeao eeoue ia15 % iaaeieniieueciaaee naiae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe, THcianeee caaiae, ii cayaeaieyi naieo
aeaaeaeueoeaa, aioia aue oaeaieoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth.

I?aeoeea iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eyoey iooai iaania/aiey aa?aioe?iaaiiuie
caea-

caie nio?aieeanue e a iineaaeothuea aiaeu, ii yoi auei naycaii oaea n
iiauie

yaeaieyie a ?inneeneie yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee, eiaaea i?aaeoaeuenoai
ia?aoei e

ioe?uoie iiaeaea?aeea ia?auo iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee. I?e yoii
caiaoei

/oi neiiaoee oea?neie aaeieieno?aoeee ana-oaee auee ia noi?iia noa?uo
o?aeueneeo

caaiaeia. E?anii?a/eai ia yoii aiai?yo i?aaei?eiyoua i?aaeoaeuenoaii
ia?u a

ioiioaiee aia?aua i?aaieciaaiiiai a 1882 a. Nithca ?aeueniauo
oaa?eeaioia, a

ninoaa eioi?iai aioee ia?aaeaeueiua caaiaeu. Ianiio?y ia aeaeea?aoeaiua
cayaea-

iey i oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeii iaa?aaaoue naiinoiyoaeueiua caaiaeu, e /eneo
eioi?uo

ioiineeny THcianeee, i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1884 a., aa?aioe?oy eacaiiua
caeacu ia 400

oun. ioaeia a aiae eaaeaeiio, oai ia iaiaa aeaoi o?aeueneei caaiaeai
iaania/eaaei

67% caa?ocee i?ioea 1880-1882 aa., a Iiai?inneeneiio — iaiaa 50 %. A
80-a aiaeu

THcianeee caaiae noaiiaeeny ana aieaa neeueiui eiieo?aioii e aai aeiey a

i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo caeacao auno?i ?inea: n 7% a 1882-1884 aa. aei 23% a

1885-1887 aiaeu.

THcianeee caaiae, ia i?eiyaoee o/anoey a niaeaoaiee 1882 a., aioae a
ninoaa

Nithca ?aeueniauo caaiaeia a aeaeaa?a 1890 aiaea. Eae n/eoae
E.O.Aeiaeei, yoio

oaeo iauyniyeny oai, /oi a 80-a aiaeu i?aaeaeueiua caaiaeu yaeyeenue
iniiaiui

i?iecaiaeeoaeyie ?aeuenia. Ii e 90-i aiaeai neooaoeey eciaieeanue
ei?aiiui ia?a

cii: ia anoaaooth ia iiae thaeioth iaoaeeo?aeth, ?aaioaaooth ia ianoiii
nu?uea, a

oeaeyo onei?aiey aa ?inoa i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?auaao anth nenoaio
iiaeaea?aeee eacai-

iuie caeacaie ia ?aeuenu. A oi aea a?aiy noa?ua ia?aaeaeueiua caaiaeu
noaee

ia?ano?aeaaoueny ia i?iecaiaenoai ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee. E a naaoa yoiai,
eae ienae

E.O.Aeiaeei, niaa?oaiii anoanoaaiii, /oi noa?aeoee thaeiue
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee

caaiae aioae a ninoaa iiaiai neiaeeeaoa, n?ie aeaenoaey eioi?iai enoaeae
a yiaa?a

1895 aiaea.

A ia/aea XX a. neooaoeey iinoaiaiii aui?aaeyaony, /anoiue ni?in ia
i?iaeoe-

oeeth oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia/eiaao ea?aoue ana aieueooth ?ieue ii
n?aaiaieth n

ainoaea?noaaiiui. Ia auei a noi?iia io yoeo i?ioeannia e i?aaei?eyoea
THcia. A

XX a. i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaeieaeaei ?aciauaoue ia caaiaeao e ?oaeieeao
Iiai?innee-

neiai Iauanoaa eacaiiua caeacu. Iu ?aniieaaaai n?aaieoaeueiuie aeaiiuie
ia

ia?eiae aieiu, eiaaea eacaiiue ni?in ia iaoaee ?acei aic?in., a aai
i?iecaiaenoai a oeaeii ii ?innee iaaeaei20a. Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi
oieueei a aeiau/a oaey aeiey

ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia auea cia/eoaeueiie, a a inoaeueiuo aeaeao
i?iaeoeoeee,

eiaaoae iai?iiiia cia/aiea, eo aeiey auea ieaea.

Oaaeeoea ? 2. Eacaiiua caeacu, ?aciauaiiua ia caaiaeao e ?oaeieeao Iiai-

?inneeneiai Iauanoaa a 1916 a. (a ioaeao)

Aeaeu

i?iaeoeoeee Ii?neiio

aaaeiinoao Aiaiiiio

aaaeiinoao Eacia Anaai eac.

caeacia Anaai

i?iecaaae.

Oaieue 7.240.287 2.760.000 27.283.771 37.284.058 82.858.283

Eien 170.000 4.480.000 550.000 5.520.000 15.815.971

*oaoi 200.000 3.850.000 134.000 4.181.000 8.215.065

Noaeue o?aiiae. – 1.924.736 – – –

Enoi/ieee:

?AEA. O. 23. Ii. 28. Ae. 1498. E. 5;

Oai aea. O. 1498. Ii. 1. Ae. 14. E. 10, 20, 22.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay iieeoeea iiaeaea?aeee nua?aea
aaaeioth ?ieue

a noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee THcianeiai i?aaei?eyoey. Ii, eae iai
i?aaenoaaeyaony,

oniaoiay aeaeiaay aeoeaiinoue Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa iauyniyeanue
oaeaea e

?aoeeiiaeueii i?aaieciaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii, e oiaeui oi?aaeaieai.
Enoaoe,

yoio oaeo ioia/aee e naie ?aai/ea. THcianeee caaiae no?ieeny n?aco eae
i?aae-

i?eyoea n iieiui iaoaeeo?ae/aneei oeeeeii, aai aeaaeaeueoeu n naiiai
ia/aea

oaeaeyee aieueoia aieiaiea niaa?oainoaiaaieth oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna, caai-

oeeenue i ea/anoaa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Oae, iai?eia?, ia Anaie?iie
aunoaaea a

Ia?eaea a 1900 a. ecaeaeey Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa auea ioia/aiu
A?ai-i?e.

N?aaenoaa ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa THcu ecuneeaaee ia oieueei iooai
iieo/a-

iey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo nnoae e eacaiiuo aa?aioe?iaaiiuo caeacia, ii e
i?e

iiiiue auionea iaeeaaoeeiiiuo caeiia iiae caeia iaaeaeaeeiinoe, eioi?ua,
eae

i?aaeei, ?aciauaeenue ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea a Aiaeee.

A eiioea XIX noieaoey, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoey oaea oaa?aei noiyee ia
iiaao, naiuey

THcia aeoeaii i?eia?aoaea a nianoaaiiinoue eiaiey ianoiuo aeai?yi,
eioi?ua

auee ?aniieiaeaiu a Aa?oiaaeiai?ianeii e Aaoiooneii oacaeao
Aeaoa?eineaaneie

aoaa?iee. Yoi auee caiee aiaaoua caeaaeaie ia?aieeanniie aeaeaciie
?oaeu,

eioi?ay aiineaaenoaee e noaea iniiaiui nu?ueai aeey i?aaei?eyoey. Oae, a
o?e

yoaia (1886, 1894, 1895) nia/aea Aeaeii THc, a caoai aai nui Aeai?
neoieee

eiaiea Aaeie?unaiei Oaaei?a A?naiueaae/a, ia?aaeaiiia a iaa 1909 a. a
nianoaai-

iinoue Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa. THcu oaeaea i?eia?aee caiee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaa-

oea Eeaai I.O. (1889 a.), Niieyieiiaie E.E. (1890 a.), Ea?eiie A.A.

(1893 a.), Ioaie/iiai N.Ae. (1893 a.), Oa?iaiei e Aacoaeuo (1893 a.),
Aia?aeaoe-

eeo I.A. e E.I. (1896 a.) e Aeia?iaieueneiai B.C. (1897 a.). A 1894 a.
iia eoieee

caiee a Aa?oiaaeiai?ianeii oacaea iiae iauei iacaaieai «E?eaie ?ia». A
1894 e

1909 aiaeao nuiiauey THca, Aeueaa?o, Aeaeii Aeaeaein, A?oo? e Aeai?,
i?iaeaee a

nianoaaiiinoue Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa eiaiey, aeinoaaoeany ei a
ianeaaenoai

io iooea. Ia yoe oeaee o?aoeeenue ii oai a?aiaiai a?iiaaeiua n?aaenoaa.
Oae,

iai?eia?, oieueei ia iieoieo aeaoo eiaiee (Ea?eiie e Niieyieiiaie) auei

iio?a/aii 255 oun. ?oaeae na?aa?ii.

Iaoa?ao?aneee eiieoao, ia/eiay n 1895 a., aae i?iaeieaeeoaeueioth
ia?aieneo n

ieienoa?noaaie aioo?aiieo aeae, oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe (ia?aciaaii a

1905 a.), caieaaeaeey e ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa, eni?aoeaay ?ac?aoaiea
ia

ooaa?aeaeaiea eoi/eo e?aiinoae. Yoi auei iaiaoiaeeii iioiio, /oi
i?eia?aoaiea

caiaeue aia aeeaeaeoaai ?aniieiaeaiey caaiaea ia i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue
aeiaiai?ii

1869 a. e aeiiieieoaeueiuie oneiaeyie. A eiioea eiioeia oiaeaoaenoai
Eiieoaoa

Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa auei oaeiaeaoai?aii Niaaoii ieieno?ia e
eiia?aoi-

?ii 23 oaa?aey 1910 a. (no.no.) iineieueeo, eae oeacuaaeinue a
aeieoiaioa Ai?iiai

aeaia?oaiaioa Ieienoa?noaa oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iii auei «aucaaii

aeaeaieai iaania/eoue naia i?aaei?eyoea ?oaeith».

Caaiaeioi?aaeaiea oaeaea caeeth/aei aeiaiai?u ia a?aiaeo caiee n
e?anoueyinee-

ie iaueiaie n oeaeueth i?eia?aoaiey i?aaa ia ?acaaaeeo e aeiau/o
aeaeaciie ?oaeu.

A eiioea XIX ia/aea XX a. (aeaeaa?ue 1898, oaa?aeue 1902, yiaa?ue 1907
aa.) nuiiauey

THca A?oo? Aeaaeae e Aeaeii Aeaeaein e aee?aeoi?-?anii?yaeeoaeue sseia
Aiae?anii

caiyaoee yoio iino iinea nia?oe Ae ae. THca iiaeienaee o?e aeiaiai?a n
e?anoueyiaie

nae Aieueoea Ea?aeoau, Noeeu e Iiaio?ieoeeia, ?aniieiaeaiiua a
Aaoiooneii

oacaea. Yoe aeiaiai?u i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoie iao/iue eioa?an
iineieueeo, ia iao

acaeyae, ii?iaa?aatho oi/eo c?aiey, auneacaiioth aaoi?ii eieae 1937 a.
«Noa?ay

THciaea» i oii, /oi e?anoueyia ie?anoiuo aea?aaaiue iiaeaa?aaeenue yeiau
aaccanoai-

/eaiio a?aaaaeo ni noi?iiu aeaaeaeueoeaa caaiaea. Iaaeaeo oai
aeiaiai?aie /aoei

i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue ?acia?u a?aiaeiie ieaou, aa?aioe?iaaeny aaeaaiaeiue
aeioiae

Iauanoao iinaeyi a aeaea iiioaeiie ieaou. Oae, iai?eia?, ii aeiaiai?o
1898 a.

Iiai?inneeneia Iauanoai auiea/eaaei e?anoueyiai ca i?aai aanoe ?acaaaeeo
ia

iaiaa 500 ?oaeae a aiae, a aaeaaiaeiue aeioiae iaueiu aeieaeai aue
ninoaaeyoue ia

iaiaa 3.000 ?oaeae, ii aeiaiai?o 1902 a. — ia iaiaa 2.000. Eae i?aaeei,
caiee

a?aiaeiaaeenue ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie — io 9 aei 15 eao. Yoi auee
aeieoiaiou,

ioi?ieaiiua ii anai th?eaee/aneei i?aaeeai e o/eouaathuea eioa?anu iaaeo

noi?ii. A naioya?a 1909 a. Iaoa?ao?aneee eiieoao iai?aaee a ioaeae
oi?aiaee

IOeI ienueii, a eioi?ii oaaaeiieye aeanoe i oii, /oi Iiai?inneeneia
Iauanoai

ioeacuaaaony io i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeieaeaiey au?aaioie ?oaeu ia
a?aiaeiaaiiuo o

e?anoueyi caieyo ii i?e/eia iacia/eoaeueiiai a iae niaea?aeaiey aeaeaca.
Ia yoii

iniiaaiee, ii oieueei ii enoa/aiee n?iea aeaenoaey noa?uo, iiauo
aeiaiai?u n

Iauanoaaie iinaeyi ia auee caeeth/aiu.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii ni?aaea, ninoaaeaiiie aeey IOeI a ninoaa
Iiai?inneeneiai

i?aaei?eyoey a ia/aea XX a. aoiaeeee: 1) aeaeaciua ?oaeieee a E?eaii
?iaa

Aeaoa?eineaaneie aoaa?iee — «Aa/a?iee Eoo» Aa?oiaaeiai?ianeiai oacaea,
«Eeo-

iaiianeee» Aeaenaiae?ianeiai oacaea, «Ea?aeoaneee», «Iiaio?ieoeeee» e
«Noe-

eianeee» Aaoiooneiai oacaea; 2) eaiaiiioaieueiua ?oaeieee
(«Oeaio?aeueiue»,

«Aaoea», «Iiainiieyieiianeea») e i?eiaaeeaaeauea e iei aeaeaciua
?oaeieee a

Aaoiooneii oacaea iauae ieiuaaeueth 18.888 aeanyoei; 3) THcianeee
/oaoiiiiea-

aeeueiue, aeaeaciaeaeaoaeueiue e noaeaeeoaeiue caaiae ni
aniiiiaaoaeueiuie oeaoa-

ie, ?aniieiaeaiiue a Aaoiooneii oacaea; 4) aeaeaciay aei?iaa ii?iaeueiie
eieae a

?aeiia caaiaea aeeeiie a 23 aa?nou n aaoeie a 11 aa?no, niaaeeiythuae
caaiae ni

noaioeeae THciai Aeaoa?eieineie ae.ae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ioeann
eiioeaio?aoeee

i?iecaiaenoaa, ioaaoeaoee ?inneeneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue, aue oa?aeoa?ai e

aeey Iiai?inneeneiai Iauanoaa. A /anoiinoe ii iaoae naia i?iyaeaiea a

aeoeaiii i?eia?aoaiee a eiioea XIX a. iiauo caiaeue n oeaeueth
iaania/aiey,

i?e/ai a e?oiiuo ianooaaao, nianoaaiiui nu?ueai iaoaeeo?ae/aneia i?aae-

i?eyoea.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, Iiai?inneeneia Iauanoai iicaeinoaiaaei e?oiiua

noiiu ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaea caeiia e iin?aaenoaii auionea
iaeeaa-

oeee. Oae, 29 ia?oa 1889 a. (i.no.) Iauanoai caeeth/eei aeiaiai? n
ei?aeii A?/e-

aaeueaeii Aaeueoo?ii, e Aai?e A?anne i auionea 6% caeeaaeiuo eenoia ia
noiio a

275 oun. o.no. iiae caeia eiaiey, i?eia?aoaiiiai o ei. Eeaai. N yoeo ii?
ei?ae

Aaeueoo? noae ea?aoue aeaeioth ?ieue a aeayoaeueiinoe Iauanoaa e
iinoaiaiii nin?a-

aeioi/ee a naieo ?oeao a?iiaaeiia /enei aeoeee. Oiiae iiaaoaiey
ia?aciauaaeny

ec noiiu ?aaiie 1% aiaeiauo ia iiieiaeueioth noiio caeia, a oaeaea iethn
6 %

aiaeiauo ia aaeaaiaeii iiaaoaaiua caeeaaeiua eenou, i?e/ai aueoi
iineaaeieo

i?iecaiaeeeny ii iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe, a eo aeaaeaeueoeo a?o/aeny
eoiii ia

iieaoo i?ioeaioia. Iiaaoaiea i?iecaiaeeeinue a i?enoonoaee iioa?eona
aaeaaiaeii a

iaa ianyoea n iauyaeaieai a «Oaeina» oiea/aiiuo Iauanoaii aeieaia.
Iiai?in-

neeneia iauanoai acyei ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai ?anieaoeoueny n aeieaaie e
1 ethey

1823 aiaea.

A 1896 e 1900 aa. Iiai?inneeneia Iauanoai auionoeei 5% aeaoona?eeiuo

iaeeaaoeeiiiue caei a oeaeyo niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth i?aaei?eyoey ia
iauoth noiio

300.000 o. no. N?iee iiaaoaiey niioaaonoaaiii enoaeaee 1 ethey 1911 a. e
1 ie-

oya?y 1920 aiaea. A a ai?aea ianyoea 1910 a. ninoiyeny iiaue caai iiae
caeia

caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, eoieaiiuo o Eeaai, Niieyieiiaie e Ea?eiie ia noiio
a

6000.000 o.no. (eee 5.675.995 ?oaeae), eioi?ay aeeth/aea a naay
iaania/aiea

ia?aaiaea eee iiaaoaiey iaeeaaoeeiiiuo caeiia 1896 e 1900 aa. Iiaaoaiea
iiaiai

caeia i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?iaanoe a oa/aiea 33 eao. Aeey aii?oecaoeee
aeieaa Iiai-

?inneeneia iauanoai ?ac a iieaiaea oaea?aeeaaei 8 iainia n eaaeaeie
aiaeeeneie

oiiiu oaey, au?aaioaiiiai a eiiyo Iauanoaa aei oao ii?, iiea iauay noiia

oaea?aeae ia aoaeao ?aaiyoueny noiia oaeoueo ieaoaaeae ii caeio
eaaeaeiai niioaaono-

aothuaai iieo aiaeey.

Eae oeacuaaeinue a caeiia 1895 a. i Iiai?inneeneii iauanoaa, a oa/aiea

ianeieueeeo eao aeeaeaeaiae ninoaaeye nauoa 15 % aiaeiauo ia
iaueiiaaiiua aeoeee.

E a ?acoeueoaoa e eiioeo XIX a. cia/eoaeueiay /anoue caeiia Iauanoaa
auea

oiea/aia ec i?eauee, eioi?ay, oaeei ia?acii, auea eaieoaeece?iaaia. *oi
aea

eanaaony caeiia ?oaaaea aaeia, oi, eae iieacuaatho aaeainiaua n/aoa
Iauanoaa, a

1913 a. ia?aay na?ey auea iieiinoueth auiea/aia, a ii aoi?ie /eneeeny
iacia/e-

oaeueiue aeiea. A 1900 a. aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae Iauanoaa aue oaaee/ai e
ninoaaee

1 iei. 200 oun. o. no. Ii aue ?acaeaeai ia 600 oun. o.no. noa?iai e 600
oun. o.no.

iiaiai eaieoaea. I?e yoii aea?aeaoaeyi noa?iai eaieoaea iacia/aeanue
noiia

iiaiai, ?aaiay noiia iaoiaeyuaainy o ieo ai aeaaeaiee.

Ii niiauaieyi aacao, Iiai?inneeneia Iauanoai a 1912 a. io nauoa naiae

i?iaeoeoeee iieo/eei i?eaueue a 128.137 o. no. N oaea?aeaieai inoaoea
aeieaa ec

i?eauee ca i?aaeuaeouee aiae (46.301 o.no.), iauee iaee/iue eaieoae
Iauanoaa,

iiaeeaaeauee ?ani?aaeaeaieth, onoaiiaeeny a noiia 174.439 o.no., ec
eioi?uo

44.598 iioei ia aii?oecaoeeth, 50.000 – a ?aca?aiue eaieoae, 60.000 eee
5% ia

eaaeaeoth aeoeeth eae aeeaeaeaiae aeoeeiia?ai e, iaeiiaoe, 19.840 o.no.
niiaa ooei ia

?aii?oiua* naeaeee.

Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai ia iaoiaeeeinue a noi?iia io i?ioeannia,
i?ienoiaeea-

oeo a ?onneie yeiiiie/aneie aeecie, a eiaiii: iiiiiieecaoeee e eeanniaie

eiinieeaeaoeee ao?aeoacee. A ia/aea XX a. iii aoiaeeei a a?oiio thaeiuo
caaiaeia,

yaeyaoeony eiio?aaaioaie neiaeeeaoa «I?iaeaiaoa». Eae iaiaeiie?aoii
iiae/a?ee-

aaeinue a niaaoneie enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a, yoio iiuiue neiaeeeao a
i?aaeaiai-

iua aiaeu ia aeiionoee ioe?uoey iiauo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo caaiaeia. Aieaa
oiai, ii

n oeaeueth iiauoaiey oeai cae?ue ?yae aeaenoaiaaaoeo e cia/eoaeueii
ia?aie/ee

i?iecaiaenoai ia i?aaei?eyoeyo naieo eiio?aaaioia, aceiay oo?aou ca
i?aauoa-

iea onoaiiaeaiiuo eaio. Ia/eiay n 1907 a. Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai
caeeth/eei

n Iauanoaii aeey i?iaeaaee ecaeaeee ?onneeo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo caaiaeia
(ioeoee-

aeueiia iacaaiea neiaeeeaoa) oeaeue ?yae eiio?aaaioneeo aeiaiai?ia,
i?aaeinoaaeya-

oeo neiaeeeaoo i?aai eneeth/eoaeueiie i?iaeaaee i?iecaiaeeiuo THcianeei
caaiaeii

_______________________________________________________________________

* ?aii?o — ?acieoea iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeiie e iieoiiie oeaiie. Yoi
?aciiaeaeiinoue n?i/iie naeaeee, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
aeaaeaeaoe oeaiiuo aoiaa eee aaethou i?iaeaao eo aaieo n iaycaoaeuenoaii
iineaaeothuaai aueoia ii iiaie, aieaa aunieie oeaia.

aaeie, ?aeuenia, eenoiaiai aeaeaca, noaee anao ni?oia e ?yaea ae?oaeo
ecaeaeee. Yoe

niaeaoaiey onoaiaaeeaaee aeiee o/anoey THcianeiai caaiaea a neiaeeeaoa
«I?iaea-

iaoa» (iie eieaaaeenue a i?aaeaeao io 9% aei 14,5% ia ?aciua aeaeu
ecaeaeee),

ii?aaeaeyee n?aaeiea oeaiu ia i?iecaaaeaiioth ii caeacai i?iaeoeoeeth.
Iiai?innee-

neia iauanoai, niaeanii aeiaiai?ai, iaycuaaeinue i?eia?anoe aeoeee
neiaeeeaoa, a

Iauanoai aeey i?iaeaaee ecaeaeee, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eia?aoaei aeoeee
THcianeiai

caaiaea, i?e/ai eo iauaa eiee/anoai niaoeeaeueii iaiaa?eaaeinue. N?ie
aeaenoaey

niaeaoaiee iinoiyiii i?iaeeaaaeny, aieioue aei 1917 aiaea.

Eae niiauaee aacaou, Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai caieiaei 3-a ianoi ii
i?iec-

aiaenoao iaeioi?uo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee n?aaee eiio?aaaioia neiaeeeaoa
«I?iaeaiaoa».

Iii oei aneaae ca THaeii-?onneei Aeiai?ianeei iaoaeeo?ae/aneei e
?onnei-aaeue-

aeeneei iaoaeeo?ae/aneei i6uanoaaie.

Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai oaeaea aioei a ninoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo
i?aaieca-

oeee ?inneeneie ao?aeoacee, noaa /eaiii Nuacaea i?aaenoaaeoaeae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe

e oi?aiaee. 12-14 ai?aey 1906 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa ninoiyeny aai
i?aaiecaoeeiiiue

nuacae. Oiaaea aea auei naieoeeiie?iaaii i?yiia o/anoea a nuacaeao
ioaeaeueiuo

e?oiiuo oe?i n eaieoaeii aieaa 300 oun. ?oaeae. Oaeei oe?iai
i?aaeinoaaey-

einue oieueei i?aai niaauaoaeueiiai aieina, i?e oneiaee oieaou aiaeiauo
aciinia a

?acia?a 100 ?oaeae n eaaeaeiai ieeeeiia eaieoaea. Niaao nuacaeia (a
ninoaaa 48 /a-

eiaae) aue iaaeaeai i?aaii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa eioa?ania «anae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e

oi?aiaee» ia?aae i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie
no?a-

iu. Anooieaiea Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa a ninoaa yoie i?aaiecaoeee
i?ieci-

oei a oaa?aea 1910 a., i /ai ecaauae Niaao nuacaeia aeaaiioi?aaeythuee
caaiaeii

e ?oaeieeaie Aaeai Aeaenaiae?iae/ Naeoeui. Iauanoai ieaoeei /eaineea
aciinu a

?acia?a 1200 ?oaeae a aiae.

Aaniie 1911 a. a i?anna iiyaeeenue ia?aua naaaeaiey i i?aaenoiyuae
i?iaeaaea

eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa a?oiia o?aioeocneeo
eaie-

oaeenoia. ?onneea aacaou, nnueaynue ia naaaeaiey, niiauaiiua
o?aioeocneeie aeo?-

iaeenoaie, oaaaeiieyee ioaeeeo i oii, /oi iiia/aeo a ea/anoaa
iin?aaeieea i?e

i?iaeaaea aunooiee e?oiiue aaiee?neee aeii «Thalmann Co.». Iinea
aeaooeaoiaai

ia?a?uaa inaiueth 1913 a. aiiaue caaiai?eee i i?iaeaaea THcianeiai
caaiaea. Ia nae

?ac aacao/eee iaaeaoniuneaiii oeacuaaee ia i?e/eiu, canoaaeaoea
aeaaeaeueoeaa

«auionoeoue ec ?oe noieue cia/eoaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea». Nnueaynue ia
iiaiea ii?aaea-

eaiiuo eeoe, aacaou niiauaee i oii, /oi a iineaaeiea aiaeu i?iecaiaenoai
ia

i?aaei?eyoee ianeieueei nieceeinue*, a yenieoaoaoeey oaieueiuo ?oaeieeia
ia auea

i?aaieciaaia aeieaeiui ia?acii. Aieaa oiai, «Ae?aeaaua aaaeiiinoe»
oeacuaaee

ia oii, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey oaoie/aneie iai?oaeiaaiea THcianeiai caaiaea
onoa?aei,

e Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai /ooue ee ia aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaee i?aaei?eyoee
THaa ia

n/eoaeinue n oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, e iiyoiio ia aiineei oeo/oaiee a
oaoiiei-

aeth i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey iaeeaeaiey aeaea, eae niiauaee aacaou,
o?aaiaaeenue aeiiie-

ieoaeueiua oneeey e i?eoie iiauo eaieoaeia. Niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiay
iniaay

eiienney ai aeaaa n Eoe Ae?aeoonii (ia yoio ?ac a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea
ia

ia?aaiai?ao aunooiee aaiee?neee aeii «Louis Dreyfus &Ni») i?iecaiaeeea
ii-

ae?iaiue iniio? caaiaea e ?oaeieeia.

Aiaeeeneee enoi?ee Aeae.Aanoaoae oaeaea ioia/ae oaeo ionoaaaiey THcia
a aeaea

aiaae?aiey iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Ii ii ana aea aieueoa
neeiiai

n/eoaoue naaaeaiey, niiauaiiua i?annie, nei?aa aieineiaiuie
ooaa?aeaeaieyie, a

ia aeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiie e?eoeeie.

________________________________________________________________________

* Yoi auei eeoue io/anoe aa?iia ooaa?aeaeaiea.

Oaaeeoea ? 3. Iniiaiua iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaa a 1911-1913 aa. (a aiae.

oiiiao)

Aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee 1911 1912 1913 1914

Oaieue 1.390.868 1.261.589 1.388.750 1.493.357

Eien 326.434 435.589 436.350 391.254

*oaoi e nieaau 252.241 270.370 272.771 267.099

Noaeue 175.372 210.941 228.380 231.367

?aeuenu 52.147 82.957 69.244 87.349

Eenoiaia aeaeaci

aieaaiee e i?. 61.342 71.235 97.257 89.813

Aaeee caaioiaee e i?. 84.635 55.762 60.234 48.282

Enoi/ieee:

?AEE. Ii. 28. Ae. 1497. E. 18, 20, 22.

E ana-oaee ionoaaaiea THcianeiai caaiaea n yoie oi/ee c?aiey io aieaa
iieiaeuo

iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee thaa ?innee oaea a eiioea XIX a.
noaiiaeeinue

yaiui. Oae, niaaoneee enoi?ee A.I.Nieiaueaaa ioia/aao, /oi a 90-a aiaeu
i?ioei-

ai noieaoey ia caaiaea aue inouanoaeai e?oiiue naeaea a
yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe

o?oaea., i?e/ai /eneaiiinoue caaiaeneeo ?aai/eo aic?inea eeoue ia 13% a
oi a?aiy,

eae iauee iauai i?iaeoeoeee oaaee/eeny ii/oe ia 149 i?ioeaioia. Ii,
ianiio?y ia

yoi, a 1900 a. Iiai?inneeneia iauanoai ii oeacaiiiio iieacaoaeth
onooiaei

Iao?ianeiio caaiaeo ?onnei-aaeueaeeneiai iauanoaa a 3 ?aca, a
Ae?oaeeianeiio

Aeiiaoeeiai iauanoaa – a 4,6 ?aca. Aeey aieueoae iieiiou ea?oeiu
i?eaaaeai

aeaiiua ia yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe o?oaea ia Noeeineii caaiaea: iia
?aaiyeanue

0,87 e.n. ia iaeiiai ?aai/aai, oi anoue auea a 3,25 ?aca ieaea, /ai ia
THcianeii caaaaeaii.

Eae iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, nia?aiaiieee a?ineee eeoue io/anoe
ni?aaaaeeeaue

oi?ae aeaaeaeueoeai Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa. Ii a?yae ee iiaeii
niaeaneoueny n

oai, /oi ia THcianeii caaiaea aiana ia n/eoaeenue n oaoie/aneei
i?ia?annii. A

io/aoa I?aaeaiey iauanoaa io 13 yiaa?y 1913 a. (i.no.) oeacuaaeinue, /oi
a

i?aaenoiyuai aiaeo iaeeaeaaony oeo/oaiea aeae ii ioiioaieth e 1912 a.
Iaeioi?ue

niaae, i/aaeaeii, aue aucaai oai, /oi a 1910 a. ia caaiaea auea i?eiyoa
i?ia?aiia

iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, /anoe/ii i?a?aaiiay a nayce n aaa?eae ia
yeaeo?e-

/aneii aaia?aoi?a. Ii ae?oaea ioieou i?ia?aiiu e 1913 a. auee auiieiaiu
e

oaea ia/aee aeaaaoue ?acoeueoaou. A i?aaeuaeouai 1912 a., eae
iiae/a?eeaaeinue a

io/aoa, auea aeinoeaiooa nouanoaaiiay yeiiiiey a iio?aaeaiee oiieeaa.
I?aaea-

iea Iauanoaa i?aaeiieaaaei i?eiyoue ia?u ii oeo/oaieth aeoouey a
aeiiaiiuo

ia/ao. Iii oaeaea aaei ia?aaiai?u n aaeueaeeneie oe?iie «Evence Ni??aa»
ii

nii?oaeaieth 150 eieniaaeueiuo ia/ae e no?ieoaeuenoao caaiaea ii
eniieueciaaieth

iooiaeia ?yaeii n Oeaio?aeueiuie ?oaeieeaie.

A ia/aea 1914 a. ?onnei-Aceaoneee aaie niae?aeny i?eia?anoe
eiio?ieueiue

iaeao aeoeee Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa, caeeth/ea n yoie oeaeueth a
yiaa?a 1914 a.

niaoeeaeueiia niaeaoaiea n aaiee?neei aeiiii Ae?aeoona. A oaea aaniie
oiai aea

aiaea I.A.Ai?aeii, aee?aeoi? ?onnei-Aceaoneiai aaiea, aae ia?aaiai?u ii
niaiano-

iiio i?eia?aoaieth THcianeiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai caaiaea. Ii ia yoio ?ac
ia?oia-

?ii ii naeaeea aunooiee Iaoa?ao?aneee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie. Eiini?oeeoi
aai-

eia i?aaeiieaaae o/?aaeeoue aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai aeey yenieoaoaoeee
yoiai caaiaea.

Aiineaaenoaee ?onnei-Aceaoneee aaie ioeacaeny io i?eia?aoaiey THcianeiai
caai-

aea. Ana oeiiiou ii iieoiea eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee Iiai?inneeneiai
iauano-

aa acye ia naay Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie, eioi?ue i?aaeiieaaae inouanoaeoue
naeaeeo,

eae niiauaee aacaou, ia 33 iei. ?oaeae. Yoio eaieoae aeieaeai aue
?ani?aaeaeeoue-

ny neaaeothuei ia?acii: 15 iei. ?oaeae iaee/iuie, 12 iei. a aeoeeyo e 6
iei. a

iaeeaaoeeyo. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie i?aneaaeiaae oeaeue iaania/eoue
niaianoioth yen-

ieoaoaoeeth aeiiaiiuo ia/ae THciaee n Iauanoaii iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo
caaiaeia

Aa?oiaia. Ii a iaa 1914 a. aacaou oaaaeiieee naieo /eoaoaeae i oii, /oi
e yoa

naeaeea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaiea oaeaea ia ninoiyeanue. Ia/aaoayny anei?a
aieia

ia aeaa aiaea caaea?aeaea inouanoaeaiea aeaaii ianoaeaeaaoaeny iieoiee.
E oieueei a

ai?aea 1916 a. ?onnei-Aceaoneee aaie aunooiee a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai
iieoia-

oaey aeoeee Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa. A eaoii oiai aea aiaea ii
ia?aonooiee eo

?onneiio iauanoao aeey ecaioiaeaiey nia?yaeia e aiaiiuo i?eiania,
auaoaio

iauanoao «Ia?aeaeiai».

A 1913-1914 aiaeao (aei iauyaeaiey aieiu) iieiaeaiea aeae a
Iiai?inneeneii

iauanoaa, niaeanii io/aoo I?aaeaiey, i?iaeieaeaei oeo/oaoueny. Ii
i?eciaieth

naieo aeoeeiia?ia, ?ino aeioiaeia aue aiieia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui. Yoi
iauyniy-

einue oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi noa?ua eiio?aeou ia iinoaaeo oaey e
/oaoia,

caeeth/aiiua ii aieaa ieceei, /ai a 1914 a. oeaiai, auee iieiinoueth
au?aaioaiu.

Ae?oaie i?e/eiie oeo/oaiey aeae, eae oeacuaaei I?aaeaiea, noaei
aiaae?aiea

yeaeo?e/aneiai i?eaiaea e iinoaiaiiia nieaeaiea iio?aaeaiey oaey. A
i?aaeaiai-

iua aiaeu a aeiiaiiuo oeaoao i?iaeieaeaeanue iiaea?iecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia THcia-

neee caaiae auee aeinoaaeaiu oo?aiaicaeooiaeoaee e ia?iaua eioeu nenoaiu
Aaaeie

e Oeeeien. Eiio?aeo, caeeth/aiiue ia oae aeaaii n oe?iie «Evence Ni??aa»

aeaaae nouanoaaiioth yeiiiieth a iio?aaeaiee oaey e, eae neaaenoaea
yoiai, nieaea-

iea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Iacaaeieai aei aieiu ia oa??eoi?ee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaa-

oae iauanoao auee ioe?uou iiaua ianoi?iaeaeaiey eienothuaainy oaey, oae
iacu-

aaaiua o?acianeea ieanou, eioi?ua ii ea/anoao ia onooiaee
niieyieiianeei.

Iauay noieiinoue iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa a a.
THciaea ia 13 yiaa?y 1914 a. ninoaaeea 1.740.773 o. no*. ?ac?aceaoayny
ia?aay ie?iaay aieia iaianea na?ueaciua oua?a aeciano, eae oeacuaaeinue
a ion/aoa I?aaeaiey iauanoaa. Caaiae iioa?ye eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eaae?u
?aai/eo, eniuouaae o?oaeiinoe ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee aaeaeo naiaa n
ia?aaiceaie a?ocia ia aeaeaciuo aei?iaao no?aiu, eioi?ua a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iaania/eaaee aiaiiua ia?aaicee.

Ana aiaeu a ia/aea XX noieaoey e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee Iiai?inneeneiai
iauano-

aa inouanoaeyeenue i?e iin?aaeie/anoaa Eiiaeiineiai Ia??-aaiea, a a
?innee —

Ainoaea?noaaiiiai, Iaoa?ao?aneiai eiiia?/aneiai e Iineianeiai
eoia/aneiai aaieia. A 1913 a. a I?aaeaiea iauanoaa a ea/anoaa
aee?aeoi?ia aoiaeeee neaaeothuea eeoea: ei?ae A.Aaeueoo? eae
i?aaenaaeaoaeue, I.Aeeeii, Aeaeii Aeaeaein THc, A.Iaeeiiae, A.Ieenii e
A.?aaeeueii. A 1914 a. ninoaa aee?aeoi?ia ianeieueei eciaieeny,
I?aaeaiea eca?aei iiaiai naiaai /eaia *.Ao/a, a a ea/anoaa
aeoea-aee?aeoi?a — *.Ioaeeae. Iinea ionoaaee I.Aeeeiia a 1914 a. aai
ianoi a i?aaeaiee caiye A?oo? Aaeueoo?. A 1915 a. oia? Aeueaa?o
?aaeeueii, a a 1916 a. ec ninoaaa i?aaeaiey e n iinoa aai i?aaenaaeaoaey
ooae iaeei ec naiuo e?oiiuo aeoeeiia?ia Iauanoaaaa ei?ae A?/eaaeueae
Aaeueoo?. A ?acoeueoaoa I?aaeaiea nie?aoeeinue aei /aou?ao /aeiaae. A
ea/anoaa ioaaonoaaiiuo aaaioia Iao?ia?aaeneiai eiieoaoa Iiai?inneeneiai
iauanoaa a 1916 a. auee neaaeothuea eeoea: Aeai Ay?/, eioi?ue aei yoiai
caieiae iino eiiia?/aneiai aee?aeoi?a THcianeiai caaiaea, *a?euec
Yanai?o e Ai?en

* A aiaeu aieiu eo?n ?oaey ii ioiioaieth e ooioo noa?eeiaia nieceeny. Ia
13 yiaa?y 1915 a. (i.n.) ii ninoaaee 117 ?oa.=10 o.no. Iaaeaiea eo?na
i?iaeieaeaeinue e a neaaeothuea aiaeu (?AEA. O.23. Ii. 28. Ae. 1497. E.
23.)

Ieeieaaae/ Iiia?aioeaa. A oa/aiea anae aei?aaiethoeeiiiie enoi?ee
i?aaei?eyoey aai ?oeiaiaeyuee e eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneee ia?niiae
eiiieaeoiaaeny aeaaiui ia?acii ec aiaee/ai. Oai ia iaiaa ninoaa
neoaeaueo caaiaea aue iienoeia iiiaiiaoeeiiaeai. ?yaeii n aiaee/aiaie e
?onneeie o?oaeeeenue aa?ae, iieyee, aaeueaeeoeu, iaioeu, aieaa?u, eaouoe
e aeaaea a?aee.

Iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee ia/aeanue iiaay y?a a enoi?ee THcianeiai
caai-

aea. Aeae?aoii NIE io 24 yiaa?y 1918 a. ii aue iaoeeiiaeece?iaai.
Noieiinoue

eiouanoaa Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa ia 1 yiaa?y 1918 a., eae niiauaeinue
a

ienueia Iao?ia?aaeneiai eiieoaoa aaia?aeueiiio eiinoeo Aaeeeia?eoaiee
A.Aoae-

oaoco, ?aaiyeanue aiooeoaeueiie noiia: 412.385.931 ?oaeth .
Iaoeeiiaeecaoeey

THcianeiai caaiaea noaea eeoue iaeiei ec yieciaeia a iauyaeaiiie iiaie
aeanoueth

«e?aniiaaa?aeaeneie aoaea ia eaieoae». Ii ia ana ianoiyei oae i?inoi.
Aieueoaae-

eai noieei iaiaeuo oneeee iaeaaeeoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann,
?anno?iaiiue

aieiie e ?aaiethoeeae. Iiyoiio Niaia?eii 12 iay 1919 a. iniaui
iinoaiiaeaieai

n/ae ioaeiui nio?aieoue aei ii?u aei a?aiaie nouanoaiaaiea
Iao?ia?aaeneiai eiie-

oaoa n oai, /oiau eniieueciaaoue iiuo aai /eaiia e ia?aaeaoue
aiineaaenoaee aoaeoua-

io oi?aaeaieth. Ii ia enoi?ee Iiai?inneeneiai iauanoaa e THcianeiai
caaiaea,

oanii naycaiiie ni iiiaeie auoiaeoeaie ec Aiaeee, auea oaea iinoaaeaia
oi/ea. A

20-a aiaeu iaanaaaea en/acaao eiy oaeaioeeaiai aiaeeeneiai eiaeaia?a,
i?aeoeea-

iiaaoi?a, i?aoniaaathuaai aecianiaia Aeaeiia THca ec iacaaiey ai?iaea,
eioi?ue

aiciee aeaaiaea?y aai oneeeyi. Ia ea?oa ?innee iiyaeyaony iiaia
iaeiaiiaaiea:

Noaeeii. Ii oiiiieieea yiioe oioaeeoa?ecia ieacaeanue iaaeieaiaa/iie,
i?inouanoaiaaa anaai o?e aeanyoeeaoey. Aea e nia?aiaiiia iacaaiea
ai?iaea —

Aeiiaoee — iaei /oi aiai?eo i aai i?ienoiaeaeaiee e ie/ai ia naycaii n
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie enoi?eae yoiai aiaaoiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai e?ay ia
thaa ?innee.

Caeeth/aiea.

Oi?ie?iaaiea e oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea
yaeythony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia, ia eioi?ii aace?othony
i?iaiaeeiua a no?aia ?aoi?iu. Aeoeeiie?iaaiea caieiaao aaaeiia ianoi a
nicaeaiee ii?iaeueiuo oneiaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee, yaeyynue
oaeiaiie oi?iie aeey i?iaaaeaiey eo ?acainoaea?noaeaiey, iicaieyao
i?aaieciaaoue yooaeoeaiue eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth oi?aaeai/aneiai
aiia?aoa.

A ianoiyuai ?aoa?aoa aeeoioee?iaaiu iniiaiua naaaeaiey, iicaieythuea
iiiyoue, n /aai ia/eiaeinue aeoeeiie?iaaiea, eae iiyaeyeenue
aeoeeiia?iua eiiiaiee a ?innee, n eaeeie o?oaeiinoyie noaeeeaaeenue ia
naiai iooe ?inneeneea i?aaei?eieiaoaee. Ia i?eia?a “Iiai?inneeneiai
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa” auei iieacaii eaeoth eieinaeueioth ?ieue ea?aee
oaeea i?aaei?eyoey a enoi?ee iaoaai ainoaea?noaa.

E?iia oiai aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa iaeaaeatho ?yaeii
i?aeiouanoa ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aeaeaie aeaeiauo i?aaiecaoeee,
aeaeathueie eo iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuae oi?iie aeey e?oiiiai aeciana a neeo
oeaeiai ?yaea i?e/ei. I?aaeaea anaai aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa iiaoo
eiaoue iaia?aie/aiiue n?ie nouanoaiaaiey, a oi a?aiy eae ia?eiae
aeaenoaey i?aaei?eyoee, iniiaaiiuo ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
eee oiaa?euanoa n o/anoeai oece/aneeo eeoe, eae i?aaeei, ia?aie/ai
?aieaie aeecie eo o/?aaeeoaeae. Aeoeeiia?iua iauano-

aa, aeaaiaea?y auioneo aeoeee, iieo/atho aieaa oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe a

i?eaea/aiee aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa ii n?aaiaieth n iaei?ii?e?iaaiiui

aecianii. Iineieueeo aeoeee iaeaaeatho aeinoaoi/ii aunieie
eeeaeaeiinoueth,

eo ai?acaei i?iua ia?aoeoue a aeaiueae i?e auoiaea ec aeoeeiia?iiai
ia-

uanoaa, /ai iieo/eoue iacaae aeieth a onoaaiii eaieoaea oiaa?euanoaa n

ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

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