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Институционализм (Американский вариант )

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NAIA?NEAss AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss YEIIIIE*ANEAss AEAAeAIEss

Eaoaae?a “Oai?aoe/aneie yeiiiieee”

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii eo?no: Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee

ia oaio: Einoeoooeeiiaeeci. Aia?eeaineee aa?eaio

auiieieea: nooaeaioea oaeoeueoaoa aoi?iai aunoaai ia?aciaaiey,
niaoeeaeueiinoe oeiainu e e?aaeeo, 4 eo?na

Oaiiaaeiaa Aaeeia Ay/aneaaiaia

i?eiye: ?yneo Aaneeiae/ Oao?aoaeeiia.

a. Naia?a 1998 aiae

NIAeA?AEAIEA.

I. Ca?iaeaeaiea aia?eeaineiai einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

Iniiaiua /a?ou.

Yoaiu yaiethoeee.

IY. Iniiaiua oa/aiey einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

a) Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee einoeoooeeiiaeeci. O.Aaaeai.

a) Nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaie einoeoooeeiiaeeci Aeae. ?. Eiiiiina
(1862-1945).

a) Eiiuthieoo?ii-noaoenoe/aneee einoeoooeeiiaeeci O. Ieo/aeea
(1874-1948).

Cia/aiea einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

Eeoa?aoo?a

I. Ca?iaeaeaiea aia?eeaineiai einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

Einoeoooeeiiaeeci a aia?eeaineie iieeoyeiiiiee cayaee i naaa a eiioea
XIX -ia/aea XX aaea. Iaino?aiea i?ioeai?a/ee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e
aiiethuea oi?iu i?iyaeaiey aeanoe iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea aucaaee
iiiiceoeeiiioth aieio a yeiiiie/aneie iaoea. A iniiaa eaaeaea eaeay i
aiciiaeiinoe i?aiaeieaiey ii?ieia eaieoaeecia iin?aaenoaii ?aoi?i.

A yoio ia?eiae eioaineaii o?e i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
eaieoaea, iiiiiieece?iaaeenue aaaeiaeoea io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
i?ienoiaeeea aeaaioneay oeaio?aeecaoeey aaieianeiai eaieoaea a
aia?eeaineie yeiiiieea.

Iiiiiieenoe/aneay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee nii?iaiaeaeaeanue nioeeaeueiuie
naeaeaaie. Iiyaeeanue iiiiceoeey caneeueth iiiiiieenoe/aneeo o?anoia.
Ia?yaeo n yoei auaeaeioeanue i?iaeaia ?aai/aai e nioeeaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aeaiie?aoecaoeee yeiiiieee e iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Auno?ue ?ino iiauo n?aaeieo nei?a (eiaeaia?u, i?aiiaeaaaoaee, o/?iua,
neoaeauea, eeoea naiaiaeiuo i?ioannee) aue iaeiei ec aaaeiuo i?iyaeaiee
naeaeaia a nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa, naycaiiuo n ia?aoiaeii
eaieoaeecia a iiiiiieenoe/aneoth noaaeeth.

?ino a?iee eeoe oinoaaiiiai o?oaea, cia/eoaeueiay nioeeaeueiay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oe?ieie iannu ia?aciaaiiuo ethaeae iaoneiaeeaaee
i?ioeai?a/eaua oaiaeaioeee a eo nioeeaeueiii niciaiee. Nioeeaeueiay
iaiaeii?iaeiinoue eioaeeeaaioeee, iauaeoeaiay i?ioeai?a/eainoue a?
iieiaeaiey a eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaia neoaeeee ii/aie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
?aoi?ienoneie eaeaieiaee.

A iieeoyeiiiiee ia ii/aa iaino?aiey i?ioeai?a/ee eaieoaeecia e aeoaieiai
?aci/a?iaaiey /anoe yeiiiienoia a oao ?acoeueoaoao, e eioi?ui ia
i?aeoeea i?eaiaeeo iaia?aie/aiiue ?uii/iue iaoaieci, aicieeea iiiiceoeey
o?aaeeoeeiiiie yeiiiie/aneie oeeinioee e ?uii/iui iaieeanne/aneei
eiioeaioeeyi.

Ia?iaeaeathuayny iiaay iieeoyeiiiiey auea ecia/aeueii naycaia n
?acaeoeai aeaiie?aoe/aneie iunee e aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, a
eioi?uo iaoiaeeee ii?aaeae?iiia io?aaeaiea eciaiaiey i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aeaeaoaeueiii iauanoaaiiii ono?ienoaa, a /anoiinoe n eaeaieiaeae
i?ia?annecia.

A i?ia?annenoneie eaeaieiaee eeth/aauie auee aioeiiiiiieenoe/aneea
iioeau, a a oeaeii – oaia ineaaeaiey caneeuey iiiiiieee,
aeaiie?aoecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu aia?eeaineiai
iauanoaa ai eiy aai noaaeeecaoeee e i?aaeioa?auaiey ?aaiethoeee.

Oa?iei einoeoooeeiiaeeci noae niae?aoaeueiui iiiyoeai i?eiaieoaeueii e
yeiiiienoai, iauaaeeiyaiui iauiinoueth oeeinioneie i?eaioaoeee, iauei
aeaeaieai i?ioeai?a/ee iauanoaaiiie nenoaiu e oe?ieei
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneei iiaeoiaeii e eco/aieth yeiiiieee. Einoeoooeeiiaeenou
no?aieeenue ?ac?aaioaoue oai?eth, eioi?ay iiaea au noaoue aeaenoaaiiui
eino?oiaioii ?aoaiey iauanoaaiiuo i?iaeai. Aeey yoiai iia aeieaeia auoue
“?aaeenoe/aneie”, oi anoue no?ieoueny ia iniiaa eco/aiey
eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee.

Nai oa?iei “einoeoooeeiiaeeci” aiciee a NOA e ioiineony i?aaeaea anaai e
ii?aaeae?iiiio oa/aieth a aia?eeaineie ao?aeoaciie iieeoyeiiiiee,
ianouaio a naaa /a?ou niaoeeoeee aia?eeaineiai enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa,
iaoeeiiaeueiuo oneiaee, o?aaeeoeee. Iaeiaei eeth/aaua /a?ou
einoeoooeeiiaeecia, aiai?yo i oaniii ?iaenoaa yoiai oa/aiey n
aiaeiae/iuie oa/aieyie a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie iunee, aicieeoeie a
iniiaiuo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoeyo XIX –
ia/aea XX aaea. Iiyoiio iiiyoea “einoeoooeeiiaeeci” a iaeanoe
iieeoyeiiiiee eniieuecoaony ia oieueei i?eiaieoaeueii e NOA, ii e ei
anaio oa/aieth a oeaeii.

Einoeoooeeiiaeenou, ia?aoeaoenue ia ?oaaaea XIX – XX aaeia e eco/aieth
i?ioeai?a/ee eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee e ia?aie/aiiinoe ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?eaeaeee a ao?aeoaciie iieeoyeiiiiee aieiaiea
e aii?ino i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ei??aeoe?iaaoue ?uii/iue iaoaieci, aeiiieiea
aai aia?uii/iuie oi?iaie eii?aeeiaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e
?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia iin?aaenoaii iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa. Oaea a
?aiieo ?aaioao einoeoooeeiiaeenoia niaea?aeaeenue eaeae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iaeaieaa yaiua, auethuea a aeaca
“aeaoaeou” ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia, naycaiiua n eaieoaeenoe/aneie
iiiiiieeae, ?aceei nioeeaeueiui ia?aaainoaii, yeiiiie/aneeie e?ecenaie,
?anoiaeaeaieai /anoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania.

Eeth/aaie o einoeoooeeiiaeenoia auea eaeay nicaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii
iaae?aeiiai iaoaiecia nioeeaeueiiai eiio?iey, eioi?ue iia au iaania/eoue
noaaeeueiinoue yeiiiieee e oi?aaeyaiia ?acaeoea iauanoaa.

Einoeoooeeiiaeeci aiciee ia nouea iieeoyeiiiiee e nioeeieiaee, /oi iaoei
io?aaeaiea eae a i?iaeaiaoeea, oae e iaoiaeieiaee einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee. Ia ?oaaaea XIX – XX aaeia an? aieueoa aieiaiey i?eaeaeaee
e naaa i?iaeaiu aeanoe, aeaaeaiey, nioeeaeueiuo eiioeeeoia, ?iee
ainoaea?noaa e iaoaiecia oi?ie?iaaiey aai iieeoeee.

Iaiaoiaeeii oae aea ioiaoeoue, /oi ii iiaieth iiiaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae ,
einoeoooeeiiaeeci eiaao iiiai iauaai n enoi?e/aneie oeieie Aa?iaiee.

Iineieueeo o?iaaiue ?acaeoey aia?eeaineie iieeoyeiiiiee ia ?oaaaea XIX –
XX aaeia ?acei ionoaaae ii n?aaiaieth n aa?iiaeneei, eiii?o
oai?aoe/aneeo eaeae ea?ae aaaeioth ?ieue a NOA.

Iiiaea aia?eeaineea yeiiiienou (oae aea eae nioeeieiae e enoi?eee)
o/eeenue a Aa?iaiee e iiaee “ec ia?auo ?oe” ciaeiieoueny n
ao?aeoacii-?aoi?ienoneeie oai?eyie. Yoi aicaeaenoaea i?eciatho e naie
einoeoooeeiiaeenou.

A Aa?iaiee yeiiiienou-enoi?eee caieiaee aeaaainoaothuea iiceoeee a
ao?aeoaciie iieeoyeiiiiee, /oi e ii?aaeaeeei iniaoth ?ieue iaiaoeeie
enoi?e/aneie oeieu a ?acaeoee e ?ani?ino?aiaiee yaiethoeeiienoneeo
eiioeaioeee.

Iaeiaei, iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi enoi?eci e o/?o oaeoi?ia nioeeaeueiie
n?aaeu aeey iainiiaaiey iooae yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, oioy e
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i noiaeanoe iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiia
einoeoooeeiiaeecia e enoi?e/aneie oeieu Aa?iaiee, ii ioithaeue ia
icia/aao iieiie e aaciaiai?i/iie i?aainoaaiiinoe o?aaeeoeee iineaaeiae.

I?aaeaea anaai yoi eanaaony ioiioaiey e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.
Einoeoooeeiiaeenoia a oeaeii, ioee/aao i?eaa?aeaiiinoue eaeaa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ana, eoi aue iiae aeeyieai iaiaoeeie
enoi?e/aneie oeieu, neeiiyeenue e i?eciaieth iaiaoiaeeiinoe aieueoaai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo e i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eiio?iey iaae /anoiui aecianii. I?e yoii iiceoeeth aia?eeaineeo
einoeoooeeiiaeenoia iaeciaiii ioee/aao ia oieueei ionoonoaea eoeueoa
ainoaea?noaa, ii e yaii ianoi?iaeaiiia ioiioaiea e ?inoo iiaouanoaa
ainoaea?noaa. Noi?iiieeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey anaaaea a
aieueoae eee iaiueoae ia?a caaioeee aii?inu i i?e?iaea e oa?aeoa?a
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeueii nouanoaothuae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, a oaeaea
i oii, eaeia aeieaeai auoue a eaeaaea iaoaieci iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey
iaae ainoaea?noaii, ?aaeecaoeeae aai yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo
ooieoeee.

Iniaaiiinoe neiaeeaoaeny a NOA “enoi?e/aneie n?aaeu” iaoneiaeee e
ae?oaia ioee/ea eaeaieiaee e oai?aoe/aneeo iiceoeee einoeoooeeiiaeenoia.
Eaeaieiaey einoeoooeeiiaeenoia ioee/aeanue ii?aaeae?iiie
aeaiie?aoe/aneie ie?aneie e ianea a naaa o?aaeeoeee aoiaienoe/aneiai
nioeeaeueiiai e?eoeoeecia, ?acaeaaaoeany n?aaee /anoe ?aaeeeaeueiie
aia?eeaineie eioaeeeaaioeee n 30-uo aiaeia XIX aaea.

Oaeaea aieueoia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea einoeoooeeiiaeecia NOA ieacaea
aiaeeeneay o?aaeeoeey ?aoi?ienoneie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie iunee.
Oi?ie?iaaiea eaeaieiae/aneeo e oai?aoe/aneeo iniia aiaeeeneiai
eeaa?aeueiiai ?aoi?iecia naycaii n eiaiai aiaeeeneiai oeeinioa e
yeiiiienoa Aeae. N. Ieeey.

Aia?eeaineeo einoeoooeeiiaeenoia i?eaeaeae oia?aiiue e?eoeoeeci a
ioiioaiee eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu a ni/aoaiee n iauae ?aoi?ienoneie
i?eaioaoeeae e iieneaie i?aeoe/aneeo n?aaenoa niaa?oainoaiaaiey
nouanoaothuae iauanoaaiiie nenoaiu. Iniaaiii i?eaeaeaoaeueiie
i?aaenoaaeyeanue eaeay i?aaiaoe/aneiai, yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e
?aoaieth iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai.

Iniiaiua /a?ou einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii einoeoooeeiiaeecia i?eiyoi n/eoaoue O.Aaaeaia
(1857-1929). Yoi aue oeeinio, yeiiiieno, nioeeieia, aio?iiieia e
ineoieia. Aai eioa?an ei anai yoei iaeanoyi ciaiey i?iyaeeny a nayce n
iniiaiie eiiieaeniie oaiie, i?eaeaeaaoae Aaaeaia, – oai?eae iauanoaaiiie
yaiethoeee. Nai oa?iei “einoeoooeeiiaeeci” iieo/ee oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iinea auoiaea iiiia?aoee O. Aaaeaia “Oai?ey i?acaeiiai
eeanna”.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee einoeoooeeiiaeecia aaaeiaeoei i?eciaeii
yoiai oa/aiey neoaeeo e?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea e iaieeanne/aneie ?uii/iie
eiioeaioeee (oai?ee noieiinoe e oeai, oai?ee oe?iu, iio?aaeoaeueneiai
ni?ina, yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeaaininoiyiey) e e iaoiaeieiaee, ia
eioi?ie iia aace?oaony.

Einoeoooeeiiaeenou e?eoeeotho iaieeanne/aneoth oeieo ca a?
ia?aie/aiiinoue, i?iyaeythuothny ii eo iiaieth:

ai-ia?auo, a oii, /oi iie eaii?e?iaaee ?ieue nioeeieiae/aneeo,
iieeoe/aneeo, nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia a ooieoeeiie?iaaiee
yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia;

ai-aoi?uo, a eaii?e?iaaiee aaaeiaeoeo no?oeoo?iuo e einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae ?aaeueiie yeiiiieee;

a-o?aoueeo, a eaeaieiae/aneie “i?aaeacyoinoe” iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee,
aaea ca i?aoaiceae ia iaeo?aeueiue yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec ne?uaaaony
ii?aaeae?iiay nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey n i?enouae ae nenoaiie oeaiiinoae.

Ia?aoeaoenue e eco/aieth ?aaeueiinoae yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ia noaaeee
“iicaeiaai eaieoaeecia”, einoeoooeeiiaeenou nin?aaeioi/eeenue ia
i?iaeaiao yeiiiie/aneie aeanoe, naycaiiuo, ai-ia?auo, n i?ioeannaie
iiiiiieecaoeee, ia?ano?ieee ?uii/iuo no?oeoo? e eciaiaieyie a ?uii/iii
iaoaiecia e, ai-aoi?uo, n aic?anoaieai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu.

Einoeoooeeiiaeenoia, eae yeiiiienoia-nioeeieiaia, i?eaeaeaee i?iaeaiu
yeiiiie/aneie aeanoe a ?acee/iuo a? aniaeoao – enoi/ieee, oi?iu ,
ianooaau, niiniau ?aaeecaoeee, iineaaenoaey, iaoiaeu ia?aie/aiey;
aeanoue ia iee?io?iaia e a yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia a oeaeii, naycue
yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeanoe.

Niaoeeoeea einoeoooeeiiaeecia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iie ?anniao?eaaee
einoeoooeeiiaeueiue ?ac?ac yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu. Einoeoooeeiiaeenou
iieaaaee, /oi aeaeaeouae neeie iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey yaeythony
einoeooou.

Iiae yoei oa?ieiii iie iiieiaee eee nioeeaeueiua yaeaiey, oaeea, eae
naiuey, ainoaea?noai, iiiiiieee, i?ionithcu e o.i., eee i?iyaeaiea
iauanoaaiiie ineoieiaee, iioeau iiaaaeaiey e niinia iuoeaiey, noaaoea
i?eau/iuie aeey ii?aaeae?iiie a?oiiu ethaeae eee anaai ia?iaea, –
iau/ae, o?aaeeoeee, i?eau/ee, a oaeaea i?aaiaua, yoe/aneea e ae?oaea
i?iyaeaiey.

Niaeanii ii?aaeaeaieth O.Aaaeaia, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea einoeooou –
yoi “i?eau/iua niiniau inouanoaeaiey i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiie aeecie a a?
nayce n iaoa?eaeueiui ie?oaeaieai, a eioi?ii aeea?o iauanoai” (“Oai?ey
i?acaeiiai eeanna”).

Naii iiiyoea “yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo”, eae aeaeii, eiaao /?acau/aeii
oe?ieee niune. Iii aeeth/aao ia?yaeo n eiie?aoiuie oi?iaie i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaiaia, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey neiaeeaoeany
th?eaee/aneea ii?iu, iau/ae, oa?aeoa? iuoeaiey e “eaeaieiaee”
yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey, iioeau e noeioeu,
aiieiu?iiua a no?oeoo?a e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo
einoeoooeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu.

Einoeooou, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aunooiatho a ea/anoaa oaeoi?ia,
oi?ie?othueo iiaaaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
einoeooou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iauaeo i?aia?acothuae aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae, eino?oiaiou, iiaeeaaeauea eciaiaieyi /a?ac “eieeaeoeaiua
nioeeaeueiua aeaenoaey”.

Iniiaiuie iaoiaeieiae/aneeie i?eioeeiaie einoeoooeeiiaeenoia yaeythony
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iue iiaeoiae e i?eioeei enoi?ecia.

“Iiiaiaeenoeeieeia?iue” iiaeoiae yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee einoeoooeeiiaeecia. ?anniio?aiea i?iaeai yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey /a?ac i?ecio yeiiiie/aneeo einoeoooia i?aaeiieaaaao auoiae ca
i?aaeaeu nianoaaiii yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe, iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey anao
oaeoi?ia, oi?ie?othueo nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?ioth n?aaeo, a eioi?ie
i?ioaeatho yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu.

Iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iinoue i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony o einoeoooeeiiaeenoia
enoiaeiie eaeaae nenoaiiinoe, niaeanii eioi?ie iauanoai anoue
iiiaiieaiiaue ( ninoiyuee ec ?acee/iuo iiaenenoai) e iiiaio?iaiaaue
oeaeinoiue i?aaieci. Oaeie iiaeoiae oi?ie?iaaeny a i?ioeaiaan
iaieeanne/aneie iaoiaeieiaee “/enoi yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca”,
i?aaeiieaaathuaai aiciiaeiinoue auaiaeeoue naienoaa yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaiu a oeaeii ec naienoa ioaeaeueiuo a? yeaiaioia e i?e ?anniio?aiee
yeiiiie/aneeo aii?inia ia o/eouaaoue nioeeieiae/aneea e ae?oaea aniaeou.

Iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iue iiaeoiae e aiaeeco yeiiiieee eae aeaenoaothuaio e
eciaiythuaiony i?aaiecio aiana ia icia/aao “i?aiaeieaiey a?aieoe”
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie iauanoaaiiuie aeenoeeieeiaie. Niune aai i?aaeaea
anaai a oii, /oi yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu ?anniao?eaathony ia
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iie iniiaa. Iaeiaei ai iiiaeo ?aaioao
einoeoooeeiiaeenoia i?iaeaiu iieeoyeiiiiee ?anoai?ythony a eoeueoo?iie
aio?iiieiaee, nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee e nioeeieiaee.

I?eioeei enoi?ecia au?aaeaaony a aaiaoe/aneii iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth
?aaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo?, no?aieaiea e auyaeaieth aeaeaeoueo nee
e oaeoi?ia ?acaeoey iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee iauanoaaiiie yaiethoeee, a
iainiiaaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey.

A ioee/ea io iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee, aaea yeiiiieea ?anniao?eaaaony
neaicue i?ecio iauaai ?aaiiaaney e eaeay ainnoaiiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney
neoaeeo aaciaui iaoiaeieiae/aneei i?eioeeiii einoeoooeeiiaeenou
no?aieeenue e ?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey. Enoi?e/aneee iiaeoiae o
einoeoooeeiiaeenoia iaioaeaeei io yaiethoeeiiiie eiioeaioeee
iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna. Iauanoaaiiue i?aaieci e yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia
eae aai /anoue ?anniao?eaathony a ?acaeoee, noaaeony caaea/a auyniaiey
oaeoi?ia e iaoaiecia yaiethoeee, a? aeieaia?aiaiiuo oaiaeaioeee e
ia?niaeoea.

Au? iaeei iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?e?i, noaaoee iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie
iuoeaiey einoeoooeeiiaeenoia, ninoieo a “aeeoioiiecaoeee” nenoaiu
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aa?auaiee a? a aeaa aieaa eee iaiaa
naiinoiyoaeueiuo iauaeoa eco/aiey acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Ia?aue – yoi “oaoiieiaey”, oi anoue aeinoeaiooue o?iaaiue
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee e eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iiuoa, aiieiu?iiua a
eiaeono?eaeueiie oaoieea, eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia, oi?aaeaiee
i?iecaiaenoaii. Aoi?ie iauaeo ninoaaeytho “einoeooou” – oa ?aaeueiua
oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee iiaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia, eioi?ua
neiaeeeenue a aeaiiii iauanoaa.

A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?eioeeia einoeoooeeiiaeenou auaeaeaatho a ea/anoaa
i?e/eiu anao i?ioeai?a/ee eaieoaeecia ionoaaaiea ia?ano?ieee
einoeoooeeiiaeueiie noa?u a niioaaonoaee n o?iaiai e iio?aaiinoyie
?acaeoey “oaoiieiaee”.

Au? iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o einoeoooeeiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaea ninoieo a
oii, /oi yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ?anniao?eaathony e aini?eieiathony a
oa?ieiao i?aaa eee th?eaee/aneeo ii?i, oi anoue a oie iaiei/ea, a eaeoth
iie iaea/aiu a ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo einoeoooia yeiiiienoia einoeoooeeiiaeueiiai oa/aiey
i?eaeaeaee ai-ia?auo, nai ?uii/iue iaoaieci, aai niaoeeoeea ia
ii?aaeae?iiii yoaia ?acaeoey iauanoaa e noaiaiue yooaeoeaiinoe n oi/ee
c?aiey “iauanoaaiiiai eioa?ana”; ai-aoi?uo, e?oiiay ei?ii?aoeey eae
eeth/aaia caaii yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu; a-o?aoueeo, ainoaea?noai n aai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie ooieoeeyie.

Ainoaea?noai i?aaenoaei eae aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio einoeoooeeiiaeueiie
nenoaiu.

Einoeoooeeiiaeenou i?ioeaiiinoaaeee iaieeanne/aneie ?uii/iie oai?ee,
aaea ?uiie i?aaenoa?o eae oieaa?naeueiue e iaeo?aeueiue iaoaieci
?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?aie/aiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia iaaeaeo
aeueoa?iaoeaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie eo eniieueciaaiey, naie enneaaeiaaiey
?uii/iiai iaoaiecia eae nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa, oa?aeoa?
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?iai io?aaeaao iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu e
eioi?ue nai i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiey a oiaea yaiethoeee iauanoaa.

Oa?aeoa? yeiiiieee e iai?aaeaiea a? ?acaeoey ii?aaeaeythony, eae
iiae/??eeaaee einoeoooeeiiaeenou, ia/eiay n Aaaeaia, ia ?uieii, a
ainiiaenoaothuae nenoaiie oeaiiinoae, oa?aeoa?ecothuae oi iauanoai, a
?aieao eioi?iai iaoiaeeony yeiiiieea.

N yoeo iiceoeee einoeoooeeiiaeenou aunooieee i?ioea ia?aeeiaeenoneie
oai?ee noieiinoe e oeai, auyaeyy iai?aaiia?iinoue enoiaeiuo
ooaa?aeaeaiee i aianioeeaeueiii, “?aoeeiiaeueiii yeiiiie/aneii
/aeiaaea”, eioi?ue anaoeaei ?oeiaiaenoaoaony i?eioeeiii iaeneiecaoeee
oaeiaeaoai?aiey i?e ieieiecaoeee “oyaio”, /uee ?uii/iua iio?aaeoaeueneea
i?aaeii/oaiey iieiinoueth aaoiiiiiu e ia caaenyo io nioeeaeueiuo
oaeoi?ia.

Einoeoooeeiiaeenou aeaeatho auaiae i oii, /oi eaieoaeeci ia
“eieeaeoeaenoneie” nooiaie ?acaeoey eiaao nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey io
eaieoaeecia naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee. Ioee/ey ninoiyo a oii, /oi:

ai-ia?auo, aeiieie?othuei ieciaui caaiii yeiiiieee noaea e?oiiay
ei?ii?aoeey;

ai-aoi?uo, i?iecioea iniiaaoaeueia ia?ano?ieea ?uii/iuo no?oeoo? ia
io?aneaaii o?iaia;

a-o?aoueeo, eeth/aaua iiceoeee a ianooaaao iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa
nin?aaeioi/ee aieueoie aecian-naeoi?, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny ii?aaeae?iiuie
iniaaiiinoyie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ii n?aaiaieth n
o?aaeeoeeiiiie yeiiiieeie oi?aaeyaiie ?uii/iui iaoaieciii;

a-/aoa??ouo, ia?yaeo n yoei naeoi?ii i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue /eneaiii
i?aiaeaaeathuay ianna iaeeeo e n?aaeieo eiiiaiee.

Auaiaeu ia ia?aie/aiiinoe ?uii/iiai ?aaoee?othuaai iaoaiecia e eciaiaiee
oa?aeoa?a ?uii/iie nenoaiu ia noaaeee “iicaeiaai eaieoaeecia” ia
?aaiicia/iu o einoeoooeeiiaeenoia ooaa?aeaeaieth oacena i ?ac?ooaiee
?uii/iiai iaoaiecia e iaiaoiaeeiinoe caiaiu aai ae?oaei.
Einoeoooeeiiaeenou no?aiyony iaeoe niinia aeiiieieoue ?uii/iue iaoaieci
iaoaieciii oi?ie?iaaiey e i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue eieeaeoeaiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee. Iainiiauaay i?eioeei ni/aoaiey ?uii/iie e
oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee, einoeoooeeiiaeenou iiae/??eeaaee, /oi aeaei eae?o
ia i auai?a iaaeaeo “naiaiaeiie” e “eiio?iee?oaiie” yeiiiieeie, a i
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee /anoiiio eiio?ieth ( ni noi?iiu e?oiiaeoeo
ei?ii?aoeee e eo iauaaeeiaiee) iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey, i?aaiecaoeeth
eioi?iai iie naycuaaee n ainoaea?noaii.

Iaieeanne/aneie “/enoie” yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeaaininoiyiey
einoeoooeeiiaeenou i?ioeaiiinoaaeytho nioeeaeueioth e iauoth oai?eth
aeaaininoiyiey.

Enoiaeiay eaeay iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee aeaaininoiyiey i?eioeei
noaa?aieoaoa iio?aaeoaey. Eaaeaeue eiaeeaeaeooi – aunoee noaeuey naiei
iio?aaiinoyi e i?aaeii/oaieyi. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey e i?ioeannu (
no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, caiyoinoe, oa?aeoa? eniieueciaaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea) auaiaeyony ec noa?u iee?iyeiiiieee eae
niaieoiiue ?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey ioaeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
noauaeoia ( iio?aaeoaeae, i?iecaiaeeoaeae, aeaaeaeueoeaa ?acee/iuo
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa). I?iaeaia yeiiiie/aneiai iioeioia i?aaenoa?o eae
caaea/a aeinoeaeaiey ?aaiiaaney ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey a eaaeaeii
ioaeaeueiii caaia e a ianooaaao anae yeiiiieee ia aaca eiie?aoiue
?aaiiaaniuo oeai. Ninoiyiea iauaai ?aaiiaaney ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n
iaeneiecaoeeae iauanoaaiiiai aeaaininoiyiey (iioeioiii).

Einoeoooeeiiaeenou anaaaea aunooiaee n e?eoeeie iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee
aeaaininoiyiey, auaeaeaay oaeea ?aeo?nu i?iaeaiaoeee iauanoaaiiiai
aeaaininoiyiey, eioi?ua naycaiu n eiioeeeoiinoueth oeaeae,
i?ioeai?a/eyie iaaeaeo /anoiuie e iauanoaaiiuie, oaeoueie e
aeieaia?aiaiiuie eioa?anaie. N ?anniio?aieai nioeeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?ia?anna.

?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie oai?ee aeaaininoiyiey naycaii n ooaa?aeaeaieai
i?eioeeia iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iiai iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaiai aeaaininoiyiey,
?ac?aaioeie eiiieaeniuo e?eoa?eaa yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu,
oi anoue e?eoa?eaa, iicaieythueo ananoi?iiia noaeeoue i oa?aeoa?a e
?acoeueoaoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia iauanoaa.

Ioaa?aioa enoiaeioth iinueeo iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee i aianioeeaeueiii,
“?aoeeiiaeueiii yeiiiie/aneii /aeiaaea”, /uee iio?aaeoaeueneea cai?inu
iieiinoueth aaoiiiiiu e ia caaenyo io aicaeaenoaey nioeeaeueiuo
oaeoi?ia, Aaaeai iieacae, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo
i?aaeii/oaiee e ?uii/iiai ni?ina – yoi nioeeaeueiue i?ioeann,
io?aaeathuee oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia nioeeaeueiua i?eau/ee
aeeyiea nioeeaeueiiai ie?oaeaiey, aeaaeaiea ?aeeaiu. Aaaeai i?eae?e
aieiaiea yeiiiienoia e i?iaeaia nioeeaeueiuo e?eoa?eaa e noaiaea?oia
iieaciinoe, iieacae aaaeiinoue eco/aiey nioeeaeueiuo e ?uii/iuo aniaeoia
iaoaiecia oi?ie?iaaiey iio?aaeoaeueneeo ioeaiie e ni?ina.

Iniaia aieiaiea ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee einoeoooeeiiaeecia
yeiiiienou yoiai iai?aaeaiey oaeaeyee i?iaeaia “iaaeaeeiuo” iauanoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae, eioi?ua iiaoo oaeiaeaoai?youeny oieueei eae eieeaeoeaiua
ia aia?uii/iie iniiaa, a oaeaea oai, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue ioaeaiu ia
ioeoi ?uii/iiio iaoaiecio e aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoueny ca n/?o ?acaeoey
noa?u nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo oneoa. Ia eaaeaeii i/a?aaeiii enoi?e/aneii
yoaia iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey i?iaeaia eieeaeoeaiuo iio?aaiinoae eae
/anoue i?iaeaiu iauanoaaiiiai aeaaininoiyiey i?eia?aoaea iiaua eiioo?u e
iiaua ecia?aiey.

Yoaiu yaiethoeee einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

Yaiethoeeth einoeoooeeiiaeecia iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 3 ia?eiaea.

Ia?eiae oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey einoeoooeeiiaeecia a 20-30 ua aiaeu.
E?iia O.Aaaeaia, eaeaieiaaie yoie oai?ee au? auee – Aeae.?. Eiiiiin
(1862-1945), O.E.Ieo/aee (1874-1948), Aeae.Aianii (1858-1940).

Iicaeiee einoeoooeeiiaeeci iineaaiaiiiai a?aiaie (50-60 ua aiaeu). A
oai?aoe/aneie iaeanoe yaiethoeey einoeoooeeiiaeecia ia yoii yoaia
?acaeoey eaieoaeecia au?aceeanue a aicieeiiaaiee
eiaeono?eaeenonei-oaoiie?aoe/aneiai oa/aiey. A eiaeono?eaeenoneeo
eiioeaioeeyo a 50-60uo aiaeao au?aceeenue iioeienoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey
i aaca?aie/iuo aiciiaeiinoyo IO? e ia?niaeoeaao, eioi?ua iia ioe?uaaao.
Eiioeaioeee “eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa” e eeethcee oaoiie?aoe/aneiai
naienoaa, iieo/eaoea a oie eee eiie oi?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea n?aaee /anoe
einoeoooeeiiaeenoia, io?aaeaee ainiiaenoaiaaaoea a iieeoyeiiiiee
?aaeoaeiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeaaioai?iinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e
iaia?aie/aiiuo aiciiaeiinoyo iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna. Iaeaieaa iieii
iiceoeey oai?aoeeia “eiaeono?eaeenoneie” aaoae einoeoooeeiiaeecia iaoea
io?aaeaiea a ?aaioao Aeae.Ayea?aeoa “Iauanoai eciaeeey”. “Iiaia
eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai”, “Yeiiiie/aneea oai?ee e oeaee iauanoaa”.

Aoi?ay eeiey a iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey einoeoooeeiiaeecia a 50-na?aaeeia
60uo aiaeia io?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a ?aaioao A.Aa?ee, aaea ii
iuoaeny iainiiaaoue oacen i iinoaiaiiii e anoanoaaiiii i?ioeanna
“eieeaeoeaecaoeee eaieoaeecia” /a?ac eciaiaiea a nenoaia nianoaaiiinoe e
eiio?iey. N na?aaeeiu 60-o aiaeia eae neaaenoaea ia?anoaiey neiioiiia
e?ecena iauanoaa “ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey” o?e iaoeeiiiue i?ioeann
?ac?ooaiey eiaeono?eaeenoneie eaeaieiaee iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna.

N?aaee oao, eoi a 50-60ua aiaeu iiaeieiae i?iaeaiu, eanathueany
niaea?aeaoaeueiuo oeaeae yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, aai i?ioeai?a/ee e
“ecaea?aeae”, oa?aeoa?a yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, iiaeii iacaaoue Aeae.I,
Eea?ea, A.Eieueia, ?.Oaeea?iia?a. Ana iie noaaeee i?iaeaio “oi?aaeyaiiai
?acaeoey”, naycuaay a? n iainiiaaieai iaiaoiaeeiinoe nenoaiu
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey.

Ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu 60-uo aiaeia ioia/aaony oneeaiea aeeyiey
einoeoooeeiiaeecia e oaaee/aiea eioa?ana e iaio.

Oneeaiea eioa?ana e einoeoooeeiiaeecio a yoio ia?eiae iaoneiaeaii
iaia?oaeeaoaeny ianinoiyoaeueiinoueth oai?ee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeaaiaeainoaey.

E na?aaeeia 70-uo aiaeia o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey a iieiie ia?a iaia?oaeeee naith ia?aie/aiiinoue e
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue.

Oai?aoe/aneea aeaaaou, ?acaa?ioaoeany a NOA n 70-uo aiaeia ii
i?eioeeieaeueiui aii?inai iieeoyeiiiiee, i?eaioe?iaaiu ia ?ac?aaioeo
i?aeoe/anee cia/eiie oai?ee ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee. Iaoiaeieiae/aneea
aii?inu einoeoooeeiiaeecia a 60-o aiaeao ?ac?aaaouaaeenue aia?eeaineei
oai?aoeeii I.Eioaae e oaaaeneei yeiiiienoii A.Ith?aeaeai.

I?aaenoaaeoaee nia?aiaiiiai einoeoooeeiiaeecia, eee
iaieinoeoooeeiiaeecia,- yoi ecaanoiua aia?eeaineea o/?iua Ae.Aaee,
Aeae.Ayea?aeo, o.?inoio, i.Oiooea?, ?.Oaeea?iia?, oaaaeneee yeiiiieno
A.Ith?aeaeue, o?aioeocneee yeiiiieno O.Ia??o e ii. ae?oaea.

IY. Iniiaiua oa/aiey einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

I?aaenoaaeoaee aia?eeaineiai einoeoooeeiiaeecia ia eiaee iauaai
ii?aaeaeaiey iniiau yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia. Aaaeai noaaee
yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu a caaeneiinoue io ineoieiaee, aeieiaee e
aio?iiieiaee, Eiiiiin – io ineoieiaee e i?aaa, Ieo/aee – io aio?iiieiaee
e iaoaiaoe/aneeo ?an/?oia. Aia?eeaineee iaienoeoooeeiiaeeci noaaeo
yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu a caaeneiinoue io ?acaeoey eiaeono?ee e oneeaiey
?iee oaoiie?aoee, a oaeaea no?aieony iaeoe iauyniaiea yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ioeannia a nioeeaeueiie aeecie iauanoaa. Oaeay iaiaeii?iaeiinoue
iaoneiaeea iiiaeanoai oa/aiee e oeie aioo?e
nioeeaeueii-einoeoooeeiiaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey.

Auaeaeytho o?e iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey einoeoooeeiiaeecia, ioee/athueony
e?oaii aii?inia. ?anniao?eaaaiuo eo eaeaieiaaie: 1)
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee; 2) nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaie; 3) yiie?e/aneee
eee eiiuthieoo?ii-noaoenoe/aneee.

a) Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee einoeoooeeiiaeeci. O.Aaaeai.

I?aaenoaaeoaee yoiai iai?aaeaiey einoeoooeeiiaeecia, aicaeaaeyaiiai
O.Aaaeaiii, no?aieeenue aeaoue ineoieiae/aneoth o?aeoiaeo yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ioeannia, iuoaynue neiino?oe?iaaoue ineoieiae/aneoth oai?eth
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

O.Aaaeai aeaaiue eaeaieia aia?eeaineiai einoeoooeeiiaeecia. Iaeaieueoaa
cia/aiea eiatho neaaeothuea aai o?oaeu: “Oai?ey i?acaeiiai eeanna”,
“Oai?ey aeaeiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”, “Einoeieo ianoa?noaa e
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa”, “E?oiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee e
i?inoie /aeiaae”, “Eiaeaia?u e nenoaia oeaiiinoae”, “Aanaioaenoneay
nianoaaiiinoue e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a iiaia a?aiy. Aia?eeaineee
aa?eaio”, a 2 nai?ieea, “A ie?a i?ienoiaeyueo ia?aiai” e “Ianoi iaoee a
nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee e ae?oaea i/a?ee”, aioee iniiaiua noaouee
Aaaeaia, iaienaiiua a ?aciua aiaeu aai oai?/anoaa.

Einoeoooeeiiaeecio Aaaeaia i?enou, ai-ia?auo, nioeeaeueiue iiaeoiae e
yeiiiie/aneei yaeaieyi: ii aiaeece?oao iiaaaeaiea e iuoeaiea
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii ethaeae, iaoneiaeaiiua nouanoaothueie nioeeaeueiuie
iioeaaie; ai-aoi?uo, ii no?aieony ane?uoue i?e/eiu yaiethoeee
eaieoaeecia. Ii ?anniao?eaaao niaio oneiaee ?acaeoey iauanoaa,
yaiethoeeth oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i (einoeoooia) e aea?o naith ioeaieo yoeo iiauo
oneiaee.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iieiaeaiee Aaaeaia auei o?aaiaaiea enoi?e/aneiai
iiaeoiaea a yeiiiie/aneie iaoea. Ii aai iiaieth, iaiaoiaeeii auei
inouanoaeoue eco/aiea ?acee/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo e iauanoaaiiuo einoeoooia
a eo ?acaeoee, io iiiaioa eo aicieeiiaaiey e aei nia?aiaiiinoe. Ii
iiiai caieiaeny enoi?eae /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, aiaeece?iaae
aicieeiiaaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, eeannia, ainoaea?noaa, no?aieeny
iaia?oaeeoue a i?ioeii enoiee oao i?ioeai?a/ee, eioi?ua, ii aai iiaieth,
aeaiiino?e?iaae nia?aiaiiue aio eaieoaeeci.

Aeaeaeouoth neeo ?acaeoey Aaaeai aeaeae a i?ioeai?a/eyo iaaeaeo
einoeoooaie e aiaoiae n?aaeie. Ii aai neiaai: “Einoeooou – yoi
?acoeueoao i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeeaoeo a i?ioeii, iie i?eniiniaeaiu e
ianoiyoaeuenoaai i?ioeiai e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iaoiaeeaoeeny a iieiii
“niaeanee n o?aaiaaieyie ianoiyuaai a?aiaie”. Ii iunee Aaaeaia,
ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo oaea neiaeeaoeieny einoeoooaie e eciaieaoeieny
oneiaeyie, aiaoiae n?aaeie e aeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiui eciaiaiea
nouanoaothueo einoeoooia, niaio onoa?aaoeo einoeoooia iiauie. I?e yoii
eciaiaiea einoeoooia i?ienoiaeeo a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii anoanoaaiiiai
ioai?a. Aaaeai ienae: “AEeciue /aeiaaea a iauanoaa oi/ii oae aea, eae
aeeciue ae?oaeo aeaeia, – yoi ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoi i?ioeann ioai?a e i?eniiniaeaiey, yaiethoeey
iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa yaeeanue i?ioeannii anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a
nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia. I?iaeieaeathuaany ?acaeoea einoeoooia
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea, i?ia?ann, iiaeii a iaueo
/a?oao naanoe e anoanoaaiiiio ioai?o iaeaieaa i?eniiniaeaiiiai ia?aca
iunee e i?ioeanno auioaeaeaiiiai i?eniiniaeaiey eciaiythuaiony n
?acaeoeai iauanoaa e nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia, a oneiaeyo eioi?uo
i?ioaeaao /aeiaa/aneay aeeciue”. Oaeei ia?acii, a o?aeoiaea Aaaeaia
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea (“yaiethoeey nioeeaeueiiai
ono?ienoaa”) i?aaenoa?o eae ?aaeecaoeey i?ioeanna “anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a”
?aciiia?aciuo einoeoooia.

Aaaeai iaoaie/anee ia?aiinee aea?aeienoneia o/aiea i anoanoaaiiii ioai?a
ia iaeanoue nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee. Ii ia o/eouaae i?e yoii, /oi
“yaiethoeey nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u” – yoi nioeeaeueiue i?ioeann,
caeiiiia?iinoe eioi?iai ia iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e aeieiae/aneei
caeiiiia?iinoyi.

Aaaeai aiaeece?iaae yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey, ?anniao?eaay eo eae
onoaiiaeaoeany o?aaeeoeee. E oaeei o?aaeeoeeiiiui aeaeaeouei neeai,
iiaoaeaeathuei /aeiaaea e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe Aaaeai ioiinee ?iaeeoaeueneia /oanoai, einoeieo
ianoa?noaa, oi anoue aeon e oi?ioi auiieiaiiie ?aaioa, /enooth
ethaiciaoaeueiinoue, no?aieaiea e ciaieth. Ii aai iiaieth, einoeieoia
ia?aiia/aeueii i?iyaeythony a caaioa i naiae naiuea, ?acaeaaynue caoai a
caaioo ia iauanoaa, iai an?i /aeiaa/anoaa.

A “Oai?ee i?acaeiiai eeanna” e ae?oaeo ?aaioao Aaaeai ?acaeaaao naith
enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneoth eiioeaioeeth. Ii auaeaeee a enoi?ee ?yae
ia?eiaeia: “?aiiae e iicaeiae aeeeinoe”, “aieinoaaiiiai e
iieoaieinoaaiiiai aa?aa?noaa” e, iaeiiaoe, “oeeaeeecaoeeth”.

N yoeie ia?eiaeaie enoi?ee Aaaeai naycuaaao aicieeiiaaiea aeaoo oeiia
nioeeaeueiuo i?eau/ae. Nioeeaeueiua i?eau/ee, oa?aeoa?iua aeey ia?eiaea
aa?aa?noaa – i?eau/ee, eioi?ua eaaee a iniiao oeia yeiiiie/aneiai
iiaaaeaiey, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?acaeiiai eeanna e
nioeeaeueiua i?eau/ee, oeie/iua aeey ia?eiaea ?aiiae aeeeinoe,
oa?aeoa?iua “i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio” oeio yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey.
?acaeoea iauanoaa, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey i?aaenoatho a
o?aeoiaea Aaaeaia a eiia/iii n/?oa eae ?acoeueoao eiioeeeoa “oeiia
nioeeaeueiuo i?eau/ae”.

Eaeay ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee iau/aaa, i?eau/ae aunooiaao iniiaie
enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneie eiioeaioeee Aaaeaia. Aaaeai n/eoae, /oi
iiaaaeaiea ethaeae, aai iiaoaeeoaeueiua iioeau, cae?aieyynue a aeaea
einoeoooia, ii?aaeaeytho a aeaeueiaeoai yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey e an?
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea iauanoaa. N yoie iiceoeee Aaaeai
iiaeoiaeeo e e aiaeeco aicieeiiaaiey aaaeiaeoaai yeiiiie/aneiai
einoeoooa – /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Aaaeai naycuaaao aicieeiiaaiea
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ni neeiiiinoueth e niia?ie/anoao. E eiieo?aioeee,
i?enouae /aeiaaeo. “Iioea, eaaeauee a iniiaa nianoaaiiinoe, –
niia?ie/anoai; yoio aea iioea niia?ie/anoaa, ia aaca eioi?iai aicieeaao
einoeooo nianoaaiiinoe, inoa?ony aeaenoaaiiui a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee
yoiai einoeoooa e a yaiethoeee anao oao /a?o nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u, e
eioi?ui nianoaaiiinoue eiaao ioiioaiea”.

Iioeao niia?ie/anoaa Aaaeai i?eaea?o i/aiue aieueoia cia/aiea, ii
eeaae?ony ei a iniiao aeaiaaeiiai ?anoi/eoaeuenoaa; ia neeiiiinoe e
niia?ie/anoao ieacuaathony auno?iaiu ana einoeooou “aeaiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee”.

Aaaeai aunooiaao n yaiui inoaeaeaieai ?anoi/eoaeuenoaa a iio?aaeaiee; ii
– ca ?aoeeiiaeueiia iio?aaeaiea, eioi?ia oaeiaeaoai?yei au
aeaenoaeoaeueiua iio?aaiinoe ethaeae, a ia iio?aaiinoe iieiua,
eneonnoaaiiua, i?eaeoiaiiua aeey ?anoi/aiuey e aacaeaeuey.

Aaaeai aue iniiaiiieiaeieeii nia?aiaiiuo
eiaeono?eaeenonei-oaoiie?aoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee. Eiioeaioeey ?aoi?i O.
Aaaeaia ninoieo a iaoeeiiiii onei?aiee IOI e aic?anoaiee ?iee
eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee. Ii aai oaaaeaeaieth,
eioaeeeaaioeey, ?aai/ea, oaoieee e ae?oaea o/anoieee i?iecaiaenoaa
i?aaenoaaeytho noa?o “eiaeono?ee” e i?aneaaeotho oeaeue iioeiecaoeee e
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Iie i?aaeii?aaeaeytho
?anoouoth caaeneiinoue “aeciana” io “eiaeono?eaeueiie nenoaiu” ,
iaioa?aoeiinoue “ia?aee/a noa?iai ii?yaeea” e ia?aoiaea aeanoe e
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi eiaeaia?ii-oaoiieiae/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?i Aaaeai i?aaeaeaeae onoaiiaeaiea “iiaiai ii?yaeea”,
i?e eioi?ii ?oeiaiaenoai i?iiuoeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii no?aiu aoaeao
ia?aaeaii niaoeeaeueiiio “niaaoo oaoieeia”, e “eiaeono?eaeueiay nenoaia
ia?anoaiao neoaeeoue eioa?anai iiiiiieenoia, iineieueeo iioeaii
oaoiie?aoee e eiaeono?eaeia yaeony ia aeaiaaeiay auaiaea”, a neoaeaiea
eioa?anai anaai iauanoaa.

a) Nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaie einoeoooeeiiaeeci Aeae. ?. Eiiiiina
(1862-1945).

Aeaaiui niaea?aeaieai aai oai?ee yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea aeaenoaey
eieeaeoeaiuo einoeoooia, e eioi?ui ii ioiinee nithcu ei?ii?aoeee,
i?ionithcia, iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, au?aaeathueo i?ionithciua eioa?anu
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e nei?a ianaeaiey.

Naith oai?eth Eiiiiin eceiaeee ai iiiaeo ?aaioao, aeaaiuie ec eioi?uo
yaeythony “I?aaiaua iniiaaiey eaieoaeecia”, “Einoeoooeeiiaeueiay
yeiiiieea. A? ianoi a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee”, “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey
eieeaeoeaiuo aeaenoaee”.

Yeiiiie/aneea acaeyaeu Eiiiiina i?aaenoaaeyee niaie niaaeeiaiea
iieiaeaiee oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe e th?eaee/aneie eiioeaioeee a
yeiiiieea. Aano?aae?oynue io i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a i?iecaiaenoaa,
Eiiiiin ii?aaeaeye nouiinoue eaieoaeecia ?uii/iuie ioiioaieyie, eioi?ua,
ii aai iiaieth, a oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiiai aio eaieoaeecia aunooiaee eae
“ia/anoiay eiieo?aioeey”. Eni?aaeoue yoio iaaeinoaoie eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
iauanoaa, naeaeaoue ioiioaiey iaiaia /anoiuie, ono?aieoue oa?ico
eiieo?aioeee aiciiaeii, ii iiaieth Eiiiiina, iin?aaenoaii eniieueciaaiey
th?eaee/aneeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaa.

I?aiaeieaiea eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee Eiiiiin naycuaae n
oniaa?oainoaiaaieai i?aaiauo, th?eaee/aneeo ii?i. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
eaieoaeenoaie e ?aai/eie Eiiiiin i?aaenoaaeye eae th?eaee/aneoth naeaeeo
?aaiii?aaiuo /eaiia iauanoaa, caeeth/?iioth ii caeiiiaeaoaeueiui
i?aaeeai. O/anoieeaie “naeaeee” iiaoo auoue ana aaaeiaeoea einoeooou
iauanoaa: naiuey, aeoeeiia?iay eiiiaiey, o?aae-thieiiu, nithcu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e aeaaea naii ainoaea?noai. “Naeaeee” aeeth/atho a
naay o?e iiiaioa, eiioeeeo, acaeiiaeaenoaea, ?ac?aoaiea. Iin?aaenoaii
th?eaee/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?aaee “naeaeee”, eae iieaaaao Eiiiiin,
iiaoo auoue ono?aiaiu ana aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey, ana eiioeeeou.
Iaino?aiea a iauanoaa nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee Eiiiiin iauyniye
iaaeinoaoeaie iaoaiecia th?eaee/aneiai o?aaoee?iaaiey eiioeeeoia.

Aeaeii ?. Eiiiiin aa?ee a iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey ainoaea?noaii
?aoi?i a iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e nicaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
i?aaenoaaeaiiiai eeaea?aie ?acee/iuo “eieeaeoeaiuo einoeoooia”. Ii aue
oaaaeae?i a iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey oaeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia auei
au iiaeeiio?ieueii iauanoaaiiiio iiaieth e inouanoaeyei
aeaiiiiiieecaoeeth yeiiiieee.

I?aaiaie aniaeo Aeae. Eiiiiin eniieueciaae e a auaeaeiooie ei
eiioeaioeee noieiinoe, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie noieiinoue oiaa?iie
i?iaeoeoeee anoue ia /oi eiia, eae ?acoeueoao th?eaee/aneiai niaeaoaiey
“eieeaeoeaiuo einoeoooia”.

Eae ecaanoii ec enoi?ee yeiiiieee, th?eaee/aneea aniaeou “eieeaeoeaiuo
aeaenoaee” Aeae. Eiiiiina, ?aaii eae aioeiiiiiieueiua ?aoi?iaoi?neea
eaeae a o?oaeao O.Aaaeaia, iaoee ?aaeueiia i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea oaea
a 30-ua aiaeu – a ia?eiae oae iacuaaaiiai “Iiaiai eo?na” i?aceaeaioa NOA
O. ?ocaaeueoa.

a) Eiiuthieoo?ii-noaoenoe/aneee einoeoooeeiiaeeci O.Ieo/aeea
(1874-1948).

O. Ieo/aee i?e aiaeeca oeeeea enoiaeee ec ?acaeaeaiey yeiiiieee ia
“?aaeueioth” e “aeaiaaeioth” e ?anniao?eaae oeeeeu eae i?iyaeaiea
aioo?aiiae ianoaaeeueiinoe ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ieo/aee i?aaei?eieiae
oneeey aeey oeo/oaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie noaoenoe/aneie neoaeau,
iiae/??eeaay aaaeiinoue iia?aoeaiiai iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiie
noaoenoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee. Ii nua?ae aaaeioth ?ieue a oii, /oi eco/aiea
yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia auei iinoaaeaii ia yiie?e/aneoth iniiao.

Iniaia cia/aiea Ieo/aee i?eaeaaae noaoenoe/aneiio aiaeeco niioiioaiey
“oeaiu-ecaea?aeee-i?eaueue”, iiae/??eeaae eeth/aaoth ?ieue oaeoi?ia,
oi?aaeythueo iaeeaeaieyie i?eaueueiinoe. Aai noaoenoe/aneea na?ee
niaea?aeaee aeaiiua ii iieacaoaeyi, eioi?ua iicaea noaee
eniieueciaaoueny i?e ?ac?aaioea iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iiaeaeae oeeeea

?aaioa “Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu e aac?aaioeoea”, ii caiuneo Ieo/aeea,
aeieaeia auea neoaeeoue /anoueth oe?ieie i?ia?aiiu enneaaeiaaiee a
oeaeyo oiaiueoaiey ?anoi/eoaeuenoaa e iaaeieniieueciaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo
?ano?nia. A /enea i?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aioeoeeeee/aneie iieeoeee
Ieo/aee i?aaeeaaae i?aaiecaoeeth ainoaea?noaii no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio a
oneiaeyo niaaea e no?aoiaaiea ii aac?aaioeoea. A eiioea 1926 aiaea ii
aunooiae a naiaoa a iiaeaea?aeeo caeiiii?iaeoa i aeieain?i/iii
ieaie?iaaiee iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio e i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau
i?iaiice?iaaiey. Aei e?ecena 29-30uo aiaeia aioeoeeeee/aneia
?aaoee?iaaiea iuneeeinue ei eae eniieueciaaiea ii?aaeae?iiuo
noeioee?othueo e naea?aeeaathueo ia? a oao eee eiuo no?aoaae/aneeo
ioieoao /anoiie yeiiiieee. E?ecen 30-uo aiaeia i?ea?e Ieo/aeea e
auaiaeo, /oi nenoaia /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa niiaeao nio?aiyony
oieueei i?e oneiaee, anee yeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a ianooaaao
no?aiu aoaeao ?aaoee?iaaoueny ainoaea?noaii.

Ieo/aee n/eoae, /oi ieaie?iaaiea ia aeieaeii i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie
/?acau/aeioth ia?o, aucaaiioth e aeecie e?eceniuie oneiaeyie, a eiaoue
oa?aeoa? nenoaiaoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?ann/eoaiiie ia
aeieaia?aiaiioth ia?niaeoeao. Ieaie?iaaiea a i?aaenoaaeaiee Ieo/aeea –
yoi ia?iaiaioiue aaeaioaoeeiiiue i?ioeann, iai?aaeaiiue ia i?ioeeaeoeeo
anyeiai ?iaea ianiioaaonoaee e aeeni?iii?oeee, niya/aiea i?ioeai?a/ee e
iaaeiiouaiea eo ac?uaia.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee iinoiyiiiai ieaiiaiai i?aaia – iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ieaiiaiai ath?i, ca nicaeaiea eioi?iai ?aoiaae Ieo/aee, aeieaeiu auoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie, eiinoeueoaoeaiuie, ?aeiiaiaeaoeeiiiuie. Ia
yenia?eiaioaeueiie iniiaa ?aoaeenue au oaeaea aii?inu, eanathueany
ii?aaeaeaiey “aiaei?acaeaea” iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiie e /anoiie noa?ie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ieceee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey n?aaenoa eii?aeeiaoeee e eiio?iey iaae
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ninoiyiey ainoaea?noaa Ieo/aee
?anoeaieaae eae ianiioaaonoaea o?iaiy ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie iaoee,
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, yoeee e eaeaieiaee aeciana, aiia?aoa e
eino?oiaioa?ey ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee oneiaeyi e iio?aaiinoyi
yeiiiieee. Iiyoiio e i?ia?ann ieaie?iaaiey Ieo/aee naycuaae i?aaeaea
anaai n ?acaeoeai iaoee e eioi?iaoeeiiiie neoaeau, aicaeaenoaeai ia
niciaiea, ?ani?ino?aiaieai yoeee “acaeiiiiieiaiey” e “nioeeaeueii
ioaaonoaaiiiai” iiaaaeaiey nioeeaeueiuo a?oii n ?acee/iuie eioa?anaie.

I?aaenoaaeoaee yiie?eei-i?iaiinoe/aneiai oa/aiey einoeoooeeiiaeecia au?
a 20-ua aiaeu a nai?i “eiiuthieoo?iii aa?iiao?a” a Aa?aa?aea ioaeeeiaaee
ii eoiaai “aiaeeca aeeiaie/aneeo ?yaeia” ia?aua i?iaiicu yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa ioo?i iino?iaiey e?eauo, i?aaenoaaeythueo n?aaeiea eiaeaenu ?yaea
iieacaoaeae iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa.

Iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue i?iaiic “Aa?aa?aeneiai aa?iiao?a” iaeaioia
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena 29-30 aiaeia, i?aaeaauaaoee “i?ioeaaoaiea
yeiiiieee”, iieacae ianiaa?oainoai iaoiaeieiae/aneie aacu enneaaeiaaiee
oao eao, ii oaaaeeoaeueii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae i?aaeeueiinoue aeaaiiai
iieiaeaiey einoeoooeeiiaeenoia 20-30auo aiaeia i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nioeeaeueiiai eiio?iey iaae yeiiiieeie.

Yoi cia/eo, /oi einoeoooeeiiaeeci yaeyaony iaeiei ec oai?aoe/aneeo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia aicieeoae a 30-ua aiaeu eaeineaineie e iaieeaa?aeueiie
eiioeaioeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee, iniiaiie eaeaae
eioi?ie yaeyaony aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo.

Ia?yaeo n yoei nicaeaiiay Ieo/aeeii e aai “oeieie” iaoea “yeiiiiao?eea”
e eiioeo aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu noaea iaeaieaa aeeiaie/aneie io?aneueth
yeiiiie/aneie iaoee.

Cia/aiea einoeoooeeiiaeecia.

Einoeoooeeiiaeeci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiia e i?ioeai?a/eaia yaeaiea.
Einoeoooeeiiaeueiia oa/aiea anaaaea ioee/aeinue iano?ioie oaiaoeee, /oi
iaoneiaeaii oe?ioie naiiai iiiyoey “yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo”, a oaeaea
iiiaiia?aceai iiaeoiaeia e aniaeoia a einoeoooeeiiaeueiie iaeanoe.
Einoeoooeeiiaeeci ii-?aciiio i?iyaeyeny ia ?aciuo yoaiao naiae enoi?ee,
aeaiiino?e?oy niiniaiinoue e eciaiaieth.

Iaaei ia?aoeoue aieiaiea oaeaea ia i?ioeai?a/eainoue e iaiaeiicia/iinoue
eaeaeiuo iiceoeee eaaeaeiai ec yeiiiienoia, eioi?ua n/eoatho naay
einoeoooeeiiaeenoaie eee eioi?ua i?e/eneythony e yoiio oa/aieth
enoi?eeaie iieeoyeiiiiee.

Ne?uaathuayny ca oa?ieiieiaeae einoeoooeeiiaeecia iaii?aaeae?iiinoue
nicaea?o o?oaeiinoe i?e aiaeeca e ia iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue ae?noeea
a?aieoeu einoeoooeeiiaeecia eae oa/aiey. Ii ieeiaaea ia aue iaeii?iaeiui
iai?aaeaieai, i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?iai auee au iauaaeeiaiu aeinoaoi/ii
oceei e?oaii eaeae. Iai?ioea, aai oai?aoeee aunooiaee n oe?ieei
aeeaiaciiii aeiioac, ioeaiie, iiaiee ii aii?inai ia oieueei
yeiiiie/aneei, ii e i?aaiaui, oeeinioneei, enoi?e/aneei,
nioeeieiae/aneei, ineoieiae/aneei e i?.

Ni a?aiaiai, iainiaeaiiinoue einoeoooeeiiaeecia noaiiaeony an? aieaa
ioiineoaeueiie, oae eae eo onoaiiaea ia eniieueciaaiea anaai, /oi iiaeao
i?aaenoaaeoueny iieaciui ec iaeiieaiiiai anaie oeieaie aaaaaea aeey
?ac?aaioee naiae oai?ee, i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iiaeaa?aeaiiinoue
einoeoooeeiiaeecia aicaeaenoaeth ?acee/iuo oeie iieeoyeiiiiee.

Oae aea einoeoooeeiiaeeci ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia yaiethoeeth
yeiiiie/aneiai iuoeaiey, ia iieeoyeiiiieth a oeaeii, ia iaeanoue
eiie?aoiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. Einoeoooeeiiaeueiay
o?aaeeoeey a oii eee eiii aeaea neacuaaaony a eaeaeii-oai?aoe/aneeo
iiceoeeyo cia/eoaeueiiai /enea yeiiiienoia, eioi?uo iaeuecy naycaoue n
eaeie-eeai ii?aaeae?iiie oeieie eee oa/aieai. A ?acoeueoaoa “a?aieoeu”
einoeoooeeiiaeecia an? aieueoa “?aciuaathony”.

Einoeoooeeiiaeeci ia nicaeae oeaeinoiie oai?aoe/aneie nenoaiu. Aeey
einoeoooeeiiaeenoia oa?aeoa?ia onoaiiaea ia iienaoaeueii-yiie?e/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey ?aaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo? e i?ioeannia, a ioee/ea
io aano?aeoii-oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneeo
?ac?aaioie ii?aaeae?iiuo i?iaeai, ia ?acaeoea iaoiaeia yiie?e/aneiai,
noaoenoe/aneiai e n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca einoeoooia, ioaeaeueiuo
caaiueaa einoeoooeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu e nenoai a oeaeii.

Ii, ianiio?y ia yoi, cia/aiea einoeoooeeiiaeecia i/aiue aaeeei. Ii
aia?ae a naay eo/oea oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea aeinoeaeaiey
i?aaeoanoaothueo oeie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e i?aaeaea anaai, iniiaaiiua
ia iaoaiaoeea e iaoaiaoe/aneie noaoenoeea i?eioeeiu yeiiiie/aneiai
aiaeeca iaieeanneeia (a /anoe auyaeaiey oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee
e eciaiaiee eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea, a oaeaea iaoiaeieiae/aneee
eino?oiaioa?ee enoi?e/aneie oeieu Aa?iaiee).

Einoeoooeeiiaeenou neeueiu a iienaiee ?aaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo? e
auyaeaiee niaoeeoeee eo einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo oi?i a oie eee eiie no?aia,
a ?anniio?aiee yaiethoeee einoeoooeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu, a oeene?iaaiee
iiauo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia. Eo ?aaiou – iacaiaieiue enoi/iee iaoa?eaea,
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iiieiaiey i?e?iaeu nia?aiaiiiai eaieoaeecia, iniaaiii
aeey aiaeeca aai ?acee/iuo oi?i e oeiia, aeey eco/aiey ioaeaeueiuo
einoeoooia e caaiueaa einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo?, ?iee einoeoooia ( a
o./. iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa) a noeioee?iaaiee eee oaea?aeeaaiee ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee. Ia aaca yiie?e/aneeo einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee auei
naeaeaii iaiaei auaiaeia oe?ieiai oai?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iaiaaoeaoeo
iieeoyeiiiieth. Yoi ioiineony e ?acee/iui iaeanoyi e i?iaeaiai, oaeei,
eae oai?ey iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina (eaeae Aaaeaia ia yooaeoa
“aeaiiino?aoeee”, iaianuuaaiuo “noaooniuo” iio?aaiinoyo, ?iee oi?aaeaiey
ni?inii), oai?ey iiiiiieee (iiiiiieenoe/aneay i?e?iaea e?oiiuo eiiiaiee,
?ieue ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo no?oeoo?, “oi?aaeyaiua oeaiu”), iaeanoue
“eiaeono?eaeueiuo ioiioaiee”( ioiioaiee o?oaea e eaieoaea), ?uiea
?aai/ae neeu, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey aeaaininoiyiey, oai?ey
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, eioeyoeee e o.ae.

EEOA?AOO?A.

ssaeaa?ia ss.N. “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”, I, 96 a.

O. Ieo/aee “Yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu”, I, 30 a.

O. Aaaeai “Oai?ey i?acaeiiai eeanna”, I, 84 a.

Oaeaoe Iaaeoe “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”, I., 95.

Eiceiaa E.A. “Einoeoooeeiiaeeci a aia?eeaineie iieeoyeiiiiee”, I, 87a.

?uiaeeia I.I. e ae?. “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee”, I, 83 a.

PAGE 3

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