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?AAN

Eaoaae?a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ia oaio :

Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa

e eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian

Auiieiee : nooaeaio 1-ai eo?na

a?oiiu : I – 173

Caieoianeee N.

I?iaa?eea : I?aiiaeaaaoaeue

Ca?oaeia A.I.

?inoia – ia – Aeiio

1996 aiae.

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-2” Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635311 PAGEREF
_Toc355635311 2

Aeaaa 1 : “Oai?ey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635312
PAGEREF _Toc355635312 6

Nia?aiaiiue yoai iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee GOTOBUTTON
_Toc355635313 PAGEREF _Toc355635313 6

Eiioeaioeey “Eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635314
PAGEREF _Toc355635314 7

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?iecaiaenoai e eioi?iaoeeiiiue naeoi? GOTOBUTTON
_Toc355635315 PAGEREF _Toc355635315 9

Eioi?iaoeey eae oiaa? GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635316 PAGEREF
_Toc355635316 13

O?oae a ie?a eiiiuethoa?iie aaoiiaoecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635317
PAGEREF _Toc355635317 14

I?iaeaiu aac?aaioeoeu e caiyoinoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635318 PAGEREF
_Toc355635318 16

Aeaaa 2 : “Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian (NOA)” GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635319
PAGEREF _Toc355635319 19

Eae eioi?iaoeey aeeyao ia i?iaeoeoeeth GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635320
PAGEREF _Toc355635320 20

Iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eiiiaoaioiinoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635321
PAGEREF _Toc355635321 20

Eio?ano?oeoo?a eioi?iaoeeiiiie io?anee GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635322
PAGEREF _Toc355635322 24

?aaeee e ia?niaeoeau 90-o aiaeia GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635323 PAGEREF
_Toc355635323 27

Caaeyaeuaay a 2000 aiae GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635324 PAGEREF
_Toc355635324 29

Aeaaa 3 : “I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee (?inney)” GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635325
PAGEREF _Toc355635325 32

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc355635326 PAGEREF _Toc355635326 36

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u 42

Aaaaeaiea

Ia iie acaeyae aeaiiay oaia yaeyaony i/aiue eioa?aniie e aa
aeooaeueiinoue ia aucuaaao o iaiy niiiaiey. Aeaeaa y iiiuoathnue
iainiiaaoue naia iiaiea.

A enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei yoaiia, eioi?ua
/aeiaa/aneia iauanoai iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?ioiaeeei a naiai ?acaeoee. Yoe
yoaiu ?acee/athony iniiaiui niiniaii iaania/aiey iauanoaii naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey e aeaeii ?ano?nia, eniieuecothueiny /aeiaaeii e ea?athuei
aeaaioth ?ieue i?e ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai niiniaa. E oaeei yoaiai
ioiinyony: yoaiu niae?aoaeuenoaa e ioiou, aa?a?iue e eiaeono?eaeueiue. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa ?acaeoua no?aiu ie?a iaoiaeyony ia caaa?oathuae
noaaeee eiaeono?eaeueiiai yoaia ?acaeoey iauanoaa. A ieo inouanoaeyaony
ia?aoiae e neaaeothuaio yoaio, eioi?ue, eae e niioaaonoaothuaa aio
iauanoai, iacaai “eioi?iaoeeiiiui”. A aeaiiii iauanoaa ii?aaeaeythuay
?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo eioi?iaoeee. Eioi?iaoeey noaiiaeony no?aoaae/aneei
?ano?nii. Eio?ano?oeoo?o iauanoaa oi?ie?otho niiniau e n?aaenoaa nai?a,
ia?aaioee, o?aiaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu OO aaea a oeeaeeeciaaiiii ie?a
iniiaiui, ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
iauanoaa noaiiaeony ia?aoiae io “yeiiiieee aauae” e “yeiiiieea ciaiee”,
i?ienoiaeeo nouanoaaiiia oaaee/aiea cia/aiey e ?iee eioi?iaoeee a
?aoaiee i?aeoe/anee anao caaea/ ie?iaiai niiauanoaa. Yoi yaeyaony
oaaaeeoaeueiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaaony a eioaeeaeooaeueii-eioi?iaoeeiiioth,
eioi?iaoeey noaiiaeony ia oieueei i?aaeiaoii iauaiey ii e i?eaueueiui
oiaa?ii, aaconeiaiui e yooaeoeaiui nia?aiaiiui n?aaenoaii i?aaiecaoeee e
oi?aaeaiey iauanoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii, iaoeie, eoeueoo?ie, ia?aciaaieai
e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Nia?aiaiiua aeinoeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee, au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee,
iia?aoeaiie iieea?aoee e oaeaeiiioieeaoeee ii?iaeeee iiaue aeae aunieie
oaoiieiaee, a eiaiii eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth.

?acoeueoaou iao/iuo e i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee,
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e nayce nicaeaee i?i/ioth aaco aeey
aicieeiiaaiey iiaie io?anee ciaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa – eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eiaeono?ee. A ie?a oniaoii ?acaeaaaony eiaeono?ey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa,
eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey eae oaoiieiaey
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee; iaauaaeiai ?aciaoa e
ea/anoaaiiiai nea/ea aeinoeaea eiaeono?ey e oaoiieiaey a iaeanoe
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee – io i?inoaeoae eeiee nayce aei einie/aneie,
ioaaouaathuae ieeeeiiu iio?aaeoaeae e i?aaenoaaeythuae oe?ieee niaeo?
aiciiaeiinoae ii o?ainii?oe?iaea eioi?iaoeee e acaeiinayce aa
iio?aaeoaeae.

Aanue yoio eiiieaen (iio?aaeoaeue n aai caaea/aie, eioi?iaoeea, ana
oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey, eioi?iaoeeiiiay
oaoiieiaey e eiaeono?ey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa e ae?.) ninoaaeyao
eio?ano?oeoo?o e eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?ino?ainoai aeey inouanoaeaiey
eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa.

Eioi?iaoecaoeey, oaeei ia?acii, anoue eiiieaeniue i?ioeann
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
iauanoaa ia aaca nia?aiaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e
niioaaonoaothueo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

Eioi?iaoecaoeey, eae iaeia ec iniia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa
ioaaoeea ana aaaeouea i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu.

Iaiaoiaeeii neacaoue, /oi noieiinoue i?aaei?eyoey a “yeiiiieea o?aoueae
aieiu” ana aieueoa ii?aaeaeyaony aiciiaeiinoueth yoiai i?aaei?eyoey
i?eia?aoaoue, ii?iaeaeaoue, ?ani?aaeaeyoue e i?eiaiyoue ciaiey,
eniieuecoaiua eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannao, oae e
a no?aoaae/aneii ieaie?iaaiee.

Eiaiii iiyoiio i?iaeaia eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa (ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie
iiaeiaiiai ?aiaa – aaciianiinoe, yeieiaee e ae?.) noaea i?ei?eoaoiie e
cia/aiea aa a iauanoaa iinoiyiii ia?anoaao.

Niioaaonoaaiii, iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi ethaua ?aoaiey i?eieiaaiua a
“yeiiiieea o?aoueae aieiu”, o?aaotho ia?aaioee aieueoeo ianneaia
eioi?iaoeee; eiiiaoaioiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaey caaeneo ia noieueei io
i?ioeiai iiuoa, neieueei io aeaaeaiey aeinoaoi/iui eiee/anoaii
eioi?iaoeee i auno?i iaiythuaeny neooaoeee e oiaiey ath
ainiieueciaaoueny.

Yoi iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue e iiieiaoue aoaeouei ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi. Io yoiai
caaeneo ia oieueei noaeueaa eiie?aoiie ee/iinoe ii e, auoue iiaeao,
noaeueaa ?innee a oeaeii, aa ?ieue ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia. Aeey iaiy,
eae aeey aoaeouaai iaiaaeaea?a, “eioi?iaoeeiiiay eiiiaoaioiinoue” ea?aao
i/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue. Iineieueeo, iaoe aeie aeeeootho ino?oth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaa?aiii /oanoaiaaoue naay ia iiaao a iauanoaa, aaea
cia/aiea eioi?iaoeee aeey anao noa? iauanoaaiiie aeecie iinoiyiii
oaaee/eaaaony. Ia aucuaaao niiiaiey oio oaeo, /oi eeth/ii e oniaoo a
oaeii iauanoaa aoaeao yaeyoueny oiaiea /aoei i?eaioe?iaaoueny a ia?iiiii
ieaaia eioi?iaoeee e oiaiea yooaeoeaii ainiieueciaaoueny yoie
eioi?iaoeeae. Eiaiii iiyoiio aeaiiay oaia eaaeaony iia i/aiue
nia?aiaiiie, aeooaeueiie e eioa?aniie aeey ?anniio?aiey a eo?niaie
?aaioa.

Aeaaa 1

A 80-a aiaeu aieaa ino?i auyaeeny ?aaiethoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee a
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo neeao, naycaiiue n ?ani?ino?aiaieai iee?iyeaeo?iieee,
aeioaoiieiaee, eaca?iie oaoieee, n inaiaieai ?ano?nia ie?iaiai ieaaia e
aeeceaaeauaai einiina. Iauanoaaiiia ?acaeoea i?eia?aei iniaaiiue
aeeiaieci. I?aia?acothony o?aaeeoeeiiiua noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe e
aicieeatho iiaua, iaiythony no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee, ia?ac aeecie ethaeae e
oa?aeoa? iauaiey. Aeoaieia aeeyiea iiaay oaoieea ieacuaaao ia oneiaey e
i?aaiecaoeeth o?oaea, eiee/anoai e oa?aeoa? ?aai/eo iano, oi?iu e
ianooaau caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu.

Ana yoe i?ioeannu ii?iaeaeatho iiiaeanoai iiauo i?iaeai, eioi?ua
noaiiayony i?aaeiaoii ino?uo nii?ia. Eaeao ia?ano?ieea oai?aoe/aneiai
a?naiaea iieeoyeiiiiee. A ?onea oai?ee “iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa”
ia?iaeeeinue iiaia iai?aaeaiea – eiioeaioeey “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauanoaa”, noaaoay iuia oai?aoe/aneie iniiaie aiaeeca ii?iaeaeaaiuo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeeae yaeaiee e i?ioeannia. Noi?iiieee yoie
oai?ee auaeaeaatho iiaea?iece?iaaiiue aa?eaio o?ainoi?iaoeee
eaieoaeecia.

Nia?aiaiiue yoai iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee

Iaeia ec oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae iuiaoiaai yoaia IO? caeeth/aaony a
iaaa?iyoiie auno?ioa e ioiineoaeueiie aeaoaaecia iaeiieaiee, ia?aaioee e
ia?aaea/e n iiiiuueth nia?aiaiiuo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa eieinnaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay oaea noaiiaeony aianoa n iaoeie aaaeiaeoae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeie.

Yeaeo?iiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ia naiaeeony e auoaniaieth ec iaai a
ia?iiiuo ianooaaao ?aai/ae neeu. Iia i?eaiaeeo e iieiie ?ai?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia e eioaa?aoeee ?acee/iuo aai yoaiia. Aeaaiui
i?iaeoeoii noaiiaeony iioie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony i?aaeaea
anaai aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii. I?e
yoii ia anaaaea iineaaeiaa ?aaeecoaony a oaaee/aiee iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, a nayce n /ai ii-iiaiio anoatho i?iaeaiu
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e aa ecia?aiey. Aaaeioth ?ieue i?eia?aoaao
iioeiecaoeey ?aoaiee ia anao o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey, a /anoiinoe, oeo/oaiea
eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey, nieaeaiea ?anoiaeia yia?aee e iaoa?eaeia,
?aoeeiiaeecaoeey o?ainii?oiuo iioieia e o. i. Cia/eoaeueiay yeiiiiey
aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao nie?auaiey n?ieia ia?aiaeaaeeaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e
iiauoaiey nei?inoe e?oaiiai?ioa iaoa?eaeia, aioiauo ecaeaeee e oneoa.

A nia?aiaiiii yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ciaiey
i?eia?aoatho oa?aeoa? no?aoaae/aneiai ?ano?na ia?ainoaiaiiiai cia/aiey,
a yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea e iiaaeoea n?aaenoaa nayce aeaeatho
aiciiaeiui eo oiiiaeaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea a aani?aoeaaeaioiuo
ianooaaao. Iineaaeiaa ioiineony e e anaaiciiaeiie eioi?iaoeee a iaeanoe
eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa. Iiauoaaony o?iaaiue inaaaeiieaiiinoe e
ia?aciaaiiinoe ianaeaiey, noaiiaeony aiciiaeiie cia/eoaeueiay
eioaineoeeaoeey iauaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie, /aeiaaea n iaoeiie. Iiaay
?ieue iaoee, ciaiee, eioi?iaoeee, yaeythueony iauei aeinoiyieai,
icia/aao aaaeiue ea/anoaaiiue naeaea a no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee,
aeaeouee ca niaie ia?iiiue i?ia?ann iaiauanoaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eiioeaioeey “Eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”

Iooaeeeaaynue io iacaaiiuo ia?aiai, cia/aiea eioi?uo iaeuecy
iaaeiioeaieaaoue, aaoi?u oai?ee “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” iauyaeytho
ciaiey, eioi?iaoeeth aeaaiui aaaioii i?aia?aciaaiey nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u e iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee eaieoaeecia e i?aa?auaiey aai a
“iiaia iauanoai”. Oae iniiaaoaeue e i?aceaeaio yiiineiai Einoeoooa
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa ?.Ianoaea ieoao: “Eioi?iaoeeiiiay yiioa,
eioi?oth i?eianee n niaie eiiiuethoa?iay oaoiieiaey e n?aaenoaa
eiiioieeaoeee, ia i?inoi ieaaeao aieueoia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia
aicaeaenoaea ia nia?aiaiiia eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai; iia iiaea/ao ca
niaie iauanoaaiiua ia?aiaiu oaeiai ianooaaa, eioi?ua auciaoo
o?ainoi?iaoeeth nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu a iieiinoueth iiaue oei
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, oi anoue a eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai”.

Eaeiau iniiaiua i?eciaee yoiai iauanoaa, n oi/ee c?aiey aai oai?aoeeia?

Na?aeoeaaeiie aai yeiiiieee aoaeao i?iecaiaenoai e eniieueciaaiea
eioi?iaoeee. A ea/anoaa yeiiiie/aneiai i?iaeoeoa iia ii naiaio cia/aieth
aoaeao i?aainoiaeeoue iaoa?eaeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth, yia?aeth, oneoae. Ia
niaio naiiaic?anoaieth eaieoaea i?eeaeao naiiaic?anoaiea eioi?iaoeee.
Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaiai iauanoaa o ?.Ianoaeu
i?eia?aoaao /a?ou “yeaeo?iiiie” ooiiee. Niaianoiia iieueciaaiea
iaeiieyaiie eioi?iaoeeae i?eaaaeao, ii aai iiaieth, e ?acaeoeth iiauo
i?eioeeiia eieeaeoeaiuo aeaenoaee aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaueo oeaeae.
Aeaaioth ?ieue aoaeao ea?aoue ia i?aai nianoaaiiinoe, a i?aai
iieueciaaiey. ?anoe?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey e
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u aoaeao ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii ia?aoiaea io
/anoiie yeiiiieee e iauanoaaiiie. Iauanoaaiiia iio?aaeaiea (oeieu,
iieeeeeieee, aei?iae, ia?ee e o. i.) ii naiaio oaeaeueiiio aano noaiao
i?aainoiaeeoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia iio?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa. Iniiaie
nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa noaiao aeia?iaieueiay iaueia, a aai
iieeoe/aneay nenoaia aoaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie “aeaiie?aoeth o/anoey”.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?iecaiaenoai e eioi?iaoeeiiiue naeoi?

Ioee/ea eioi?iaoecaoeee io ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aaiethoeee ninoieo a
oii, /oi iia iniiaiuie naieie ?acoeueoaoaie eaaeeo a iaeanoe iauaiey
ethaeae eee a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiae
i?iecaiaenoaii iu iiieiaai aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae, ?acoeueoao eioi?ie
iio?aaeyaony ae?oaeie ethaeueie.

A iiaeaeyo ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaa, ianoaeaeaaiuo a
?aieao iieeoyeiiiiee, iiiyoea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
eniieueciaaeinue ?aaeei. Yoi iauyniyaony iauei caeiiii ?acaeoey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai e i?iecaiaenoa, e eioi?ui ioiineony ethaay iaoea,
eai ie/aai, e?iia eioi?iaoeee (ciaiee, oaoiieiaee), ieeaeay iaoea ia
i?iecaiaeeo.

Niaeanii yoiio caeiio, iiaeaee iauanoaaiiuo iaoe i?eaioe?othony ia
i?aiaeaaeathuea aeaeu iauanoaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoa. I?aiaeaaeathuei aeaeii
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aei iineaaeiaai noieaoey auei iaoa?eaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai. Iiyoiio ana iiaeaee ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
iauanoaa i?eaioe?iaaiu ia iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai eae aaeeinoaaiioth
eiiiiiaioo n iiae/eiaieai ae anao inoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa. A no?aiao n
?acaeoie yeiiiieeie a OO noieaoee noaee iuooeiu a iauai iaoeeiiaeueiii
i?iaeoeoa i?iaeoeou, i?iecaiaeeiua noa?ie oneoa e eioi?iaoeeiiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii. Eiaiii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iicaieyao aiai?eoue i
ianooieaiee y?u eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa.

Auaeaeea eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?iecaiaenoai a naiinoiyoaeueioth eiiiiiaioo
iiaeaeae ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoaa, iiaeii ia?aniio?aoue
iiaeaee ?acaeoey iauanoaa n o/aoii yoie eiiiiiaiou. Anee eiiiiiaioa
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ioaa/aao iiaeaeue “iaiiue, aiaea e aaoa? n
eieanii, ia?, yeaeo?e/anoai…”, oi eiiiiiaioa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ioaa/aao iiaeaeue “aeanou, ?a/ue, ienueiaiiinoue, aoiaaa e
ia/aoue, oaeaoii, ?aaeeinaycue, YAI…”.

?aaiethoeey a eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, naycaiiay n iiyaeaieai YAI,
iaoneiaeaia ?aceei oaaee/aieai iauaiia i?iaeoeoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e, a naith i/a?aaeue, niinianoaoao oaaee/aieth e
niaa?oainoaiaaieth eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ?anniio?aiiuo auoa eiioeaioeeyo “iiaiai iauanoaa” aaaeiay ?ieue
ioaiaeeony oi?ie?iaaieth e ?inoo eioi?iaoeeiiiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee,
?anniao?eaaaiiai a ?onea ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e iauanoaaiiiio
?acaeoeth. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey aeaeaiea yeiiiieee ia o?e naeoi?a –
ia?ae/iue (naeueneia oicyenoai), aoi?e/iue (i?iiuoeaiiinoue) e o?aoe/iue
(noa?a oneoa), ii iiaieth oai?aoeeia, niioaaonoaoao enoi?e/anee
ii?aaeaeaiiui oacai yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa.
Aeey “eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa” oa?aeoa?ii i?aiaeaaeaiea aoi?e/iiai
naeoi?a, aeey “iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai” – o?aoe/iiai, oi anoue noa?u
oneoa. Auno?ia ?anoe?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ciaiaioao
ia?aciaaiea /aoaa?oe/iiai, eioi?iaoeeiiiiai naeoi?a e ia?aoiae e
“iinona?aeniiio” iauanoao.

E eioi?iaoeeiiiiio naeoi?o i?e/eneythony ana oa, eoi i?iecaiaeeo,
ia?aaaouaaao e ?ani?ino?aiyao eioi?iaoeeth a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai caiyoey,
a oaeaea eoi nicaeaao e iiaeaea?aeeaaao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u. I?e oaeii ii?aaeaeaiee naeoi? ioaaouaaao
iaoe?iue e /?acau/aeii iano?ue ninoaa i?ioannee. ?.Ianoaea auaeaeyao a
/aoaa?oe/iii naeoi?a neaaeothuea /aou?a io?aneaaua a?oiiu:
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eioi?iaoeeiiiua, io?anee ciaiee, eneonnoaa, yoeee.

Iiiuoee ioeaieoue /eneaiiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai naeoi?a ec-ca
?anieua/aoinoe aai a?aieoe aeatho ?aciua ?acoeueoaou. Oai ia iaiaa ana
iie naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aai caiaoiii oaaee/aiee.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue naeoi? a oii aeaea, a eaeii ii i?aaenoaaeyaony caiaaeiui
enneaaeiaaoaeyi, ieacuaaaony aii?oiui e iiiaieeeei ia?aciaaieai. Oai ia
iaiaa iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?e/ei aai ?inoa neoaeeo i?ioeann oaaee/aiey
?iee aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eae oi?iu aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia
i?eoiiiaeaiea e i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea ciaiee e ia ?acaeoea naiiai
/aeiaaea, /oi, ii au?aaeaieth E.Ia?ena, yaeyaony aeaaiui iaeiieaieai
aiaaonoaa, aeaenoaeoaeueiui aiaaonoaii. ?ino caiyoinoe a noa?a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe io?aaeaao aaaeiue naeaea iiae aeeyieai
IO? a iauanoaaiiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, ooieoeeyo e ninoaaa niaieoiiie
?aai/ae neeu a oii iai?aaeaiee, i eioi?ii aiai?ee E.Ia?en, – io
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eniieieoaeueiiai o?oaea e eiio?ieueii-oi?aaeythuei
ooieoeeyi.

Iaeiaei, eae ie aaeeea ?ieue eioi?iaoeee, naia ii naaa iia ia iiaeao
eciaieoue oa?aeoa? iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Yaiethoeeiiece?iaaiea noa?u
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?ienoiaeeo ii iauei caeiiai, i?enouei
aeaiiiio niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e eaieoaeecia iii i?aaeaea anaai
iiae/eiaii i?iecaiaenoao i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Iiieii yoiai, ia
iineaaenoaey i?eiaiaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee ieacuaatho aeeyiea
eiie?aoiua yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea oneiaey aa
eniieueciaaiey.

Ai iiiaeo io?aneyo eioi?iaoeeiiiiai naeoi?a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?ai aaeeea ?ieue e?oiiaeoeo ei?ii?aoeee e ainoaea?noaa. Eioi?iaoeey
i?e yoii, oae aea, eae iaoea e oaoieea, noaiiaeony n?aaenoaii
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau, oe?aieaiey iiceoeee iiiiiieee e i?oaeeai
nioeeaeueiiai eiio?iey.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue iuia i?aaie/anee aeeth/aaony ai ana
caaiuey oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu, a naiua ?aciua iaeanoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. A ianoa n oai iia inouanoaeyaony a oaniii
acaeiiaeaenoaee ni noa?ie iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. ssaeyynue
aaaeiui oaeoi?ii aa yooaeoeaiinoe, iia iaeiia?aiaiii iie?aaony ia
?acaeoea iiaaeoeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?ie?iaaiea iiuiiai
eiaeono?eaeueii-eioi?iaoeeiiiiai eiiieaena.

Eae yoio i?ioeann acaeiiaeaenoaoao n eaieoaeenoe/aneeie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie?

A i?aaenoaaeaiee oai?aoeeia “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa” yeaeo?iiiay
oaoiieiaey aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi
i?eaaaeao e “niya/aieth” nioeeaeueiiai ia?aaainoaa e aieaa
“ni?aaaaeeeaiio” ?ani?aaeaeaieth yeiiiie/aneie aeanoe. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
?acaeoea iaeioi?uo iiaaeoeo io?aneae ii i?iecaiaenoao nia?aiaiiie
oaoieee nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aoiii o/?aaeeoaeuenoaa n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoeo eiiiaiee-iiaaoi?ia.

?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee, noeioee?oy eiioeaio?aoeeth e
oeaio?aeecaoeeth eaieoaea, i?eaeaao iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe yoiio
i?ioeanno. A ioee/ee io i?ioeiai ii aeaeaei ia anaaaea niaiaaeaao n
eiioeaio?aoeeae ?aai/ae neeu e i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiiiuethoa?iay
aaoiiaoecaoeey, iaania/eaay aeaeinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, nieaeaao
i?aeiouanoaa e?oiiuo aai ianooaaia. Aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey
iaaieueoeo ii /eneo caiyouo, ii aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.
Aianoa n oai aic?anoaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aieueoeo ?anoiaeia ia iao/iua
enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee, iaoaiaoe/aneia iaania/aiea
yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. A iie iiae neeo eeoue e?oiiui
ei?ii?aoeeyi, eioi?ua e oiio aea iaeaaeatho eaae?aie
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia e eiatho aieaa oe?ieee aeinooi e
enoi/ieeai iao/ii-oaoie/aneie, yeiiiie/aneie e ae?oaie eioi?iaoeee.
E?iia oiai, yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea a ni/aoaiee n iiaaeoeie
n?aaenoaaie nayce (aeeth/ay niooieee) cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao ecaea?aeee
ii oi?aaeaieth e?oiiuie oicyenoaaiiuie eiiieaenaie, eioi?uie
?aniieaaatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ei?ii?aoeee-aeaaiou. Iineaaeiea caieiatho
eeth/aaua iiceoeee a i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiee iiaaeoae oaoiieiaee,
a oaeaea a i?iiuoeaiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo e ?ac?aaioeao. Eiioeaio?aoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee aea/ao ca niaie
eiioeaio?aoeeth eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia, /oi aua aieueoa oe?aieyao
iiceoeee e?oiiaeoeo iiiiiieee.

Eioi?iaoeey eae oiaa?

Ii naiae i?e?iaea eioi?iaoeey yaeyaony eieeaeoeaiui i?iaeoeoii. Aa
iiiiiieecaoeey eaieoaeii iaino?yao i?ioeai?a/eai iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiui
oa?aeoa?ii i?iecaiaenoaa e eaieoaeenoe/aneie oi?iie i?enaiaiey. A nayce
n aaaeiie ?ieueth, eioi?oth ea?aao eioi?iaoeey a nia?aiaiiii ie?a, ana
aieaa ino?ie noaiiaeony i?iaeaia aeinooia e aa enoi/ieeai e iauanoaaiiuo
oi?i ianeoaeeaaiey.

Ia iaoiaeyo yoo i?iaeaio e oai?aoeee “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”.
Ae.Aaee ?anniao?eaaao aa a eiioaenoa aeueoa?iaoeau: aaeeiay
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia eee aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiay nenoaia
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey e?oiiuie ei?ii?aoeeyie. ?aoaiea yoie
aeeeaiiu, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, – yoi auai? iaaeaeo “?aaainoaii” e
“yooaeoeaiinoueth”.

A ea/anoaa oiaa?a eioi?iaoeey ia iiaeao io/oaeaeaoueny iiaeiaii
iaoa?eaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee. Aa eoiey-i?iaeaaea eiaao oneiaiia cia/aiea.
Ia?aoiaey e iieoiaoaeth, iia inoaaony e o i?iaeaaoea. Iia ia en/acaao a
i?ioeanna iio?aaeaiey. Aeoaiei iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? eioi?iaoeee
ineaaeyao noeioeu, i?enouea /anoiiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, a aa
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?ino?aiaiee. Eiaiii iiyoiio iainoaea?noaeaiea
iaeioi?uo io?aneae eioi?iaoeeiiiiai naeoi?a (ia?aciaaiea, iao/iua
o/?aaeaeaiey e ae?.) i?eciaaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?acaeoey
nia?aiaiiiai eaieoaeecia. Iiieii oiai ainoaea?noai naii yaeyaony iaeiei
ec e?oiiaeoeo iio?aaeoaeae eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee, i?iecaiaeeoaeai,
iio?aaeoaeai e iaeiieoaeai eioi?iaoeee. I?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao eo eniieueciaaiea a aiaiiuo oeaeyo.

O?oae a ie?a eiiiuethoa?iie aaoiiaoecaoeee

Aunieay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iee?iyeaeo?iiiie oaoieee, aa ia?iiiua
aiciiaeiinoe caiaiyoue e oiiiaeaoue ia oieueei oece/aneea, ii e
oinoaaiiua niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea, ii?iaeeee oai?ee ia oiaiueoathuaeny
?iee o?oaea, i?aaeneacaiey i aai e?ooaiee eae nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa.
Yeiiiieno A.Eaiioueaa aiai?eo: “Iineieueeo ia oieueei oece/aneea, ii e
eiio?iee?othuea “oinoaaiiua” ooieoeee o?oaea a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e
oneoa iiaoo auiieiyony aac o/anoey /aeiaaea, ?ieue o?oaea eae
iaiouaieaiiai “oaeoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa” aoaeao ana aieaa nieaeaoueny”. N
aai oi/ee c?aiey, n ?aai/eie i?iecieaeao oi, /oi iieo/eeinue n
eioaaeueie e i?i/ei oyaeiaui neioii a naeueneii oicyenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa
aiaae?aiey o?aeoi?ia e ae?oaeo iaoei.

Iaeiaei, yoa oi/ea c?aiey eaii?e?oao aucaaiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
?aaiethoeeae aeoaieee ea/anoaaiiue ia?aai?io a niaea?aeaiee e ooieoeeyo
o?oaea. Nie?auaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey /aeiaaea a i?iecaiaenoaa –
eeoue iaeia noi?iia yoiai i?ioeanna. Ae?oaay – ?anoe?aiea oai?/aneeo
aeaeia o?oaea, naycaiiuo n auiieiaieai eiio?ieueii-oi?aaeythueo e
eiae/aneeo ooieoeee ana aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy, i?eiyoeai ioaaonoaaiiuo
?aoaiee, n ianeoaeeaaieai e nicaeaieai oneiaeiythuaeny oaoieee.

Oai?ey “ono?aiaiey” o?oaea iineoaeeea ioi?aaiui ioieoii aeey nicaeaiey
Ae.Aaeeii iiaie aioeo?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, i?ioeaiiieiaeiie
ia?enenoneie. “Ii ia?a nie?auaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie, – ienae Ae.Aaee, – e
ono?aiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?aai/aai (eioi?ue, ii Ia?eno, yaeyaony
enoi/ieeii noieiinoe, oae eae aieueoeinoai oneoa ioiineony e
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio o?oaeo) noaiiaeony ynii, /oi ciaiey e eo
i?eiaiaiea caiaiytho ?aai/aai a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea “i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe” a iaoeeiiaeueiii i?iaeoeoa. A yoii niunea eioi?iaoeey e
ciaiey yaeythony iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa,
iiaeiaii oiio, eae eaieoae e o?oae auee aeaaiuie oaeoi?aie
eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa”.

Niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee, noieiinoue ia oieueei nicaeaaony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ?aai/ei, a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acoeueoao
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea. A aai noanoaioeee naaaeaiu
?acee/iua aeaeu eiie?aoiiai o?oaea. *oi eanaaony oai?ee Ae.Aaeea, oi o
iaai noieiinoue oa?yao anyeoth naycue eae n eiie?aoiuie iauanoaaiiuie
ioiioaieyie, oae e n i?ioeannii i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii Ae.Aaeeo, ciaiey
noaiiayony enoi/ieeii noieiinoe, aoaeo/e aiaea/aiiuie a nenoaiaoe/aneie
oi?ia a o?ainoi?iaoeeth ?ano?nia inouanoaeyaioth /a?ac ?uiie. A yoii
neo/aa eniieueciaaiea iiauo oaoiieiaee iicaieyao eeeaeaee?iaaoue
i?iiaaeooi/iua caaiuey (iin?aaeie/aneea i?aaiecaoeee), iaania/eaaao
nicaeaiea aeiaaai/iie noieiinoe eioi?iaoeee ca n/ao aa ia?aaioee,
o?aiaiey, ia?aaea/e e i?aia?aciaaiey a aieaa oaea/iua e aeinooiiua aeey
iaiaaeeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey oi?iu.

Yoe i?ioeannu aaaeoo e o?ainoi?iaoeee eaieoaeecia, e ?aceiaeaieth
niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa, aiaaonoaa eioi?iai iniiaaiu ia noieiinoe e
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, nicaeaaaaiuo iaiin?aaenoaaiiui o?oaeii.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iee?ii?ioeanni?iay oaoiieiaey noaiiaeony
iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie iiaie oacu ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee, i?e eioi?ie
no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee e eniieueciaaiea aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e
oaoieee neoaeao i?aaeaea anaai iiauoaieth ii?iu i?eauee. I?e yoii
eiiiuethoa?u eniieuecothony ia oieueei aeey oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie, ii e aeey eiio?iey iaae eaaeaeui
aeaeaeaieai, ieiooie a?aiaie ?aai/aai. Oaeia i?eiaiaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie
oaoieee ii?iaeaeaao aua aieueoaa iiauoaiea eioaineaiinoe o?oaea, eioi?ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana iiaua eaoaai?ee ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo.

Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea ana aieueoa i?iieeaao a noa?o oneoa. Iai?eia?
eiiiaiey “American Express” n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iieee neaaeeo ca ?aaioie
ia?niiaea, ?aaeno?e?othuaai iieaoo n/aoia, e iia?aoi?ia, ioaa/athueo ia
oaeaoiiiua cai?inu aeaaeaeueoeaa e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae. Yoi iicaieeei ae
?anoe?eoue iauai iia?aoeee aac niioaaonoaothuaai oaaee/aiey ia?niiaea
i?e cia/eoaeueiii iiauoaiee eioaineaiinoe o?oaea. A noa?a oneoa ana
aieaa oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeyo i?eioeeiu ?aaiou eiiaaea?iuo eeiee,
aeaaii noaaoea i?eau/iuie a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oae, a aaieao naini?iua
ono?ienoaa, caaeeaay oaaei n iiia?ii inaiaiaeeaoaainy io i/a?aaeiie
iia?aoeee eanne?a, iaania/eaatho eo iinoiyiioth caa?oceo. Ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo oaeaoiiiie nayce aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia ia?aeeth/aiey
iai?aaeyao iia?aoi?o aucia, eae oieueei ii inaiaiaeeony io
i?aaeuaeouaai, e o. i.

No?aieaiea i?eniiniaeony e iiaui oneiaeyi canoaaeyao iaiaaeaeiaio
eneaoue oaeea oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, eioi?ua au niioaaonoaiaaee
o?aaiaaieyi naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy: ioeac io oceie niaoeeaeecaoeee e a oi
aea a?aiy oaeiaeaoai?aiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae iio?aaeoaeae,
iauaaeeiaiea iia?aoeee, aieueoaa eniieueciaaiea aiciiaeiinoae
eieeaeoeaiiai o?oaea.

I?iaeaiu aac?aaioeoeu e caiyoinoe

Ii iiaieth iaeiiai ec oai?aoeeia “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”, ?.Ianoaeu,
eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?aaiethoeey noaaeo /aeiaa/anoai ia?aae auai?ii:
oaaee/aiea naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie eee ?ino ianniaie aac?aaioeoeu. Ii aai
iiaieth, aii?in aoaeao ?aoaoueny a iieueco naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie.
Nie?auaiea ?aai/ae neeu a i?iiuoeaiiinoe aoaeao eiiiaine?iaaii
?anoe?aieai noa?u oneoa, iiaeiaii oiio, eae a i?ioeii aaea auoaniaiiay
ec naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?aai/ay neea auea iiaeiuaia i?iiuoeaiiinoueth.

Neaaeothuea oaeou ii?iaa?aatho /anoi iaiainiiaaiiia iianaiea, /oi iiaay
oaoieea – iniaaiii eiiiuethoa?u e ?iaiou – aaaeao e nie?auaieth ?aai/eo
iano e ianniaie aac?aaioeoea. Ia naiii aeaea yeiiiieea NOA nicaeaea
aieaa 42 iei. ?aai/eo iano n 1959 ii 1985 aiae – eae ?ac a ia?eiae
ia?aoiaea io eiaeono?eaeueiie yeiiiieee e oicyenoao, aaea aieueoeinoai
?aaioathueo caiyoi nicaeaieai, eniieueciaaieai, o?aiaieai e ia?aaea/ae
eioi?iaoeee. A 80-a aiaeu ca iaeei o?aoeaoiee ia?eiae a NOA iiyaeeinue
ii/oe 9 iei. iiauo ?aai/eo iano.

Aannii?ii, iiiaea aia?eeaineea ?aai/ea, iniaaiii a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii
naeoi?a, iioa?yee ianoa ec-ca iiaie oaoiieiaee e auioaeaeaiu auee
ia?ao/eaaoueny aeey auiieiaiey niaa?oaiii iiauo aeaeia ?aaio. Ii a
oeaeii eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey, aoaeue oi a o/?aaeaeaieyo eee ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, noeioee?iaaea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, niinianoaiaaea
yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo e nicaeaea iiyoiio iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa.

Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue /oi, oaoiieiae/aneay (i?iiuoeaiiay)
iiaeaeue ?acaeoey iauanoaa, a ?aieao eioi?ie neaaeoao i?aaeaea anaai
?anniao?eaaoue oaiiiai eioi?iaoecaoeee, oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi aa
iineaaeothuea nooiaie ia ioaa?aatho i?aaeuaeouea, oae aea, eae e
yia?aaoe/aneay iiaeaeue. Iaocaeaiea ia?a ia eneeth/eei aiciiaeiinoae
i?yiiai eniieueciaaiey iaiy, iiyaeaiea YAI ia eneeth/eei aiciiaeiinoe e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iicaa /aeiaaea.

Iiiaea aei neo ii? oaoiieiae/anee neaai iniauaiiua io?anee oneoa e noa?a
eiioi?neiai o?oaea, naycaiiua n ia?a?aaioeie aieueoeo ianneaia
eioi?iaoeee, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie naaiaeiy aeaaii?eyoioth ii/ao aeey
i?eiaiaiey iee?iyeaeo?iieee. Aaiee, no?aoiaua eiiiaiee, oi?aiaua
i?aaei?eyoey ana oe?a ia/eiatho eniieueciaaoue YAI ?acee/iiai oeia,
oa?ieiaeu, aaoiiaou aeey o/aoa /aeia, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu
?an/aoia, yeaeo?iiiuo n/aoia e o. i. Eiioi?u iniauathony ianoieueiuie
eiiiuethoa?aie, aaoiiaoe/aneeie ono?ienoaaie aeey ia/aoaiey e
?aciiiaeaiey oaenoia, iiiaeeoaeueiuie ono?ienoaaie e o. i. Ioe?uaaaony
ia?niaeoeaa nicaeaiey iieiinoueth aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo yeaeo?iiiuo ioenia.
I?eiaiaiea “oaeaiaoeee” – niaaeeiaiey eiiiuethoa?ia n nenoaiaie
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee – aeano a noa?a oneoa oie/ie ?inoo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Iaaethaeay ?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae
?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, iiaeii inoi?iaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i i?eioeeieaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe ?aoeoue a oneiaeyo
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa iniiaioth i?iaeaio ethaie oi?iaoeee – i?iaeaio
iaeneiaeueiie caiyoinoe ethaeae a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa aac
eaoano?ioe/aneeo cao?ao iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, o. a. aac aiei,
no?ieoaeuenoaa ie?aieae, AAI e ae?.

Caiyoinoue ethaeae a eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?iecaiaenoaa o?aaoao ieieiaeueiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo e yia?aaoe/aneeo cao?ao, iiyoiio a eioi?iaoeeiiiii
iauanoaa eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee iiiaeo iieiaeaiee,
caeeaaeuaaaiuo a iiiyoea yeieiae/aneiai iauanoaa.

* * *

Eae n/eoatho aaoi?u “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”, iooue e ?aoaieth
ianouiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai eaaeeo /a?ac
aaoiiaoe/aneoth o?ainoi?iaoeeth nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa aeaaiaea?y
i?enouei iee?iyeaeo?iiiie oaoieee aiciiaeiinoyi.

Aeaaa 2

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai eae iiaeaeue /aeiaa/aneiai ?acaeoey ia iiaeao
iiyaeony ia ionoii ianoa. Iaiaoiaeeia i/aiue na?ueaciay
eioaeeaeooaeueii-oaoiieiae/aneay aaca. Oaeie iniiaie a caiaaeiie
yeiiiieea naaiaeiy yaeyaony eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian i?aaenoaaeyao niaie n?aaieoaeueii iiaoth noa?o
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a aeaea e?oiiaeoaai
iiiaiio?aneaaiai eiiieaena ni naiae neiaeeaoaeny eio?ano?oeoo?ie.
Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aoiaeeo a eio?ano?oeoo?o anae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?yaeo n aaieaie, ae?aeaie,
aoaeeoi?neeie eiiiaieyie e o. ae., a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, yaeyaony
naiinoiyoaeueiie noa?ie aeciana.

Iaeaieaa i?eia/aoaeueiia naienoai eioi?iaoeee – niiniaiinoue aucuaaoue
eciaiaiey. Eiaaea ethaee ociatho /oi-oi iiaia, iie ia/eiatho aeeoue
ii-ae?oaiio, iaiythony e eo iio?aaiinoe a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoaao.
Iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai nio?aiaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ia ?uiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa yaeyaony aaeaioaoeey e eciaiythueiny iio?aaiinoyi.
A yoii ioiioaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae iieiinoueth iiaeaa?aeaiu
?uii/iui caeiiai. ?uiie nai ii naaa ia aeaao aa?aioee; oao, eoi ?aoee
iinayoeoue naay eioi?iaoeeiiiui oneoaai, iiaeao iaeeaeaoue e e?ao e
oniao. Oai?aoe/anee eioi?iaoeey aeieaeia auoue eioa?ania anai.
I?aeoe/anee oeaiiinoue eioi?iaoeee i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia oie ?iee,
eioi?oth iia ea?aao a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee, e oiio, /oi iinoaaeaii ia ea?oo
yoei ?aoaieai. Oeaiiinoue eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony oai, eae au
?anii?yaeeoanue ath. Naia ii naaa iia noieo iaiiiai.

Eioi?iaoeey, i?ecaaiiay iaania/eoue i?eiyoea ?aoaiee, aiineo
nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ?aoaiea. Iia noaiiaeony oaeoi?ii i?iecaiaenoaa e
iiaeiaii o?oaeo, iaoa?eaeai e eaieoaeo nicaeaao aiaaonoaa. A yoie naiae
ooieoeee eioi?iaoeey yaeyaony yeaiaioii eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, ?aaiui ii
cia/aieth oiaeinoe iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Eae eioi?iaoeey aeeyao ia i?iaeoeoeeth

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue, eae eioi?iaoeey auiieiyao naith ooieoeeth
nicaeaiey aiaaonoaa, iaiaoiaeeii ?acia?aoueny a oii, eae iia aeeyao ia
i?iaeoeoeeth – oiaa? eee oneoao.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?ia anao aeaeia – io aaoiiiaeey aei
eiiiuethoa?a – caaeneo ia oieueei io aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee,
iaania/eaathuae yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea, ii oaeaea e io /aoeiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, eaeay eioi?iaoeey iaiaoiaeeia aeey iaania/aiey
iioeiaeueiiai aeecaeia e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee.

Oniaoa a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa aeiaeaaaony oio, eoi iiieiaao aaaeiinoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai oaeoi?a aeey nicaeaiey oiaa?ia, niiniaiuo caaiaaaoue
?uiie.

Iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eiiiaoaioiinoe

A eaaeaeie io?anee nae/an aeaenoaotho eiiiaiee, ii?aaeaeythuea i?eaioe?u
aa ?acaeoey ia iniiaa eiathuaeny a eo ?anii?yaeaiee eioi?iaoeee.

A naiii iauai aeaea eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae i?ecaaiu oaeiaeaoai?youe
iaeio ec ianouiuo /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae – iio?aaiinoue a ioai?a
ioaeiuo ciaiee.

A noa?a eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana nicaeathony e iaiaieaathony
eioi?iaoeeiiiua “yeaeaaeaiou” niauoee, ethaeae, aeaenoaee.
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oe?iu aueneeaatho a?oiiu ethaeae n iauei
“eioi?iaoeeiiiui neoii”, /aua anaai eniieuecoy i?inoua e i?yiua iaoiaeu
ia?eaoeiaa. Oaeea a?oiiu i?aaenoaaeytho ?uii/iua y/aeee aeey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa.

Oe?iu, aeaenoaothuea a noa?a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa, ii?aaeaeytho
naaaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee eaeie-eeai ?uii/iie y/aeea.
Caoai iie ?ac?aaaouaatho eee niae?atho niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiua,
i?eaeaaay ei oaeie aeae, /oiau iie i?aaenoaaeyee oeaiiinoue aeey naieo
iio?aaeoaeae. Noaiaiue aioiaiinoe ?aciuo ?uii/iuo y/aae e
eniieueciaaieth eioi?iaoeee ia iaeeiaeiaa. Iaeioi?ua i?aaeii/eoatho
yeaeo?iiiua eaiaeu, ae?oaea i?eaietho eeoue ia/aoioth oi?io. Yoe
?acee/ey iaaeaeo iio?aaeoaeyie (?uii/iuie y/aeeaie) auioaeaeatho
iinoaaueeia eioi?iaoeee i?eaaaaoue e ?acee/iui oi?iai e eaiaeai aa
ia?aaea/e.

*oiau aeiaeoueny oniaoa, iinoaauee aeieaeai ia/aoue n oieaa?naeueiie
eioi?iaoeee, i?eaiaeiie e eniieueciaaieth a ethaie oi?ia. Iaeuecy
o?aaiaaoue io iieoiaoaeae eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa, /oiau iie i?eieiaee
eioi?iaoeeth eeoue a iaeiii ii?aaeaeaiiii aeaea. Oaeay iieeoeea iiaeao
eeoue ioe?uoue aeaa?e eiieo?aioai, i?aaenoaaeythuei eioi?iaoeeth a eiuo,
oaeiaiuo aeey iio?aaeoaeae oi?iao, e aeaoue ei aiciiaeiinoue ioaiaaaoue
/anoue ?uii/iie y/aeee. A ?acoeueoaoa iiyaeythony eioi?iaoeeiiiua
eiiiaiee, eioi?ua caiieiytho ?uii/ioth y/aeeo oneoaaie a ianoieueei
i?inoie e i?eaieaiie oi?ia, /oi ei ia/aai aiyony eiieo?aioia. Ei ia
i?eoiaeeony aeaaea i?eaaaaoue e ?aeeaia. Iie ia i?inoi eco/eee naie
?uiie, iiiaea ec ieo nicaeaee aai, iao/ea ia?niiaeueii eaaeaeiai
iio?aaeoaey a niioaaonoaothuae ?uii/iie y/aeea. Eiaiii iiyoiio
i?iaeaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa a niioaaonoaothuoth y/aeeo ia
o?aaoao iniaie ?aeeaiu.

Neaaeoao oeacaoue, /oi aieueoeinoai iio?aaeoaeae iaeaaeaao
aeaaii?eia?aoaiiie ianiiniaiinoueth ainiieueciaaoueny nia?aiaiiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa – eo yoiio i?inoi ia iao/eee.
Aeaaea oa eoi onaiee a oeiea eee a aoca eiiiuethoa?ioth a?aiioo, iaei
ciatho i naieo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoaao, i oii, eae e eiaaea eie
iieueciaaoueny.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eiiiaoaioiinoue – iiiyoea aieaa oe?ieia, /ai
eiiiuethoa?iay a?aiioiinoue. Iia aeeth/aao ia oieueei niiniaiinoue iaeoe
eioi?iaoeeth (oi anoue inaaaeiieaiiinoue i oii, aaea e a eaeii aeaea iia
o?aieony); ioaeii eiaoue /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, eaeay eiaiii
eioi?iaoeey eiaaony, eae iia eeanneoeoee?iaaia e ia?aaioaia, eae ath
iiaeii iieueciaaoueny e eaeie aeeaae iia iiaeao aianoe a niceaeaiea
aiaaonoaa a eiie?aoiie neooaoeee. Yoi oinoaaiiay ?aaioa o?aaothuay ia
oieueei iauaai ia?aciaaiey, ii e niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaee.

“Mid Data Central” (MDC) a na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia iino?ieea no?aoaaeth
caaiaaaiey ?uiea aeey iiaiai aeaea naieo oneoa “LEXIS” (aaie
th?eaee/aneie eioi?iaoeee, e eioi?iio iiaeii iiaeeeth/eony ii iau/iui
eaiaeai nayce) ia i?aaeinoaaeaiee nooaeaioai th?eaee/aneeo aocia
aanieaoiiai aeinooia e “LEXIS” ai a?aiy iao/aiey. Oai naiui “MDC”
“ano?ieea” a iiaia iieieaiea th?enoia eioi?iaoeeiiioth eiiiaoaioiinoue.
Iaeaaeaa iaaueaie eniieueciaaiey i?aaiaie eioi?iaoeee a yeaeo?iiiie
oi?ia, yoe iieiaeua ethaee iinea ieii/aiey oieaa?neoaoia noaee
o?aaiaaoue io naieo iaieiaoaeae – aeaaeaeueoeaa th?eaee/aneeo oe?i
aeinooia e “LEXIS”. Naaiaeiy “MDN” i?aaenoaaeyao i?aaiaua oneoae
aieueoei e iaeui th?eaee/aneei oe?iai, nicaeaa aeey naay ?uiie iooai
iiaeaioiaee i?ioanneiiaeia aua ia oeieueiie neaiuea. Aeaeaei ia anaaaea
no?aoaaey caaiaaaiey ?uiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeie
aeaeueiiaeaeiinoueth e i?iaeoiaiiinoueth. Iniaaiiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie
noa?u ninoieo a oii, /oi iao ie iaeiiai iio?aaeoaey, eioi?iio
iiiaaeiaeeinue au ciaoue i anao iaee/iuo aaieao aeaiiuo. Eeoea,
i?eieiathuea ?aoaiey, aeieaeiu i?eaioe?iaaoueny eeoue a oao
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoaao, eioi?ua eiatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e eo
aeciano. Anoanoaaiii, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeii i?eaeaeaoue
aeiiieieoaeueiua “aiaoiea” enoi/ieee aeaiiuo.

Oae aea aaaeii eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i niaoeeoe/aneii cia/aiee eaaeaeiai
aaiea aeaiiuo. Oae eae, iaeaieueooth oeaiiinoue eiaao ia iauay
eioi?iaoeey ii aeaiiie i?iaeaia, a oa oceay eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay ioaeia
aeey i?eiyoey eiie?aoiiai ?aoaiey.

Eaaeaeue aaie aeaiiuo ?ac?aaaouaaaony aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae. Aeey
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey aaiea aeaiiuo ioaeii ciaoue ia oieueei i aai
niaea?aeaiee, ii e i oao oeaeyo, eioi?ua noaaee ia?aae niaie aai
nicaeaoaeue. Yoi iicaieyao iio?aaeoaeth “auoue a ?onea” e iieo/eoue io
aaiea iaeneioi aiciiaeiiai.

Iieacii ciaoue e ae?oaea niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe eiiiaiee, caiyouo a
noa?a eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana:

Iie i?aaeii/eoatho nicaeaaaoue nianoaaiiue i?iaeoeo, ia iieaaaynue ia
noi?iiieo ninoaaeoaeae. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aieueoaai eiio?iey ca
ea/anoaii eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ia yaeyaony aeaaiui aeoeaii eiiiaiee.

Eeth/ e oi?ioei aeaeiaui ioiioaieyi n iio?aaeoaeyie ii?aaeaeaiiie
?uii/iie y/aeee, ianeoaeeaaaiie eiiiaieae, – auoue eae iiaeii aeeaea e
iio?aaeoaeth, auno?i ?aaae?oy ia aai iiaua aiciiaeiinoe e cai?inu. A
?acoeueoaoa io iio?aaeoaey caaeneo ia iaei eiie?aoiuo aniaeoia ?acaeoey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana a ioee/ee io ae?oaeo noa?, aaea iieoiaoaeue
“aeeth/ai” ia noieue iaiin?aaenoaaiii. A eioi?iaoeee eiaiii ioaeaeu
iio?aaeoaey, eciaiyynue, eciaiytho aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eiiiaiee e aa i?iaeoeoeeth.

aea eiie?aoiua caaea/e ia?aae naieie iinoaaueeaie enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee
e iao/eony nio?oaeie/aoue n ieie, i?eia?aoay oieueei oa naaaeaiey,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey eo niaoeeoe/aneeo cai?inia.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua eiiiaiee /anoi yaeythony iiiiiieueiuie o?aieoaeyie
naaaeaiee a naiae eiie?aoiie iaeanoe. Ii ia?a iaeiieaiey aeinuea
(“oaeeia”) ?anoe?yaony e aaie aeaiiuo. Iiyoiio eioi?iaoeeiiiua eiiiaiee
ia?aaeei a ninoiyiee i?aaenoaaeoue aeiiieieoaeueiua naaaeaiey, ia
aienuaathueany iaiin?aaenoaaiii a eo niaoeeoe/aneee e?oa aeayoaeueiinoe.

I/aiue aaaeii, /oiau eiiiaiey, ieacuaathuay i?aaeaea anaai
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae, iniciaea naay oaeiaie e niioaaonoaaiii yoiio
no?ieea naith aeayoaeueiinoue. Iiaeao iieacaoueny iaaa?iyoiui oio oaeo,
/oi oieueei a na?aaeeia 60-o aiaeia iaeia ec noa?aeoeo e e?oiiaeoeo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee Aia?eee, “Dan & Bredstreet”, iniciaea, /oi iia
aeaenoaoao ia a noa?a e?aaeeoa, a a noa?a eioi?iaoeee. *a?ac noi eao
iinea naiaai iniiaaiey yoa eiiiaiey iaia?oaeeea, /oi nia?aiiia ath
aeinuea ia aia?eeaineii aeciana i?aaenoaaeyao oeaiiinoue ia oieueei a
aaieianeie noa?a. Iniciaa yoi, oe?ia oaea a ea/anoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiie
i?aaeeiaeeea aeaeiaiio ie?o oe?ieee iaai? oneoa. Naiaa?aiaiiay
“eiaaioa?ecaoeey” naieo aiciiaeiinoae iaiaoiaeeia aeey iauaeoeaiie
ioeaiee ia?niaeoea, iaeeaeathueo oe?io ia ?uiea oneoa.

Iiieiaiea yoeo iniaaiiinoae aaaeii aeey iaiaaeaea?ia, iineieueeo
iniiaiie i?eioeei iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea eioi?iaoeee – oiiaeiaeoueny
oaiaeaiio, ie?aoeaaynue eiaiii a oa oeaaoa, eioi?ua ioaeiu ?uieo.

Eio?ano?oeoo?a eioi?iaoeeiiiie io?anee

Ia?aoiaey e eio?ano?oeoo?a eioi?iaoeeiiiie io?anee ioaeii n?aco
ioiaoeoue, /oi noa?a eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana i/aiue iaoe?ia e aeeth/aao
?acee/iua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua i?yii eee einaaiii naycaiu n
eioi?iaoeeae. I?e/ai iinoiyiii i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea iauaiia
eio?ano?oeoo?u. Ia/aa n i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, i?yii
naycaiiuo n au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieeie, naaiaeiy eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian
caoaaouaaao ana iiaua e iiaua iaeanoe /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?aeoe/anee ia naycaiiua n eiiiuethoa?aie.

?anniao?eaay nia?aiaiioth eio?ano?oeoo?o aeciana, iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi ?aciua niaoeeaeenou a ?aciuo no?aiao iaiaeiicia/ii o?aeootho
e iienuaatho aa. Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa oaea/iuo e oaeiaiuo aeey
?anniio?aiey e iiieiaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u yaeyaony noaia
?ac?aaioaiiay E.Aeyai.

Eaaeaeue ec ainueie naaiaioia noaiu aeeth/aao ?acee/iua aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe, ia ana ec eioi?uo i?yii naycaiu n eioi?iaoeeae. Oai ia
iaiaa eaaeaeue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, iieacaiiue a naaiaioa, oae eee eia/a
aaaeai aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana. ss oi/o inoaiiaeony ia yoie noaia
aieaa aieiaoaeueii. Iia aeeth/aao neaaeothuea aeiee:

1. Niaea?aeaoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

eeiioeeueiu;

aacaou, aeo?iaeu;

iee?ioeeueiu;

eioi?iaoeeiiiua atheeaoaie, ioaeaeueiua ?aeecu, ni?aai/iua oeacaoaee;

eieae, aeieeaaeu, ioaeeeaoeee;

aeaeaiaeenee, ieaiee.

2. Aniiiiaaoaeueiua oneoae:

?eneiaue eaieoae, aaiee;

nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, i?iaeoe?iaaiea nenoai;

?acaeaeaiea a?aiaie ?aaiou nenoai;

i?ia?aiie?iaaiea;

yeaeo?iiiay ia?aaea/a aeieoiaioia, aaiae aeaiiuo;

enneaaeiaaoaee ?uiea e oneiaee aeciana, ?aeeaiiua aaaionoaa;

ae?aeaaua iaeea?u, ath?i oneoa.

3. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey:

eiiiuethoa?u, oa?ieiaeu;

eiioi?neia iai?oaeiaaiea;

iioe/aneay aiia?aoo?a;

iee?ioeeueiu, eaca?iua aeenee;

ia/aoiia iai?oaeiaaiea, aeaiee o/aoa;

ena?ieiie?iaaiea;

4. Eioaa?e?othuay oaoiieiaey:

oa?ieiaeu;

ia?niiaeueiua eiiiooaoi?u;

?a/aaua nenoaiu, oaeneieea;

oeeo?iaua aeaiiua.

5. N?aaenoaa nayce:

?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiea, oaeaoii;

nenoaiu ia?aaea/;

aeaeaiaeenee, aieieiiiay iioeea;

n?aaenoaa ii/oiaie nayce, eiiiooaoi?u.

6. Eaiaeu nayce:

aeinoaaea iinueueiui, ii/oa;

oaeaa?ao, oaeaoii;

iaaeaeoia?iaeiua n?aaenoaa nayce, niooieeiaay naycue, eiiia?/aneea
n?aaenoaa nayce;

eaaaeueiia oaeaaeaeaiea;

ia?aaeaeaeiay e aei/iay aiia?aoo?a.

7. Eaiaeu oaea- e ?aaeeiaauaiey:

?aaeeinaoue, ?aaeiiaeueiua naoe;

oaeanaoue, oaeaoaen;

ei?ioeiaieiiaay naycue.

8. Niuneiaua oneoae:

neoaeaa iiainoae;

enoiaeiay eioi?iaoeey aeey yeaeo?iiiuo e iayeaeo?iiiuo aaieia aeaiiuo;

eioi?iaoeey i oiiaeiaie ae?aea, eioi?iaoeeiiiua iaeea?u;

aeaeeioaee, aeaeaioaee;

noaoenoe/aneea eiaeaenu;

aeaaeaeueoeu aaieia aeaiiuo;

?a/aaua nenoaiu.

Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiie noaiu, eio?ano?oeoo?a caeanue ?anniio?aia
i/aiue iiae?iaii e aeeth/aao aieueoia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Noaia aeaao iaaeyaeiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae
no?iyony ia oieueei ia eiiiuethoa?ao. *anoi eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian
?anniao?eaatho eae neiiiei eiiiuethoa?iiai. Yoi ioiaeaeanoaeaiea iiaeii
iauynieoue cia/eoaeueiui aeeaaeii eiiiuethoa?ia a eioi?iaoeeiiioth
?aaiethoeeth.

?aaeee e ia?niaeoeau 90-o aiaeia

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian a iuiaoiai aeanyoeeaoee, a ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao, i?aa?aoeeny a iiiaiio?aneaaie eiiieaen,
ioaaouaathuee iaoe?ioth eio?ano?oeoo?o. A?iiaaeiua ianooaau yoiai
“iiino?a” nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie yeiiiieee iiaeoaa?aeaeatho neaaeothuea
oeeo?u. Ie?iaia iio?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a 1990 aiaeo
aeinoeaei 2 o?ei. aeiee. (oaeaiaiea i?iecioei anaai ca 4 aiaea n 1986
a.). Eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?iecaiaenoai a NOA e ssiiiee ii o?iaith caiyoinoe
i?aacioei noa?o iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e/ai a NOA a yoie noa?a
e ia/aeo 90-o aiaeia auei caiyoi oaea ieiei 60% anao ?aaioathueo.
Naaiaeiyoiea oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana oaeiau, /oi
ii noaaeeueii iia?aaeaao o?aaeeoeeiiiua io?anee ii oaiiai ?inoa,
caiyoinoe e ae?oaei yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi. Iai?io io i?iaeaaee
i?ia?aii iiaenei/ee n 5 ie?ae. aeieea?ia a 1982 aiaeo aei 25 ie?ae. a
1985 aiaeo.

Naaiaeiy a eioi?iaoeeiiiii aeciana, eae e a oeaeii a noa?a yeiiiieee,
neiaeeeenue o?e e?oiiaeoea oeaio?a – NOA, ssiiiey, Caiaaeiay Aa?iia,
iaaeaeo eioi?uie e ?acai?a/eaaaony any eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa. Iniiaiua
eoiae yoie ai?ueau a na?aaeeia 90-o aiaeia oa?aeoa?ecothony neaaeothuei.
Iaiaoeeinue iauaa ineaaeaiea aia?eeaineeo iiceoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. Naaiaeiy NOA aeiieie?otho oieueei a iaeanoe
iinoaaie eiiiuethoa?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey (75%) e i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa
(65%). Ioia/aaony ia?anoaiea ?iee ssiiiee. N eiioea 70-o aiaeia iia
i?iecaaea ieiei 50% ie?iaiai iauaia iio?aaeoaeueneie yeaeo?iieee. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia naaa?iaia?eeaineii ?uiea aeiey yiiineeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiioi?neiai iai?oaeiaaiey ninoaaeyao: a iaeanoe
eiie?iaaeueiie aiia?aoo?u – nauoa 40%, a iaeanoe eaeueeoeyoi?ia e
oaeneieeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey – ieiei 100%. Aeey Aa?iiu oa?aeoa?ii a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy ionoaaaiea a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee.

?

Aeinoeaiooay e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie e?eoe/aneay ianna eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oneoa e iiuiinoae aoaeao a nouanoaaiiuo aeaoaeyo ii?aaeaeyoue niaoeeoeeo
?aaiou iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

?oeiaiaeeoaee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeaea noaee oaeaeyoue aieueoia aieiaiea
iao/aieth eeoe, i?eieiathueo ?aoaiey a ei?ii?aoeeyo, niiniaai
eniieueciaaiey aioo?aiiae neoaeaaiie eioi?iaoeee yoeo ei?ii?aoeee a
i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey, oi?aaeaiey e ia?eaoeiaa. Ianiiiaiii, yoe oneeey
niiniaiu iiauneoue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue ei?ii?aoeee. Iao/eaoenue
?aaioaoue ni naiae aioo?aiiae eioi?iaoeeae, iaiaaeaea?u eiiiaiee ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ii/oanoaotho iio?aaiinoue a i?eaea/aiee aiaoiae
eioi?iaoeee, e yoi nicaeaao iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
aeciana.

Eiiiaiee, eioi?ua ionoaioo a yoii aeaea, noieeioony n oneeeaathueiny
aeaaeaieai ni noi?iiu aieaa eioi?ie?iaaiiuo eiieo?aioia.

Ii nouanoao, ethaie ?aaioiee ii ia?a iiauoaiey naiae i?ioanneiiaeueiie
eaaeeoeeaoeee noaiiaeony enoi/ieeii e iaeiieoaeai eioi?iaoeee a naieo
i?aaiecaoeeyo. Naycue iaaeaeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuie oneoaaie e ae?oaeie
io?aneyie yeiiiieee noaiiaeony aeaaiaea?y yoiio aeaonoi?iiiae:
eioi?iaoeeiiiua eiiiaiee, ieacuaay oneoae ae?oaei oe?iai iiiieiytho
nianoaaiiue eioi?iaoeeiiiue iioaioeeae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oieaa?neoaou aioiayo aeeieiie?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia a
iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa, iaeaaeaaoeo i?ia?aiie?iaaieai e eiiiuethoa?iie
oaoieeie. Yoe niaoeeaeenou, eae i?aaeei, aunooiatho a ?iee “eioeiaiia”
naieo oe?i a ieaaia eioi?iaoeee.

Oae iiyaeyaony iiaay eaoaai?ey niaoeeaeenoia, aac eioi?uo oaea o?oaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa aoaeouiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana.

Caaeyaeuaay a 2000 aiae

Iiuo ?aaiou a eciee?iaaiiuo y/aeeao ?uiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa nicaeae
o iiiaeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee i?aaenoaaeaiea i “ianna ?uieia”, a ia
i aaeeiii “ianniaii ?uiea”, aieueoa niioaaonoaothuai ?aaeeyi
eiaeono?eaeueiie y?u.

Ianiio?y ia i?ienoiaeyuee oaia?ue ac?ua eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa, iioiaea,
/oi eo “ianniaue ?uiie” eae aaaeiue yeaiaio ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey
ianaeaiey ia/iao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a iieioth neeo ia ?aiueoa eiioea
aaea. Aeieaeiu aicieeiooue ia oieueei eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae
i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ee/iia, ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iio?aaeaiea (iiea eo ia
oae oae iiiai, aea e ?aciua ianoiua ?uiee iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue
niaoeeoe/aneeo oneoa). Aeieaeiu aicieeiooue e iiaua eaiaeu eo
oeiaine?iaaiey.

* * *

Eioi?iaoeey – aecian, i?eia?aoathuee aeiaaeueiua ecia?aiey.

?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeaea ai anai ie?a eiaao oa aea oaiaeaioeee,
/oi e a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao.

Ai-ia?auo, i?aaei?eieiaoaee ioe?uee aeey naay eioi?iaoeeth eae aeae
aeciana. Aeaaea a Eeoaa i?aaeoaeuenoai iiiu?yao “?eneiaue” eaieoae aeey
nicaeaiey e ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa.

Ai-aoi?uo, eiiiaiee, aeaenoaothuea a iaeanoe eio?ano?oeoo?u, i?eciaee
iioaioeeae eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana e ?acaeaatho oaoieeo e oaoiieiaeth
ia?aaea/e e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe ii/oiaie,
oaeaoiiiie e oaeaa?aoiie nayce ai anai ie?a ?aoatho i?iaeaio, eae
ianeoaeeoue (a a iaeioi?uo no?aiao – eae ?aaoee?iaaoue) eioi?iaoeeiiiue
aecian, iniaaiii n oi/ee c?aiey oeia e ea/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa
nayce.

A-o?aoueeo, iineieueeo ianna eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa i?eaeeaeaaony e
e?eoe/aneie, iie i?eia?aoatho o?ain iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ii
nouanoao, iiaeii aiai?eoue i ca?iaeaeaiee ie?iaiai ?uiea eioi?iaoeee
aeey aaaeoueo a oaoie/aneii ioiioaiee no?ai.

A-/aoaa?ouo iiyaeythony oneoae i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ee/iia,
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiia iio?aaeaiea, ia?aaaouaathony niiniau eo
oeiaine?iaaiey.

Oioy ieeoi ec caiyouo a yoii aeciana ia n/eoaao, /oi eioi?iaoeey iiaeao
auoanieoue i?iiuoeaiiinoue e noaoue aeaaiui aeaeii yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe a ie?iaii ianooaaa, niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oneoae aiinyo iaiaeiaaaeiue aeeaae a yeiiiieeo e oai naiui o/anoaotho a
nicaeaiee aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia.

Aeeyiea eioi?iaoeee neacuaaaony ia ?aai/ae neea, i?aaeiaoao e i?oaeeyo
o?oaea. Oaeei ia?acii, iia nicaeaao eiieo?aioiua aiciiaeiinoe ai anao
aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe. A OOI aaea aa cia/aiea aua aieaa aic?anoao e a
NOA, e ai anai ie?a.

Aeaaa 3

Ii o?iaith eioi?iaoecaoeee, eaeeie au iieacaoaeyie iu aa ia ecia?yee,
iaoa no?aia eaoano?ioe/anee ionoaao io aaaeoueo e aeaaea iaeioi?uo
?acaeaathueony no?ai ie?a. Iai?eia?, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee a iaoae no?aia aaeaa aeinoeaaao 10% io o?iaiy
NOA, a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?acei nie?auaaony iauai oe?aaee?oaiuo
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa – 5%. Iaaeaaeiinoue ioa/anoaaiiie au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee a 100-500 ?ac onooiaao ca?oaaaeiui ia?acoeai, ii
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi iia ia eiieo?aioiniiniaia ia ?uiea
?innee ii n?aaiaieth n eiii?oiie. Cia/eoaeueii ionoaaaiea a
eniieueciaaiee i?iiuoeaiiuo aac aeaiiuo e aac ciaiee. ?acei ionoaao io
iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa ?acaeoea naoae nayce e ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo,
neoaeaueo aacie eio?ano?oeoo?u eioi?iaoecaoeee ?aaeiiia ?innee.

Ii naiae aeoaieie nooe eioi?iaoecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann
i?aia?aciaaiey /aeiaaeii N?aaeu naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, aeinoa?u a
iiinoa?o, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai aoaeao nicaeaiea auniei?acaeoie
eioinoa?u. Yoio i?ioeann cao?aaeaaao eae n?aaeo iaeoaiey, oae e
iauanoai, naiiai /aeiaaea. Aeoaeia niaa?oaaiuo i?aia?aciaaiee
ii?iaeaeaao i?iaeaiu, io naiaa?aiaiiiai ?aoaiey eioi?uo caaeneo oiae
eioi?iaoecaoeee.

Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneay i?iaeaia caeeth/aaony a i?aiaeieaiee ?ac?uaa
iaaeaeo nouanoaothuei ninoiyieai iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u e o?iaiai yoiai iaania/aiey, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa.

Oaoiieiae/aneay i?iaeaia iaoneiaeaia ionoaeinoueth ia oieueei
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, ii e oaoiieiaee a oao iaeanoyo yeiiiieee,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue i?ioeann ?acaeoey eioinoa?u.

I?iaeaia nayce ii?iaeaeaaony i?ioeai?a/eai iaaeaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoueth a
eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa naycuaaoue eaaeaeiai n eaaeaeui, iaania/eaay
aunieiea/anoaaiioth ia?aaea/o iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee, e
iaaiciiaeiinoueth auiieieoue yoi i?e nia?aiaiiii ninoiyiee naoae nayce a
?innee.

E ineoieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai ioiineony, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ia
aioiaiinoue ianaeaiey e eioi?iaoecaoeee, e eniieueciaaieth iieo/aaiuo a
oiaea eioi?iaoecaoeee ?acoeueoaoia.

Ineoioece/aneay i?iaeaia, o. a. ineoe/aneay e oeceieiae/aneay
niaianoeiinoue /aeiaaea e iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee, i?iaeaia
aicaeaenoaey ia /aeiaaea iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee.

I?aaiaua i?iaeaiu aicieeatho a nayce n i?aa?auaieai eioi?iaoeee a
iniiaiie ?ano?n ?acaeoey iauanoaa, iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?aaiaie
?aaeaiaioaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aaioee e eniieueciaaiey yoiai ?ano?na e
ionoonoaeai oaeiaie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu aicieeatho a nayce n ia?aoiaeii e yeiiiieea eiiai
aeaea, yeiiiieea “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai” iauanoaa.

Nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu iaoneiaeaiiu ei?aiiui eciaiaieai ia?aca aeecie
/eaiia iauanoaa iiae aicaeaenoaeai eioi?iaoecaoeee.

Eaae?iaua i?iaeaiu. Iie naycaiu n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia oieueei aioiaeoue
eaae?u aeey ?acaeoey eioinoa?u e yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iieo/aaiuo
?acoeueoaoia, ii e i?iaiaeeoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth i?eaioaoeeth
?aaioieeia oao i?ioannee, eioi?ua ieaaeoony eceeoieie a i?ioeanna
nicaeaiey auniei?acaeoie eioinoa?u.

Oeiainiaua i?iaeaiu aicieeatho a nayce n aunieie noieiinoueth
eioi?iaoecaoeee, ionoonoaeai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo n?aaenoa ia aa
i?iaaaeaiea e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eneaoue e nicaeaaaoue enoi/ieee
n?aaenoa, niiniaiua iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aeaeaaiua oaiiu nicaeaiey
auniei?acaeoie eioinoa?u.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua i?iaeaiu naycaiu n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nicaeaiey oaeeo
no?oeoo? e iaoaieciia, eioi?ua ia i?aeoeea iaania/eaaee au i?aaiecaoeeth
e i?iaaaeaiea ?acaeoey eioinoa?u.

Iao/iua i?iaeaiu iaoneiaeaiiu ia?ac?aaioaiiinoueth iao/iiai ooiaeaiaioa
eioi?iaoecaoeee, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiioeaiooaeueiuo iniia, iaoiaeia
iao/iiai iainiiaaiey e yenia?oec i?ia?aii e i?iaeoia ?acaeoey eioinoa?u,
iao/iiai nii?iaiaeaeaiey yoiai i?ioeanna a no?aia.

Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa e ?aoaiea ii?iaeaeaaiuo yoei i?ioeannii i?iaeai
iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny ?acee/iuie iooyie:

Noeoeeiay naiii?aaiecaoeey i?ioeanna eioi?iaoecaoeee. Yoio iooue
oa?aeoa?ai aeey iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, naycaiiuo n eciaiaieai oneiaee
aeecie e aaeaioaoeeae iauanoaa e iiaui oneiaeyi. Oaeay aaeaioaoeey
o?aaoao i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ia?ano?iae a iauanoaa, cao?aaeaathueo aai
iaoa?eaeueiua e i?aanoaaiiua iniiau. Yoe iniiau ioiinyony e iaeaieaa
eiina?aaoeaiui yeaiaioai iauanoaa, e eo eciaiaiea aini?eieiaaony /eaiaie
iauanoaa aeinoaoi/ii aieaciaiii. Aeeth/aiea noeoeeiuo iaoaieciia
?aaoeyoeee iicaieyao ianeieueei naeaaeeoue ino?ioo aini?eyoey oaeeo
eciaiaiee, ii aeaeaao nai i?ioeann aieaa aeeeoaeueiui e, eae i?aaeei,
i?eaiaeeo e cia/eoaeueiiio ia?a?anoiaeo ?ano?nia.

Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii eioi?iaoecaoeee. Yoio iooue ia
iiaeao auoue ?aaeueii inouanoaeai, oae eae ?anniao?eaaaiue i?ioeann
yaeyaony ianoieueei neiaeiui, /oi i?aeoe/anee ioiineony e iaoi?aaeyaiui
iauaeoai.

Iai?aaeyaiay eioi?iaoecaoeey. A yoii neo/aa naii?acaeoea i?ioeanna
i?ioaeaao a oneiaeyo aeaenoaey nenoaiu ia?aie/aiee e noeioeia,
ii?aaeaeythueo a?aieoeu nouanoaiaaiey i?ioeanna e aeaeaoaeueiua
iai?aaeaiey aai ?acaeoey. Yoi iicaieyao, nio?aiyy ana i?aeiouanoaa
naiii?aaiecaoeee e naii?acaeoey i?ioeanna, nie?aoeoue a?aiy aai
i?ioaeaiey e ecaaaeaoue eceeoieo cao?ao.

?acaeoua no?aiu e ?aaeiiu, ia?auie ia/aaoea ia?aoiae e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio
iauanoao, iiaoo iicaieeoue naaa ia?aue iooue ?aoaiey aicieeathueo i?e
yoii i?iaeai, oae eae aeey ieo oaeoi? a?aiaie ia noieue nouanoaaiai. Iie
e oae yaeythony ia?auie a yoie noa?a.

?aaeiiu, ionoaaoea a ?acaeoee eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u, a oii /enea ?inney,
aeieaeiu auae?aoue o?aoee iooue, oae eae cia/eoaeueiia ionoaaaiea a
nicaeaiee auniei?acaeoie eioinoa?u iiaeao i?eaanoe e aaciaaeaaeiiio
ionoaaaieth.

Oaeei ia?acii eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa ii?iaeaeaao oeaeue eiiieaen
i?iaeai, io ?aoaiey eioi?uo caaeneo auai? e ?aaeecaoeey iooe ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa. I?e yoii, anee ia ia/aeueiii yoaia eioi?iaoecaoeee
iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho iao/ii-oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu,
oi ia iineaaeothueo yoaiao aeaaioth ?ieue ia/eiatho ea?aoue nioeeaeueiua
i?iaeaiu, ?aoaiea eioi?uo e ii?aaeaeeo enoiae eioi?iaoecaoeee.

Caeeth/aiea

Aeiaaeueiie oeaeueth eioi?iaoecaoeee yaeyaony iaania/aiea iaiaoiaeeiiai
o?iaiy eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe ianaeaiey, iaoneiaeaiiiai oeaeyie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu.

Aeaaiui eoiaii eioi?iaoecaoeee noaiao iaania/aiea naiaiaeiiai
naiaa?aiaiiiai aeinooia ianaeaiey e ?aaeiiaeueiiio, ainoaea?noaaiiiio e
ie?iaiio eioi?iaoeeiiiiio oiiaeo, oi?ie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoe e niciaiey
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aai eniieueciaaiey a i?ioeanna naiae aeayoaeueiinoe o
eaaeaeiai /eaia iauanoaa.

Caaea/e eioi?iaoecaoeee aoaeoo auiieiaiu e cao?aou ia aa i?iaaaeaiea
ii?aaaeathony oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee iia aoaeao i?iaiaeeony n
aaeeiuo iiceoeee, aace?iaaoueny ia aaeeiuo i?eioeeiao.

E iniiaiui i?eioeeiai eioi?iaoecaoeee ioiinyony:

iiae/eiaiiinoue aa oeaeae oeaeyi nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey;

niioaaonoaea no?oeoo? e iaoiaeia eioi?iaoecaoeee o?aaiaaieyi ia?aoiaea
no?aiu e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea;

auaiaeiinoue eioi?iaoecaoeee aeey iauanoaa, aa ieoiaaiinoue;

i?eaioaoeey ia yeiiiie/aneea iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey eioi?iaoecaoeeae;

eiieo?niinoue iooae inouanoaeaiey eioi?iaoecaoeee, enoi/ieeia e oi?i aa
oeiaine?iaaiey;

naii?acaeoea i?ioeanna eioi?iaoecaoeee;

niaianoeiinoue eioi?iaoecaoeee no?aiu n ie?iaui i?ioeannii
eioi?iaoecaoeee;

eioaa?aoeey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia.

Enoiaey ec oeaeae e i?iaeai eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa iniiaiuie aa
iai?aaeaieyie neaaeoao n/eoaoue:

i?iaaaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee ii eioi?iaoeea e eioi?iaoecaoeee;

nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu eioi?iaoecaoeee.

niaa?oainoaiaaiea nouanoaothueo, ?ac?aaioea, ?acaeoea e i?eiaiaiea iiauo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee;

ia?aaiae i?iecaiaenoaa i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa ia i?iiuoeaiioth iniiao,
nicaeaiea eiaeono?ee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa;

nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u;

nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea eiaeono?ee ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

iiaeaioiaeo ianaeaiey e eioi?iaoecaoeee;

iiaeaioiaeo, aaaaeaiea e ei??aeoe?iaeo i?aaiauo e oicyenoaaiiuo ii?i;

o/anoea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii nio?oaeie/anoaa e ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea a noa?a
eioi?iaoecaoeee.

I?iecaiaenoai i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa iiaeao e aeieaeii noaoue
naiiieoiaaiie io?aneueth ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, niiniaiie yenii?oe?iaaoue
naith i?iaeoeoeeth. Iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe a i?aeoeeo eeoeaiceiiioth caeoieo
ca?oaaaeiuo e yenii?o nicaeaiiuo a ?innee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, ?aoea
i?e yoii i?iaeaiu aaoi?neeo e i?i/eo i?aa a niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiaaioeee ii io?aia i?aa ia eioaeeaeooaeueioth
nianoaaiiinoue, e eioi?ie iaoa no?aia i?eniaaeeieeanue a 1989 aiaeo.

Nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea eiaeono?ee ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeythuei iai?aaeaieai a eioi?iaoecaoeee, oae eae eiaiii yoa
io?aneue, eniieuecoy nia?aiaiiua n?aaenoaa e oaoiieiaee, i?iecaiaeeo
eiia/iue i?iaeoeo – eioi?iaoeeth, iiiieiyao e iiaeaea?aeeaaao
eioi?iaoeeiiiue oiiae, iaania/eaaao aeinooi e iaio e eniieueciaaiea
ianaeaieai no?aiu. Aac ia?aaiaea i?ioeanna ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ia
i?iiuoeaiioth iniiao iaaiciiaeii aeinoe/ue eiia/iie oeaee
eioi?iaoecaoeee.

Iiaeaioiaea, aaaaeaiea e ei??aeoe?iaea i?aaiauo e oicyenoaaiiuo ii?i,
iaania/eaathueo o?aaoaiua oaiiu e iai?aaeaiey eioi?iaoecaoeee,
i?aaeoniao?eaatho nicaeaiea a ?innee iaoaiecia i?aaiaiai,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai e oicyenoaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?iaoecaoeee, aeey
/aai iaiaoiaeeiu:

?ac?aaioea e aaaaeaiea iieiaeaiey i nianoaaiiinoe a noa?a eioi?iaoeee, i
th?eaee/aneii noaoona eioi?iaoeee;

iaania/aiea io?aiu eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe;

?ac?aaioea e aaaaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ?anniao?eaathuaai
eioi?iaoeeth eae oiaa? e ?aaeaiaioe?othuaai i?aaa nianoaaiieea ia ?uiea
eioi?iaoeee;

aaaaeaiea nenoaiu oeiaine?iaaiey e oeaiiia?aciaaiey a noa?a eioi?iaoeee,
e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia eioi?iaoeeth e eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae;

aaaaeaiea th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeoe, eniieueciaaaoeo aeinooi e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio oiiaeo n oeaeueth iaianaiey oua?aa ioaeaeueiui
a?aaeaeaiai, i?aaiecaoeeyi e ainoaea?noao;

?aoaiea i?aaiauo aii?inia naycaiiuo n eiiiuethoa?iuie i?anooieaieyie;

i?iaaaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia eciaiaiea oi?aaeai/aneeo e
ae?oaeo no?oeoo? e naycaiiuo n nicaeaieai iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie e
oaoiieiae/aneie aacu eioi?iaoecaoeee, eiaeono?ee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa,
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u e eiaeono?ee ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

?ac?aaioea e aaaaeaiea iaeiaiaie iieeoeee a noa?a eioi?iaoecaoeee;

na?oeoeeaoeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Eioi?iaoeey ioiineony e oaeei iai?aaeaieyi IOI, eioi?ua ia iiaoo oniaoii
?acaeaaoueny aac oe?ieie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiia?aoeee. Ie iaeia no?aia a
ie?a ia a ninoiyiee naiinoiyoaeueii yooaeoeaii ?acaeaaoue ana
iai?aaeaiey eioi?iaoecaoeee. Oieueei aeoeaiia o/anoea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
nio?oaeie/anoaa e ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea a noa?a eioi?iaoecaoeee nicaeano
aiciiaeiinoe aeey iaania/aiey o?aaoaiuo oaiiia eioi?iaoecaoeee iaoaai
iauanoaa.

Aiaeec oiaea ie?iaiai i?ioeanna eioi?iaoecaoeee iicaieyao ii noaiaie
aeinoeaeaiey eiia/iuo e i?iiaaeooi/iuo oeaeae auaeaeeoue a ?acaeoee
eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa o?e yoaia:

Nicaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo e oaoie/aneeo oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey
e ia/aeueiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey.

?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u e iaania/aiea oneiaee aeey aa
aeeth/aiey a ie?iaoth.

?acaeoea e oaeiaeaoai?aiea iniiaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae
ianaeaiey no?aiu.

E iniiaiui noa?ai eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa ioiinyony: nioeeaeueiay
noa?a, iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai e oi?aaeaiea.

Nioeeaeueiay noa?a – yoi aeaaiue iauaeo eioi?iaoecaoeee. Eioi?iaoecaoeey
yoie noa?u iai?aaeaiia ia oi?ie?iaaiea e oaeiaeaoai?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey, eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeannia, oeo/oaiea auoa anao /eaiia iauanoaa e iiauoaiea ea/anoaa
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa, a a oeaeii – ia ei?aiiia oeo/oaiea iauanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e aeecie /aeiaaea.

Iniiaiie oeaeueth eioi?iaoecaoeee noa?u iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
yaeyaony eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey
io?aneae iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iooai aiaae?aiey yooaeoeaiuo
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa o?oaea, eiiieaeniie aaoiiaoecaoeee ia eo
aaca oaoiieiae/aneeo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, nicaeaiey aeaeeo
ia?ano?aeaaaiuo iiaeoeae, o/anoeia e i?iecaiaenoa. Eioi?iaoecaoeey
aeieaeia ioaaouaaoue ana noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea nicaeaaaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee: enneaaeiaaiea – i?iaeoe?iaaiea – i?iecaiaenoai – nauo e
yenieoaoaoeey.

Eioi?iaoecaoeey noa?u oi?aaeaiey ea?aao iniaoth ?ieue, oae eae iia ia
oieueei iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeaiey ia anao o?iaiyo, ii e
iicaieyao oaaee/eoue yooaeoeaiinoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea a ae?oaeo noa?ao, a oii /enea a oaeie, eae eioi?iaoecaoeey
iauanoaa.

I?e oeiaine?iaaiee i?ioeanna eioi?iaoecaoeee aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny
i?ei?eoaou e i?eieiaoueny ia?u, ia aeiioneathuea iiiiiieecia ioaeaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeee a yoie iaeanoe.

Ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nia?aiaiiiai oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ?uiea, aeey
eioi?iai oa?aeoa?ii i?aauoaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii (a oieueei
oaeie ?uiie i?enou nioeeaeueiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, a eioi?ie eioa?anu
i?iecaiaeeoaey iiae/eiaiu eioa?anai iio?aaeoaey), ia iiaeao auoue
iaania/aii aac auiieiaiey aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaycaoaeueiuo oneiaee.
Iaeiei ec oaeeo oneiaee yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey noauaeoaie
?uiea iieiie, aeinoiaa?iie e naiaa?aiaiiie aeaeiaie eioi?iaoeee.

Iaeiaei, nouanoaothuay a ?innee eioi?iaoeeiiiay eio?ano?oeoo?a ia
oieueei ia iaania/eo noauaeoai ?uiea oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue, ii e ia
niiniaia ieacaoue iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeiiioth iiaeaea?aeeo i?ioeannai
ia?aoiaea yeiiiieee ia ?uii/iua ioiioaiey. Iiyoiio aac eioi?iaoecaoeee
no?aiu ia?aoiae e iiaeeeiiui ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi, niinianoaothuei
aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, i?aeoe/anee
aoaeao ia inouanoaei.

Eioi?iaoecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiue iiiaianiaeoiue i?ioeann,
cao?aaeaathuee eioa?anu ianaeaiey eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii, oae e /a?ac
eioa?anu i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaei?eyoey, a aeayoaeueiinoe
eioi?uo o/anoaotho aeeoaee no?aiu. Eioi?iaoecaoeey, a caaeneiinoe io
naiaai oiaea e ?acoeueoaoia, iiaeao eiaoue ?acee/iua iineaaenoaey, a oii
/enea e iaaaoeaiua. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeei eiio?ieue ninoiyiey e oiaea yoiai
i?ioeanna e i?eiyoey ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia eiio?iey ia?,
iaania/eaathueo aiciiaeii aieueoee iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo e ineaaeaiea,
a ii aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeioa?auaiea, iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee
eioi?iaoecaoeee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi, ai-ia?auo, a oiaea eioi?iaoecaoeee
iaiaoiaeeii naiaa?aiaiii iieo/aoue aeinoiaa?iua e iieiua ioeaiee
ea/anoaa ?acoeueoaoia e yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeanna eioi?iaoecaoeee, a
ai-aoi?uo, eiaoue iaoaieciu oi?aaeaiey, au?aaaouaathuea ia iniiaa yoeo
ioeaiie e ?aaeecothuea nenoaio ia?, iaania/eaathueo ei??aeoe?iaeo oiaea
eioi?iaoecaoeee a o?aaoaiii iai?aaeaiee.

Iiae oi?aaeaieai i?ioeannii eioi?iaoecaoeee neaaeoao iiieiaoue
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia yoio i?ioeann iooai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
oeiainiauo n?aaenoa e iaee/iuo ?ano?nia iaaeaeo iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu, a oaeaea iai?aaeaieyie e noa?aie
eioi?iaoecaoeee.

Enoiaey ec oeaeae eioi?iaoecaoeee, oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii eioi?iaoecaoeee
aeieaeii auoue i?eaioe?iaaii ia aa eiia/iua oeaee – nicaeaiea nenoaiu
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey e eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeee caaea/
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, a oii /enea iiauoaiea
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Neiaeiinoue e acaeiicaaeneiinoue i?ioeannia eioi?iaoecaoeee o?aaotho
i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey eioi?iaoecaoeeae ia anao o?iaiyo.

Oaeei ia?acii, eioi?iaoecaoeey aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaiia ia iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iioaioeeaea no?aiu, ia ?aaeecaoeeth
iaoaieciia ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee a oeaeii, e auoue i?eaioe?iaaia ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae anao /eaiia iauanoaa. ss
n/eoath, /oi iaoa caaea/a, eae aoaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe
yeiiiieee e oi?aaeaiey, i?iaanoe aa a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee e aeinoe/ue
iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia a i?ioeanna eioi?iaoecaoeee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Eioi?iaoeea a aeecie NOA. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia aaaionoai NOA, 1988 a.

Eiiiuethoa?iue aae: 20 eao ?acaeoey. Aaoeiaoii 1981 a.*

?uii/iay yeiiiieea. Iineaa 1992 a.

Niaaoneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. Iineaa 1985 a.

Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Ni/eiaiey o. 26 /. 3.

Ianoaea ?. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai. Aaoeiaoii 1981 a.*

Iiiiaeue A., Aieaenoaei A. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey –ieeeeiiiua
i?eauee. Iineaa 1990 a.

Aeaenaiae?ia A., Iiciee A. ?ao?iniaeoeaiue aiaeec e oaiaeaioeee
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oeiainia e oi?aiaee \\ I?iaeaiu
eioi?iaoecaoeee, 1993 a., ?3-4

A?oaiiiia A. I?iaeaiu oai?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee \\ IOE. Na?. 1, 1993 a.,
?6.

A?oaiiiia A. Oaiiiai eioi?iaoeee a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee \\ IOE. Na?. 1,
1989 a., ?4.

A?oothiia I. Io eiaeono?ee aauae e eiaeono?ee ciaiee. \\ Aeaeiaie ie?,
1994 a., 5 ai?aey.

Aieneoineee A., Eociaoeiaa A., Iaeiai I. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai:
ioiioaiea ianaeaiey \\ I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee, 1993 a., ?3-4.

A?oia A. Eioi?iaoeey: io eiiiuethoa?iie a?aiioiinoe e eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?a iauanoaa \\ Eiiioieno, 1988 a., ?10.

Caaieioneee A., THnoiia ?. I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa \\ I?iaeaiu
eioi?iaoecaoeee, 1994 a., ?1-2.

Co?eianee I. Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aecian: acaeyae ecioo?e \\ Ie?iaay
yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, 1990 a., ?8.

Eeaoeoe A. Ia iooe e eioi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieea: ianeieueei iieacai iiuo
eaieoaeecia \\ Yeiiiie/aneea iaoee, 1990 a., ?9.

Ieeea? N. Annioeeaoeey ?acaeoey ?uiea Aaieioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e
oneoa. ?iaeaeaiea. Ia?aua ?acoeueoaou. Ia?niaeoeau. **

I?aoianeee I. Ei?ii?aoeaiua ea?u e eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee. **

O?noe A. Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa e ia?aoiae e onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth
oeeaeeecaoeee \\ Aanoiee ?IEeAO, 1993 a., ?1-2

Caeao iieeoyeiiiiee eiaeono?eaeecia \\ ?inney XXI aae, 1994 a., ?8.

Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa e ia?aoiae e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao \\
Aanoiee ?IEeAO, 1994 a., ?1-2.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue ?ano?n e iaoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia aac aeaiiuo e aac ciaiee
aunoae oeieu ?innee \\ I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee, 1993 a., ?3-4.

Ioaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee, au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e aaoiiaoecaoeee
?inneeneie aeaaeaiee iaoe \\ I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee, 1994 a., ?1-2.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee, 1994 a., ?4.

Yenia?o, 1995 a., ?5.

A eeoa?aoo?a eniieuecotho e ae?oaea iacaaiey aeaiiiai iauanoaa,
iai?eia?, iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai, iauanoai “yeiiiieee o?aoueae
aieiu”, iauanoai “yeiiiieee ciaiee” e ae?.

Iiae eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaeae iau/ii iiieiaaony eniieueciaaiea
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e nenoai nayce aeey nicaeaiey, nai?a, ia?aaea/e,
o?aiaiey, ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee aeey anao noa? iauanoaaiiie aeecie, a
oii /enea e ?acaea/aiee.

ssiiiey i?eiyea a eiioea 80-o aiaeia ?aoaiea a oa/aiee 25 eao
auaeaeeoue 250 ie?ae. aeiee. ia ?acaeoea oniaa?oainoaiaaiiie, nei?inoiie
naoe yeaeo?iiiie nayce. A NOA aua i?e Aeae. Aooa aue i?eiyo caeiiii?iaeo
i auaeaeaiee 1 ie?ae. aeiee. ia nicaeaiea a oa/aiee 5 eao i?ia?aiiu ii
eco/aieth e ?ac?aaioea yeaeo?iiiuo naoae, iineaaeothuay ?aaeecaoeey
eioi?ie ii cia/eiinoe n?aaieaaaony n yooaeoii, iieo/aiiui Aia?eeie io
i?ieeaaeee oeueo?ania?aiaiiuo oinnaeiuo iaaeno?aeae. (Ni. I?aoianeee I.
“Ei?ii?aoeaiua ea?u e eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee”, Iaieine 1995 a.,
aeieeaae ia eiioa?aioeee IAEN – 95).

Iai?eia?, ii ioeaieai caiaaeiuo yenia?oia, aieaa 50% ?aaeueiie
noieiinoe oaeeo eiiiaiee, eae “COMPAQ”, “KODAK”, “HITACHI”, “SIEMENS”
neeaaeuaaaony ec aeaaeaiey eioi?iaoeeae, aaieaie aeaiiuo, iaoaioaie e o.
ae. Iaeiaei yoio eaieoae ia iaoa?eaeai, oioy e neacuaaaony eae ia ?inoa
eo?niaie noieiinoe aeoeee, oae e ia iauaia auioneaaiie yoeie eiiiaieyie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Ni. REF _Ref355779130 \* MERGEFORMAT Iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eiiiaoaioiinoe , no?. PAGEREF _Ref355779164 20 .

Ni. ?. Ianoaea. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai. Aaoeiaoii, 1981, ia?., no?.
59.

Ni. I?iaeaiu oai?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee. \\ IOE. Na?. 1, 1993 a., ? 6.

Ni. Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa e ia?aoiae e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao.
\\“Aanoiee ?IEeAO”, 1994 a., ? 1-2, no?. 9.

Ni. “Eiiiuethoa?iue aae: 20 eao ?acaeoey”. Aaoeiaoii, 1981 a., ia?.,
no?. 185.

Ni. E. Ia?en e O. Yiaaeuen. Ni/., o.26, /. III, no?. 306.

A 50-o aiaeao a Aia?eea aaeaaiaeii iiyaeyeinue 93000 iiauo
i?aaei?eyoee, e ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia – aieaa 600 000, i?e/ai iiiaea ec ieo
a oaeeo i?ioeaaoathueo iaeanoyo, eae eioi?iaoeea e eiiioieeaoeee.
*anoioa aaie?ionoa iiauo i?aaei?eyoee anaaaea auniea, ii eo iniiaaoaee,
oai ia iaiaa, i?eiineee a ie? aeciana naaaeea neeu, aeoo eiieo?aioeee,
iiaua eaeae, i?iecaiaeeee iiaua oiaa?u e i?aaeeaaaee iiaua oneoae – io
eiiiuethoa?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey aei oaeaaeceiiiuo ?acaeaeaoaeueiuo
i?ia?aii. (Ni. Ni. Eioi?iaoeea a aeecie NOA, Eioi?iaoeeiiiia aaaionoai
NOA, 1988 a., no?. 4.).

Ni. “Eiiiuethoa?iue aae: 20 eao ?acaeoey”, no?. 185.

Ni. Caeao iieeoyeiiiiee eiaeono?eaeecia. \\ ?inney XXI, 1994 a., ? 8.

Ni. “Eiiiuethoa?iue aae: 20 eao ?acaeoey”, no?. 168.

Ni. ?. Ianoaea. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai, no?. 63.

Ni. Eioi?iaoeea a aeecie NOA, no?. 5.

Aia?eeaineay eiiiaiey “Micronet” nicaeaea a Aaoeiaoiia iiaeiaiue ioen,
a eioi?ii iieiinoueth eneeth/aaony eniieueciaaiea aoiaae a
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

“IY e II”, 1990 a., ?8, no?. 99.

?uii/iay yeiiiieea, Iineaa 1992 a., no?. 120.

Ni. Eioi?iaoeea a aeecie NOA, no?. 15.

?uii/iay yeiiiieea, Iineaa 1992 a., no?. 128.

Ioaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee, au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e aaoiiaoecaoeee
?inneeneie aeaaeaiee iaoe. \\ I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee, 1993 a., ? 3-4,
no?. 9.

I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa. \\ I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee, 1994
a., ? 1-2, no?. 29.

Oe?ia “Bell Holding Company”, ioaeaeaiiie io “AT&T” noaeii ia
iniiaaiee aioeo?anoianeiai caeiia, auei cai?auaii aeaaeaoue
eioi?iaoeeae, eioi?ay ia?aaeaaony ii i?eiaaeeaaeauei ae eaiaeai nayce.
Noae enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi niaaeeiaiea iiiiiieee ia ianoioth oaeaoiiioth
naoue ni noa?ie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aeciana, ii?iaeeei au iiiai eneia e a
eiia/iii n/aoa aucaaei au cao?oaeiaiey a inouanoaeaiee oneoa. (Ni. “IY e
II”, 1990 a., ?8, no?. 100).

PAGE

PAGE 1

PAGE \# “‘No?: ‘#’

* Ia?aaiae n aiaeeeneiai.

** Aeieeaae ia eiioa?aioeee IAEN – 95, a. Iaieine 1995 a.

I?iaiic ?inoa /enea iieueciaaoaeae nioiauo oaeaoiiia a ?acaeouo no?aiao.

4 naioya?y 1995 aiaea enneaaeiaaoaeueneay a?oiia MarketLine
International iioaeeeiaaea aeieeaae i ia?niaeoeaao ?acaeoey ?uiea
?aaeeioaeaoiiia. Ii ioeaieai eiiiaiee, e 2000 aiaeo /enei iieueciaaoaeae
nioiauo oaeaoiiia a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?aiao au?anoao a aeaa ?aca e
i?aauneo 100 iei. Noieue ao?iue ?ino naycai n ?acaeoeai iiaeeueiuo
n?aaenoa nayce, eioi?iio niaeaenoaotho nieaeaiea oeai ia
niioaaonoaothuea oneoae e ?acaeoea nioiauo naoae.

Anaai a ie?a.

100

80

60

40

20

0

Ia a?aoeea aeaeia iaiaeii?iaeiinoue ?acaeoey e?oiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
?uieia nioiauo oaeaoiiia.

O?aioeey

Aaeeeia?eoaiey

ssiiiey

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