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Инфляция как социально-экономическое явление и методы ее регулирования

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Aaaaeaiea

Oa?iei ”eioeyoeey ” i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai neiaa ”inflatio”-
acaeooea . Aia?aua yoio oa?iei noae eniieueciaaoueny a Naaa?iie Aia?eea
a ia?eiae A?aaeaeaineie aieiu 1861-1865 aa., eiaaea i?ienoiaeeee
ia?anoaiea iaanoeaiaiea aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi neiai –
iaeii ec iaeaieaa oiio?aaeyaiuo. Eioeyoeey noaea aaaenoaeai aieueoeinoaa
no?ai ie?a. Iaeiaei ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth eioeyoeey
oaeiai aea ae?aaiaai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eae e iiieiaeueiua aeaiaaeiua
ciaee, n eioi?uie eioeyoeey naycaia. A /anoiinoe caaeieai aei iiyaeaiey
aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa i?iaiaeeeenue ia?ii?eyoey ii oiaiueoaieth aana e
oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa iiiao (ii?/a iiiao). Oae, eiia?aoi? Naioaiee Naaa?
oaaee/ee i?eienue iaaee a na?aa?yiuo iiiaoao aei 50-60% eo aana, a aai
i?eaiieee aua aieueoa oaaee/eee aeieth iaaee a iiiaoao. *oi eanaaony
iaoaai a?aiaie, oi iaeaieaa aia/aoeythuei niauoeyi a aeaiiie iaeanoe aue
ciaiaieoue “iaaeiue aoio ” a ?innee (25 ethey 1662 aiaea ). Yoi niauoea
auei naycaii n oai, /oi eo iaeiiai ooioa iaaee, ?uii/iay oeaia eioi?iai
ninoaaeyea 12 eiiaae, /aeaieeinue iiiao ia 10 ?oaeae, ii eo eo?n oiae
aei noieiinoe, niaea?aeauaainy a ieo iaoaeea. AEanoiei iiaeaaea aoio,
oea?ue Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/ ana aea aue auioaeaeai n?i/iua ia?u ii
?aaoee?iaaieth aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

A ia?aie iieiaeia 90-o aiaeia, iniaaiii a 1992, 1993 aiaeao, Oe?aeia ,
iaiaeiie?aoii eniuouaaea eioeyoeeiiiua oiee – ?aceea iiauoaiey iauaai
o?iaiy oeai. Yoi aue /?acau/aeii oyaeaeue ia?eiae aeey naiae,
i?aaei?eyoee, yeiiiieee, e iauanoaa a oeaeii. Iineaaeiaa ?aceia
iiauoaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai ia Oe?aeia i?iecioei a 1998 aiaeo, a nayce
n ?inoii eo?na aeiea?a NOA. Oeaiiaay ianoaaeeueiinoue yeiiiieee
aoeaaeueii eciaouaaei aieueoeinoai ethaeae, oie/oiaeaea naa?aaeaiea e
?ac?ooaei eo iaaeaaeaeu, ia?aeeciaaei aeayoaeueiinoue iiiaeo
i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaaaei ia?iiioth iai?yaeaiiinoue a iauanoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii ianoaaeeueiinoue iauaai o?iaiy oeai a yeiiiieea
ninoaaeyao aua iaeio aauiaeooth i?iaeaio a iae?iyeiiiieea. Iiiaea
aeaaea neeiiiu n/eoaoue, /oi ec anao iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iao?yaeeoe
eioeyoeey i?eiineo iaeaieueoee a?aae. E?iia oiai, ai?ueaa n iae anaaaea
o?oaeia e aieaciaiia.

N ?acaeoeai iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, ?acaeoeai ?uiea, eo iinoiyiiui
oneiaeiaieai eciaiyeanue e eioeyoeey, i?eieiay iiaua oi?iu ia ?aciuo
enoi?e/aneeo yoaiao yeiiiieee . I?iaeaiaoeea eioeyoeee iaiau/aeii oe?iea
e i?ioeai?a/eaa. I?e oaeoaeaiee a yoio oaiiiai an? aieaa auyniyaony aai
iiiaia?aiiinoue e iaiaeiicia/iinoue. N eioeyoeeae naycuaatho aeanoieea
nioeeaeueiua iio?ynaiey, naiua aeoaieea yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu iaoaai e
i?ioaaeoeo aaeia, a oi aea a?aiy eiio?iee?oaiay iieco/ay eioeyoeey
yaeyaony yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii noeioee?iaaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe. *oi
oaeia eioeyoeey? A? iiaaaeaiea a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo? Nioeeaeueiay ?ieue
eioeyoeee? – Ioaaoai ia yoe aii?inu iinayuaia aeaiiay eo?niaay ?aaioa.

Aeaaa 1 Iiiyoea eioeyoeee , aa nouiinoue e i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey.

1.1Iiiyoea eioeyoeee, aa nouiinoue.

Ca aieueoeinoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua iu i?eia?aoaai, iai i?eoiaeeony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ieaoeoue. Aeaiaaeiay oi?ia iaiaia i?aaeiieaaaao
ia?aaea/o iaeioi?iai eiee/anoaa aeaiaa ca eaeia-oi eiee/anoai
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Iao?oaeii iaia?oaeeoue, /oi oeaiu ia oiaa?u e
oneoae ia yaeythony iaeciaiiuie. Iie a ?aciua ia?eiaeu iiaoo eae
iiauoaoueny, oae e iiieaeaoueny. A yeiiiieea iaiaieaaaony ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia, a cia/eo, nouanoaoao e oaeia aea
eiee/anoai oeai. Ioneaaeeaaoue e io?aaeaoue eciaiaiey aoeaaeueii anao
oeai ia oiaa?u e oneoae a iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieea, aeey oiai , /oiau
iieo/eoue iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth ea?oeio, iaaiciiaeii. Iae?iyeiiiieea
auaiaeeo a ea/anoaa iaoayeiiiie/aneiai iieacaoaey -n?aaeiee o?iaaiue
oeai e oeene?oao aai eciaiaiey eee eieaaaiey. Eiaiii ni n?aaeiei o?iaiai
oeai naycaii iiiyoea eioeyoeee.

Eioeyoeey- yoi i?ioeann iaanoeaiaiey aeaiaa a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aiieiaiey
eaiaeia oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu. Iia i?iyaeyaony a
iiauoaiee iauaai o?iaiy oeai a no?aia.

Eiia/ii, eioeyoeey ia icia/aao iiaei?iaeaiea iaeiia?aiaiii anao
aac eneeth/aiey oiaa?ia, iaeioi?ua eo ieo iiaoo iiaeaoaaaoue, e ana aea
a ia?eiae eioeyoeee iinoiyiii iiauoaoueny iauee o?iaaiue oeai. Yoi
aucuaaao nie?auaiea ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia e ?inoa noiiu aeaiaa, eioi?oth
ioaeii caieaoeoue ca aeaaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea.
Aeey eioeyoeee oa?aeoa?ii ?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea, iaeiaei ia ethaia
ia?ooaiea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia eioeyoeee, eioi?ay iaoiaeeo naia
i?iyaeaiea a ?inoa oeai. Aeaei a oii, /oi ?ino oeai iiaeao auoue
?acoeueoaoii oeaeiai ?yaea oaeoi?ia – ?inoa ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?auaiey, iiauoaiea oaoie/aneeo e oeo/oaiey ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iiauoaiea oeai iiae aeeyieai yoeo oaeoi?ia ia
eiatho eioeyoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a, eai iii nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?inoii
noieiinoe e oeaiiinoe, iinooiathuae ia ?uiie iannu oiaa?ia e oneoa.
Iiaenoaaeaaoue ?ino oeai iiaoo e eiie?aoiua yeiiiie/aneea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa. Iai?eia? yia?aaoe/aneee e?ecen 70-o aa. iiaeeye ia
iauaa iiauoaiea oeai: iauee o?iaaiue oeai iiaeiyeny a 1973 aiaeo ia 7%,a
a 1979 aiaeo- ia 9%.

Iacaaeneii io ninoiyiey aeaiaaeiie noa?u, oeaiu ia oiaa?u e
oneoae iiaoo eciaiyoueny aneaaenoaea ?acee/iuo i?e/ei , oaeeo eae
naciiiua eieaaaiey ?uiea, eciaiaiey eiiuthieoo?u, iiiiiieecaoeeae ?uiea,
?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey,
aaaaeaiea iiauo noaaie iaeiaia, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea aicaeaenoaey,
noeoeeiua aaaenoaey e o.ae.

Oae, ?ino oeai naycaiiue n naciiiuie eieaaaieyie eiiuthieoo?u
?uiea iaeuecy n/eoaoue eioeyoeeiiiuie. Iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo aeieaeii aanoe e iiauoaieth oeai.
Ae?oaia aeaei – anee iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a ?yaea
io?aneae nii?iaiaeaeaaony iia?aaeathuei yoi iiauoaiea ?inoii ca?aaioiie
ieaou. Oaeia yaeaiea iacuaaaiia eioeyoeeae ecaea?aeae, aeaenoaeoaeueii
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iauei iiauoaieai o?iaiy oeai.

Noeoeeiua aaaenoaey ia iiaoo n/eoaoueny i?e/eiie eioeyoeeiiiiai ?inoa
oeai. Oae anee a ?acoeueoaoa caieao?ynaiey ?ac?ooaiu aeiia, oi,
i/aaeaeii, iiaeieioony oeaiu ia no?ieiaoa?eaeu, /oi aoaeao
noeioee?iaaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae no?ieiaoa?eaeia ?anoe?youe i?aaeeiaeaiea
naiae i?iaeoeoeee e ii ia?a ianuuaiey ?uiea oeaiu noaioo iiieaeaoueny.

I?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey eioeyoeee

Iauyniaiey i?e/ei aeenaaeaina ?acee/iu. Iaeie yeiiiienou (Aeae. I.
Eaein e aai iineaaeiaaoaee) iauyniyee aai /?acia?iui ni?inii i?e iieiie
caiyoinoe, o. a. ni noi?iiu ni?ina. Ae?oaea – iaieeanneee – eneaee
i?e/eio a ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia eee ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa, o. a. ni noi?iiu i?aaeeiaeaiey. Aeoiaaony, /oi aeaiiua
ioeaiee iaeiinoi?iiie e enoeio neaaeoao eneaoue a neioaca aeaoo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, o. a. iauyniyoue eioeyoeeth, eae ni noi?iiu ni?ina,
oae e ni noi?iiu i?aaeeiaeaiey. Aeeni?iii?oeee iaaeaeo ni?inii e
i?aaeeiaeaieai, i?aauoaiea aeioiaeia iaae iio?aaeoaeueneeie ?anoiaeaie
iiaoo ii?iaeaeaoueny aeaoeoeeoii ainathaeaeaoa (?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaa
i?aauoatho aeioiaeu); /?acia?iui eiaanoe?iaaieai (iauai eiaanoeoeee
i?aauoaao aiciiaeiinoe yeiiiieee); iia?aaeathuei ?inoii ca?aaioiie ieaou
ii n?aaiaieth n ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea; i?iecaieueiui onoaiiaeaieai ainoeai, aucuaathuei ia?aeinu a
aaee/eia e no?oeoo?a ni?ina; ae?oaeie oaeoi?aie.

?aceia iaino?aiea aeaoeoeeoa ainathaeaeaoa a iaoae no?aia i?iecioei ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 80-o aa. N 1985 a. ii 1989 a. ?ac?ua iaaeaeo aeioiaeiie
e ?anoiaeiie /anoyie ainathaeaeaoa au?in n 18 aei 120 ie?ae. ?oa., eee n
3,5 aei 19% e iaoeeiiaeueiiio aeioiaeo no?aiu. Aic?inoee aeaoeoeeo iaaan
ia?iiiue a?aae aeaiaaeiiio ia?auaieth, iiaenoaaioe eioeyoeeth.

Nouanoaoao e ianeieueei eiie acaeyae ia i?e?iaeo eioeyoeee, /oi aiieia
anoanoaaiii, eai eioeyoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /?acau/aeii neiaeiue,
i?ioeai?a/eaue, iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aiiue i?ioeann. Eae n/eoatho iaeioi?ua
yeiiiienou, iiae eioeyoeeae neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiauoaiea iauaai o?iaiy
oeai a yeiiiieea. Iieaiece?oy n yoie oi/eie c?aiey, I. Oaeia ienae, /oi
ia neaaeoao caauaaoue: eciaiythony oeaiu ia oieueei oiaa?ia, ii e
ecia?eoaeae eo oeaiiinoe, o.a. aeaiaa. Eioeyoeey – yoi ia oaaee/aiea
?acia?a i?aaeiaoia, a oiaiueoaiea aeeeiu eeiaeee, eioi?ie iu
iieuecoainy. Ii ia?auaao aieiaiea ia oi, /oi a oneiaeyo iaoo?aeueiiai
iaiaia (i?e ionoonoaee aeaiaa) iu ieeiei ia?acii ia noieeioeenue au n
eioeyoeeae, iaeiia?aiaiiia iiauoaiea anao oeai auei au eiae/anee
iaaiciiaeii.

ni. OaeiaI. Yeiiiie/aneee ia?ac iuoeaiey. I., 1991. N. 484.

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