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Инфляция и кризис в России

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“EIOEssOeEss E E?ECEN ?INNEE”.

Niaea?aeaiea .

Aaaaeaiea

I. Ii?aaeaeaiea eioeyoeee

1.1 *oi oaeia eioeyoeey

1.2 I?e/eiu eioeyoeee

1.3 Oeiu eioeyoeee

1.3.1 Eioeyoeey ni?ina

1.3.2 Eioeyoeey i?aaeeiaeaiey

1.4 Iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee

1.5 Aeaeu eioeyoeee

1.6 Aeia?eioeyoeey

1.7 Niioiioaiea ?inoa oeai ii ?acee/iui oiaa?iui a?oiiai

2 . E?ecenu aeieaieoaeenoe/aneie yiioe

3 . Iniaaiiinoe e?ecena a ?innee

4 . Eioeyoeey – ooaeoee ec iaeiaia

5. Aeia?eioeyoeey a ?innee

6. Iaoiaeu ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae

6.1 einaaiiua iaoiaeu

6.2 I?yiua iaoiaeu

7. Ia?aii/a?aaeiua aioeeioeyoeeiiiua iaoiaeu

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea .

Ia?aoiae iaoae yeiiiieee ia ?uii/iua ioiioaiey ?acei iiaunee cia/aiea
aeaiaa . I?iaeaiu aeaiaaeiiai oicyenoaa noaiiayony iniiaiuie e a
i?aeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoeyo ii ?aeiino?oeoeee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, e a
oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo. Iiyoiio, ianiio?y ia iaeeaeaiiia
ianoaeaeaiea oeacaiiuo aii?inia ia no?aieoeao yeiiiie/aneie i?annu,
aeooaeueiinoue eo ia oiaiueoaaony. Aunieay noieiinoue aiaeeca
eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, aieueoia /enei aeaenoaothueo oaeoi?ia
cao?oaeiytho au?aaioeo i?aaeeueiie aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee .

Eae iieacuaaao iiuo iaoae, a oaeaea ae?oaeo no?ai, ia?aoiae ia ?uii/iua
ioiioaiey nii?iaiaeaeaaony auno?ui ?inoii oeai, oneeaieai aeaenoaey
eioeyoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia. I/aiue aaaeii i?aaeeueii ioeaieoue, yaeyaony ee
nai ia?aoiae ia ?uii/iua ioiioaiey i?e/eiie oaeoaeaiey eioeyoeee eee i?e
yoeo ioiioaieyo iaeiieaiiue ?aiaa eioeyoeeiiiue iioaioeeae iieo/aao naia
?aaeueiia au?aaeaiea .

I/aaeaeii, /oi a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee aiciiaeiinoe
eneonnoaaiiiai naea?aeeaaiey eioeyoeee ?acei nie?auathony. Aianoa n oai
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee ii ia?aoiaeo e ?uieo,
iai?iaeoiaiiinoue iaeioi?uo oaaia onoaoaeytho eiathueany o?oaeiinoe,
oneeeaatho eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu.

Iiuo iiiaeo no?ai iieacae, /oi aeeeoaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey, eae i?aaeei, i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo iioieia .

1.Ii?aaeaeaiea eioeyoeee.

1.1 *oi oaeia eioeyoeey .

I?aauoaiea ia?u a auioneao aoiaaeiie iiiaou ii no?iaie
i?aaaea ia iiaeao auoue eia/a i?aaenoaaeyaii, eae a aeaea
iai?eiaoiiai iioeuaiey /anoe ec eiouanoaa eaaeaeiai.

(I. Ii?iaeiia, yeiiiieno, oeeinio e ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue ?innee eiioea XVIII a.)

Io /aai aea caaeneo eiee/anoai aeaiaa, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey iaania/aiey
oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey? I?aaeaea anaai io noiiu oeai oiaa?ia, eioi?ua
iiaeeaaeao ?aaeecaoeee a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea, neaaeai aiaea.
*ai aieueoa oiaa?ia, oai aieueoa o?aaoaony aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe aeey eo
?aaeecaoeee.

Eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee caaeneo aeaeaa io nei?inoe iai?ioa
eaaeaeie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iaeia e oa aea
noiia aeaiaa iiaeao ianeoaeeoue aieueoaa eee iaiueoaa /enei aeoia eoiee
– i?iaeaaee.

I?aauoaiea eiee/anoaa aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe, iaoiaeyueony a ia?auaiee,
iaae noiiie oiaa?iuo oeai e iiyaeaiea a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai aeaiaa, ia
iaania/aiiuo oiaa?aie, icia/aao eioeyoeeth. Iia i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo oeai
ia oiaa?u (yaiiio eee ne?uoiio). Iiyoiio eiaeaen oeai – iaeei ec aeaaiuo
e iaeaieaa iaaeyaeiuo iieacaoaeae iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey eioeyoeee, aa
aeoaeiu. Eioeyoeey iiaeao aucuaaoueny ?aciuie oaeoi?aie. Yoi e auione
eceeoiaai eiee/anoaa aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe, e ionoaaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
oiaa?ia io ?inoa ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, e iinooieaiea ia ?uiie
oiaa?ia, ia iieuecothueony ni?inii.

Eioeyoeey – yoi ia?aiieiaiea oeiainiauo eaiaeia aoiaaeiuie aeaiueaaie,
/oi i?eaiaeeo e eo iaanoeaieaaieth.

Eioeyoeey – yoi aeaiaaeiia yaeaiea, ii iia ia ia?aie/eaaaony
iaanoeaieaaieai aeaiaa. Iia i?iieeaao ai ana noa?u yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
e ia/eiaao ?ac?ooaoue yoe noa?u. Io iaa no?aaeaao ainoaea?noai,
i?iecaiaenoai, oeiainiaue ?uiie, ii aieueoa anao no?aaeatho ethaee. Ai
a?aiy eioeyoeee i?ienoiaeeo:

1. Iaanoeaieaaiea aeaiaa ii ioiioaieth e cieioo;

2. Iaanoeaieaaiea aeaiaa ii ioiioaieth e oiaa?o;

3. Iaanoeaieaaiea aeaiaa ii ioiioaieth e eiino?aiiie aaethoa .

Aua iaeii ii?aaeaeaiea eioeyoeee iu iiaeai i?i/eoaoue a nia?aiaiiuo
aia?eeaineeo o/aaieeao.

Eioeyoeey – yoi iiauoaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai. Yoi eiia/ii ia icia/aao,
/oi iiauoathony iaycaoaeueii ana oeaiu, aeaaea a ia?eiaeu aeiaieueii
auno?iai ?inoa eioeyoeee iaeioi?ua oeaiu iiaoo inoaaaoueny ioiineoaeueii
noaaeeueiuie, a ae?oaea iaaeaoue. Iaeii ec aeaaiuo aieueiuo iano – yoi
oi, /oi oeaiu eiatho oaiaeaioeeth iiaeieiaoueny i/aiue ia?aaiiia?ii.
Iaeie iiaeneaeeaatho, ae?oaea iiaeieiathony aieaa oia?aiiuie oaiiaie, a
o?aouee aiana ia iiaeieiathony.

Eioeyoeey ecia?yaony n iiiiuueth eiaeaena oeai. Aniiiiei, /oi eiaeaen
oeai ii?aaeaeyao eo iauee o?iaaiue ii ioiioaieth e aaciaiio ia?eiaeo.

Oaii eioeyoeee aeey aeaiiiai aiaea iiaeii au/eneeoue neaaeothuei
ia?acii: au/anoue eiaeaen oeai i?ioaaeoaai aiaea ec eiaeaena oeai yoiai
aiaea, ?acaeaeeoue yoo ?acieoeo ia eiaeaen i?ioaaeoaai aiaea, a caoai
oiiiaeeoue ia 100%.

eiaeaen oeai eiaeaen oeai

yoiai aiaea – i?ioaaeoaai aiaea

Oaii eioeyoeee =
————————————————————————
—— X 100%

eiaeaen oeai

i?ioaaeoaai aiaea

Aeey oiai, /oiau yeiiiieea ia ia?aaeeaaea eioeyoeeiiiuo e?ecenia:

1. Aeieaeii auoue iinoiyiiia ?aaiiaanea ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa;

2. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie aeieaeai aanoe eaeaaeueioth iieeoeeo;

3. Ainoaea?noai ia aeieaeii aiaoeaaoueny a ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia;

4. No?aio aeieaeiu ianaeyoue a?aaeaeaia ni caei?iaie ?uii/iie
ineoieiaeae, ethaee, eeoaiiua eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee.

1.2 I?e/eiu eioeyoeee.

I?e/eio eioeyoeee ioaeii eneaoue a o?ao aeaeao iiiiiieee:

1. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey ia yienneth aeaiaa;

2. I?ionithciay iiiiiieey;

3. Iiiiiieey e?oiiuo oe?i ia ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu e nianoaaiiuo
ecaea?aeae.

Yoe o?e aeaea iiiiiieee naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie e eaaeaeay ec ieo iiaeao
ia?ooaoue aaeain ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

I?e/eiu eioeyoeee iiaoo eaaeaoue e aia ainoaea?noaa, eo ioaeii eneaoue
a ie?iaie oi?aiaea oiaea .

1.3 Oeiu eioeyoeee.

Yeiiiienou ?acee/atho aeaa oeia eioeyoeee.

1.3.1 Eioeyoeey ni?ina .

O?aaeeoeeiiii eciaiaiey a o?iaia oeai iauyniythony ecauoi/iui
niaieoiiui ni?inii. Yeiiiieea iiaeao iiiuoaoueny o?aoeoue aieueoa, /ai
iia niiniaia i?iecaiaeeoue . I?iecaiaenoaaiiue naeoi? ia a ninoiyiee
ioaaoeoue ia yoio ecauoi/iue ni?in oaaee/aieai ?aaeueiiai iauaia
i?iaeoeoeee, iioiio /oi ana eiathueany ?ano?nu oaea iieiinoueth
eniieueciaaiu. Iiyoiio yoio ecauoi/iue ni?in i?eaiaeeo e caauoaiiui
oeaiai ia iinoiyiiue ?aaeueiue iauai i?iaeoeoeee e aucuaaao eioeyoeeth
ni?ina. Nooue eioeyoeee ni?ina eiiaaea iauyniytho iaeiie o?acie.
“Neeoeii iiiai aeaiaa ioioeony ca neeoeii iaeui eiee/anoaii oiaa?ia . ”

1.3.2 Eioeyoeey i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay ?inoii ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa eee oiaiueoaieai
niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eioeyoeey iiaeao eciaiaiee ecaea?aeae e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea.

Oai?ey eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae, iauyniyao ?ino oeai
oaeeie oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth ecaea?aeae ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee. Ecaea?aeee ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee – n?aaeiea
ecaea?aeee i?e aeaiiii iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeaea ecaea?aeee iiaeii
iieo/eoue, ?acaeaeea iauea cao?aou ia ?ano?nu ia eiee/anoai
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee:

iauea cao?aou

Ecaea?aeee ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee =
————————————————–

eiee/anoai aaeeieoe i?iaeoeoeee

Iiauoaiea ecaea?aeae ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee a yeiiiieea nie?auaao
i?eauee e iauai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue oe?iu aioiau i?aaeeiaeeoue i?e
nouanoaothuai o?iaia oeai, a ?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaaony i?aaeeiaeaiea
oiaa?ia e oneoa a ianooaaa anae yeiiiieee. Yoi oiaiueoaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiauoaao o?iaaiue oeai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii yoie noaia ecaea?aeee, a ia ni?in acaei/eaatho
oeaiu, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo i?e eioeyoeee ni?ina.

1.4 Iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee.

Aeaa naiuo aaaeiuo enoi/ieea eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae
– yoi oaaee/aiea iiieiaeueiie ca?ieaou e oeai ia nu?uea e yia?aeth.

Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay iiauoaieai ca?ieaou. Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay
iiauoaieai ca?ieaou, yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie
?inoii ecaea?aeae. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao enoi/ieeii
eioeyoeee iiaoo noaoue i?ionithcu. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi iie a
eaeie-oi noaiaie inouanoaeytho eiio?ieue iaae iiieiaeueiie ca?ieaoie
iin?aaenoaii eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi e?oiiua
i?ionithcu o?aaotho e aeiaeaathony aieueoiai iiauoaiey ca?ieaou, oiaaea
yoei iiauoaieai iie inoaiiayo iiaue noaiaea?o ca?ieaou ?aai/eo, eioi?ua
ia yaeythony /eaiaie i?ionithca. Anee iiauoaiea ca?ieaou a ianooaaa anae
no?aiu ia o?aaiiaaoeaaaony eaeeie-eeai i?ioeaiaeaenoaothueie oaeoi?aie,
oaeeie, eae oaaee/aiea iauaia auioneaaiie ca iaeei /an i?iaeoeoeee, oi
oaaee/aony ecaea?aeee ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee. I?iecaiaeeoaee ioaaoyo
ia yoi nie?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, aua?anuaaaiuo ia ?uiie
. I?e iaeciaiiii ni?ina yoi oiaiueoaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaaaeao e
iiauoaieth o?iaiy oeai. Yoio oei eioeyoeee iacuaaaony eioeyoeeae,
aucaaiiie iiauoaieai ca?aaioiie ieaou.

Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay ia?ooaieai iaoaiecia i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iia yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai oaaee/aiey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e
oeai, eioi?ia naycaii n aiacaiiui, iai?aaeaeaeaiiui oaaee/aieai
noieiinoe nu?uey eee cao?ao ia yia?aeth.

A ?aaeueiii ie?a neooaoeey ai?acaei neiaeiaa, /ai i?inoia ?acaeaeaiea
eioeyoeee ia aeaa oeia – eioeyoeeth, aucaaiiith oaaee/aieai ni?ina e
eioeyoeeth, iaoneiaeaiioth ?inoii ecaea?aeae. Ia i?aeoeea o?oaeii
?acee/eoue yoe aeaa oeia.

Aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia n/eoatho, /oi eioeyoeey, iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii
ecaea?aeae, e eioeyoeey ni?ina ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa aua a iaeiii
aaaeiii ioiioaiee. Eioeyoeey ni?ina i?iaeieaeaaony aei oao ii?, iiea
nouanoaotho /?acia?iua iauea ?anoiaeu. Eioeyoeey, iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii
ecaea?aeae aaoiiaoe/anee naia naay ia?aie/eaaao, oi anoue eeai
iinoaiaiii en/acaao, eeai naiiecea/eaaaony. Eioeyoeey, iaoneiaeaiiay
?inoii ecaea?aeae ii?iaeaeaao niaae, a niaae a naith i/a?aaeue
naea?aeeaaao aeiiieieoaeueiia oaaee/aiea ecaea?aeae.

Nai oaeo eioeyoeee – nieaeaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaaeiie
aaeeieoeu, oi anoue oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua
iiaeii i?eia?anoe ca yoo aeaiaaeiith aaeeieoeo, – ia iaycaoaeueii
i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth ee/iiai ?aaeueiiai aeioiaea eee o?iaiy aeecie.
Eioeyoeey nieaeaao iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu,
iaeiaei aao ?aaeueiue aeioiae eee o?iaaiue aeecie nieceony oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee iiieiaeueiue aeioiae aoaeao ionoaaaoue io eioeyoeee .

Eioeyoeey iaeacuaaao ethaeae, eioi?ua iieo/atho ioiineoaeueii
oeene?iaaiiua iiieiaeueiua aeioiaeu. Eia/a aiai?y, iia ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao
aeioiaeu, oiaiueoay eo o iieo/aoaeae oeene?iaaiiuo aeioiaeia e
oaaee/eaay eo o ae?oaeo a?oii ianaeaiey. Eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii yaeythony
iiaeeeua noi?oae, aeeaouea ia /anoioth iaineth eee ?aioo, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho oeene?iaaiiue aaeaiany/iue ?acia? iiieiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Eioeyoeey oaeaea oooaeoeo iieiaeaiea caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, iieo/athueo
oeene?iaaiiith ?aioo, iioiio /oi n oa/aieai a?aiaie iie noaioo iieo/aoue
aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu, eiathuea iaiueooth noieiinoue, a iaiueoae noaiaie
aea?oaaie eioeyoeee ieaaeaony iaeioi?ua aaeua ai?ioie/ee, /anoue
neoaeaueo ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a, aeioiaeu eioi?uo ii?aaeaeythony
oeene?iaaiiie oa?eoiie naoeie, a oaeaea aeeaouea ia oeene?iaaiiua
aeioiaeu ii nioeeaeueiiio iaania/aieth e ae?oaea o?ainoa?oiua aeioiaeu
naiuee.

Ethaee, aeeaouea ia iaoeene?iaaiiua aeioiaeu, iiaoo auea?aoue io
eioeyoeee. Iiieiaeueiua aeioiaeu oaeeo naiae iiaoo iaiaiaoue o?iaaiue
oeai eee noieiinoue aeecie, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eo ?aaeueiua aeioiaeu
oaaee/aony. ?aai/ea, caiyoua a ?acaeaathueony io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
i?aaenoaaeaiiua iiuiuie i?ionithcaie, iiaoo aeiaeoueny, /oiau eo
iiieiaeueiay ca?ieaoa oea a iiao n o?iaiai eioeyoeee eee iia?aaeaea aai.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, io eioeyoeee no?aaeatho e iaeioi?ua iaaiiua ?aai/ea,
oa, eoi ?aaioaao a ia?aioaaaeueiuo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe e eeoaiu
iiaeaea?aeee neeueiuo, aiaauo i?ionithcia, iiaoo ieacaoueny a oaeie
neooaoeee, eiaaea ?ino o?iaiy oeai iaaiieo ?ino eo aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia
.

Auea?uo io eioeyoeee iiaoo iieo/eoue oi?aaeythuea oe?i, ae?oaea
iieo/aoaee i?eaueae .

Eioeyoeey iiaeao oaeaea naeaceoue aeaaeaeueoeaa naa?aaeaiee. N ?inoii
oeai ?aaeueiay noieiinoue eee iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue naa?aaeaiee,
ioeiaeaiiuo ia /a?iue aeaiue, oiaiueoaaony. Ai a?aiy eioeyoeee
oiaiueoaaony ?aaeueiay noieiinoue n?i/iuo aeeaaeia a aaiea no?aoiauo
iieenia, aaeaaiaeiie ?aiou e ae?oaeo aoiaaeiuo aeoeaia n oeene?iaaiiie
noieiinoueth, eioi?uo eiaaea-oi oaaoaei, /oiau ni?aaeony n oyaeaeuie
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie eee iaania/eoue niieieiue ooiae ia
iaineth.

1.5 Aeaeu eioeyoeee.

Anee iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue oaiiu ?inoa oeai, oi iiaeai auaeaeeoue
neaaeothuea aeaeu eioeyoeee:

1. Oia?aiiay, oeaiu ?anooo ia 10% a aiae, noieiinoue aeaiaa nio?aiyaony,
ionoonoaoao ?ene iiaeienaiey eiio?aeoia a iiieiaeueiuo oeaiao;

2. Aaeiie?othuay. Oeaiu ?anooo ia 20-200% a aiae, aeaiueae onei?aiii
iaoa?eaeecothony a oiaa?u, eiio?aeou i?eaycuaathony e ?inoo oeai;

3. Aeia?eioeyoeey, oeaiu ?anooo ano?iiiie/anee, ?anoiaeaeaiea oeai e
ca?ieaou, ?ac?ooaaony aeaaininoiyiea aeaaea iaania/aiiuo neiaa iauanoaa.

1.6 Aeia?eioeyoeey .

Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou aiyony, /oi oia?aiiay iieco/ay eioeyoeey, eioi?ay
iiaeao nia/aea niioonoaiaaoue iaeeaeaieth yeiiiieee, iioii ia?anoay eae
niaaeiue eii, i?aa?aoeoueny a aieaa aeanoeith aeia?eioeyoeeth. Yoio oaii
?inoa eioeyoeee ieacuaaao ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia iauai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoue, Aeaei a oii, /oi eiaaea
oeaiu iaaeeaiii, ii iinoiyiii ?anooo, ianaeaiea e i?aaei?eyoey aioiayony
e eo aeaeueiaeoaio iiauoaieth. Iiyoiio, /oiau eo iaeniieueciaaiiua
naa?aaeaiey e oaeouea aeioiaeu ia iaanoeaieeenue, oi anoue /oiau
iia?aaeeoue i?aaeiieaaaaiia iiauoaiea oeai, ethaee auioaeaeaiu o?aoeoue
aeaiueae nae/an. I?aaei?eyoey iinooiatho oae aea, iieoiay
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u. Iinooiee, aeeeooaiua eioeyoeeiiiui ineoicii,
oneeeaatho aeaaeaiea ia oeaiu, e eioeyoeey ia/eiaao ei?ieoue naia naay.
Aieaa oiai, iineieueeo noieiinoue aeecie oaaee/eaaaony, ?aai/ea o?aaotho
e iieo/atho aieaa aunieoth iiieiaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo. A i?ionithcu
no?aiyony e oaeiio iiauoaieth ca?aaioiie ieaou, eioi?ie oaaoeei au ia
oieueei ia oi, /oiau iie?uoue i?ioeiaiaeiaa iiauoaiea oeai, ii e
eiiiaine?iaaoue eioeyoeeth, eioi?ay iaeeaeaaony a oio ia?eiae, eiaaea
iiaue eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai? aoaeao aua a neea. Ca?ieaoa e iiauoaiea oeai
iiaeea?ieeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa, e yoi iiiiaaao iieco/ae eioeyoeee ia?aeoe
e aaeiie?othuae.

E?iia ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee aeey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey,
aeia?eioeyoeey iiaeao onei?eoue yeiiiie/aneee e?ao. AEanoieay eioeyoeey
niinianoaoao oiio, /oi oneeey iai?aaeythony ia ia i?iecaiaenoaaiioth, a
ia niaeoeyoeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue . I?aaei?eyoeyi noaiiaeony ana aieaa e
aieaa auaiaeiui iaeaieeaaoue nu?uea e aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth a
i?aaeaeaeaiee aoaeouaai iiauoaiey oeai. Ii ianiioaaonoaea eiee/anoaa
nu?uey e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ni?ino ia ieo aaaeao e oneeaieth
eioeyoeeiiiiai aeaaeaiey, Aianoi oiai, /oiau aeeaaeuaaoue eaieoae a
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u, i?iecaiaeeoaee e ioaeaeueiua eeoea caueuaynue io
eioeyoeee, i?eia?aoatho iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe –
thaaee?iua ecaeaeey, cieioi e ae?oaea ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu,
iaaeaeaeeiinoue e o.ae.

A /?acau/aeiie neooaoeee, eiaaea oeaiu iiaeneaeeaatho ?acei e
ia?aaiiia?ii, ii?iaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ?ac?ooathony.
Aeaaeaeueoeu i?aaei?eyoee ia ciatho, eaeoth oeaio ia oiaa?u iaaei
iacia/eoue. A iio?aaeoaee ia ciatho, eaeoth oeaio ieaoeoue. Iinoaaueee
nu?uey oioyo iieo/eoue ?aaeueiua oiaa?u, a ia auno?i iaanoeaieaathueany
aeaiueae. E?aaeeoi?u noa?athony ecaaaaoue naieo aeieaeieeia, /oiau ia
iieo/aoue aica?auaiiue aeiea a aeaoaauo aeaiueaao, aeaiueae oaeoe/anee
oa?ytho oeaio e ia?anoatho auiieiyoue naie ooieoeee a ea/anoaa ia?u
noieiinoe e n?aaenoaa iaiaia. I?iecaiaenoai e iaiai ni ne?eiii
aeaeaathony e inoaiiaea e a eiia/iii eoiaa iiaeao ianooieoue
yeiiiie/aneee, nioeeaeueiue e, i/aiue aiciiaeii, iieeoe/aneee oain.
Aeia?eioeyoeey onei?yo oeiainiaue e?ao, aeai?anneth e
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea aanii?yaeee. Iia iau/ii naycaia n ia?acoiiie
iieeoeeie i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

1.7 Niioiioaiea ?inoa oeai ii ?acee/iui oiaa?iui a?oiiai .

Nouanoaoao niioiioaiea ?inoa oeai ii ?acee/iui oiaa?iui a?oiiai:

1 . Naaeaine?iaaiiay eioeyoeey . oeaiu ?acee/iuo oiaa?iuo a?oii
ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa ia eciaiaiu;

2 . Ianaaeaine?iaaiiay eioeyoeey . Niioiioaiea oeai oiaa?iuo a?oii
eciaiyaony a ?aciuo i?ioeaioao.

Oaeaea eioeyoeeth iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia iaeeaeaaioth e
iaiaeeaeaiiith.

Eioeyoeee e yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia ia ecaaaeaea ie iaeia no?aia. Aeaaea
naiua oyaeaeua e?ecenu caeai/eaaeenue, eae i?aaeei, iaiiaeaieai
yeiiiieee e aa iiaeuaiii. Iiyoiio aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae
?anniao?eaatho e?ecenu eae ia?aeiiiue iiiaio a iao/ii-oaoie/aneii,
nioeeaeueiii, iieeoe/aneii e yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee. Enoi?e/aneea
neooaoeee ia iiaoi?ythony iaeiicia/ii, e iiyoiio aeaaea nianoaaiiue iiuo
ioaeaeaaony a ia?ainiuneaiee a naaiaeiyoieo oneiaeyo. N?aaenoaa, eioi?ua
iiiiaee ae?oaei no?aiai aueoe ec e?ecena e i?aiaeieaoue eioeyoeeth,
aeaeeii, aeieaeiu ii-eiiio eniieueciaaoueny i?eiaieoaeueii e eiie?aoiie
neooaoeee.

I?aaeaea anaai, iaaei ii aiciiaeiinoe iaeaieaa oi/ii iinoaaeoue
aeeaaiic, eaeiai aeaea eioeyoeeth e e?ecen iu ia?aaeeaaai. Oiaaea iiaeii
aoaeao ioeaieoue aeueoa?iaoeau auoiaea ec neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee.

2. E?ecenu aeieaieoaeenoe/aneie yiioe.

A ainoaea?noaao aeieaieoaeenoe/aneie yiioe iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie
e?ecenia, oa?aeoa?ecoaiuo eioeyoeeae, auee:

a) ?ano?aoa eaciu a nayce n aieiaie, niaea?aeaieai aiene, ?anoiaeaie
i?aayueo eeoe e ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa;

a) iao?iaeae a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao iiae?yae.

Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea e?ecenu, iaoneiaeaiiua /?acau/aeiui aeaoeoeeoii
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e ia?aeeth/aieai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea aiaiiuo ioaeae, iio?ynee iiiaea no?aiu, o/anoaiaaaoea a
ia?aie e aoi?ie ie?iauo aieiao.

N oi?ie?iaaieai ?uieia oiaa?ia, eaieoaea, o?oaea iao/ii-oaoie/aneia e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea noaei ia?eiaee/anee i?a?uaaoueny
e?ecenaie, aucuaaaiuie ia?ooaieai aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e iaaeio?aneaauo
i?iii?oeee. A aeaiiii neo/aa eioeyoeey auaaao iaoneiaeaia ionoaaaieai
oaiiia ?inoa iio?aaeoaeueneie noa?u io eiaanoeoeeiiiie e aieaa /anoiuie
aeeni?iii?oeeyie, aeeythueie ia oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeioth)
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue.

Iaoae yeiiiieea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiay ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue e
aeeni?iii?oeee a ?acaeoee io?aneae auee i?enoue anaaaea.

Aiaiiua e?ecenu oa?aeoa?ecothony ioe?uoui e neeueiui ia?ooaieai
i?iii?oeee a iieueco aiaiiuo iinoaaie e yaiui enoi/ieeii eioeyoeee a
oi?ia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie yiennee aeey iie?uoey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

3. Iniaaiiinoe e?ecena a ?innee.

Iniaaiiinoueth ia?aaeeaaaiiai nae/an no?aiie e?ecena yaeyaony oi, /oi
ii aeieaia a?aiy iiaeaaeyeny oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nenoaiie aee?aeoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey ca n/ao yenoaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo e o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia, yenii?oa, nu?uey, aaeieieno?aoeaiiai iiauoaiey oeai,
yienneiiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey e o.i. A 1989-1991 a.a.. yoe enoi/ieee
nio?aiaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie iaa?ocee ia ia?iaeiia oicyenoai auee
en/a?iaiu. Iiiuoee ?aoeoue i?iaeaiu iooai ia?ano?ieee
eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?eaaee e ?aniaaeo
oicyenoaaiiuo naycae e caiaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai iiiiiieecia ia
ei?ii?aoeaiue ath?ie?aoe/aneee e e?eieiaeueiue iiiiiieeci.

Aeeaaiinoe?iaaiea e?ecena iicaieyao ni noii?ioeaioiie aa?iyoiinoueth
i?iaiice?iaaoue noeaia?ee aai ?acaeoey e auoiaea ec iaai, e iao, e
ca?oaaaeiue iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ec iiaeiaiiai e?ecena
iaeuecy aueoe aac ?aaeeeaeueiiai nie?auaiey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia e
?aoeoaeueiie eiiaa?nee, aac ninoaaeaiey aacaeaoeoeeoiiai athaeaeaoa. A
ioiioaiee aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu e eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai auee aeueoa?iaoeau.
Aa?iaiey e ?inney i?iaiaeeee aeaiaaeiith ?aoi?io, a iineaaiaiiay ssiiiey
e Eoaeey iao. Ioeac io aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu i?eaae yoe no?aiu e
aeia?eioeyoeee, eioi?ay ia aeanyoeeaoey iiieceea eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aaetho. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeueoa?iaoeaa ninoieo a auai?a iaaeaeo
aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iie e eioeyoeeae .

A iaoae no?aia eeaa?aeecaoeey oeaiiia?aciaaiey oaea inouanoaeyaony a
oa/aiea iineaaeieo 25 eao. Nia/aea inaiaiaeaeaeenue oeaiu ia
i?iaeoeoeeth iaoeiino?iaiey, caoai ia o?oeou, iaiue, ea?oioaeue. a 1991
a. eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai i?eiyea eaaeiiia?aciue oa?aeoa?.

Aeiioaoe/anee iiaeii ?annoaeaeaoue i oii, /oi eo/oa auei au
inouanoaeyoue eeaa?aeecaoeeth oeai iinea oi?ie?iaaiey aacaeaoeoeeoiiai
athaeaeaoa, eiiaa?nee e aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu. Ii iineieueeo eeaa?aeecaoeey
oeai noaea oaea oaeoii, caaea/a ninoieo a yoeo oneiaeyo a nie?auaiee
?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa e a ?anoe?aiee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia .

Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e naea?aeeaaiea
?inoa oeai ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea yaeythony aaaeiaeoae aioeeioeyoeeiiiie e
aioee?eceniie ia?ie. Ni?in ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea iaei yeanoe/ai ii
ioiioaieth e oeaiai e iiyoiio i?e eo eeaa?aeecaoeee ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth iie iiaoo auoue i/aiue aunieeie,
?ino oeai ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea i?e aieueoie aeiea cao?ao ia iaai a
aeioiaeao ianaeaiey i?eaiaeeo e aic?anoaieth aeioiaeia, iaania/aiiuo
eeoue eioeyoeeiiiie yienneae. Aeia?eioeyoeey ianooiaao eiaiii oiaaea,
eiaaea a oneiaeyo niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa aeiioneaaony naiaiaeiue ?ino oeai
ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea. Iiyoiio ia ii?aaaeai iiaeoiae e i?eaaoecaoeee a
naeueneii oicyenoaa eae e n?aaenoao auoiaea ec e?ecena aac ?aoaiey
i?iaeai aacaeaoeoeeoiiai athaeaeaoa, eiiaa?nee, no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee,
eeeaeaeiinoe aeaiaa e o.i.

Eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai e aeioiaeia aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oia?aiiie
eioeyoeeae i?e ?anoe?aiee iinoaaie oiaa?ia, ii ieeae ia i?e nie?auaiee
oiaa?iie iannu. A yoie nayce aeooaeueiu neaaeothuea aii?inu. Nicaeaia ee
eiieo?aioiay n?aaea aeey eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai, anoue ee oneiaey aeey
ia?aeeaa eaieoaea a i?iecaiaenoai aeaoeoeeoiie i?iaeoeoeee, eaeoth ?ieue
iiaeao ea?aoue eiiaa?ney a nicaeaiee ?uii/iie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee?
Eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ia icia/aao ethaoth naiaiaeo
oeaiiia?aciaaiey, a eeoue naiaiaeo, iaania/eaathuoth eiieo?aioeeth
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iioiaiai e ?icie/iiai caaiueaa. ooaa?aeaeaiey i oii,
/oi i?e ?uiea iao iiiyoey niaeoeyoeee, eeoaiu iniiaaiee. Ai anao no?aiao
n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie nouanoaoao aioeiiiiiieueiia eee i?yii
aioeniaeoeyoeaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eioi?ia cai?auaao niaeoeyoeeth a
oi?iao, iaiinyueo oua?a i?iecaiaeeoaeyi i?iaeoeoeee iooai iiiiiieueiiai
acaei/eaaiey oeai. Yoe caeiiu i?eiaiythony ai anao ?uii/iuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo.

I?aiaeaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iinoaaie iaoneiaeei o ian aeaenoaea
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a oicyenoaaiiie noa?a ii caeiiai eeanne/aneiai
iiiiiieecia. Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iooai i?eienie, oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, auiuaaiey aeaoaaiai anni?oeiaioa, a a iioiaie e ?icie/iie
oi?aiaea ca n/ao ii?/e aeaoaauo oiaa?ia e i?ei?youaaiey aei?iaeo
nicaeaaaeny e aini?iecaiaeeeny eneonnoaaiiue aeaoeoeeo.

Ia iaai onoaiaaeeaathony iiiiiieueii aunieea oeaiu eae oaiaaiai ?uiea,
oae e ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaiaeia ?aaeecaoeee.

Eiieo?aioiay n?aaea aeieaeia nicaeaaaoueny ia iniiaa anaia?iiai
?anoe?aiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai o ian
iineei oa?aeoa? ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey oeiainiaiai eaieoaea e
eiouanoaa iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey. Eioeyoeeiiiuie niiniaaie
?uii/iua no?oeoo?u iaeiieee oaea ieeeea?aeiua n?aaenoaa. Ii yoio
i?ioeann ia iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae. Eeai
eioeyoeeiiiue eiiia?/aneee eaieoae i?eiao aeoeaioth oi?io eiaanoeoeee a
i?iecaiaenoai aeaoeoeeoiie i?iaeoeoeee, eeai ianooieo aeia?eioeyoeey, e
ioiineoaeueiue oiaa?iue aeaoeoeeo ia?aeaeao a aaniethoiue.

Nicaeaiea oiaa?iuo ?uieia naycaii n ia?aoiaeii io ainoaea?noaaiii-
iiiiiieenoe/aneeo no?oeoo? e eiieo?aioiui. Nae/an ie a iaeiie io?anee
i?aaei?eyoey ia ianoo yeiiiie/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oaeiaeaoai?aiea
ni?ina .

Aeaaea a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena, aaea i/aaeaeia naycue n eiia/iui
iio?aaeaieai, i?aiaeaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iinoaaie iicaieyao i?e
aieueoeo ?ano?nao i?iaeoeoeee eiaoue aa onoie/eaue aeaoeoeeo.

A i?iiuoeaiiinoe iieiaeaiea onoaoaeyaony oai, /oi aieueoeinoai
i?aaei?eyoee aiiaua ia ?aaioaao ia ?uiie, eeai auioneaao i?iaeoeoeeth,
auaiaeioth a i?iecaiaenoaa, ii ia yooaeoeaioth eee aeaaea iaioaeioth
aeey eniieueciaaiey, iiiiiieenoe/aneea ioiioaiey oa?aeoa?iu oaeaea aeey
yia?aaoeee, o?ainii?oa, nayce, no?ieoaeueiie noa?u ia?auaiey. *oiau
neiiaoue, i?aiaeieaoue yoio anaiauee iiiiiieeci, o?aaoaony ono?aieoue
aai ia?aienoi/iee – i?yiia ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a yeiiiieeo.
I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii nie?aoeoue aiaiiua caeacu, eioi?ua /a?ac
iaaeio?aneaaua nayce i?iiecuaatho ana ia?iaeiia oicyenoai e, iiieii
i?yiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey ?ano?nia, neoaeao aeaaiui eaoaeecaoi?ii
iiiiiieenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Ecaanoii, /oi eiiaa?ney e?oiiuo aiaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee o?aaoao a?aiaie. A
iaeieo neo/ayo a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii aeey oiai, /oiau io auionea aaeeie/iuo
ecaeaeee iaeuo e n?aaeieo na?ee ia?aeoe e i?iecaiaenoao ianniauie
na?eyie. Yoi ioiineony e i?iecaiaenoao eiiiuethoa?ia, n?aaenoa nayce,
aoaeei- e aeaeaioaoieee, yeaeo?iieee. A ae?oaeo i?eaeaony iaiyoue ninoaa
ecaeaeee o i?aaei?eyoee-iinoaaueeia, neaaeai, i?e ia?aoiaea io auionea
aiaiiuo naiieaoia ia a?aaeaeaineea. Eiiaa?ney ioaeaeaaony a e?oiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyo, eae e nie?auaiea a?iee o?aaoao cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao ia
nioeeaeueiia iaono?ienoai auaoeo aiaiiineoaeaueo. A aeaiiie nayce anoaao
aii?in ia enoi/ieeao oeiaine?iaaiey eiiaa?nee e aiaiiie ?aoi?iu.
Athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea a aeaiiii neo/aa iaoeaeaniia?acii ii
neaaeothuei i?e/eiai. Yoi ia iicaieeei au ecaaaeoueny io athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa. Iao ieeaeie aa?aioee, /oi athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey aoaeoo
ec?anoiaeiaaiu ia eiiaa?neth, a ia ia i?iecaiaenoai iaioaeiiai
aii?oaeaiey. I?iaeaia ?aoaaony i?e «eniieueciaaiee aeey eiiaa?nee e
o?oaeiono?ienoaa aiaiiineoaeaueo naiaiaeiuo eaieoaeia iaainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoeoeee. Oaeei ia?acii oaycuaaiea
i?ienoiaeeo a aaeeiia oeaeia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa,
eioeyoeee, i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eiaanoeoeee, eiiaa?nee e ?uiea.

4 . Eioeyoeey – ooaeoee ec iaeiaia .

Eioeyoeey – yoi naiaia?aciue iaeia, eioi?ui ainoaea?noai iooai auionea
ie/ai ia iaania/aiiuo aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa iaeaaaao aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe, a yeiiiie/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a eniieuecoaony aeaaea oaeie oa?iei “eioeyoeeiiiue iaeia”. Yoi
ooaeoee ec anao aeaeia iaeiaia, oae eae a ?acoeueoaoa aai i?eiaiaiey
no?aaeatho i?aaeaea anaai oece/aneea eeoea n oeene?iaaiiuie eee
iaaieueoeie aeioiaeaie (iaineiia?u, eiaaeeaeu, ainoaea?noaaiiua
neoaeauea, i?aeoe/anee ana eeoea iaaiiiai o?oaea)

E yoiio iaeiao i?eaaaatho eae e iineaaeiaio n?aaenoao iie?uoey
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, eiaaea ae?oaea enoi/ieee iiiieiaiey eaciu
(i?yiua e einaaiiua iaeiae, caeiu ia aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ?uieao,
i?iaeaaea ainnianoaaiiinoe e o.ae.) ia iicaieytho iie?uoue no?aieoaeueii
?anoouea ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu. I?aauoaiea ?anoiaeia iaae
aeioiaeaie, iiyaeaiea aeu?u a ainoaea?noaaiiii athaeaeaoa, ianooaaiay
yienney ionouo aeaiaa, ia?aiieiaiea eaiaeia aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e
ao?iue ?ino oeai – ana yoi y?ei iaaethaeaaony a ia?eiaeu aiei,
?aaiethoeee, ae?oaeo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo
eaoaeeeciia.

?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu a ?innee a 1992 a. a. a 16,9 ?ac
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aeia?eioeyoeey a iaoae no?aia yaeyaony
?aaeueiinoueth.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a iaoae no?aia
aucuaathony ia ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneei niaaeii e athaeaeaoiui
aeaoeoeeoii. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee caeeaaeuaaeenue
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiua aeeni?iii?oeee (iaaeaeo io?aneyie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
i?iecaiaeyueie n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey, iaaeaeo
aeiauaathueie e ia?a?aaaouaathueie io?aneyie yeiiiieee, iaaeaeo
i?iiuoeaiiui e naeueneioicyenoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii e o.ae.) Nthaea aea
iiaeii ioianoe e /?acau/aeioth ieeeoa?ecaoeeth yeiiiieee. A ?acoeueoaoa
a yeiiiie/aneii i?aaiecia aeaaii ia?ooeeny iaiai aauanoa .

Iaeioi?ia a?aiy aeaiaaeiay ianna a iaoae no?aia eneonnoaaiii
ia?aie/eaaeanue. Eeoiea aeaiueae ecuiaeenue ec ia?auaiey a iniiaiii n
iiiiuueth eiii?oa e aeeiaiey. Iioii neooaoeey ?acei eciaieeanue. A
?acoeueoaoa iaaeaiey aeiau/e iaooe ?acei nie?aoeeenue aaethoiua
iinooieaiey e, niioaaonoaaiia, eiii?o. Oiaiueoeeenue aeioiaeu
ainathaeaeaoa io i?iaeaaee aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia (eaiiaiey ai?ueau ca
anaiauoth o?acainoue). Iaeiia?aiaiii auee ?acaa?ioou oe?ieea
nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, ia iiaee?aieaiiua ?aaeueiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie
?ano?naie, a nayce n nicaeaieai eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo? (i?aaeaea anaai
aaieia) noaei iaaiciiaeiui ianoiia ?aca?aie/aiea aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa ia
iaee/iue e aaciaee/iue. A ?acoeueoaoa iaeiaeaiey anao yoeo oaeoi?ia
aeoia n nio?aieaoeiny aee?aeoeaiui oi?aaeaieai aeaiaaeiie iannie iu ia
?oaaaea 1989-1990 a.a. aieioioth iiaeioee e aeia?eioeyoeee.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ia niiaei naea?aeaoue iianiua eioeyoeeiiiua yaeaiey. Iie
noaee ia?anoaoue eae niaaeiue eii, ieoaaiua niaaeii i?iecaiaenoaa, ana
aic?anoathuae athaeaeaoiie yienneae, aacoaea?aeiie e?aaeeoiie yeniaineae
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia (o.i. e?aaeeoiay eioeyoeey), ?acaaeii aaeeiie
aeaiaaeiie e aaieianeie nenoaiu no?aiu, a eoiaa iu iieo/eee oi, /oi e
aeieaeiu auee iieo/eoue – aeia?eioeyoeeth ia oiia ?aceiai niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aa?auaiea a i?ao naa?aaeaiee ianaeaiey, iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoee, iaanoeaieaaiea aaieianeeo eaieoaeia e aeoeaia ia oiia
io?eoeaoaeueiuo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, i?iaeieaeathuaany iaaeaiea
aaethoiiai eo?na ?oaey, ionoonoaea eiaanoeoeee e eiaanoeoeeiiiie
iieeoeee o i?aaei?eyoee, aaieia, aea e o ainoaea?noaa,
aania?niaeoeaiinoue ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa aneaaenoaea iaecaaaeiie iioa?e
/anoe aeiaeaiiie a aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee noieiinoe, auoaniaiea ec
ieaoaaeiiai iai?ioa ?oaey aeieea?ii, oa?ica ia?aoiaea io
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee e iaoo?aeueiiio iaiaio – aio oa i?aeanoe,
eioi?ua ianao aeia?eioeyoeey .

5. Aeia?eioeyoeey a ?innee.

Iaeioi?ua aiai?yo, /oi ieeaeie aeia?eioeyoeee o ian iao, /oi ioaeii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?iecaiaenoai e ethaeae, iie, ian ioaatho eioeyoeeae,
/oiau ia aeaaaoue aeaiaa ia nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu e ieacaiea iiiiue
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi. Ae?oaea n/eoatho, /oi e n aeia?eioeyoeeae aeeoue oiaea
iiaeii.

Iaaeaeo oai, aeia?eioeyoeey icia/aao, /oi o ian iao iaaeaaeaeu ia
iiaeuai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio oa?yao anyeee niune oi?ioea: eeai
iiaeaea?aeea i?iecaiaenoaa e aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy, eeai iiaeaaeaiea
eioeyoeee. I?e aeia?eioeyoeee iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/aii oae aea,
eae e i?e ino?ii iaaeinoaoea aeaiaa .

I?e/ei oiio iiiai. I?aaeaea anaai iao iaaeaaeiiai ?oaey. Ethaee oa?ytho
noeioe e i?iecaiaenoao, aieueoa neeiiythony e iaeeie niaeoeyoeee,
i?iai?a/eaatho iia?aoeee a ei?ioeea n?iee, /oiau iieo/eoue iiaieueoa
aeaiaa e niiaa aeeth/eoue eo iaiaaeeaiii a iai?io.

Iioa?y iieoiaoaeueiie neeu ?oaey a iaoai iieiaeaiee icia/aao
iaoo?aeecaoeeth oicyenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, aica?auaiea e aa?oa?o.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo ia oieueei ia ianooieo iiaeuai i?iecaiaenoaa, a
i?iaeieaeeony aai niaae. Aeia?eioeyoeey iiania oai, /oi aucuaaao ia
e?aoein?i/iith, a aeeeoaeueiith aeai?anneth.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiue aieiae aeeeony a no?aia oaea ainueiie aiae, iiaeaeoe n
1988 aiaea ia/aeanue ioe?uoay iaoaaoea aeiaeaiee, eiaanoeoeee
auaeaeyaony iaiueoa, /ai iaiaoiaeeii aeaaea aeey i?inoiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa, e iie eniieuecothony ana ooaea. Eae ie no?aiii,
iaaeieiaanoe?iaaiea ia/aeinue o ian aua a na?aaeeia naieaeanyouo aiaeia.
Oioy iiieiaeueiue iauai aeiaeaiee ?in, yooaeoeaiinoue iaaeaea, e
?aaeueiue i?e?ino eaieoaea nieaeaeny.

Iaaeaeo eioeyoeeae e aeia?eioeyoeeae anoue iaeay oaoie/aneay a?aieoea.
Aiai?yo, /oi yoi 50 i?ioeaioia a ianyoe, iaoaieci yeiiiie/aneie aeecie
oaeia, /oi eioeyoeey eiaao oaiaeaioeeth ?ani?ino?aiyoueny io oeaio?a ii
anae no?aia, eae aieiu io a?ioaiiiai a oeoee i?oae eaiiy. I?e yoii iaeii
ec naienoa eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna – oyaeaei i?ioiaeyony ia?aua aai 25
i?ioeaioia, iooue e iei eaaeaony aeeeiiui. Iaa?aoue aoi?ua 25 i?ioeaioia
eoaea eae eaa/a, inoaaoeany iieiooe noaiiayony ei?i/a. Aeinoaoi/ii
eaeeo-eeai ineoieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia, eciaiaiey iano?iaiey iieoiaoaeae,
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, oeiainenoia e o.ae., eioi?ia iineony a aicaeooa, /oiau
onei?eoue eioeyoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea.

Ia aniuoeo eioeyoeee, ?ino iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai aieueoia aeeyiea
ieacaee /enoi ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u. Iie yaeyeenue neaaenoaeai
iieeoe/aneeo niauoee a no?aia. Aeinoaoi/ii auei i?ieoe naaeueiiio
Nuacaeo, ioi?aaeoue a ionoaaeo A . Aaeaea?a , iacia/eoue A .
*a?iiiu?aeeia i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii (eiaaea ia auei ecaanoii, eaeoth eeieth
ii noaiao i?iaiaeeoue, ii ana ciaee, /oi ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiee e caoi/ao,
iaaa?iia, nianaoue i?iecaiaenoai) , /oiau o ethaeae nicaeaeinue
ii?aaeaeaiiia aia/aoeaiea.

Oae /oi n iieiui iniiaaieai iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aeia?eioeyoeey – yoi
yaeaiea i?aaeaea anaai iiaaaeai/aneia, iiaeii ia aeinoeaiooue
e?eoe/aneeo 50 i?ioeaioia, inoaiiaeoueny ia 30, a aeia?eioeyoeey oaea
iaeeoei. Iiaeii aeieoe e aei 60 i?ioeaioia, a ninoiyiea iaeuecy iacaaoue
aeia?eioeyoeeae. Nianoaaiii, aeia?eioeyoeey ianooiaao ia naiii aeaea,
eiaaea iaaethaeaaony oa?aeoa?iia aeey iaa iiaaaeaiea . Iniiaiie neaiae –
aaanoai io ?oaey . Anee aeaaea aaoaiiua oeaiu ia?anoatho ioioaeaaoue
iieoiaoaey, oi aeia?eioeyoeey ia/aeanue.

6.Iaoiaeu ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae.

I?aaeoaeuenoai eaaeaeie no?aiu, iaoiaeyuaeny a e?ecena, aeieaeii
i?iaiaeeoue aioeeioeyoeeiiioth iieeoeeo. Iaoiaeu ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae
iiaoo auoue i?yiua e einaaiiua .

6.1 einaaiiua iaoiaeu.

1. ?aaoee?iaaiea iauae iannu aeaiaa /a?ac oi?aaeaiea eie oeaio?aeueiui
aaieii ;

2. ?aaoee?iaaiea nnoaeiiai e n/aoiiai i?ioeanna eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
/a?ac oi?aaeaiea eie oeaio?aeueiui aaieii;

3. Iaycaoaeueiua ?aca?au eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, iia?aoeee oeaio?aeueiiai
aaiea ia ioe?uoii ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa .

6.2 I?yiua iaoiaeu.

I?yiua iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaaeiie
aaeeieoeu, oi anoue ai?ueau n eioeyoeeae, aeeth/atho a naay:

1. I?yiia e iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea ainoaea?noaii e?aaeeoia e
oai naiui – aeaiaaeiie iannu;

2. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oeai;

3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia (ii niaeaoaieth n i?ionithcaie) ?aaoee?iaaiea
ca?aaioiie ieaou ;

4. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee, aaica e auaica
eaieoaea e aaethoiiai eo?na.

7.Ia?aii/a?aaeiua aioeeioeyoeeiiiua iaoiaeu.

Naeaaoue oaiiu eioeyoeee – cia/eo nie?auaoue ?acieoeo iaaeaeo
aeaiaaeiie e oiaa?iie iannie a oicyenoaa. Aeey yoiai iiaeoiaeyo ana oa
iaoiaeu, eioi?ua aaaeoo yeiiiieeo e ?aaiiaaneth, E ia?aii/a?aaeiui ia?ai
ioiinyony neaaeothuea:

1. Iaania/aiea no?aiu a aeinoaoea i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Yoi
ia?aaeoaa oneiaea ethauo ?aoi?iaoi?neeo oneeee. Aeey
iaeaaeeaaiey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai aeaea a no?aia neaaeoao ieacaoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth oeiainiaoth iiiiuue naeueneioicyenoaaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi anao aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe e i?iaanoe iyaeoth ?aoi?io
eieoicia e niaoicia .

a) onoaiiaeaiea ii?yaeea auaea/e e?aaeeoia naeueneicyenoaaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi iiae aaenaey n iiaaoaieai eo ca n/ao aoaeouaai o?iaeay;

a) onoaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoii/iuo oeai, a oaeaea oeai
ia iio?aaeyaiua a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa
?ano?nu ia o?iaia, iaania/eaathuai ?aioaaaeueioth ?aaioo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae e nicaeaiey nenoaiu eiio?aeoiie oi?aiaee
i?iiuoeaiiuie oiaa?aie a iaiai ia naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

2. Ainnicaeaiea ?ac?ooaiiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iiey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa, aac /aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yeiiiieee noaiiaeony
iaaiciiaeiui. A yoeo oeaeyo iaaei i?aaeaea anaai ainnoaiiaeoue ia
aaieianeeo n/aoao i?aaei?eyoee iooai eiaeaene?iaaiey oo?a/aiiua
ec-ca ?aceiai ?inoa oeai e iaanoeaieaaiey ?oaey noiiu
aii?oecaoeee e nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

3. Iaeaaeeaaiea niaaaeai/anei-nauoiauo naycae iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie. Oicyenoaaiiua nayce i?aaei?eyoee a ?uii/iii ?aaeeia
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiu a iniiaiii /a?ac nenoaia e?oiiuo iioiauo
eoioeia-neiaeeeaoia. Yoe no?oeoo?u iiaoo ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a
?aieao ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia, a iaua?inneeneii e iaaeainoaea?noaaiiii
ianooaaa .

4. Acaiai iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, noeioee?othuaai
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey a ?innee, ?ino eioeyoeee e
e?aeia o?oaeii iiaeaeathuaainy eiio?ieth iaeiaiauo einiaeoeee,
ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiui ieaoaaeii a athaeaeao iaeia ia i?eaueue,
aeeooa?aioee?iaaa aai noaaee a caaeneiinoe io ?inoa ?aioaaaeueiinoe e
?inoa iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi aoaeao iaoeaeeaaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae
ia ?ino iannu, a ia oieueei ii?iu i?eauee.

5. Ia a?aiy e?ecena iaiaoiaeeii oeaio?aeeciaaoue aaieianeoth nenoaio
?innee, eiay a aeaeo iaycaoaeueiia eniieiaiea eiiia?/aneeie e
eiaanoeoeeiiiuie aaieaie aee?aeoea oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ii
i?ei?eoaoiinoe e eueaioiinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey ?aaeiiia, io?aneae,
i?aaei?eyoee, niaethaeaiey ii?iaoeaiuo n?ieia aeieoiaioiiai?ioa.

6. Aeey noaaeeecaoeee iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea oeaeaniia?acii:

a). nicaeaoue nenoaio noeioee?iaaiey ?acaeoey iaeeiai aeciana a noa?a
i?iecaiaenoaa e oneoa, aaanoe ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeou ia a?aiaeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee e eeceiaiaue e?aaeeo ia a?aiaeo
iai?oaeiaaiey (n aiciiaeiinoueth iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai aueoia) , a oaeaea
aaanoe iaycaoaeueiia no?aoiaaiea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ia ia?aua 3-5 eao
aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaaea ?ene ?aci?aiey iniaaiii cia/eoaeai;

a). nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey iianaianoiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia?aeeaeueii n
nouanoaothuae nenoaiie oi?aiaee iio?aaeoaeueneeo eiiia?aoeaia ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, a o/?aaeaeaieyo e ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa aeey caeoiee e
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo e i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia /eaiai
eiiia?aoeaa (ii iaee/iiio e aaciaee/iiio ?an/aoo) ii aani?eaueueiui
?icie/iui oeaiai. Oaeiai ?iaea eiiia?aoeaiia aeaeaeaiea oe?iei ?acaeoi
ai iiiaeo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao. Aac iaai iaiuneeii i?aaenoaaeoue eo
yeiiiieee. Iio?aaeiiia?aoeey aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue ii?iaeecaoeee oeai e
aia eiiia?aoeaiiai naeoi?a.

7. A oa/aiea e?eceniiai ia?eiaea neaaeoao oaeaea i?iaiaeeoue
?aoeeiiaeueiith ainoaea?noaaiioth iieeoeeo caueou aioo?aiiaai ?uiea e
no?iaiai eiio?iey /anoiie yenii?oiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ana yenii?oiua
iia?aoeee aeieaeiu inouanoaeyoueny /a?ac iaiiiaea e?oiiua oe?iu e
neiaeeeaou, eiio?iee?oaiua ainoaea?noaii e auiieiythuea yenii?oiua
iia?aoeee ia eiienneiiiuo iaeiaao.

Caeeth/aiea .

Ieii/eaoeany iaoaea/ae iiiuoee oeiainiaiai icaei?iaeaiey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa eae ia?aiai oaaa a inouanoaeaiee ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea oieueei onoaoaeee oyaeanoue oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey no?aiu,
eaeay, caeiaeaiiay a iniiao aieueoeinoaa “icaei?iaeoaeueiuo” i?ia?aii,
caeeth/aeanue a i?eaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiuo e noieiinoiuo
i?iii?oeee a ioiineoaeueii ?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea e inouanoaeaiee ia yoie
iniiaa eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi oaeanony ecaaaeaoue eo
no?aieoaeueiiai ?inoa.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, iaeiaei, /oi a iniiao aeaiiie eaeae auea iieiaeaia
eiaeiay iinueea, iineieueeo ?aaiiaanea i?e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeyaiie
e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aeinoeaaaony a ?acee/iuo oi/eao yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa. Eiaiii a yoii aeaeyony i?e/eiu iaoaea/iuo ia? ii
oeiainiaiio icaei?iaeaieth e oiai oooaeoaiey iauayeiiiie/aneie e
oeiainiaie neooaoeee, eioi?ia eiaei ianoi a 1989-1991 a.a.,
au?aceaoaainy a iiuiaeoai iioiea eioeyoeee.

Enoiee eioeyoeeiiiuo yaeaiee ei?aiyony a neiaeeaoeony e iinoiyiii
aini?iecaiaeeiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo aeeni?iii?oeeyo; a nicaeaiiie a
aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeiiiieea oi?ia oi?aaeaiey, i?aaeii?aaeaeythuae
iiaeaeue oeaiiia?aciaaiey, niinia i?eiyoey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo e
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee; a niaoeeoe/aneie iiaeaee
athaeaeaoii-oeiainiaie e e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee, ?acaeaeaiea
aeoaeiiuo i?e/ei eioeyoeee ia no?oeoo?iua, oi?aaeai/aneea e iiiaoa?iua
i/aiue oneiaii, iineieueeo ana iie oanii acaeiinaycaiu e
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu, iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaotho iiiaeanoaaiiua i?yiua e
ia?aoeii nayce, iae?iyeiiiie/aneay no?oeoo?a ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa?
iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey e ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia oeiainiaua
i?iii?oeee e ioiioaiey .

A caeeth/aiea iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey
eioeyoeee aoaeoo yooaeoeaiu eeoue a neo/aa eo aaeaeaaoiiai niioaaonoaey
aa nouiinoiui i?e/eiai. Iineieueeo eioeyoeey a iaoae no?aia iineo,
ai-ia?auo, no?oeoo?ii- nenoaiiue oa?aeoa?, oi anoue ii?iaeaeaia
neiaeeaoaeny no?oeoo?ie yeiiiieee e aeaenoaiaaaoae aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
nenoaiie oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaii, e oieueei ai-aoi?uo, o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
iiiaoa?iuie oaeoi?aie, ?u/aae ?aaoee?iaaiey yoiai i?ioeanna aeieaeiu
aace?iaaoueny ia niyoee anao aa?uea?ia ia iooe aeaenoaey ?uii/iuo
iaoaieciia, iaania/aiee oneiaee no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee e
aeeth/aoue a naay oe?ieee niaeo? e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiuo e
athaeaeaoii-oeiainiauo ?aaoeyoi?ia .

Eeoa?aoo?a :

I . Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey . O/aaiee aeey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Iaaeaaaeaaa A.A.

I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1988.

2. Iaeeiiiaee, A?th.

Yeiiiieen. Oii 1.

I.: ?anioaeeea, 1992.

3. A . Aiinia .

Eioeyoeey e e?ecen: iooe auoiaea.

I.: I?anna, 1992.

4. N . E . Eooei .

Ioeoaea acyeanue eioeyoeey?

Oeiainu N9 , 1 9 9 2 .

5. A . ssnei .

Ec i?iianoe e?ecena auea?aaeaoueny iiaeii.

Aeaei N2, yeiiiie/aneia i?eeiaeaiea e aacaoa “?inneeneea aanoe”.

6. Aii?inu yeiiiieee N2, 1992.

7. Ae . Ai?iiee .

Eioeyoeey – ooaeoee ec iaeiaia .

Aeaei N2, yeiiiie/aneia i?eeiaeaiea e aacaoa “?inneeneea aanoe”

8. A . A . Iaiaae/ , A . E . Ia?eaioo?ia .

Ia eioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeea .

Oeiainu N8 , 1 9 9 3 .

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