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1. Eioeyoeey, aa ii?aaeaeaiea e ecia?aiea.

1.1. Iiiyoea eioeyoeey.

Eioeyoeey – yoi iiauoaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai. Yoi, eiia/ii, ia icia/aao,
/oi iiauoathony iaycaoaeueii ana oeaiu. Aeaaea a ia?eiaeu aeiaieueii
auno?iai ?inoa eioeyoeee iaeioi?ua oeaiu iiaoo inoaaaoueny ioiineoaeueii
noaaeeueiuie, a ae?oaea iaaeaoue. Iai?eia?, oioy a 1970-1980 aa.
iaaethaeaeny aunieee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee, oeaiu ia oaeea oiaa?u, eae
aeaeaiiaaieoioiiu, oeeo?iaua /anu e ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u,
oaeoe/anee auee nieaeaiu. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eae iu anei?a oaeaeei, iaeii
ec aeaaiuo iano eioeyoeee yoi oi, /oi oeaiu eiatho oaiaeaioeeth
iiaeieiaoueny i/aiue ia?aaiiia?ii. Iaeie iiaeneaeeaatho, ae?oaea
iiaeieiathony aieaa oia?aiiuie oaiiaie, a o?aouee aiana ia
iiaeieiathony.

1.2. Ecia?aiea eioeyoeee.

Eioeyoeey ecia?yaony n iiiiuueth eiaeaena oeai. Eiaeaen oeai ii?aaeaeyao
eo iauee o?iaaiue ii ioiioaieth e aaciaiio ia?eiaeo.

Iai?eia?, a eiaeaena oeai ia iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u 1982- 1984 aa.
eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa aaciaiai ia?eiaea, aeey eioi?iai
onoaiaaeeaaaony o?iaaiue oeai, ?aaiue 100. A 1988 a. eiaeaen oeai aue
i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaai 118. Yoi cia/eo, /oi a 1988 a. oeaiu auee ia 18%
auoa, /ai a 1982-1984 aa., eee, i?iua aiai?y, aeaiiue iaai? oiaa?ia,
eioi?ue a 1982-1984 aa. noiee 100, a 1988 a. noiee 118. Oaii eioeyoeee
aeey aeaiiiai aiaea iiaeii au/eneeoue neoaeothuei ia?acii: au/anoue
eiaeaen oeai i?ioaaeoaai aiaea (1987) ec eiaeaena yoiai aiaea (1988),
?acaeaeeoue yoo ?acieoeo ia eiaeaen i?ioaaeoaai aiaea (1987), a caoai
oiiiaeeoue ia 100. Iai?eia?, a 1987 a. eiaeaen oeai ia iio?aaeoaeueneea
oiaa?u aue ?aaai 113,6, a a 1988 a. 118,3. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, o?iaaiue
eioeyoeee aeey 1988 a. au/eneyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Oaii eio. = ((118,3-113,6)/118,3)*100=4,1% (1.1)

Oae iacuaaaiia “i?aaeei aaee/eiu 70“ aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eiee/anoaaiii
eciaiyoue eioeyoeeth. Oi/iaa aiai?y, iii iicaieyao auno?i iiaen/eouaaoue
eiee/anoai eao, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oaeaiaiey o?iaiy oeai. Iaaei oieueei
?acaeaeeoue /enei 70 ia aaeaaiaeiue o?iaaiue eioeyoeee:

Eie.eao(oaea) = 70/Oaii eio. (%) (1.2)

Iai?eia?, i?e aaeaaiaeiii o?iaia eioeyoeee a 3% o?iaaiue oeai oaeaieony
i?eaeeceoaeueii /a?ac 23 aiaea. I?e 8%-iie eioeyoeee o?iaaiue oaeaieony
i?eaeeceoaeueii /a?ac aeaayoue eao. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi “i?aaeei
aaee/eiu 70“ iau/ii i?eiaiyaony oiaaea, eiaaea, iai?eia?, iaaei
onoaiiaeoue neieueei iio?aaoaony a?aiaie, /oiau ?aaeueiue AII eee aaoe
ee/iua naa?aaeaiey oaeaieeenue.

1.3. ?aaeee eioeyoeee.

Ia ?en.(1.1) aeaaony iaci? eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a NOA n 1920 a. Ia
yoii a?aoeea iieacaii aaeaaiaeiia oaaee/aiea eiaeaena iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oeai ii n?aaiaieth n aaciaui ia?eiaeii 1982- 1984 aa. Yoi cia/eo, /oi
EIOe ia 1982-1984 aa. i?eieiaaony ca 100. A 20-a aiaeu, a ia?eiae
i?ioeaaoaiey, o?iaaiue oeai aue aaniethoii noaaeeueiui e oiae – oi anoue
i?iecioea aeaoeyoeey – a ia/aea “Aaeeeie aeai?annee“ 30-o aiaeia.
N?aco aea iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu oeaiu ?acei iiauneeenue (1945-198
aa.).

Iauay onoie/eainoue oeai auea oa?aeoa?ia aeey ia?eiaea n 1951 ii 1965a.,
eiaaea aaeaaiaeiia iiauoaiea o?iaiy oeai ninoaaeyei iaiaa 1,5 %. Ii
eioeyoeey, ioaaoeaoay no?aio a eiioea 60-o aiaeia e ?ac?anoaaoayny a
70-a aiaeao, iiciaeiieea aia?eeaioeaa n oaeie eioeyoeeae, oaiiu ?inoa
eioi?ie au?aaeaeenue aeaocia/iuie /eneaie. A 1979 e 1980 aiaeao o?iaaiue
oeai aaeaaiaeii iiaeieiaeny ia 12-13%. Iaeiaei e na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia
aaeaaiaeiue o?iaaiue eioeyoeee noae ieaea 4%.

Ii ia iaaei aeoiaoue, /oi eioeyoeey – eneeth/eoaeueii yaeaiea iaeiie
no?aiu. Oaeoe/anee ana ae?oaea i?iiuoeaiiua no?aiu, ca eneeth/aieai
Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee e ssiiiee, ia?aaeeee aieaa aunieea oaiiu ?inoa
eioeyoeee. Ec o?aoueae eieiiee oaae. 1.2 aeaeii, /oi a 1983-1987 aa.
aaeaaiaeiua n?aaeiea oaiiu ?inoa eioeyoeee a Eoaeee, Aano?aeee,
O?aioeee, Oaaoeee e Aaeeeia?eoaiee auee auoa, /ai a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao.
A ioaeaeueiua aiaeu ia?eiaea 80-o aiaeia a iaeioi?uo no?aiao aaeaaiaeiua
oaiiu ?inoa eioeyoeee au?aaeaeenue aeaocia/iuie, a oi e o?aocia/iuie
/eneaie. Eioeyoeey a Ec?aeea auea ianoieueei aeanoieie, /oi ca iaeei
iyoeeaoiee ia?eiae a 80-o aiaeao oeaia ca aae aaiceia iiaeiyeanue aei 30
oun. oaeaeae. Ca iyoue eao aei oiai oaeie noiiu oaaoeei au, /oiau
eoieoue aaoiiiaeeue.

Aaeaaiaeiua oaiiu ?inoa eioeyoeee a Aieeaee a 1985a. ?aaiyeanue 3400%.
Yoi cia/eo, /oi iaaae ca 20 aeie. a 1984a. iaioaeny a 1985a. oaea a 680
aeie. A 1987a. aaeaaiaeiua oaiiu ?inoa eioeyoeee a A?aceeee ninoaaeyee
i?eia?ii 400%.

1.4. I?e/eiu eioeyoeee. Oai?aoe/aneee aniaeo.

1.4.1. Eioeyoeey ni?ina e ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa.

Yeiiiienou ?acee/atho aeaa oeia eioeyoeee.

1. Eioeyoeey ni?ina.

O?aaeeoeeiiii eciaiaiey a o?iaia oeai iauyniythony ecauoi/iui niaieoiiui
ni?inii. Yeiiiieea iiaeao iiiuoaoueny o?aoeoue aieueoa, /ai iia niiniaia
i?iecaiaeeoue; iia iiaeao no?aieoueny e eaeie-oi oi/ea, iaoiaeyuaeny aia
e?eaie naieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue naeoi?
ia a ninoiyiee ioaaoeoue ia yoio ecauoi/iue ni?in oaaee/aieai ?aaeueiiai
iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, iioiio /oi ana eiathueany ?ano?nu oaea iieiinoueth
eniieueciaaiu. Iiyoiio yoio ecauoi/iue ni?in i?eaiaeeo e caauoaiiui
oeaiai ia iinoiyiiue ?aaeueiue iauai i?iaeoeoeee e aucuaaao eioeyoeeth
ni?ina. Nooue eioeyoeee ni?ina eiiaaea iauyniyaony iaeiie o?acie:
“Neeoeii iiiai aeaiaa ioioeony ca neeoeii iaeui eiee/anoaii oiaa?ia“.

Ii niioiioaiey iaaeaeo niaieoiiui ni?inii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iauaiii
i?iecaiaenoaa, caiyoinoueth e o?iaiai oeai – n ae?oaie, neiaeiaa oao,
eioi?ua eiaao aaeaeo yoio eiiiaioa?ee. Yoe neiaeiinoe iiiiaaao
iauynieoue ?en.(1.1).

Ia ia?aii io?acea iauea ?anoiaeu, oi anoue noiia iio?aaeaiey,
eiaanoeoeee, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e /enoiai yenii?oa, aei oaeie
noaiaie iecee, /oi iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa neeueii ionoaao io
naiaai iaeneiaeueiiai o?iaiy i?e iieiie caiyoinoe. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
nouanoaoao cia/eoaeueiia ionoaaaiea ?aaeueiiai iauaia AII. O?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu aunie, a aieueoay aeiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae
i?aaei?eyoee aacaeaenoaoao. Oaia?ue i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi niaieoiiue ni?in
iiauneony. Oiaaea iauai i?iecaiaenoaa oaaee/eony, o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu
nieceony, a o?iaaiue oeai aic?anoao iacia/eoaeueii eee aiana ia
eciaieony. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi nouanoaoao ia?iiiia eiee/anoai
aacaeaenoaothueo o?oaeiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua iiaeii
aaanoe a aeaenoaea i?e nouanoaothueo ia ieo oeaiao. Aac?aaioiue ia
i?ineo oaaee/eoue ca?ieaoo, eiaaea iaieiaaony ia ?aaioo. Aiaeece?oy
ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea, iu onoaiiaeee, /oi iiauoaiea oeai ia aeeyao ia
oaaee/aiea ni?ina, iioiio /oi i?aaeeiaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ai?eciioaeueioth eeieth. Oaaee/aiea o?oaeiauo e ae?oaeo ?ano?nia
aiciiaeii iioiio, /oi eiathony aacaeaenoaothuea ?ano?nu, e
aeiiieieoaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai i?eiineo auaiaeo. A ?acoeueoaoa
nouanoaaiii oaaee/eaaaony iauai i?iaeoeoeee, a oeaiu ia iiauoathony.

Ii ia?a oiai eae ni?in i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe, yeiiiieea anooiaao ai aoi?ie
io?acie, i?eaeeaeaynue e iieiie caiyoinoe e e aieaa iieiiio
eniieueciaaieth eiathueony ?ano?nia. Ii o?iaaiue oeai ia iiaeao ia/aoue
iiauoaoueny aei oiai, eae ia aoaeao aeinoeaiooa iieiay caiyoinoue.
Iioiio /oi ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa caianu aacaeaenoaothueo
?ano?nia ia en/acatho iaeiia?aiaiii ai anao naeoi?ao yeiiiieee e ai anao
io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A iaeioi?uo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia/eiatho
ia?aciauaaoueny oceea ianoa, oioy o aieueoeinoaa io?aneae anoue
ecauoi/iua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe. Iaeioi?ua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe
?aiueoa ae?oaeo iieiinoueth eniieuecotho naie i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe
e ia iiaoo ioaa/aoue ia aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia naie oiaa?u
oaaee/aieai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iiyoiio oeaiu ia ieo ?anooo. Ii ia?a
oaaee/aiey ni?ina ia ?uiea ?aai/ae neeu iaeioi?ua eaoaai?ee /anoe/iuo
?aaioieeia ia/eiatho eniieueciaaoueny iieiinoueth e eo ca?ieaoa a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee iiauoaaony. A ?acoeueoaoa oaaee/eaathony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ecaea?aeee e oe?iu auioaeaeaiu iiauoaoue oeaiu.
Noaeaiea ?uieia ?aai/ae neeu ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe i?ionithcia i?e
caeeth/aiee eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia e iiiiaaao ei aeiaeaaoueny
cia/eoaeueiiai oaaee/aiey ca?aaioiie ieaou. Oe?iu aioiau onooiaoue
o?aaiaaieyi i?ionithcia i iiauoaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou, iioiio /oi ia
oioyo caaanoiaie, iniaaiii a oi a?aiy, eiaaea yeiiiieea anoiaao ia iooue
ana aieueoaai e aieueoaai i?ioeaaoaiey. E?iia oiai, i?e oaaee/aiee iaueo
?anoiaeia aieaa aunieea ecaea?aeee iiaeii eaaei aiceiaeeoue ia
iio?aaeoaey, iiaeiya oeaiu. Iaeiiaoe, eiaaea aeinoeaiooa iieiay
caiyoinoue, oe?iu auioaeaeaiu iaieiaoue iaiaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo (iaiaa
i?iaeoeoeaiuo) ?aaioieeia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo ecaea?aeae oeai.
Eioeyoeeth, aicieeathuoth ia aoi?ii io?acea, eiiaaea iacuaatho
“i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie“, iioiio /oi iia ia/eiaaony aei iiyaeaiey iieiie
caiyoinoe a no?aia.

Eiaaea iauea ?anoiaeu aeinoeaatho o?aoueaai io?acea, 3, iieiay
caiyoinoue ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana naeoi?u yeiiiieee. Ana io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aieueoa ia iiaoo ioaa/aoue ia oaaee/aiea ni?ina
oaaee/aieai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee. ?aaeueiue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa aeinoea naiaai iaeneioia, e aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea ni?ina
aaaeao e eioeyoeee. Niaieoiiue ni?in, i?aauoathuee i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
aiciiaeiinoe iauanoaa, aucuaaao iiauoaiea o?iaiy oeai.

I?e iinoiyiiii o?iaia oeai (io?acie 1) iiieiaeueiue e ?aaeueiue AII
oaaee/eaathony a iaeeiaeiaie noaiaie. Ii i?e i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie eioeyoeee
(io?acie 2) iiieiaeueiue AII iaiaoiaeeii “ aeaoee?iaaoue “, /oiau
ii?aaeaeeoue eciaiaiey iauaia i?iaeoeoeee a oece/aneii au?aaeaiee. I?e
“/enoie” eioeyoeee (io?acie 3) iiieiaeueiue AII aic?anoao, i?e/ai
eiiaaea auno?uie oaiiaie, a ?aaeueiue AII inoaaony iaeciaiiui.

2. Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay ?inoii ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, eee
oiaiueoaieai niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Eioeyoeey iiaeao oaeaea aicieeiooue a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiee ecaea?aeae e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea. A iineaaeiea aiaeu auei ianeieueei ia?eiaeia,
eiaaea o?iaaiue oeai aic?in, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi niaieoiiue ni?in ia aue
ecauoi/iui. O ian auee ia?eiaeu, eiaaea e iauai i?iaeoeoeee e caiyoinoue
(naeaeaoaeuenoai iaaeinoaoi/iinoe niaieoiiiai ni?ina) oiaiueoeeanue i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii oaaee/aiee iauaai o?iaiy oeai.

Oai?ey eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae, iauyniyao ?ino oeai
oaeeie oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth ecaea?aeae ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee. Ecaea?aeee ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee – yoi
n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee i?e aeaiiii iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeea ecaea?aeee
iiaeii iieo/eoue, ?acaeaeea iauea cao?aou ia ?ano?nu ia eiee/anoai
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oi anoue:

Ecae.aae.?iae. = Iau.cao?./Eie.aae.i?iae. (1.3)

Iiauoaiea ecaea?aeae ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee a yeiiiieea nie?auaao
i?eauee e iauai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue oe?iu aioiau i?aaeeiaeeoue i?e
nouanoaothuai o?iaia oeai. A ?acoeueoaoa oiaiueoaaony i?aaeeiaeaiea
oiaa?ia e oneoa a ianooaaa anae yeiiiieee. Yoi oiaiueoaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiauoaao o?iaaiue oeai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii yoie noaia ecaea?aeee, a ia ni?in acaei/eaaao oeaiu,
eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo i?e eioeyoeee ni?ina.

Aeaa naiuo aaaeiuo enoi/ieea eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae,
– yoi oaaee/aiea iiieiaeueiie ca?ieaou e oeai ia nu?uea e yia?aeth.

1.4.2. Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay iiauoaieai ca?ieaou.

Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay iiauoaieai ca?ieaou, yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao enoi/ieeii eioeyoeee iiaoo noaoue i?ionithcu. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi iie a eaeie-oi noaiaie inouanoaeyaony eiio?ieue
iaae iiieiaeueiie ca?ieaoie iin?aaenoaii eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia.
I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi e?oiiua i?ionithcu iio?aaotho e aeiauethony aieueoiai
iiauoaiey ca?ieaou. Aieaa oiai, i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi yoei iiauoaieai iie
onoaiiayo iiaue noaiaea?o ca?ieaou ?aai/eo, eioi?ua ia yaeythony /eaiaie
i?ionithca. Anee iiauoaiea ca?ieaou a ianooaaa anae no?aiu ia
o?aaiiaaoeaaaony eaeeie-eeai i?ioeaiaeaenoaothueie oaeoi?aie, oaeeie,
eae oaaee/aiea iauaia auioneaaiie ca iaeei /an i?iaeoeoeee, oi
oaaee/aony ecaea?aeee ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee. I?iecaiaeeoaee ioaaoyo
ia yoi nie?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, aua?anuaaaiuo ia
?uiie. I?e iaeciaiiii ni?ina yoi oiaiueoaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaaaeao e
iiauoaieth o?iaiy oeai. Iineieueeo aeiiaieeii yaeyaony /?acia?iia
iiauoaiea iiieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, yoio oei eioeyoeee iacuaaaony
eioeyoeeae, aucaaiiie iiauoaieai ca?aaioiie ieaou, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ?aciiaeaeiinoue eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae.

1.4.3. Eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay ia?ooaieai iaoaiecia i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ae?oaay iniiaiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii
ecaea?aeae, iau/ii iacuaaaony eioeyoeeae, aucaaiiie ia?ooaieai iaoaiecia
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iia yaeyaony neaaenoaeai oaaee/aiey ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oeai, eioi?ia naycaii n aiacaiiui,
iai?aaeaeaeaiiui oaaee/aieai noieiinoe nu?uey eee cao?ao ia yia?aeth.
Oaaaeeoaeueiui i?eia?ii neoaeeo cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea oeai ia
eiii?oe?oaioth iaooue a 1973-1974 aa. e a 1979-1980 aa. Iineieueeo ca
yoi a?aiy oeaiu ia yia?aeth aic?inee, oaaee/eeenue oaeaea ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e o?ainii?oe?iaee anae i?iaeoeoeee a yeiiiieea. Yoi
i?eaaei e auno?iio ?inoo eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie oaaee/aieai
ecaea?aeae.

1.5. Neiaeiinoe.

A ?aaeueiii ie?a ai?acaei neiaeiaa, /ai i?aaeiieaaaaiia i?inoia
?acaeaeaiea eioeyoeee ia aeaa oeia – eioeyoeeth, aucaaiioth oaaee/aieai
ni?ina, e eioeyoeeth, iaoneiaeaiioth ?inoii ecaea?aeae. Ia i?aeoeea
o?oaeii ?acee/eoue yoe aeaa oeia. Iai?eia?, i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi aiaiiua
?anoiaeu ?acei aic?inee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaaee/eeenue iauea ?anoiaeu,
aucaaa eioeyoeeth ni?ina. Eiaaea noeioeu aeey iiauoaiey ni?ina
aeaenoaotho ia ?uieao oiaa?ia e ?ano?nia, iaeioi?ua oe?iu
iaia?oaeeaatho, /oi eo ?anoiaeu ia ca?ieaoo, iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu e
oiieeai ?anooo. A naieo eioa?anao iie auioaeaeaiu iiaeiyoue oeaiu,
iineieueeo oaaee/eeenue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Oioy a aeaiiii neo/aa
yaii eiaao ianoi eioeyoeey ni?ina, aeey iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee iia
auaeyaeeo eae eioeyoeey iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii ecaea?aeae. O?oaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue oei eioeyoeee, ia ciay ia?ae/iiai enoi/ieea, oi anoue
iiaeeeiiie i?e/eiu ?inoa oeai e ca?ieaou.

Aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia n/eoatho, /oi eioeyoeey, iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii
ecaea?aeae, e eioeyoeey ni?ina ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa aua a iaeii
aaaeiii ioiioaiee. Eioeyoeey ni?ina i?iaeieaeaaony aei oao ii?, iiea
nouanoaotho /?acia?iua iauea ?anoiaeu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eioeyoeey,
iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii ecaea?aeae, aaoiiaoe/anee naia naay ia?aie/eaaao,
oi anoue eeai iinoaiaiii en/acaao, eeai naiiecea/eaaaony. Yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi ec-ca oiaiueoaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aaeueiue iauai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa e caiyoinoe nie?auaaony, e yoi ia?aie/eaaao
aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea ecaea?aeae. Eiuie neiaaie, eioeyoeey,
iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii ecaea?aeae, ii?iaeaeaao niaae, a niaae, a naith
i/a?aaeue, naea?aeeaaao aeiiieieoaeueiia oaaee/aiea ecaea?aeae.

2. Aeeyiea eioeyoeee ia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea.

2.1. Iiieiaeueiue e ?aaeueiue aeioiae.

Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo o?iaiai oeai e iauaiii iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
aeiioneaao aeaiyeia oieeiaaiea. Iau/ii ?aaeueiue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e o?iaaiue oeai iiauoaeenue eee iiieaeaeenue
iaeiia?aiaiii. Iaeiaei i?eia?ii ca iineaaeiea aeaaaeoeaoue eao auei
ianeieueei neo/aaa, eiaaea ?aaeueiue iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
nie?auaeny, a oi a?aiy eae oeaiu i?iaeieaeaee ?anoe. Ia ieiooo caaoaeai
i ia yoii e i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi i?e iieiie caiyoinoe ?aaeueiue iauai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iinoiyiiui. N/eoay ?aaeueiue
iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aeioiaeia iinoiyiiuie, eaa/a
auaeaeeoue aeeyiea eioeyoeee ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea yoeo aeioiaeia. Anee
?acia?u ie?iaa – iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea – yaeythony iinoiyiiuie, eae
eioeyoeey aeeyao ia ?acia?u eoneia, eioi?ua aeinoathony ?acee/iui neiyi
ianaeaiey.

*oiau ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, e?aeia aaaeii iiiyoue ?acieoeo iaaeaeo
aeaiaaeiui, eee iiieiaeueiui, aeioiaeia e ?aaeueiui aeioiaeii.
Aeaiaaeiue eee iiieiaeueiue aeioiae – yoi eiee/anoai aeaiaa eioi?ua
/aeiaae iieo/aao a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou, ?aiou, i?ioeaioia eee
i?eauee. ?aaeueiue aeioiae ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii oiaa?ia e oneoa,
eioi?ua iiaeii eoieoue ia noiio iiieiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Caaeoiaeoanue ia
ieiooo, e aai noaiao ynii, /oi anee aao iiieiaeueiue aeioiae aoaeao
oaaee/eaaoueny aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie, /ai o?iaaiue oeai, oi aao
?aaeueiue aeioiae iiauneony. E iaiai?io, anee o?iaaiue oeai aoaeao ?inoe
auno?aa, /ai aao iiieiaeueiue aeioiae, oi aao ?aaeueiue aeioiae
oiaiueoeony.

Eciaiaiea ?aaeueiiai aeioiaea iiaeii i?eaeeceoaeueii au?aceoue
neaaeothuae oi?ioeie:

Eci.?aae.aeio.(%) = Eci.iii.aeio.(%) – Eci.o?.oeai(%) (2.1)

Oaeei ia?acii, anee iiieiaeueiue aeioiae aic?anoao ia 10% a oa/aiea
aeaiiiai aiaea, a o?iaaiue oeai oaaee/eony ia 5% ca oio aea ia?eiae,
?aaeueiue aeioiae iiauneony i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 5%. E iaiai?io,
5-i?ioeaioiia iiauoaiea iiieiaeueiiai aeioiaea i?e 10-i?ioeaioiie
eioeyoeee iiieceo ?aaeueiue aeioiae i?eia?ii ia 5%. Neaaeoao iiiieoue,
/oi nai oaeo eioeyoeee nieaeaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe, oi anoue
oia?aiueoaiea eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua iiaeii eoieoue, – ia
iaycaoaeueii i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth ee/iiai ?aaeueiiai aeioiaea, eee
o?iaiy aeecie. Eioeyoeey nieaeaao iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue; iaeiaei
aao ?aaeueiue aeioiae, eee o?iaaiue aeecie, nieceony oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee aao iiieiaeueiue aeioiae aoaeao ionoaaaoue io eioeyoeee.

Iaeiiaoe, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eioeyoeey ii-?aciiio aeeyao ia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea a caaeneiinoe io oiai, yaeyaony ee iia iaeeaeaaiie
eee iai?aaeaeaeaiiie. A neo/aa iaeeaeaaiie eioeyoeee iieo/aoaeue
aeioiaea iiaeao i?eiyoue ia?u, /oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee, eioi?ua a i?ioeaiii neo/aa io?acyony ia aai
?aaeueiii aeioiaea.

2.2. Iieo/aoaee oeene?iaaiiiai iiieiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Ec ?acee/ee iaaeaeo iiieiaeueiui e ?aaeueiui aeioiaeaie noaiiaeony ynii,
/oi eioeyoeey iaeacuaaao ethaeae, eioi?ua iieo/atho ioiineoaeueii
oeene?iaaiiua iiieiaeueiua aeioiaeu. Eia/a aiai?y, iia ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao
aeioiaeu, oiaiueoay eo o iieo/aoaeae oeene?iaaiiuo aeioiaeia e
oaaee/aiey eo o ae?oaeo a?oii ianaeaiey.

Ethaee, aeeaouea ia iaoeene?iaaiiua aeioiaeu iiaoo auea?aoue io
eioeyoeee. Iiieiaeueiua aeioiaeu oaeeo a?oii ianaeaiey iiaoo iaiaiaoue
o?iaaiue oeai, eee noieiinoue aeecie, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eo ?aaeueiua
aeioiaeu oaaee/aony. ?aai/ea, caiyoua a ?acaeaathueony io?aneyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?aaenoaaeaiiua iiuiuie i?ionithcaie, iiaoo aeiaeoueny,
/oiau eo iiieiaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa oea a iiaoo n o?iaiai eioeyoeee
eee iia?aaeaea aai.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, io eioeyoeee no?aaeatho e iaeioi?ua iaaiiua ?aai/ea.
Oa, eoi ?aaioaao a ia?aioaaaeueiuo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe e eeoaiu
iiaeaea?aeee neeueiuo, aiaauo i?ionithcia, iiaoo ieacaoueny a oaeie
neooaoeee, eiaaea ?ino o?iaiy oeai iaaiieo ?ino eo aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia.

Auea?uo io eioeyoeee iiaoo iieo/eoue oi?aaeythuea oe?i, ae?oaea
iieo/aoaee i?eaueae. Anee oeaiu ia aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth aoaeoo ?anoe
auno?aa, /ai oeaiu ia ?ano?nu, oi aeaiaaeiua iinooieaiey oe?iu aoaeoo
?anoe aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie, /ai ecaea?aeee. Iiyoiio iaeioi?ua aeioiaeu
a aeaea i?eauee aoaeoo iaaiiyoue aieio eioeyoeee.

2.3. Aeaaeaeueoeu naa?aaeaiee.

Eioeyoeey iiaeao iaianoe neeueiue o?ii aeaaeaeueoeai naa?aaeaiee. N
?inoii oeai ?aaeueiay noieiinoue, eee iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue,
naa?aaeaiee, ioeiaeaiiuo ia /a?iue aeaiue, oiaiueoeony.

Ai a?aiy eioeyoeee oiaiueoaaony ?aaeueiay noieiinoue n?i/iuo n/aoia a
aaiea, no?aoiauo iieenia, aaeaaiaeiie ?aiou e ae?oaeo aoiaaeiuo aeoeaia
n oeene?iaaiiie noieiinoueth, eioi?uo eiaaea-oi oaaoaei, /oiau
ni?aaeoueny n oyaeaeuie iai?aaeaeaeaiiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. Eiia/ii,
ii/oe ana oi?iu naa?aaeaiee i?eiinyo i?ioeaio, ii oai ia iaiaa
noieiinoue naa?aaeaiee aoaeao iaaeaoue, anee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee i?aauneo
i?ioeaioioth noaaeo. I?eia?, auei aeiaeaii 1000 a eiiia?/aneee aaie eee
a nnoaei-naa?aaaoaeueioth annioeeaoeeth eee eoieaia iaeeaaoeey ca 1000
i?e 6%-iie noaaea. Ii anee eioeyoeey aeinoeaaao 13%, oi a eiioea aiaea
noieiinoue, eee iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue, yoie ouny/e oiaiueoeony aei
938, oi anoue aeeaae/ee iieo/eo 1060, ii aeaoee?iaaiea yoeo 1060 n
o/aoii 13%-iie eioeyoeee icia/aao, /oi ?aaeueiay noieiinoue 1060
ninoaaeyao eeoue ieiei 938(1060 ?acaeaeeoue ia 1.13).

2.4. Aeaaeoi?u e e?aaeeoi?u.

Eioeyoeey oaeaea ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao aeioiaeu iaaeaeo aeaaeoi?aie e
e?aaeeoi?aie. A /anoiinoe, iai?aaeaeaeaiiay eioeyoeey i?eiineo auaiaeo
aeaaeoi?ai(iieo/aoaeyi nnoaeu) ca n/ao e?aaeeoi?ia(nnoaeiaeaoaeae).
I?aaeiieiaeei, au aa?aoa a aaiea 1000, eioi?ua aeieaeiu aica?aoeoue
/a?ac aeaa aiaea. Anee au ca yoio ia?eiae iauee o?iaaiue oeai oaaee/eeny
a 2 ?aca, oi 1000, eioi?ua au aeieaeiu auieaoeoue, eiaai au iieiaeio
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ia?aiii/aeueii acyoie aaie noiiu. I?aaaea,
aac o/aoa auieaou i?ioeaioia au aicianoeoa oo aea noiio, eaeoth au acyee
a aeiea. Ii aneaaenoaea eioeyoeee ca iaeio aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo oaia?ue
iiaeii aoaeao eoieoue oieueei iieiaeio oiai, /oi iiaee au eoieoue a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea a?aee nnoaeo. Eiaaea oeaiu ?anooo, noieiinoue aeaiaa
iaaeaao, Oaeei ia?acii, ec-ca eioeyoeee iieo/aoaeth nnoaeu aeatho “
aei?iaea ” aeaiueae, a ii aica?auaao aa “ aeaoaauie “ aeaiueaaie.
Eioeyoeey aeaoo iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee auea iaiaeeaeaiiui n/anouea aeey
oao, eoi iieoiae, iai?eia?, aeiia a na?aaeeia 60-o aiaeia iiae caeia n
oeene?iaaiiie i?ioeaioiie noaaeie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, eioeyoeey
cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/eea ?aaeueiia a?aiy caaeieaeiinoe ii caeeaaeiui. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue aeiiia aic?inoaea auno?aa, /ai
iauee o?iaaiue oeai.

Oaaea?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, iaeiieaoaa a oa/aiea aeanyoeeaoee ia?iiiue
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea a 2600 ie?ae. aeie., oaeaea iieo/eei aieueooth
auaiaeo io eioeyoeee. Ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee oaaea?aeueiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aaoey?ii iiea/eaaei aeieae ec aiiaue acyouo nnoae.
Eioeyoeey aeaea aiaeiiaeiinoue ieienoa?noao oeiainia iieaoeoue aeieae
aeaiueaaie, eiathueie iaiueooth iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue, /ai oa,
eioi?ua iii iieo/eei. Iiieiaeueiue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iaeiaiaua nai?u ?anooo i?e eioeyoeee; ?acia?u aea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa ia oaaee/eaathony. Yoi cia/eo, /oi eioeyoeey
iaeaa/aao i?aaeoaeuenoao ?aaeueiie a?aiy ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. I?e
oii, /oi eioeyoeey i?eiineo oaeoth auaiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoao, iaeioi?ua
yeiiiienou ioe?uoi caaeatho aii?in: iiaeao ee iauanoai ?ann/eouaaoue ia
oi, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iyaeo ?aaiea a naieo iiiuoeao i?einoaiiaeoue
eioeyoeeth?

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaeioi?ua no?aiu, oaeea, eae A?aceeey, eiaaea-oi
ianoieueei oe?iei eniieueciaaee eioeyoeeth, /oiau oiaiueoeoue ?aaeueioth
noieiinoue naieo aeieaia, /oi oaia?ue e?aaeeoi?u auioaeaeatho eo a?aoue
caeiu ia a naiae aaethoa, a aia?eeaineeo aeieea?ao eee eaeie-ieaoaeue
ae?oaie ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaie aaethoa. Yoi ia iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue eioeyoeeth aioo?e no?aiu, /oiau ecaaaeaoue “ iaauiieiaiey
iaycaoaeuenoa “ ii aeieaai. Ethaay eioeyoeey aioo?e no?aiu i?eaiaeeo e
oiaiueoaieth ?aaeueiie noieiinoe aa aaethou, ii ia noieiinoe aeieaa,
eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii auieaoeoue.

2.5. Iaeeaeaaiay eioeyoeey.

Iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee a noa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey auee au ia oaeeie
oyaeaeuie e aeaaea ono?aieiuie, anee au ethaee iiaee i?aaeaeaeaoue
eioeyoeeth e eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue nei??aeoe?iaaoue naie iiieiaeueiua
aeioiaeu n o/aoii i?aaenoiyueo eciaiaiee a o?iaia oeai. Iai?eia?,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiay eioeyoeey, ia/aaoayny a eiioea 60-o aiaeia, a 70-a
aiaeu canoaaeea iiiaea i?ionithcu ianoaeaaoue ia oii, /oiau a o?oaeiaua
aeiaiai?u aiineeenue iii?aaee ia ?ino noieiinoe aeecie aaoiiaoe/anee
ei??aeoe?othuea aeioiaeu ?aai/eo n o/aoii eioeyoeee. Anee i?aaeaeaeaoue
ianooieaiea eioeyoeee, oi iiaeii oaeaea aianoe eciaiaiey a
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia iaaeaeo e?aaeeoi?ii e aeaaeoi?ii, i eioi?uo iu
oieueei /oi aiai?eee. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi e?aaeeoi? e iieo/aoaeue nnoaeu
aeiaiaa?eaathony i oii, /oi 5% yaeythony oia?aiiie i?ioeaioiie noaaeie
ii caeio n?ieii ia iaeei aiae a oii neo/aa, anee o?iaaiue oeai inoaiaony
iaeciaiiui. Ii aneaaenoaea eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia eae e?aaeeoi?, oae e
iieo/aoaeue nnoaeu iieaaatho, /oi anoue iniiaaiey iaeeaeaoue 6%-iiai
iiauoaiey oeai a oa/aiea aoaeouaai aiaea. Anee aaie aeaao caaiueeo
nnoaeo a 100 i?e 5%-iie noaaea, oi a eiioea aiaea ii iieo/eo 105. Ii
anee eioeyoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii aeinoeaiao 6% a oa/aiea yoiai aiaea, oi
iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue yoeo 105 oiaaeao i?eia?ii aei 99.

Oaeoe/anee iieo/aaony, /oi e?aaeeoi? caieaoeo iieo/aoaeth nnoaeu iaeei
aeieea? ca oi, /oi iineaaeiee a oa/aiea aiaea iieueciaaeny aai
aeaiueaaie. E?aaeeoi? iiaeao ecaaaeaoue auieaou oaeie no?aiiie
noaneaeee, anee iiauneo i?ioeaioioth noaaeo a niioaaonoaea n
i?aaeiieaaaaiie o?iaiai eioeyoeee. Iai?eia?, iacia/ea noaaeo a 11%,
e?aaeeoi? a eiioea aiaea iieo/eo 111, eioi?ua n o/aoii 6%-iie eioeyoeee
eiatho ?aaeueioth noieiinoue, eee iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue, i?eia?ii
105. A yoii neo/aa ca iieueciaaiea 100 a oa/aiea aiaea i?ienoiaeeo
i?eaieaiay aeey iaaeo noi?ii ia?aaea/a 5, eee 5%, io aeaaeoi?a
e?aaeeoi?o. Oianoii ioiaoeoue, /oi naa?aaaoaeueiua e nnoaeiua
o/?aaeaeaiey aaaee caeeaaeiua n eciaiythuaeny i?ioeaioiie noaaeie, /oiau
caueoeoue naay io iaaaoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey eioeyoeee.

Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, yoe i?eia?u iieacuaatho, /oi aunieea iiieiaeueiua
i?ioeaioiua noaaee yaeythony nei?aa neaaenoaeai eioeyoeee, a ia aa
i?e/eiie.

Iao i?eia? oeacuaaao ia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ?aaeueiie i?ioeaioiie noaaeie,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aeaiaaeiie, eee iiieiaeueiie, i?ioeaioiie noaaeie –
n ae?oaie. ?aaeueiay i?ioeaioiay noaaea – yoi au?aaeaiea a i?ioeaioao
oaaee/aiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe, eioi?ua e?aaeeoi? iieo/aao io
caaiueea. A iaoai i?eia?a ?aaeueiay i?ioeaioiay noaaea ninoaaeyao 5%.
Iiieiaeueiay i?ioeaioiay noaaea – yoi au?aaeaiea a i?ioeaioao oaaee/aiea
aeaiaaeiie noiiu, eioi?oth iieo/aao e?aaeeoi?. A iaoai i?eia?a
iiieiaeueiay i?ioeaioiay noaaea ?aaia 11%. ?acieoea iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy
iiiyoeyie ninoieo a oii, /oi, a ioee/ea io iiieiaeueiie i?ioeaioiie
noaaee, ?aaeueiay i?ioeaioiay noaaea ei??aeoe?oaony, eee “ aeaoee?oaony
“, a niioaaonoaee n o?iaiai eioeyoeee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iiieiaeueiay
i?ioeaioiay noaaea ?aaia noiia ?aaeueiie i?ioeaioiie noaaee e i?aiee,
auiea/eaaaiie aeey eiiiainaoeee i?aaeiieaaaaiiai o?iaiy eioeyoeee.

3. Aeeyiea eioeyoeee ia iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.

3.1. Noeioeu eioeyoeee ni?ina.

Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou n/eoatho, /oi aeinoe/ue iieiie caiyoinoe iiaeii
oieueei i?e aeiaieueii ne?iiiii o?iaia eioeyoeee. Eo a?aoiaiou iniiaaiu
ia aeaiiuo, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia ?en.(1.2). Iu ciaai, /oi o?iaie iauaia
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe caaeneo io niaieoiiuo
?anoiaeia. I?e ieceeo ?anoiaeao yeiiiieea ooieoeeiie?oao ia io?acea 1.
Ia yoii io?acea nouanoaoao onoie/eaue o?iaaiue oeai, ii ?aaeueiue iauai
iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ai?acaei ieaea iioaioeeaeueiiai, a
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu aunie. Anee niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu oaaee/aony a oaeie
noaiaie, /oi yeiiiieea aieaeao ai aoi?ie io?acie, iu iaia?oaeei, /oi,
aeey oiai /oiau aeinoe/ue aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy ?aaeueiiai iauaia
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia?yaeo n aieaa ieceei o?iaiai
aac?aaioeoeu, iauanoai auioaeaeaii i?eie?eoueny n aieaa aunieeie
oeaiaie, oi anoue n iaeioi?ui o?iaiai eioeyoeee.

Eiia/ii, anee aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia i?iaeaeiao
yeiiiieeo e io?aceo 3, oi yoe ?anoiaeu noaioo /enoi eioeyoeeiiiuie,
iioiio /oi aoaeao aeinoeaioo oaeie o?iaaiue ?aaeueiiai iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, eiaaea iii ?aaioaao ia iieioth iiuiinoue e iaania/eaaao
iieioth caiyoinoue.

Nae/an aeey ian aeaaiia oi, /oi ia io?acea 2, ii-aeaeeiiio, nouanoaoao
?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eioeyoeeae – n
ae?oaie. Neaaeoao i?eie?eoueny n iaeioi?ie oia?aiiie eioeyoeeae, anee iu
oioei aeiaeoueny aunieiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe. Aunieee
o?iaaiue ?anoiaeia, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e aieaa aunieiio o?iaith
i?iecaiaenoaa e ieceiio o?iaith aac?aaioeoeu, oaeaea aucuaaao
eioeyoeeth. Eiuie neiaaie, iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue ia?aoiay caaeneiinoue
iaaeaeo o?iaiyie eioeyoeee e aac?aaioeoeu.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oaeay iiaeaeue aucuaaea e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey.
Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou iieaaatho, /oi ethaia ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo o?iaiyie
eioeyoeee e aac?aaioeoeu a eo/oai neo/aa yaeyaony i?aoiaeyuei e
e?aoeia?aiaiiui yaeaieai e /oi a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea oaeia
?aaiiaanea iaaiciiaeii.

3.2. Eioeyoeey, iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii ecaea?aeae, e aac?aaioeoea.

Eioeyoeey iiaeao aucaaoue oaeaea nie?auaiea eae i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e
caiyoinoe. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi n naiiai ia/aea iauai ?anoiaeia oaeia, /oi
a yeiiiieea nouanoaoao iieiay caiyoinoue e noaaeeueiue o?iaaiue oeai.
Anee ia/eiaaony eioeyoeey, iaoneiaeaiiay ?inoii ecaea?aeae, oi i?e
nouanoaothuai o?iaia niaieoiiiai ni?ina ?aaeueiue iauai i?iaeoeoeee
nie?aoeony. Yoi cia/eo, /oi ?ino ecaea?aeae auciaao ?aceia iiauoaiea
oeai e i?e aeaiiuo iaueo ?anoiaeao iiaeii aoaeao eoieoue ia ?uiea
oieueei /anoue ?aaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaeueiue iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaiueoeony, a aac?aaioeoea aic?anoao.

Iieiaeaiea, neiaeeaoaany a yeiiiieea a 70-o aiaeao, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
oaeoth iiaeaeue. A eiioea 1973 a. I?aaiecaoeey no?ai yenii?oa?ia
iaooe(IIYE) noaea aeaenoaiaaoue yooaeoeaii e, iieuecoynue naiei aeeyieai
ia ?uiea, oaaee/eea oeaiu ia iaooue a 4 ?aca. Iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee,
aucaaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae, i?eaaee e auno?iio oaaee/aieth o?iaiy oeai
a 1973-1975 aa. A oi a?aiy o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu iiauneeny
i?eaeeceoaeueii n 5% a 1973 a. aei 8,5% a 1975 a. Iiaeiaiay neooaoeey
aicieeea a 1979-1980 aa., eiaaea i?iecioei aoi?ia iiauoaiea( ii
eieoeeaoeaa IIYE ) oeai ia iaooue.

3.3. Aeia?eioeyoeey e e?ao.

Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou au?aaeatho iianaiey ii iiaiaeo ia?aie iiaeaee. Iie
aiyony, /oi oia?aiiay, iieco/ay eioeyoeey, eioi?ay iiaeao nia/aea
niioonoaiaaoue iaeeaeaieth yeiiiieee, iioii, ia?anoay eae niaaeiue eii,
i?aa?aoeony a aieaa aeanoieoth aeia?eioeyoeeth. Yoei oa?ieiii
iaicia/athony /?acau/aeii auno?ua oaiiu ?inoa eioeyoeee, eioi?ay
ieacuaaao ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoue. Aeaei a oii, /oi, eiaaea oeaiu iaaeeaiii, ii
iinoiyiii ?anooo, ianaeaiea e i?aaei?eyoey aioiayony e eo aeaeueiaeoaio
iiauoaieth. Iiyoiio, /oiau eo iaeniieueciaaiiua naa?aaeaiey e oaeouea
aeioiaeu ia iaanoeaieaaeenue, oi anoue ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaeiieaaaaiia
iiauoaiea oeai, ethaee auioaeaeaiu “o?aoeoue aeaiueae nae/an“.
I?aaei?eyoey iinooiatho oae aea, iieoiay eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u.
Iinooiee, aeeeooaiua “eioeyoeeiiiui ineoicii“, oneeeaatho aeaaeaiea ia
oeaiu, e eioeyoeey ia/eiaao “ei?ieoue naia naay“. Aieaa oiai, iineieueeo
noieiinoue aeecie oaaee/eaaaony, ?aai/ea o?aaotho e iieo/atho aieaa
aunieoth iiieiaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo. A i?ionithcu no?aiyony e
oaeiio iiauoaieth ca?aaioiie ieaou, eioi?ie oaaoeei au ia oieueei ia oi,
/oiau iie?uoue i?ioeiaiaeiaa iiauoaiea oeai, ii e eiiiaine?iaaoue
eioeyoeeth, eioi?ay iaeeaeaaony a oi ia?eiae, eiaaea iiaue eieeaeoeaiue
aeiaiai? aoaeao aua a neea. Ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia ia naiia
iiaeoiaeyuaa a?aiy, /oiau ioeeiiyoue oaeea o?aaiaaiey e eaeoe ia ?ene
caaanoiaie. Aaeieieno?aoeey oe?i eiiiaine?oao naie cao?aou ia ?aai/oth
neeo, acaei/eaay oeaiu, i?e yoii a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oe?iu no?aiyony
iiaeiyoue oeaiu aua ia iaeio-aeaa nooiaiueee, /oiau oaaaeeoueny, /oi
iieo/aoaee i?eaueae eaeoo a iaeiie oe?aiaa eee aia?aaee eioeyoeeiiiiai
ia?aaea. Oae eae a ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai iiauoaiey oeai noieiinoue aeecie
oaaee/eaaaony, o ?aai/eo iiyaeyaony i?ae?aniia ii?aaaeaiea, /oiau aiiaue
iio?aaiaaoue nouanoaaiiiai iiauoaiey ca?ieaou. Ii yoi aaaeao e iiaiio
aeoeo iiauoaiey oeai. Eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii yaeyaony eoioeyoeaiay
eioeyoeeiiiay nie?aeue ca?ieaou e oeai. Ca?ieaoa e iiauoaiea oeai
iiaeea?ieeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa, e yoi iiiiaaao iieco/ae eioeyoeee ia?aeoe
a aaeiie?othuoth.

N/eoaaony, /oi e?iia ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee aeey
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeia?eioeyoeey iiaeao onei?eoue yeiiiie/aneee e?ao.
AEanoieay eioeyoeey niinianoaoao oiio, /oi oneeey iai?aaeythony ia ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth, a ia niaeoeyoeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue. I?aaei?eyoeyi
noaiiaeoueny ana aieaa e aieaa auaiaeiui iaeaieeaaoue nu?uea e aioiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth a i?aaeaeaeaiee aoaeouaai iiauoaiey oeai. Ii ianiioaaonoaea
nu?uey e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ni?ino ia ieo aaaeao e oneeaieth
eioeyoeeiiiiai aeaaeaiey. Aianoi oiai /oiau aeeaaeuaaoue eaieoae a
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u, i?iecaiaeeoaee e ioaeaeueiua eeoea, caueuaynue
io eioeyoeee, i?eia?aoatho iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe
– thaaee?iua ecaeaeey, cieioi e ae?oaea ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu,
iaaeaeaeeiinoue e o.ae.

A /?acau/aeiie neooaoeee, eiaaea oeaiu iiaeneaeeaatho ?acei e
ia?aaiiia?ii, ii?iaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ?ac?ooathony.
Aeaaeaeueoeu i?aaei?eyoee ia ciatho, eaeoth oeaio ia oiaa?u iaaei
iacia/eoue. A iio?aaeoaee ia ciatho, eaeoth oeaio ieaoeoue. Iinoaaueee
nu?uey oioyo iieo/eoue ?aaeueiua oiaa?u, a ia auno?i iaanoeaieaathueany
aeaiueae. E?aaeeoi?u noa?athony ecaaaaoue naieo aeieaeieeia, /oiau ia
iieo/aoue aica?auaiiue aeiea a aeaoaauo aeaiueaao. Aeaiueae oaeoe/anee
oa?ytho oeaio e ia?anoatho auiieiyoue naie ooieoeee a ea/anoaa ia?u
noieiinoe e n?aaenoaa iaiaia. I?iecaiaenoai e iaiai ni ne?eiii
aeaeaathony e inoaiiaea, e a eiia/iii eoiaa iiaeao ianooieoue
yeiiiie/aneee, nioeeaeueiue e i/aiue aiciiaeii, iieeoe/aneee oain.
Aeia?eioeyoeey onei?yao oeiainiaue e?ao, aeai?anneth e
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea aanii?yaeee.

E ian/anoueth, enoi?ey aeaao iai ?yae i?eia?ia, aienuaathueony a yoo
i?a/ioth iiaeaeue. Iau/ii yoi eioeyoeey aiaiiuo eee iineaaiaiiuo eao,
eioi?ay auno?i i?aa?auaeanue a aeia?eioeyoeeth n eaoano?ioe/aneeie
iineaaenoaeyie. ?anniio?ei aeeyiea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ia o?iaaiue oeai
a Aaia?ee e ssiiiee.

Eioeyoeey a Aaia?ee iiaeea ana ecaanoiua ecaanoiua ?aei?aeu. A aaaonoa
1946a. 829 ieoeeueiiia (aaeeieoea n 22 ioeyie) iaanoeaiaiiuo oi?eioia
auee ?aaiu noieiinoe iaeiiai aeiaiaiiiai oi?eioa. A 1947a. yiiineea
?uaaee e oa?ia?u iieueciaaeenue aanaie, /oiau acaaoeaaoue aaethoo e
iaei/ue, a ia oo?oaeaeaoue naay ia?an/eouaaieai. N 1938 ii 1948a. oeaiu
a yoie no?aia iiauneeenue a 116 ?ac.

Eioeyoeey a Aa?iaiee a 20-a aiaeu oiaea iineea eaoano?ioe/aneee
oa?aeoa?. Aa?iaineay Aaeia?neay ?anioaeeea – yoi iaaeyaeiaeoee i?eia?
oiai, eae neaaia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaea?aeaeinue a oa/aiea eaeiai-oi
a?aiaie n ?anno?iaiiuie eioeyoeeae oeiainaie. 27 ai?aey 1921a.
iaiaoeeiio i?aaeoaeuenoao aue i?aaeinoaaeai ioaeiieoaeueiue n/ao ia
?aia?aoeeiiiua auieaou nithcieeai ia 132 ie?ae. cieiouo ia?ie. Yoa noiia
iaiiiai i?aauoaea oi, /oi Aaeia?neay ?anioaeeea iiaea nia?aoue n
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. Eiay ia?iiiue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo, aaeia?neia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ionoeei a oiae ia/aoiue noaiie, /oiau iieaoeoue naie
n/aoa.

A 1922a. o?iaaiue oeai a Aa?iaiee iiaeiyeny ia 5470%. A 1923a.
iieiaeaiea oooaeoeeinue; o?iaaiue oeai au?in a 1300000000000 ?ac. E
ieoya?th 1923a., /oiau iineaoue ienueii ec Aa?iaiee a Niaaeeiaiiua
Ooaou, iaaei auei caieaoeoue 200 oun. ia?ie, ooio ianea noiee 1,5 iei.
ia?ie, iyna – 2 iei., aaoii 200 oun. ia?ie, iaeii yeoei – 60 oun. ia?ie.
Oeaiu ?inee oae auno?i, /oi ioeoeeaiou ianeieueei ?ac eciaiyee eo a
iaith ai a?aiy caao?aea. Eiiaaea iinaoeoaee ?anoi?aiia ieaoeee ca
nuaaeaiiue iaaae aaeaia aieueoa oie oeaiu, eioi?ay cia/eeanue a iaith,
eiaaea iie oieueei aeaeaee caeac.

CAEETH*AIEA

A caeeth/aiea oianoii auneacaoue i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea. Oaeay
eaoano?ioe/aneay aeia?eioeyoeey ii/oe anaaaea yaeyaony neaaenoaeai
aac?annoaeiiai oaaee/aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaii aeaiaaeiie iannu. I?e
niioaaonoaothuae ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeea iao iniiaaiee aeey
ia?a?anoaiey oia?aiiie, eee iieco/ae, eioeyoeee a aeia?eioeyoeeth.

1. Aeey iaoae yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?iu eieaaaiey iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa, caiyoinoe e o?iaiy oeai. Oioy yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu anaaaea
eiatho iaeie e oa aea oacu – iee, niaae, iiaeuai, iaeeaeaiea, – oeeeeu
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii eioaineaiinoe e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe.

2. Oioy aeey iauyniaiey oeeeee/aneiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee
eniieueciaaeenue oaeea enoiaeiua i?e/eiu oaeoi?u, eae oaoie/aneea
iiaoanoaa, iieeoe/aneea niauoey, iaeiieaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu, iau/ii
n/eoaaony, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeaoa?ieiaioie iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe yaeyaony iauai iaueo ?anoiaeia.

3. Ana naeoi?u yeiiiieee ii-?aciiio e a ?aciie noaiaie iiaeaa?aathony
aicaeaenoaeth yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea. Oeeee ieacuaaao aieaa neeueiia
aeeyiea ia iauai i?iaeoeoeee e caiyoinoue a io?aneyo, i?iecaiaeyueo
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u e oiaa?u aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, /ai a
io?aneyo, auioneathueo oiaa?u e?aoeia?aiaiiiai iieueciaaiey.

4. Yeiiiienou auaeaeytho o?e oeia aac?aaioeoeu: o?eeoeeiiioth,
no?oeoo?ioth e oeeeee/aneoth. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy n/eoaaony, /oi iieiay
caiyoinoue, eee anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ineiaeiyaony oai, /oi
?aaioieee, caiyoua iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue, a oaeaea oaeea, eoi iioa?ye
iaaeaaeaeo ia iieo/aiea ?aaiou.

5. Yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee aac?aaioeoeu, au?aaeaiiua a ionoaaaiee
iauaia AII, yoi oiaa?u e oneoae, eioi?ua iauanoai oa?yao, eiaaea aai
?ano?nu iaoiaeyony a auioaeaeaiiii i?inoia. Caeii Ioeaia onoaiaaeeaaao,
/oi iaeei i?ioeaio i?e?inoa aac?aaioeoeu naa?o anoanoaaiiiai o?iaiy
i?eaiaeeo e 2,5%-iiio oaaee/aieth ionoaaaiey AII.

6. Nouanoaoao ia?iiiay ?acieoea a o?iaiyo aac?aaioeoeu e eioeyoeee a
?aciuo no?aiao. O?iaie aac?aaioeoeu ioee/athony iioiio, /oi no?aiu
eiatho ?aciua anoanoaaiiua o?iaie aac?aaioeoeu e /anoi iaoiaeyony a
?aciuo oacao yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea. A oa/aiea iineaaeieo ianeieueeeo eao
o?iaie eioeyoeee e aac?aaioeoeu a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao auee iecee ii
n?aaiaieth n oeaeui ?yaeii ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo no?ai.

7. Yeiiiienou ioee/atho eioeyoeeth ni?ina io eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie
?inoii ecaea?aeae (eioeyoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey). Anoue aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe
eioeyoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae:

– eioeyoeey, aucaaiiay ?inoii ca?aaioiie ieaou;

– eioeyoeey, aicieeoay a ?acoeueoaoa ia?ooaiey iaoaiecia yeiiiieee
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

8. Iai?aaeaeaeaiiay eioeyoeey i?iecaieueii ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao aeioiaeu a
oua?a iieo/aoaeyi oeene?iaaiiiai aeioiaea, e?aaeeoi?ai e aeaaeaeueoeai
naa?aaeaiee. A i?aaeaeaeaiee eioeyoeee ioaeaeueiua eeoea e oe?iu iiaoo
i?eiyoue ia?u, /oiau oiaiueoeoue eee iieiinoueth eneeth/eoue aa
iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey.

9. Eiioeaioeey eioeyoeee ni?ina i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi anee yeiiiieea
no?aieony e aunieiio o?iaith i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe, oi oia?aiiay
eioeyoeey iaiaoiaeeia. Iaeiaei noi?iiieee eiioeaioeee eioeyoeee,
iaoneiaeaiiie ?inoii ecaea?aeae, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi eioeyoeey iiaeao
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny nie?auaieai ?aaeueiiai iauaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe. Aeia?eioeyoeey, eioi?ay iau/ii naycaia n
ia?acoiiie iieeoeeie i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iiaeao iiaei?aaoue oeiainiaoth
nenoaio e onei?eoue e?ao.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U:

1. Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu.- Eeaa: “ I?ana Oe?a?ie “ – 1993 a. i.10, no?. 56

2. Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu.- Eeaa: “ I?ana Oe?a?ie “ – 1993 a. i.11, no?.48

3. Yeiiiieen.- I: “ ?anioaeeea “- 1993 a. o. 1, no?.163

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