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Инфляционные процессы в Российской Экономике

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Iniiaiua oaeoi?u eioeyoeee a ?innee.

Oa?aeoa? e ni/aoaiea oaeoi?ia, a oii /enea noaoai niaoeeoe/aneeo,
ii?aaeaeythueo oiae niauoee a yeiiiieea e aeaiaaeiie noa?a no?aiu,
aeatho iniiaaiea iieaaaoue, /oi ioa/anoaaiiue oei eioeyoeee oieeaeai e
ioee/aaony io eeanne/aneeo e ethauo ae?oaeo ecaanoiuo oeiia eioeyoeee.
Aeey ?ac?aaioee yooaeoeaiuo i?ioeaaeo? ioa/anoaaiiie aioeeioeyoeeiiiie
iieeoeee iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeueiua iiaeoiaeu. I?e yoii i?eiaieiinoue
iiaeoiaeia, i?aeoeeoaiuo a no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie, eiaao
aanueia ia?aie/aiiua ?aiee.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua oaeoi?u ?inneeneie eioeyoeee 1990-o aiaeia. I?aaeaea
anaai, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi eioeyoeeiiiua oaeoi?u aiiaua
iiae?acaeaeythony ia iiiaoa?iua e iaiiiaoa?iua. Iiae iiiaoa?iuie
iiieiathony oaeoi?u, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n aaee/eiie aeaiaaeiie
iannu. I?e yoii iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi ?aoaiey a noa?a aeaiaaeiie
iieeoeee ia aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu iieeoe/aneeie ?aoaieyie aieaa aunieiai
ii?yaeea. Oaeoi?u, eaaeauea ia noi?iia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey,
ioiinyony e iaiiiaoa?iui. Nouanoaoao aua iaeei e?eoa?ee ioianaiey
oaeoi?ia eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna e iiiaoa?iui, eeai iaiiiaoa?iui. A
iniiaa yoiai e?eoa?ey eaaeao i?aaiii/ey iniiaiiai noauaeoa ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeaiaaeiie noa?u. N iiceoeee yoiai e?eoa?ey e iiiaoa?iui neaaeoao
ioiineoue oaeoi?u eioeyoeee, aeaenoaea eioi?uo iiaeao auoue
iaeo?aeeciaaii iiiaoa?iuie n?aaenoaaie aac iaianaiey na?ueaciiai oua?aa
iauayeiiiie/aneiio ninoiyieth no?aiu. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa oaeoi?u
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae eiathuea iaiiiaoa?ioth i?e?iaeo.

Noi?iiieee iiiaoa?iiai iiaeoiaea enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi ?inneeneay
eioeyoeey ecia/aeueii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeie/iue, oioy e oneiaeiaiiue
neo/ae eioeyoeee ni?ina. I?e yoii iauai ni?ina ii?aaeaeyaony aeaiaaeiie
iannie [QD(M)]. Iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu eae aoaeoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho yoo
aa?neth, iniaaiii a ia?eiae n aaniu 1992 aiaea aei aaniu 1994 aiaea,
eiaaea eioeyoeey i?aeoe/anee eaeaaeueii oeeaaeuaaeanue a iiiaoa?enoneoth
iiaeaeue n onoie/eaui o?aoiany/iui eaaii iaaeaeo ?inoii aeaiaaeiie iannu
e ?inoii oeai. Ii i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea aac aieiaiey inoaaony i?aaeunoi?ey
e ia/aeueiue yoai ?acaeoey eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, oi anoue aaiacen
eioeyoeee, a oaeaea ioaeaeueiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa, naycaiiua n eioeyoeeae
a aa aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie oaca. N oeaeueth auyaeaiey oaeoi?ia ?inoa oeai
oeaeaniia?acii ia?aoeoueny e i?iaeaia aaiacena e ?acaeoey eioeyoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia.

Eioeyoeey 90-o aiaeia aunooiaao iaeiei ec i?iyaeaiee e?ecena
«nioeeaeenoe/aneie» oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu. Ae?oaei iaeaieaa y?eei
i?iyaeaieai yoiai e?ecena aunooiaao niaae i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaoa?eaeueiie
iniiaie e?ecena yaeyaony ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue,
aeeni?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue yeiiiieee eae ia aeiaaeueiii, oae e ia
eieaeueiii o?iaiyo. E iniiaiui aeeni?iii?oeeyi oicyenoaa ioiineony
niioiioaiea I e II iiae?acaeaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, iaeiieaiey
e iio?aaeaiey.

Ae?oaei oaeoi?ii eioeyoeee yaeyeanue iayeiiiie/iinoue i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?ienoaeathuay iaiin?aaenoaaiii io ionoonoaey ?uiea e eiieo?aioiie
ai?ueau. Aa i?iyaeaieyie yaeythony /anoi oiiieiaaiua eae ao?eaoou
nioeeaeenoe/aneie iiaeaee, cao?aoiue oa?aeoa? i?iecaiaenoaa, ieceee
o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

A oeaeyo eni?aaeaiey yaii iaaeaaii?eyoiiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaeenue
?acee/iua ia?u. Iaeiie ec ieo auee «iiaua iaoiaeu oicyenoaiaaiey». Ii
aaaaeaiea oae iacuaaaiuo oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 80-o
aiaeia eeoue onei?yei i?ioeann ia?anoaiey aeeni?iii?oeee, iniaaiii a
noa?a iio?aaeaiey. Ia iaiyy ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe, nio?aiyy oo aea
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth iiaeaeue, oic?an/aoiua ioiioaiey noeioee?iaaee eeoue
iio?aaeoaeueneea i?aoaicee o?oaeyueony. A eoiaa aeiey aeioiaeia
ianaeaiey a AAI n 40% a 1980 a. au?inea aei 64% a 1991 a. I?e yoii
niioiioaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa I e II iiae?acaeaeaiee aanue yoio
ia?eiae auei aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeueiui e ia iiaei iiaeeyoue ia nieaeaiea
ino?iou i?ioeai?a/ee. Oaeay neooaoeey a oneiaeyo ieaiiaiai
oeaiiia?aciaaiey iaoiaeeea ?ac?aoaiea a eaoaioiie eioeyoeee, oi anoue
ino?ii oiaa?iii aeaoeoeeoa. Iiiuoee ?aoeoue i?iaeaio iooai /anoe/iie
aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu, eiio?iey ca ca?ieaoie eee aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
?aoi?ie?iaaiey oeai auee aaconiaoiu.

?aoaiea i aaaaeaiee n 1 yiaa?y 1992 a. naiaiaeiuo oeai ia iniiaioth
iiiaieeaoo?o oiaa?ia yaeyeinue iaeiei ec /anoiuo eoiaia neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeee. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi ia oiia iauaai ?inoa oeai aoaeao auno?i
naaeaine?iaaia yeiiiieea, iioeiece?iaaia aa no?oeoo?a e ?aoaiu
no?aoaae/aneea aii?inu ia?aoiaea ia oeeaeeeciaaiioth ?uii/ioth iiaeaeue
oicyenoaiaaiey. Noeoeth oeai i?aaeiieaaaeinue oniieieoue aeanoeeie
ia?aie oeneaeueiie e aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Ii i?iaiico iauee
o?iaaiue oeai aeieaeai aue aic?anoe a 3-4 ?aca. Ia i?aiaeieaiea iniiaiuo
iineaaenoaee oeaiiaiai oiea ioaiaeeeny i?eia?ii aiae. Yoe ?an/aou
no?ieeenue ia iniiaa eeanne/aneie iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee. Aianoa n
oai, oeiiaua iiaeaee iae?iaiaeeca enoiaeyo ec i?aaeiinueee i iaee/ee
aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu. A oneiaeyo
aunieiiiiiiieece?iaaiiie yeiiiieee e ionoonoaey o?aaeeoeee aeaeiai
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeeiaeaiea ioee/aaony ieceie yeanoe/iinoueth ii oaeoi?o
oeai, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ioeac io eiio?iey ca oeaiaie aaaeao e eo ?inoo
e ia nicaeaao na?ueaciuo iiaoaeeoaeueiuo iioeaia aeey oaaee/aiey
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yoei aea oa?aeoa?ecoaony e ni?in, ia?aiao?u eioi?iai
oianeaaeiaaiu io ieaiiaie yeiiiieee n oa?aeoa?iui aeey iaa aeaoeoeeoii e
iaiueoei ?aciiia?aceai iio?aaeoaeueneie ei?ceiu, ninoiyuae oieueei ec
aaciauo i?iaeoeoia. Eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai a oaeeo oneiaeyo icia/aao
aaaaeaiea eaaaeueiie iiiiiieee ia eo onoaiiaeaiea, i?e/ai «oeaiiaie
yeno?aieci» iiaeao ni/aoaoueny eae ni nieaeaieai ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
oae e n caauoaieai ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
inaiaiaeaeaiea oeai, aianoi iiauoaiey, iiaeao aanoe e nieaeaieth iauae
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Nenoaiiay ioeaea i?e ?an/aoa aa?eaioia
?acaeoey niauoee iinea ?aoaiey i auaiaea oeai ec-iiae eiio?iey, eae e a
neo/aa n aiaae?aieai oic?an/aoiuo iaoiaeia, ninoieo a oii, /oi iniiaiay
iaa?ocea i?eoeanue ia noa?o ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iaiaia. Aicaeaenoaea /a?ac
?aoi?ie?iaaiea yoeo noa? ia i?iecaiaenoai iiaeao eiaoue
icaei?iaeoaeueiue yooaeo, ii iii aiciiaeii ia a ethaie oaca caaieaaaiey.
Nouanoaoao e?eoe/aneay oi/ea, ca eioi?ie i?ioeann aucaei?iaeaiey iiaeao
eaeoe neeoeii aeieai e neeoeii aieaciaiii n iioaioeeaeueiuie
ineiaeiaieyie. I?eiaieoaeueii e ninoiyieth ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie
no?oeoo?u yoa oi/ea auea, aiciiaeii, i?ieaeaia oaea a 30-o aiaeao, e n
oao ii? aeey eni?aaeaiey iieiaeaiey o?aaiaaeinue aiaoiaa
ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai.

Eoae, inaiaiaeaeaiea oeai eiaao iaeioi?ua iiai/iua ?acoeueoaou.
Iieiaeeoaeueiui eoiaii inaiaiaeaeaiey oeai aunooiaao ?aoaiea a iniiaiii
i?iaeaiu oiaa?iiai aeaoeoeeoa, a io?eoeaoaeueiui – ?acaeoea
eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aiiaue aicieeoee
eioeyoeeiiiue i?ioeann ia oieueei ieoaaony yia?aeae iaeiieaiiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee, ii e nai aeoeaii nicaeaao iiaua oaeoi?u nianoaaiiiai
?acaeoey, naiiaeaeaeoueany oaeoi?u eioeyoeee. ?anniio?ei eo iiae?iaii.

Eeeaeaeaoeey aeaoeoeeoa e aeaoeoeeoiuo iaeeaeaiee aaaeao e ioeaco io
nicaeaiey caiania e nieaeaieth iiieiaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey e i?aaeaea
anaai oiaa?ia ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iaeiia?aiaiii ?ino oeai aaaeao e
ia?aie/aieth e ?aaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey /anoueth ianaeaiey.
Iauayeiiiie/aneei eoiaii yoiai ia?aie/aiey a iaeanoe iio?aaeoaeueneiai
ni?ina aunooiaao iauay yeiiiiey o?oaeiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai yoeo oiaa?ia. Iaeiia?aiaiii iaaeaiea aaeeioaaeiiai ni?ina
aunooiaao oaeoi?ii noaaeeecaoeee oeai ia yoe oiaa?u, e ionthaea oeaiu
?aai/ae neeu e oeai a oeaeii. Iaeiaei yooaeo aeaiiiai oaeoi?a
noaaeeecaoeee ia?aie/ai. Iniiaiie aea yooaeo, i?eiineiue eioeyoeeae,
naycai n ?inoii oeaiu ?aai/ae neeu, naycaiiie n ?inoii oeai iio?aaeyaiuo
oiaa?ia. Iineieueeo iieaoa o?oaea aunooiaao yeaiaioii ecaea?aeae,
aicieeaao ecaanoiay nie?aeue «oeaiu – ca?ieaoa – oeaiu». A iauai aeaea
aeaiiay naycue iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia eae «oeaiu – cao?aou – oeaiu»,
iineieueeo e o?aaeeoeeiiiay noaia oeaiiia?aciaaiey (cao?aou iethn
i?eaueue), e ?acaeoea i?aeoeee eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeeaeie ia oeaio aaaeao e
?acaeoeth eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. N oa/aieai a?aiaie eioeyoeeiiiay
nie?aeue aunooiaao ana aieaa aaaeiui naiiaeaeaeoueiny oaeoi?ii
?inneeneie eioeyoeee. Ia yoi oeacuaaao, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aeeiaieea
aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. A 80-o aiaeao eo aeiey a AAI aeeiaie/ii
ia?anoaea, e a 1991 a. aeinoeaea ?aei?aeiie ioiaoee a 63,9%, a oi a?aiy,
eae a 1985 a. aeiey aeioiaeia ninoaaeea ieiei 46%, a a 1990 – 59,5% AAI.
Iinea iaaeaiey aeioiaeia a 1992 a. aei 34,6%, e?eaay aiiaue noaea
aeinoaoi/ii e?ooi ?anoe: a 1993 a. aeioiaeu ninoaaeee 48,2%, a ca 1994
a. ieiei 55% AAI, oi anoue i?eaeeceeenue e o?iaith ino?iaeaoeoeeoiiai
1991 a. Oioy yoio o?iaaiue ia aue aeinoeaioo, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
eoiae eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai ii naaeaine?iaaieth iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea
auno?i ?anoai?eeenue. Ia neaaeoao oaeaea oioneaoue ec aeaeo oi, /oi ?ino
aeioiaeia i?ienoiaeeo a aeaiiie neooaoeee ia oiia aeaeueiaeoaai iaaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ca yiaa?ue-ieoya?ue 1994 a. aeaiaaeiua
aeioiaeu ianaeaiey ninoaaeee 103% io iauaia i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Neaaeoao i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea oi, /oi aei 40% iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea
no?aiu auei noi?ie?iaaii ca n/ao eiii?oiuo e, eae i?aaeei, aanueia
aei?iainoiyueo oiaa?ia. A ii oiaa?ai aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey aeiey
eiii?oa aeinoeaaea 70%. Aeiaaaea e yoiio neaainoue ?oaey, ooa/eo
eaieoaeia, iaaeaiea eiaanoeoeee, iauoth ianoaaeeueiinoue neooaoeee,
iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi auoiae iieacaoaey aeioiaeia ia ?oaaaee
aeaoeoeeoiie yeiiiieee naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae nei?aa i aeeao/anoe
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai, /ai i iiaaaea naiaiaeiuo ?uii/iuo
nee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaiiiaoa?iua oaeoi?u eioeyoeee i?iaeieaeatho
aeaenoaiaaoue e iiiieieeenue iiauie. Iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eiaiii
yoa a?oiia oaeoi?ia ea?aao ?aoathuoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eioeyoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia. Niioaaonoaaiii no?aoaae/aneea ia?u aioeeioeyoeeiiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ia iaeo?aeecaoeeth aeaenoaey
iaiiiaoa?iuo oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee.

?anniio?ei iiiaoa?iua oaeoi?u ?inoa oeai. Aeey iauyniaiey ioa/anoaaiiiai
oeia eioeyoeee i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaiooue e aieaa oe?ieiio oieeiaaieth
ooieoeeiiaeueiie nayce eioeyoeee e iiiaoa?iuo oaeoi?ia, /ai yoi i?eiyoi
a eeanne/aneii aa?eaioa. E /eneo oaeeo niaoeeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia
i?eiaaeeaaeao, a /anoiinoe, iiauoaiea aeiee i?eioaeeoaeueiiai
eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoiaaiey (iaieaoaaeae) a iaoeeiiaeueiii i?iaeoeoa,
ia?aeeaeueiia ia?auaiea ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee NEA, ?aniaae «?oaeaai e
ciiu», aaanoai ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu aaethoiie au?o/ee i?aaei?eyoee e
aeioiaeia a?aaeaeai-?aceaeaioia e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea oaeoi?u.

Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia eioeyoeeiiiue ?ino oeai ieacaei aaaaeaiea
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia, eioi?ua ioaeaeee ia naay /anoue oiaa?iie iannu,
i?aaeaea anaai iaaeaeaeeiinoue, a a ?yaea neo/aaa ea?aee ?ieue
aeaiaaeiiai no??iaaoa, oaaee/eaay oai naiui aeaiaaeioth ianno.

?anniio?ei oaeie eeanne/aneee oaeoi? ?inoa oeai eae oaaee/aiea
aeaiaaeiie iannu. ?an/ao (ii oi?ioea eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee aeaiaa)
iieacuaaao, /oi anee anth niaieoiiinoue oneiaee eioeyoeee i?eiyoue ca
100%, oi ?ino aeaiiiai ia?aiao?a iauyniyao 85,8% iauaai ?inoa oeai.
Niioaaonoaaiii ia aeieth i?i/eo «iaeeanne/aneeo» iiiaoa?iuo
oaeoi?iai?eoiaeeony 6%, ia ?ino nei?inoe iai?ioa aeaiaa 3,4%, ia
nieaeaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ino iaieaoaaeae – ii 2,4%. Eiuie
neiaaie, ii oi?iaeueiiio i?eciaeo oaeoi? ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu
aeaenoaeoaeueii yaeyaony aeiieie?othuei.

Niaeanii iiiaoa?iie oai?ee, eioeyoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aoioth
eeiaeioth ooieoeeth io AII (AAI) a iinoiyiiuo oeaiao e eeiaeioth
ooieoeeth io aeaiaaeiie iannu e nei?inoe iai?ioa aeaiaa. A aeaiiuo
oneiaeyo yoa caaeneiinoue aeiiieiyaony oaeoi?ii iaieaoaaeae e ae?oaeo
ianoiyoaeuenoa. A oi aea a?aiy caaeneiinoue oaiiia ?inoa oeai io
aeeiaieee oaaee/aiey aeaiaaeiie iannu iiaeao eioa?i?aoe?iaaoueny eae
eiinoaoaoeey aeinoaoi/iiai e iaiaoiaeeiiai oneiaey. A ia?aii neo/aa
(aeinoaoi/iia oneiaea) aicieeiiaaiea eioeyoeee e aa oaiiu neaaeoao
iauyniyoue eiaiii oaaee/aieai aeaiaaeiie iannu. I?e o?aeoiaea ?inoa
aeaiaaeiie iannu eae iaiaoiaeeiiai oneiaey eioeyoeee neaaeoao enoiaeeoue
ec oiai, /oi ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu yaeyaony oaeoi?ii, eieoe?othuei oaiiu
eioeyoeee. Iaeiaei aeoeaiia ia/aei ?inoa oeai ia?aiineony i?e yoii ia
ae?oaea yeiiiie/aneea ia?aiao?u. A iineaaeiai neo/aa auoiaeei ia
aeiioaco ia ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe eioeyoeee e aeaiaaeiie iannu, niaeanii
eioi?ie ?ino oeai yaeyaony enoiaeiie i?e/eiie ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu. A
?aieao aeaiiie aeiioacu iieeoeea Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea a aieueoae eee
iaiueoae noaiaie iineo aaeaioeaiue oa?aeoa?. I?eiaieoaeueii e
nouanoaothuae neooaoeee yoi icia/aao, /oi e?aaeeoiay yienney yaeyaony
i?iecaiaeiie ni?ina ia aeaiueae. Ni?in ia aeaiueae, aaee/eia eioi?iai
aeaeaei ia anaaaea iiaeao auoue aaeaeaaoii ioeaiaia, aunooiaao eeiaeiie
ooieoeeae io eioeyoeee. Oi anoue naycue ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu e
eioeyoeee eiaao ia i?yiie, a ia?aoiue oa?aeoa?. Enoiaey ec yoie
aeiioacu, i?e?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu aeieaeai auoue i?iii?oeeiiaeai
i?e?inoo oeai n iaeioi?ui a?aiaiiui eaaii. Aeaiiay aeiioaca io?eoeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeoeaiie ?iee Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea a aioeeioeyoeeiiiii
?aaoee?iaaiee, ioaiaey Aaieo ?innee ?ieue yei?y, niiniaiiai caiaaeeeoue
aeeiaieeo eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia iooai ia?aie/aiee, iaeaaaaiuo
onoaiiaeaie aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee ia ?acia?u e?aaeeoiie yiennee, ii ia
inoaiiaeoue yoe i?ioeannu. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaoaiaoe/aneea
iaoiaeu ia iiaeoaa?aeaeatho nouanoaiaaiey ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo
?inoii aeaiaaeiie iannu e eioeyoeeae. Ii i?eiaiaiea yoeo iaoiaeia
aace?oaony ia a i?aaeiieiaeaiee i iinoiyiiii eeai eiii, iiaeaeathuainy
oi?iaeecaoeee, a?aiaiiii eaaa. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oa?aeoa? a?aiaiiuo
eaaia ia iiaeaeaaony i?eaieaiie oi?iaeecaoeee. Yienneiiiua ?aoaiey, oi
anoue ?aoaiey a iaeanoe aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, iinyo aeene?aoiue
oa?aeoa? e ii ii?aaeaeaieth yaeythony iieeoe/aneeie. Aieaa oiai,
i?eieiaaiua ?aoaiey yaeythony, eae i?aaeei, ?acoeueoaoii iieeoe/aneie
ai?ueau. I?e yoii neeu i?ioeaiai?noaothueo noi?ii ii?aaeaeythony
?aciiia?aciuie oaeoi?aie, auoiaeyueie ca ?aiee i?aaeiaoa ai?ueau. A yoeo
oneiaeyo iaaiciiaeii oi?iaeeciaaoue i?ioeann, i?ioaeathuee a ei?ioeee
a?aiaiiie ia?eiae a ianoaaeeueiie e ?acei iaiythuaeny neooaoeee.
Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue e iiceoeeth Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea, i?aaei?eieiathuaai
ia?u ii ia?aie/aieth eioeyoeee. A yoii niunea nouanoaoao acaeiinaycue
iaaeaeo o?iaiai eioeyoeee e iieeoeeie Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea, oioy
aeiieie?othuei neaaeoao i?eciaoue oaeoi? eioeyoeee. A ea/anoaa
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?aaiia?iinoe aeiioacu i ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu eae
oneiaee ?inoa oeai neaaeoao oeacaoue ia iiuo ia?aie iieiaeiu 1992 a.
Oiaaea ?aaeoeeae ia iiiuoeo i?iaaaeaiey ?ano?eeoeeiiiiie
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee yaeyeinue ?aceia oaaee/aiea iauaia
iaieaoaaeae, ii yeiiiie/aneiio ?acoeueoaoo aaeaeaaoiia ?inoo aeaiaaeiie
iannu. Iiaeii oaeaea o/anoue oio oaeo, /oi ca 2,5 aiaea (n 1992 aei
na?aaeeiu 1994 a.) AAI a oaeoueo oeaiao au?in a 19 ?ac, oiaaea eae
?oaeaaay aeaiaaeiay ianna – a 7 ?ac. Aianoa n oai ia neaaeoao
aaniethoece?iaaoue ni?aaaaeeeainoue aeaiiie aeiioacu. Iaaa?ii
?anniao?eaaoue ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu eae eneeth/eoaeueii ianneaiia
oneiaea eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Aiieia i/aaeaeii, /oi ianne?iaaiiua
«aua?inu» oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoia aia caaeneiinoe io e?aaeeoiuo
iauaeoia aeiaeaiee i?iaioee?otho ?acaeoea eioeyoeeiiiuo oaiaeaioeee. A
yoii ieaia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea aeieaeia
auoue aieaa neii?aeeie?iaaiiie, naaeaine?iaaiiie e a oeaeii aieaa
naeaaeaiiie. Iineaaeiaio aeieaeii niinianoaiaaoue nicaeaiea naiaai ?iaea
nenoaiu «oethcia», ?ieue eioi?uo aeieaeai auiieiyoue ?uiie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, eeai iaoaieci e?aaeeoiuo aoeoeeiiia
Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea. Aaconeiaiia cia/aiea, n oi/ee c?aiey eioeyoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia, eiatho e eiie?aoiua iauaeou aeiaeaiee oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo
e?aaeeoiuo e athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa; ionoonoaea ?aaeueiie nenoaiu ioai?a
e eiio?iey ca oeaeaaui eniieueciaaieai e?aaeeoia Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea
oaeaea aunooiaao oaeoi?ii, i?iaioee?othuei eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu e
iaaeaiea eo?na ?oaey.

Oaeiau iniiaiua oaeoi?u eioeyoeee. Oaia?ue neaaeoao ia?aeoe e
?anniio?aieth nianoaaiii eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a ?innee e i?enoueo ei
oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o.

Eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu 1990-o aiaeia: oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe.

O?ainoi?ie?iaaiea aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii a nenoaio nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?oaiie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?yaeii aieaciaiiuo iaaaoeaiuo yaeaiee. Iaeiei
ec ieo yaeyaony eioeyoeey. Eioeyoeey noaea i?e/eiie iiiaeo iaaaoeaiuo
yaeaiee, n?aaee eioi?uo iiaeii auaeaeeoue oeiainiaoth aeanoaaeeecaoeeth,
nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e iiieaeaiea o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiui acaeyaeii ia niaea?aeaiea eioeyoeee yaeyaony
ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi eioeyoeeiiiia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee a ?aoathuae
ia?a iaycaii naiei nouanoaiaaieai auno?iio ?inoo aeaiaaeiie iannu a
n?aaiaiee n ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa, ianiioaaonoaeth a nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey
yoeo eiaeeeaoi?ia.

*oi aea iaaethaeaeinue a ?innee n ia/aea 1990-o aiaeia?

Ao?iue ?ino oeai, nii?iaiaeaeaaiue ?aceei nie?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa e
eiaanoeoeee. A 1992, 1993 e 1994 aa. Oeaiu ?inee oaeeie oaiiaie, /oi ca
o?e aiaea iie oaaee/eeenue aieaa /ai a 1000 ?ac. Ca yoi aea a?aiy
i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa a ?aaeueiii au?aaeaiee nie?aoeeinue aieaa,
/ai iaiieiaeio. Aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo ?innee nieceeny a 1992 a. ia
19%, a 1993 a. – ia 12% e a 1994 a. – ia 15%. Aua aieueoeie oaiiaie
iaaeaee eiaanoeoeee: a 1992 a. – ia 40%, a 1993 a. – ia 12% e a 1994 a.
– ia 26%. Iaaeaiea oece/aneiai iauaia ?aaeeciaaiiie oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee
auei nouanoaaiii ia?ae?uoi ?inoii oeai ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth e oneoae, oi
anoue aeaiaaeiui oaeoi?ii, /oi iaoei io?aaeaiea a ?inoa AAI e
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a oaeoueo oeaiao. A 1994 a. AAI ?innee aeinoea
a iiieiaeueiii au?aaeaiee 629 o?ei. ?oa., i?iiuoeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey – 339
o?ei. ?oa. e eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey – 103 o?ei. ?oa. Oaeei ia?acii
oi?ie?iaaeinue i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia
oniaaae ca ?inoii niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaeeiaeaiey a aeaiaaeiii
au?aaeaiee. Ca ei?ioeia a?aiy auee «nuaaeaiu» iaeiieaiey i?aaei?eyoee e
naa?aaeaiey ianaeaiey. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, io?eoeaoaeueii iiaeeyei
ia eiaanoeoeee e ii?iaeueiia ?acaeoea ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia eae a
e?aaeeoiie nenoaia, oae e ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea, eee ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.
Iiauoaiea ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina o anao noauaeoia – ainoaea?noaa,
i?aaei?eyoee e ianaeaiey – auei aiciiaeii eeoue iooai e?aaeeoiie
yeniainee OeA? e eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, /oi aeieaeii auei iaeoe au?aaeaiea
eae a ?inoa iaee/iie, oae e aaciaee/iie aeaiaaeiie iannu, a oaeaea a
nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa. Ia ia/aei 1992 a. iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiay ianna
(M0) ninoaaeyea a ?innee 165,9 ie?ae. ?oa. E eiioeo 1992 a. iia
aeinoeaea 1678,4 ie?ae. ?oa., ia eiiaoe 1993 a. – 13304,3 ie?ae. ?oa. e
a 1994 a. – 36504,3 ie?ae. ?oa. Niioaaonoaaiii ?inea e aaciaee/iay
aeaiaaeiay ianna, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iieacaoaeue M2, eioi?ue ia
eiiaoe 1992 a. ninoaaeye 7140,3 ie?ae. ?oa., ia eiiaoe 1993 a. – 36718,2
e a 1994 a. oaaee/eeny aei 106403,1 ie?ae. ?oa. A oi aea a?aiy nei?inoue
ia?auaiey aeaiaa a 1992 a. ianeieueei caiaaeeeeanue: n 6,5 a I eaa?oaea
aei 4,6 a IV eaa?oaea, oi anoue a 1,5 ?aca. A 1993 a. nei?inoue
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey oaaee/eeanue n 7,0 a I eaa?oaea aei 9,2 a IV
eaa?oaea e a 1994 a. noaaeeece?iaaeanue ia o?iaia 8,4 a I eaa?oaea e 8,7
a IV eaa?oaea. Ii a ia/aea 1995 a. yoio iieacaoaeue aiiaue aic?in (10,4
ca yiaa?ue e oaa?aeue). Oaeei ia?acii, ie ni noi?iiu iauaia aeaiaaeiie
iannu, ie ni noi?iiu nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa iaeuecy iauynieoue
eieinnaeueiue ?ino oeai oiaa?ia e oneoa a oa/aiea 1992-1995 aa.
Iai?ioea, aeaiaaeiie iannu ia oaaoaei aeaaea aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
nouanoaiaaaoaai ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, /oi i?eaaei e aeaoi yaeaieyi:
ai-ia?auo, e ion?i/ea ieaoaaeae, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?inoo
caaeieaeaiiinoe, ai-aoi?uo, e ia?anoaieth iaieaoaaeae aiiaua. I?e yoii a
iaieaoaaeao auei iiaeiii eae ainoaea?noai, ia auiieiyaoaa naie
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii ooaa?aeaeaiiiio athaeaeaoo, oae e i?aaei?eieiaoaee,
caaea?aeeaaaoea ieaoaaee naiei ia?oia?ai e aaieai. Iineaaeiaa nicaeaaaei
cao?oaeiaiey aaieai, eioi?ua ia auiieiyee iaycaoaeuenoaa ie ia?aae
naieie eeeaioaie, ie a noa?a iaaeaaieianeiai e?aaeeoiaaiey. Iaieaoaaee,
ninoaaeyaoea a ia/aea 1992 a. 40 ie?ae. ?oa., oaea a na?aaeeia aiaea
aic?inee aei 3,5 o?ei. ?oa. Iinea i?iaaaeaiiiai Oeaio?aeueiui Aaieii
?innee acaeiica/aoa ieaoaaeiuo o?aaiaaiee noiia iaieaoaaeae nie?aoeeanue
ia 1,7 o?ei. ?oa., oi anoue aieaa, /ai a 2 ?aca. Yoi iaioeinue
Oeaio?aeueiiio Aaieo i?eia?ii a 300 ie?ae. ?oa. aeiiieieoaeueiuo
e?aaeeoia. Ii oaea a 1993 a. ?acia?u iaieaoaaeae aiiaue ia/aee auno?i
?anoe, e e eiioeo aiaea iie aeinoeaee 30 o?ei. ?oa., a e ia/aeo 1995 a.
i?eaeeceeenue e 100 o?ei. ?oa. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao auaiae i oii, /oi
oaaee/aiea aeaiaaeiie iannu a ?acoeueoaoa e?aaeeoiie yeniainee ia
oniaaaei ca ?inoii noiia?iuo i?aaeeiaeaiee oiaa?ia e oneoa, e
ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia oaeiaeaoai?yeny. A ?acoeueoaoa ieaoaaee eeai
ia?aiineeenue n niaeaney noi?ii ia iiaue n?ie, ?anoe?yy
caaeieaeaiiinoue, eeai aiiaua i?ae?auaeenue oeacaiiuie noauaeoaie, /oi
au?aaeaeinue a i?eioaeeoaeueiie ion?i/ea ieaoaaea e ia?anoaiee aeieaa n
o/aoii oo?aoiuo naieoeee.

Eoae, a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae:
iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa a ?innee i?ienoiaeeo ia ii i?e/eia «ecauoea»
aeaiaaeiie iannu, a a ?acoeueoaoa iiiiiieueiiai acaei/eaaiey oeai a
oneiaeyo, eiaaea ionoonoaotho eiieo?aioeey e ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Iniiaiia aaneiio?ieueiia
oaaee/aiea oeai inouanoaeyaony aeaaiui ia?acii ia noieueei
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, neieueei ia?aeoiueeaie a noa?a iioiaie e ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee, aaea iniaaiii neeueiu iaoeiciua no?oeoo?u. A ?acoeueoaoa
eiia/iay oeaia ia oiaa?u e oneoae, i?aaeeiaeaiiua iio?aaeoaeth,
ca/anooth a ianeieueei ?ac i?aauoaao oeaio i?iecaiaenoaa. Nicaeaiea
aeiiieieoaeueiiai ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina ca n/ao e?aaeeoiie yeniainee
iiaeaea?aeeaaao oaea nouanoaothuoth eioeyoeeth e aucuaaao
aeiiieieoaeueioth yienneth aeaiaa, eioi?ay yaeyaony ia i?e/eiie, a
neaaenoaeai aacoaea?aeiiai ?inoa oeai. ?ano?eeoeeiiiue eo?n
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a yoeo oneiaeyo i?iaioee?oao iaieaoaaee e nie?auaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, /oi aaaeao e aeaeueiaeoaio oaeoaeaieth
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena e noaaoeyoeee. Iiyoiio yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen
aucaai e iaino?yaony ianiioaaonoaeai iaaeaeo «/?acia?iui» i?aaeeiaeaieai
oiaa?ia e oneoa a eneonnoaaiiii aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee e «oceei»
ieaoaaeaniiniaiui ni?inii eae neaaenoaeai iaoaaoee aeaiaaeiie iannu.

Iniaia ianoi a eioeyoeeiiiii i?ioeanna caieiaao ainoaea?noai, e ia
oieueei ii i?e/eia naiae ?ano?eeoeeiiiie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee e
eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai, ii e eae iaeaaeaoaeue /anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea, ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaiiai /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao. A
?anoiaeiie /anoe ainoaea?noai ia ia?aie/eaaaony aeioiaeaie, a nicaeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiue ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in iooai caeiia aeey iie?uoey
aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa. Oaeei ia?acii, ainoaea?noai aeiiieiyao
?anniio?aiioth eioeyoeeth ecaea?aeae eioeyoeeae ni?ina. Iaeiaiaua
iinooieaiey ninoaaeytho 11-13% AAI, a ?anoiaeu oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa
– 20-25% e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aai aeaoeoeeo – 8-10%. A caiaaeiuo no?aiao
yoio iieacaoaeue ia i?aauoaao 5-6%. Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa oaaee/eaaaony ec aiaea a aiae. Anee a 1992 a. ii ninoaaeye
3,5 o?ei. ?oa., oi a 1993 a. – oaea 15,3 o?ei. ?oa., a a 1994 a.
i?eaeeceeny e 60 o?ei. ?oa. Yoio aeaoeoeeo aieaa, /ai ia 80% iie?uaaeny
ca n/ao oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoia Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iinee eioeyoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?. A athaeaeaoa ia 1995 a.
auee i?aaeoniio?aiu eiua oi?iu iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa, oioy ?acia?u aai
aiiaue oaaee/eaaeenue aei 70 o?ei. ?oa. Caaeieaeaiiinoue ii e?aaeeoai
oaaea?aeueiiio athaeaeaoo ca 1994 a. aic?inea n 13 o?ei. ?oa. aei 66
o?ei. ?oa. A I eaa?oaea 1995 a. auei i?aaeinoaaeaii aua 5 o?ei. ?oa.
e?aaeeoia ia iie?uoea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

Aaaeiia ianoi caieiae e aiaoiee oaeoi? eioeyoeee, naycaiiue n i?ioeannii
aeieea?ecaoeee. Eo?n aeieea?a aeeye ia eioeyoeeth, eae e ae?oaea oiaa?u,
ia eioi?ua ?anooo oeaiu. Yoio oaeoi? ioiineony e aeaeo eiii?oe?oaiie
eioeyoeee. I?eia?aoaaiua a ?innee aeieea?u oaaee/eaatho aaee/eio noiiu
oeai oiaa?ia e oneoa a no?aia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioaeaeathony a
aeiiieieoaeueiii ieaoaaeaniiniaiii ?oaeaaii ni?ina ni noi?iiu
i?aaei?eyoee, aaieia e ianaeaiey. Oieueei a 1994 a. ?anoiaeu a ?innee ia
iieoieo aaethou ninoaaeyee i?eia?ii 50 o?ei. ?oa. Anee eoieaiiue ca
?oaee aaethoiue oiaa? – aeieea?u eee (eee ae?oaea aaethou) iaoiaeeony a
caianao eae aioo?e no?aiu, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie, oi aai yeaeaaeaio
(?oaee) inoaaony ai aioo?aiiai aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee, oneeeaay
eioeyoeeiiiue i?ioeann. Eiino?aiiay aaethoa a ?innee ioeoeeaeueii ia
auiieiyao aeaiaaeiua ooieoeee n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey e ieaoaaea (ca
eneeth/aieai aaethou ia «/a?iii» ?uiea). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a no?aia iao
caeiiiiai ia?aeeaeueiiai ia?auaiey ae?oaeo aaetho, e?iia ?oaeae. Auaic
aeieea?ia ca a?aieoeo ?aaiineeai yenii?oo ae?oaeo oiaa?ia, /oi iaino?yao
eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu aioo?e no?aiu.

Eoae, yoi auee iniiaiua /a?ou ?inneeneie eioeyoeee. Eae aea iiaeii
i?aiaeieaoue yoo neooaoeeth, aeecie ee auoiae ec iaa? *oi iiaeii
i?aaei?eiyoue aeey auoiaea ec nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee. Iniiaiua ia?u ii
i?aiaeieaieth eioeyoeee ?anniao?eaathony a neaaeothuae aeaaa.

Aeueoa?iaoeaiua iooe i?aiaeieaiey eioeyoeee a ?innee.

Ia/eiay n 1992 a. a no?aia iai?a?uaii cao/aee ioeoeeaeueiua cayaeaiey i
ia/eiathuaeny eee aeeceie noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey. Ii
yoe cayaeaiey ia iaoiaeeee eaeiai-eeai na?ueaciiai i?aeoe/aneiai
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey. Aiai?y i noaaeeecaoeee, /aua anaai nnueaeenue ia
caiaaeeaiea eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Ii oaeia caiaaeeaiea n o/aoii
neaaeothueo aaaeiuo iiiaioia, ia yaeyaony aeinoaoi/iui iniiaaieai aeey
i?aaeiieiaeaiey i noaaeeecaoeee.

Ai-ia?auo, caiaaeeaiea eioeyoeee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie naycaii n
ineaaeaieai iinea 1992 a. aeaenoaey oaeiai niaoeeoe/aneiai oaeoi?a, eae
onoaiiaeaiea iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Ii iaeioi?ui ioeaieai,
ia?ae/iia aaaaeaiea yoiai iaeiaa i?eaaei e iieiaeia i?e?inoa oeai a 1992
a. Ai-aoi?uo, ianooaau caiaaeeaiey eioeyoeee a 1993-1994 aa. ne?uaatho
ca niaie e?aeia on?aaeiaiiua e iioiio iaeiinoi?iiiea i?ioeannu.
Iai?eia?, a 1994 a. ?ino oeai ia i?aiaeaaeathuaa aieueoeinoai i?aaeiaoia
ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe eeai caiaoii i?aauoae n?aaeiee oaii ?inoa
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai, eeai i?eia?ii ?aaiyeny aio. Anee ana
iio?aaeoaeueneea oeaiu a 1994 a. aic?inee a 3,2 ?aca, oi oeaa a yoii
aiaeo iiaei?iaeae aieaa, /ai a 4 ?aca, ea?oioaeue – a 5 ?ac, ianei
aeeaioiia – a 8 ?ac, iieiei – i?eia?ii a 4 ?aca, yeaeo?iyia?aey aeey
ianaeaiey – aieaa, /ai a 8 ?ac, eaa?oieaoa – a 20 e aieaa ?ac e o.ae.
Enoiaey ec yoiai ia ynii, ca n/ao eaeeo oiaa?ia e oneoa, /uea
oaei?iaeaiea a 1994 a. aeieaeii auei au auoue cia/eoaeueii ieaea
ioeoeeaeueiiai n?aaeiaai ?inoa iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai, yoio ?ino ca aiae
oaea?aeaeny ia o?iaia, iaiiiai i?aauoathuai o?aoe?aoiue ?acia?. Ii yoiio
aii?ino anoue iaeioi?ua i?aaeiieiaeaiey. Iai?eia?, a 1994 a. ?ino
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai a 3,2 ?aca iiaeao iauyniyoueny oai, /oi a ?an/aou
eiaeaena iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai ia iiiaee iaeioi?ua oiaa?u e oneoae,
oeaiu ia eioi?ua iiauneeenue a iaeaieueoae noaiaie, oaeea eae
eaa?oieaoa, e iaiai?io, ieacaeenue aeeth/aiiuie iaeiaiaa oaei?iaeaaoea a
1994 a. oiaa?u ia ianniaiai, a oceiyeeoiiai ni?ina. A-o?aoueeo,
niaoeeoe/aneea oneiaey eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a ?innee, i eioi?uo
oeacaii auoa, iaoneiaeee ia?iiiua ecaea?aeee ia eo caiaaeeaiea. A
?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey aioeeioeyoeeiiiuo ia?, i?aeiouanoaaiii
iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea eioeyoeee ni?ina a yoeo niaoeeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo
?innee neiaeeeny naiaia?aciue iaoaieci caiaaeeaiey eioeyoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia. E eioeyoeey ni?ina, e eioeyoeey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa
eiatho a naiae iniiaa ia?ooaiey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, iaeiaei iaoaieci
eo ia?aciaaiey ?acee/ai. A eioeyoeee ni?ina aeaiaaeiay ianna aunooiaao
eae aa iniiaa, e eae aeoeaiay i?e/eia. Iiyoiio aioeeioeyoeeiiiua ia?u
i?oiaeienaeueii-iiiaoa?enoneiai oa?aeoa?a, aaaeouea e nie?auaieth e
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, e aeaiaaeiie iannu, aeaenoaotho i?ioea
iiaeiaiie eioeyoeee aeiaieueii yooaeoeaii. Ii a eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae
aeaiueae, yaeyynue aa iniiaie, aunooiatho a eiie, ianneaiie ?iee; a
eioeyoeee yoiai oeia ia?aiia/aeueiue oie/ie ?inoo oeai aeatho ia
aeaiaaeiua, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e ?uii/iua oaeoi?u; aucaaiiia aeaiiuie
oaeoi?aie iiauoaiea oeai o?aaoao iiaeoyaeaaiey aeaiaaeiie iannu e
aic?inoaio o?iaith oeai. A oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee n aa
?acaeoie e aeaeie e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie noa?ie oaeia iiaeoyaeaaiea
i?ienoiaeeo aaoiiaoe/anee. A neo/aa ionoonoaey oaeiai iiaeoyaeaaiey
aicieeaao ino?ay iaoaaoea ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa, e eioeyoeey ecaea?aeae
?aaeecoaony ia noieueei a ?inoa oeai, neieueei a e?eceniii nie?auaiee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii oaeie iaoaieci e aeaenoaoao nae/an a ?innee.
I?oiaeienaeueii-iiiaoa?enoneay aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea aaaeao ia e
iiaeaaeaieth eee naea?aeeaaieth iiuiuo oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee ecaea?aeae, a
eeoue e ino?ie iaoaaoea ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
i?aaeiieaaaaiia iiauoaiea oeai /anoe/ii eee iieiinoueth ia?aaiaeeony a
e?eceniia nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e ae?oaea io?eoeaoaeueiua yaeaiey,
iai?eia? iaieaoaaee ii ca?ieaoa. Eiuie neiaaie, iaania/eaaaiia oaeei
ia?acii caiaaeeaiea ?inoa oeai aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao iaaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi a eiia/iii n/aoa aeaeaao e?aeia iai?i/iui e naii
caiaaeeaiea eioeyoeee.

Ia iniiaa yoeo ?annoaeaeaiee i/aaeaeii, /oi iaoaea/a «oieiauo» ia? ii
i?oiaeienaeueii-iiiaoa?eno-neie i?ia?aiia IAO ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea
anaai iaaaeaeaaoiinoueth yoeo ia? ?aaeueiui oneiaeyi ?innee.

Eaeiau aea ia?niaeoeau ?inneeneie yeiiiieee a neo/aa aeaeueiaeoaai
i?aeiouanoaaiiiai neaaeiaaiey i?oiaeienaeueii-iiiaoa?enoneie i?ia?aiia?
Aeey ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ?acee/iua i?iaiicu.
Oae, yenia?ou Aaineiai einoeoooa n?aaieoaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee ia iniiaa niiinoaaeaiey neooaoeee a no?aiao Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e a ?innee e ia Oe?aeia eae aaaeoueo no?aiao
NIA, n ae?oaie, aeaeatho neaaeothuee i?iaiic i oii, /oi a
?anniao?eaaaiuo no?aiao NIA ia i?aaeaeaeeony a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai
auoiaea ec aeeeoaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai e?ecena.
Einoeooo i?iaiice?iaae ia aeeaeaeoea 2-3 aiaea aeey ?innee
i?iaeieaeathueeny niaae i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ino aac?aaioeoeu e
i?iaeieaeathueeny aunieee ?ino oeai, oioy e i?e iaeioi?ii aeaeueiaeoai
aai caiaaeeaiee.

A iiya?a 1994 a. ia iniiaa aaeaiany/iuo ii?inia i?aaei?eyoee,
i?iaiaeeiuo a?oiiie nio?oaeieeia Einoeoooa ie?iaie yeiiiieee e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee, auyaeeinue, /oi 25% ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee iieaaaee, /oi yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen a ?innee
caeii/eony a aeeaeaeoea 3 aiaea, a 1/3 aeaeaee eiioea yoiai e?ecena ia
?aiueoa, /ai /a?ac 7 eao. Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii ioiaoeoue
ianneienoe/aneea iaeeaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Iaaeaaii?eyoiue i?iaiic ia yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee ?innee i?aaenoaaeai a
noaouea A. Eeaoeoea (Ecaanoey. – 1994. – 11.11): ?inney aueaeao ec
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena e 2000 aiaeo, iinea /aai i?iyaeony iaaeeaiiue
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. E eiioeo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena ?inney, ii yoiio
i?iaiico, iioa?yao aieueooth /anoue naiae i?iiuoeaiiinoe; nio?aiyony
eeoue nu?ueaaua e naycaiiua n ieie io?anee e /anoue aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai
eiiieaena.

Ia iniiaa auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae ia aioeeioeyoeeiiiie
iieeoeea ?innee: ia?yaeo n eniieueciaaieai aeaeeo iiiaoa?enoneeo
iaoiaeia iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue ia aaca ainnoaiiaeaiey oi?aaeyaiinoe
yeiiiieee eiiieaen aaoa?iaeienii-iaiiiaoa-?enoneeo ia?, /oiau
naea?aeaoue eioeyoeeth ia ca n/ao nieaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, a ca n/ao aai
?aaeueiie noaaeeecaoeee, iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia. Ii i?eiaieoaeueii e
?innee n o/aoii aa nia?aiaiiiai e?ecena e aua aieaa iianiuo ia?niaeoea
iaeiiai yoiai iauaai auaiaea iaaeinoaoi/ii. A aieaa eiie?aoiii ieaia
aeey ?innee nae/an aaaeai o/ao yiiineiai iiuoa auoiaea ec oiai e?ecena,
a eioi?ue yoa no?aia auea aiaea/aia a ?acoeueoaoa ii?aaeaiey ai aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieia. ?anniio?ei iniiaiua /a?ou niioaaonoaothuae yiiineie
iiaeaee:

1. I?aeiouanoai caaea/ ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa iaae ae?oaeie caaea/aie, a
oii /enea e oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee, a oaeaea ioeac io neaaeiaaiey
caeiiai oae iacuaaaiiai naiaiaeiiai ?uiea (iai?eia?, ioeac io
?aeiiaiaeaoeee iineaaiaiiie ssiiiee i?eaioe?iaaoueny, i?e ionoonoaee o
iaa nianoaaiiiai nu?uey e iaee/ey iiuiie eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aai/ae
neeu, i?aaeaea anaai ia ?acaeoea o?oaeiaieeo io?aneae).

2. Aeeeoaeueiia nio?aiaiea aeanoi/aeoaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ca
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie e aaethoiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

3. I?iaaaeaiea aaneiii?iienniiai eo?na ia caueoo iaoeeiiaeueiiai
eaieoaea a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa, aaieianeii aeaea e ae?oaeo noa?ao.

Iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue aua iaeei ia iaiaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiue iooue
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ia?aie/aiey ?inoa aeaiaaeiie yiennee, oanii
naycaiiiai n i?iaaaeaieai no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee,
oii?yaei/aieai athaeaeaoa e ioaeaeueiuie ia?aie i?yiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
oeai. Ia?ano?ieea yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u aeeth/aao:

1. ?ac?aaioeo e inouanoaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee, i?aaeaea anaai io?aneae e i?aaei?eyoee, niinianoaothueo
noaiiaeaieth eiieo?aioiiai aunieioaoiieiae/aneiai e iaoeiaieiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iaeoeoeey eioi?uo iiaeao iaania/eaaoue oi?ie?iaaiea
?uii/iie yeiiiieee nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiiai oeia, ii?aaeaeaiea a
yoeo oeaeyo oeiainiauo enoi/ieeia inouanoaeaiey oaeeo i?ia?aii, aeeth/ay
eniieueciaaiea ia oeaee eiaanoeoeeiiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey /anoe
yienneiiiuo e?aaeeoia Aaiea ?innee, a oaeaea n?aaenoa, aeeoioee?iaaiiuo
a Naa?aaiea ?O. Iineaaeiaa i?aaeiieaaaao aaaaeaiea ia?aie/aiee ia
eiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue Naa?aaiea;

2. I?iaaaeaiea iineaaeiaaoaeueiie aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee e nicaeaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe n eioi?iaoeeae ii i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?iecaiaeeiui
i?iaeoeoai;

3. Niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth aa?oeeaeueiie e ai?eciioaeueiie eioaa?aoeee, a
oii /enea e /a?ac nicaeaiea e?oiiuo iauaaeeiaiee n ainoaea?noaaiiui
o/anoeai.

Iiae oii?yaei/eaaieai athaeaeaoa iiieiaaony iaania/aiea ?aaeeia aeanoeie
athaeaeaoiie yeiiiieee, a oii /enea i?ae?auaiea oeiaine?iaaiey i?ia?aii,
ia ioaa/athueo oeacaiiui auoa o?aaiaaieyi, a oaeaea aoi?inoaiaiiuo
iauaeoia. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?e i?iaaaeaiee athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?eeoeee
iaiaoiaeeii /ooei ioiineoueny e i?iaeaia ia?anoaiey nioeeaeueiie
iai?yaeaiiinoe.

E ?aeiiaiaeoaiui ia?ai ?aaoee?iaaiey oeai iiaeao auoue ioianaii:

1. Onoaiiaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo oi?i ?aaoee?iaaiey oeai ia aaceniua,
no?oeoo?iia?acothuea e no?aoaae/anee aaaeiua oiaa?u, aeeth/ay e i?yiua
ia?aie/aiey oeai ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee
i?aaei?eyoee-iiiiiieenoia, eiathuae oeaiiia?acothuaa cia/aiea;

2. Caeeth/aiea o?aonoi?iiiaai niaeaoaiey i i?iaaaeaiee aaeeiie
ia?aie/eoaeueiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe oeai, aeioiaeia e iaeiaia iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, i?ionithcaie e i?aaeoaeuenoaii e nicaeaiea iaoaiecia
eiio?iey ca aai niaethaeaieai.

Aeiiieieoaeueiui o?aaiaaieai yaeyaony i?iaaaeaiea eiiieaena ia? a
iaeanoe ?aaoee?iaaiey aaethoiiai eo?na ?oaey, i?ecaaiiuo iaania/eoue aai
ioiineoaeueioth noaaeeueiinoue e i?aaeiieaaathueo ineaaeaiea eioa?ana e
eiino?aiiie aaethoa eae n?aaenoao iaeiieaiey.

I?e anai cia/aiee ?ano?eeoeaiuo ia? e ia? ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
no?oeoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aac noeioee?iaaiey
iauaai iaeeaeaiey yeiiiieee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue ?acoeueoao ia iiaeao
auoue iieo/ai. A ea/anoaa ia? oaeiai noeioee?iaaiey iiaeii iacaaoue
oii?yaei/aiea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, oi anoue eeeaeaeaoeeth /?acia?iiai
iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, oneeaiea noeioeia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo iaeiieaiee,
oi?iuaiea i?ioeaaeo? ioe?uoey e aaaeaiey nianoaaiiiai aeaea, caueoa
no?aoaae/aneiai iioaioeeaea, aeeth/ay iao/iue iioaioeeae,
i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia Aaiea ?innee ia ?uii/iuo i?eioeeiao,
?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioeaioiie noaaee, enoiaey ec aa iioeiaeueiuo cia/aiee a
oneiaeyo aunieie eioeyoeee. Ana yoi i?aaeiieaaaao neeueioth e
eii?aeeie?iaaiioth oeaio?aeueioth e ianoioth aeanoue.

Oaeiau iniiaiua i?aaeeaaaaiua iooe auoiaea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee ec
ninoiyiey eioeyoeee.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Eaaiaiei A. Naiaeeia ee eioeyoeey n iiiiuueth aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu? //
Aii?inu yeiiiieee. – 1993. – ?6.

Eeaoeoe A.ss. Eioeyoeey. E?aoeee niaoeeo?n // ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee
aeo?iae. – 1992. – ?6.

Ieeeoei N.I. Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea // Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo. – 1995. –
?5.

Iaoaoiiia TH.A. Iniaaiiinoe eioeyoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee ?innee //
Oeiainu. – 1995. – ?3.

Neiaiianeee A.TH. Eioeyoeey e aa oaeoi?u // Oeiainu. – 1995. – ?5.

Oaiaaa A.I. Iniaaiiinoe eioeyoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna a ?innee // Aeaiueae e
e?aaeeo. – 1995. – ?2.

Iaeeiaeia A.Ae. I/a?ee ii yeiiiieea iinoeiiioiecia. – I. 1996.

?inoianeee ss. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue a
iinoeiiioienoe/aneeo no?aiao Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. – I.
1997.

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