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Государственное регулирование социальной занятости населения

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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Einoeooo Noaee e Nieaaia

Yeiiiieea e Oi?aaeaiea ia i?aaei?eyoee

II eo?n, a?oiia IY-98-3

Eaoaae?a Eioi?iaoeee e Yeiiiieee

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

AeENOeEIEEIA: Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey e enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee

I?AIIAeAAAOAEUe: Iaoiiaa I. O.

OAIA: Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiie caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey

ENIIEIEOAEUe: Aiiaea?aiei TH. I.

Iineaa

1999a.

N I Ae A ? AE A I E A

TOC \o \f \t “CAAIEIAIE 4;4” \* MERGEFORMAT Aaaaeaiea PAGEREF
_Toc466810638 \h 3

Aeaaa 1. Caiyoinoue eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey PAGEREF _Toc466810639
\h 3

1.1. Yeiiiie/aneay i?e?iaea caiyoinoe PAGEREF _Toc466810640 \h 3

1.2. Oi?iu caiyoinoe a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee PAGEREF
_Toc466810641 \h 6

1.3. I?iaeaiu caiyoinoe ?innee ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia PAGEREF
_Toc466810642 \h 12

Aeaaa 2. Aac?aaioeoea eae o?iie/aneia yaeaiea ?uiiiie yeiiiieee PAGEREF
_Toc466810644 \h 19

2.1. Oai?aoe/aneea eiioeaioeee caiyoinoe. I?e/eiu aac?aaioeoeu a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee PAGEREF _Toc466810645 \h 19

2.2. Iieacaoaee aac?aaioeoeu e oi?iu aac?aaioeoeu PAGEREF _Toc466810646
\h 21

2.3. Iaoiaeu ai?ueau n aac?aaioeoeae PAGEREF _Toc466810648 \h 24

Aeaaa 3. Aiaeec iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia a ?aaeiiao ?O PAGEREF _Toc466810649
\h 26

3.1. Aeaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa ?innee PAGEREF
_Toc466810650 \h 26

3.2. I?iaeaiu eco/aiey e oi?ie?iaaiey ?uiea ?aai/ae neeu a ?O PAGEREF
_Toc466810651 \h 27

3.3. Aeeiaieea e no?oeoo?a aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee, oaiiu i?e?inoa /enea
ioeoeeaeueii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo a ?innee PAGEREF
_Toc466810652 \h 34

3.4. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaeiiia ?O ii niioiioaieth iaaeaeo ni?inii e
i?aaeeiaeaieai ia ?uiea o?oaea PAGEREF _Toc466810653 \h 41

Aeaaa 4. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea e nenoaia caiyoinoe: no?oeoo?a,
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia PAGEREF
_Toc466810655 \h 47

4.1. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea caiyoinoe e a? yooaeoeaiinoue a ?O
PAGEREF _Toc466810656 \h 47

4.2. Neoaeaa caiyoinoe ianaeaiey: oaaea?aeueiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua neoaeau,
aeaeu caiyoinoe PAGEREF _Toc466810657 \h 49

4.3. Ia?niaeoeau e iniiaiua iooe iiauoaiey caiyoinoe a ?O PAGEREF
_Toc466810659 \h 53

Caeeth/aiea PAGEREF _Toc466810660 \h 57

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia: PAGEREF _Toc466810661 \h 57

I?EEIAEAIEss……………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
………59

TC “” Aaaaeaiea

Aeinoeaeaiea aunieiai o?iaiy caiyoinoe – iaeia ec iniiaiuo oeaeae
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa. Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia,
nicaeathuay aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai ?aai/eo iano, noaaeo caaea/o
oaaee/eoue eiee/anoai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e oai naiui a aieueoae
noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?eoue iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey. I?e
iaiieiii eniieueciaaiee eiathueony ?ano?nia ?aai/ae neeu nenoaia
?aaioaao, ia aeinoeaay a?aieoeu naieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.
Iaiaeue o?ii aac?aaioeoea iaiineo e aeeciaiiui eioa?anai ethaeae, ia
aeaaay ei i?eeiaeeoue naia oiaiea a oii ?iaea aeayoaeueiinoe, a eaeii
/aeiaae iiaeao iaeaieueoei ia?acii i?iyaeoue naay, eee aea eeoay eo
oaeiaie aiciiaeiinoe, ec-ca /aai ethaee ia?aiinyo na?ueaciue
ineoieiae/aneee no?ann. Ec auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
iieacaoaeue aac?aaioeoeu yaeyaony iaeiei ec eeth/aauo iieacaoaeae aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey iauaai ninoiyiey yeiiiieee, aeey ioeaiee aa yooaeoeaiinoe.
Neiaeiinoue e iaiaeiicia/iinoue neooaoeee n aac?aaioeoeae a ?innee e
iiaeeyee ia auai? iiie aeaiiie oaiu aeey eo?niaie ?aaiou.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Aeaaa01 \* MERGEFORMAT Aeaaa 1. Caiyoinoue eae
yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0101 \* MERGEFORMAT 1.1. Yeiiiie/aneay
i?e?iaea caiyoinoe

Caiyoinoue, eae ecaanoii, yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae. Caiyoinoue ?ane?uaaao iaeei ec
aaaeiaeoeo aniaeoia nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea, naycaiiiai n
oaeiaeaoai?aieai aai iio?aaiinoae a noa?a o?oaea e a nayce n o?oaeii.
Caiyoinoue eae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia yaeaiea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
neaaeothuei ia?acii: caiyoinoue — iauanoaaiii iieaciay aeayoaeueiinoue
a?aaeaeai, naycaiiay n oaeiaeaoai?aieai ee/iuo e iauanoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae e i?eiinyuay, eae i?aaeei, ca?aaioie (o?oaeiaie aeioiae).

Eaaeaeiio yoaio ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, ea/anoaaiii ioee/iiio io
i?aaeoanoaothueo, niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay iiaeaeue (eiioeaioeey)
caiyoinoe, iineieueeo aa oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ane?uaatho nouiinoiua i?ioeannu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoaa.

Eiioeaioeey caiyoinoe — yoi nenoaia acaeyaeia, i?aaenoaaeaiee,
?ane?uaathueo oa?aeoa? caiyoinoe ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Ai aeaao oaea oaeiai
eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiieiaiey noaaeony oi?ie?iaaiea caiyoinoe n o/aoii
iauaeoeaiuo i?ioeannia aa ?acaeoey, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey nioeeaeueiiai
?uii/iiai oeia ainoaea?noaa, e ia ia?aie/eaaaony ?aaeueiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae a oio eee eiie
eiie?aoiue ia?eiae a?aiaie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee i?i?aaaouaathony iooe oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee n nioeeaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoueth. Iiyoiio eiioeaioeey
caiyoinoe i?ecaaia ioaaoeoue ia aii?inu: eaeie aeieaeia auoue caiyoinoue
i?e oeacaiiii oeia yeiiiieee, eaeea eciaiaiey i?iecieaeoo a aa iniiaiuo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao e /oi aeey yoiai iaaei naeaeaoue? *aoeea i?aaenoaaeaiey
i oii, /ai caiyoinoue caao?aoiaai aeiy aoaeao ioee/aoueny io
neiaeeaoaeny a oneiaeyo yenoaineaiie yeiiiieee, ioaeiu eae iniiaa
iino?iaiey anae nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey caiyoinoueth.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua iieiaeaiey eiioeaioeee.

A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eiyo Caeii i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, a eioi?ii
noi?ioee?iaaiu iniiaiua i?eioeeiu caiyoinoe, i?eaeathuea ioiioaieyi
caiyoinoe ?uii/iue oa?aeoa?. Ia?aue i?eioeei — eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai
a?aaeaeai ?anii?yaeaoueny naieie niiniaiinoyie e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio e
oai?/aneiio o?oaeo. I?eioaeaeaiea (a eaeie-eeai oi?ia) e o?oaeo ia
aeiioneaaony, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, iniai onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Oaeei ia?acii, naeaeai ii?aaeaeaiiue oaa aeey cae?aieaiey a
nioee-yeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ?innee iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae,
aaaeiaeoae n?aaee eioi?uo yaeyaony aeia?iaieueiinoue o?oaea. Oaia?ue
naiiio /aeiaaeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?ei?eoaoiia i?aai auai?a: o/anoaiaaoue
eee ia o/anoaiaaoue a iauanoaaiiii o?oaea.

Caiyoinoue a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa oaea ia yaeyaony i?aeoe/anee
aaeeinoaaiiie noa?ie iauanoaaiii iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoe, eaeiaie iia
noaea, eiaaea anaiauiinoue o?oaea auea cae?aieaia eae i?aaiaay
iaycaiiinoue. Noa?a o?oaea noaiiaeony iaeiie ec ?aaiii?aaiuo e
?aaiiaeinooiiuo noa? iauanoaaiii iieaciie caiyoinoe, eae e o/aaa,
aeiiaoiaa oicyenoai, ainieoaiea aeaoae e o.ae. I?e/eia i?ana/aiey
aeia?iaieueiie caiyoinoe iiaeao auoue iaeia — iacaeiiiue enoi/iee
n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey.

I?eioeei eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa ?anii?yaeaoueny naieie niiniaiinoyie e
o?oaeo i?aaeiieaaaao e i?aai /aeiaaea ?aaioaoue oai e noieueei, aaea e
neieueei yoi iaiaoiaeeii aio naiiio. Eaaeaeue naiinoiyoaeueii iiaeao
aua?aoue aeey naay oaeiaiua ?aaeeiu o?oaea e caiyoinoe. Aia caaeneiinoe
io iiea, aic?anoa, iaoeeiiaeueiinoe e eaeeo-oi eiuo i?eciaeia anai
aeinooiiu iinoiyiiay, /anoe/iay, a?aiaiiay, yieciaee/aneay caiyoinoue,
niaianoeoaeuenoai, aeaeea a?aoeee i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/aai a?aiaie. Ia
iaiaa aaaeiui yaeyaony i?aai iaia?aie/aiiiai auai?a i?ioannee e noa?u
o?oaea a iaeiii ec naeoi?ia yeiiiieee, ?acee/athueony oi?iie
nianoaaiiinoe (aeeth/ay noa?o eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai o?oaea).

Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia eneeth/eoaeueiii i?aaa auai?a, iai?aaiia?ii
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue yoi i?aai n iaycaoaeuenoaii iauanoaa oaeiaeaoai?eoue
iio?aaiinoe eaaeaeiai a oii eee eiii aeaea caiyoinoe eee i?ioannee.
?ieue iauanoaa caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee aeey anao ?aaiuo i?aaiauo
oneiaee aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo niiniaiinoae. Iai?eia?, anee /aeiaae
oi/ao noaoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeai, oi iauanoai aeieaeii nicaeaoue aio aeey
yoiai i?aaiaua oneiaey, ii noaiao ee ii ei, aoaeao caaenaoue io ee/iuo
ea/anoa i?aoaiaeaioa.

Ionthaea auoaeaao aoi?ie i?eioeei caiyoinoe — ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ainoaea?noaa ca nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?aaa a?aaeaeai ia
o?oae. A iniiao iieeoeee caiyoinoe iieiaeaiu ioeac io aeanoeie
?aaeaiaioaoeee oi?i e ?aaeeiia caiyoinoe, auioaeaeaiiie iaycaoaeueiinoe
o?oaea a iauanoaaiiie noa?a e niaeaenoaea ?ane?uoeth eioa?ania e
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea /a?ac naiaiaeo e aeia?iaieueiinoue auai?a ethaie
noa?u iauanoaaiii iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nicaeaiea ainoaea?noaii oneiaee aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?aaa ia o?oae ii
i?eioeeio niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe ninoieo a ei??aeoe?iaea einaaiiuie
iaoiaeaie yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey yeiiiie/anee naiaiaeiuo o/anoieeia
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e/ai ia?u einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey
ainoaea?noaa ia caiyoinoue iniiauaathony ia i?aiaeaaeaiee
iiiu?eoaeueiuo, noeioee?othueo ia?, a aai a?naiaea ia aeieaeii auoue
n?aaenoa, ia?ooathueo yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua i?aaa e naiaiaeu
o?oaeyueony, i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, oa??eoi?ee. I?eioeei niaeaenoaey
caiyoinoe eiaao ianeieueei aniaeoia. Ia?yaeo n ?ane?uoeai naiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia caiyoinoue, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo einaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey caiyoinoe a aeaeaaiii iai?aaeaiee,
i?eioeei niaeaenoaey caeeth/aaony oaeaea a aeoeaiii e caeioa?aniaaiiii
o/anoee noauaeoia nioeeaeueii-o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee a au?aaioea
iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey caiyoinoe e aa ?aaoee?iaaiey: iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia a
eeoea naieo

i?ionithcia, ?aaioiaeaoaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo a ?acee/iua annioeeaoeee e
nithcu e i?aaeoaeuenoaa. (Aiaeeco iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea yoeo
noauaeoia iinayuaia ae. 6).

Oaniia acaeiiaeaenoaea iacaaiiuo nee a ?acaeoee caiyoinoe iicaieyao
aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ninoiyiea caiyoinoe, aeiaeaaoueny
nouanoaaiiiai oeo/oaiey anao aa ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee, oaeeo eae
ia?aciaaoaeueiue e i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue ninoaa caiyoiai
ianaeaiey, aai io?aneaaay e aeaiia?aoe/aneay no?oeoo?a, aunieay
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay iiaeeueiinoue e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue e o.ae.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0102 \* MERGEFORMAT 1.2. Oi?iu caiyoinoe a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee

Iieiay, i?iaeoeoeaiay, naiaiaeii eca?aiiay caiyoinoue. N o/aoii
auoaneacaiiiai o?ainoi?ie?oaony iiiyoea iieiie caiyoinoe. Iaiyaony
oei?aieaoaany aa oieeiaaiea eae iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai o?iaiy
aiaea/aiey o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey a iauanoaaiiia oicyenoai.. Iieiay
caiyoinoue iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooa i?e ethaii o?iaia aiaea/aiey, anee
ii niioaaonoaoao oaeiaeaoai?aieth iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey a ?aai/eo ianoao
i?e oneiaee yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe (i?iaeoeoeaiinoe)
i?aaeeaaaaiuo ?aai/eo iano. I?e yoii iiae yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciui
?aai/ei ianoii iiieiaaony oaeia ?aai/aa ianoi, eioi?ia iicaieyao
/aeiaaeo aeinoe/ue aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e eiaoue
ca?aaioie, niiniaiue iaania/eoue aeinoieiia nouanoaiaaiea aio e aai
naiuea, ia a?aaeeo caei?iaueth e ia oieaeaao /aeiaa/aneiai aeinoieinoaa.
Oaeei ia?acii, iieiay caiyoinoue ia?aaiicia/ia aiaea/aieth anao
o?oaeiniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai a noa?o i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?oaea. *aeiaae
ai?aaa auae?aoue ii naiaio aeaeaieth iaeio ec noa? iauanoaaiii iieaciie
caiyoinoe (i?ioanneiiaeueiue o?oae a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, o/aao n
io?uaii io ?aaiou, aeiiaoiaa oicyenoai e o.i.). Iaeiaei ?aaoee?othuae
ninoaaeythuae yaeyaony caiyoinoue i?ioanneiiaeueiui o?oaeii, i?eiinyuei
aeioiae, eae iniiaa iiauoaiey aeaaininoiyiey e ?acaeoey ee/iinoe.
O?iaaiue caiyoinoe i?ioanneiiaeueiui o?oaeii, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue
ii?aaeaeai eae ioiioaiea iauaai /enea ?aaioieeia (iacaaeneii io
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu i?aaei?eyoey, aaea iie o?oaeyony) e
/eneaiiinoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, io?aaeaao aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e nioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe ?acaeoey
iauanoaa. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeaiioth i?iii?oeeth a caiyoinoe iiaeii
n/eoaoue iioeiaeueiie, anee iia a iieiie ia?a niioaaonoaotho eioa?anai
iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acoeueoaoai aai
eioaineoeeaoeee, aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna,
?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, a oaeaea nicaeaao aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey aini?iecaiaenoaa caei?iaiai iieieaiey,
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo, oi?ioi iao/aiiuo e iiaeeueiuo ?aaioieeia.

Iieiay caiyoinoue, ioaa/athuay anai ia?a/eneaiiui oneiaeyi, iiaeao auoue
iacaaia i?iaeoeoeaiie caiyoinoueth. I?e yoii iu enoiaeei ec oiai, /oi
i?iaeoeoeaiay caiyoinoue ia eaeaioe/ia yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea. Iineaaeiyy
yaeyaony ninoaaeythuei, ii ia aaeeinoaaiiui yeaiaioii i?iaeoeoeaiie
caiyoinoe. A eiia/iii n/aoa iieiay e i?iaeoeoeaiay caiyoinoue iaoiaeyony
a aeeiaie/iii aaeeinoaa. A neo/aa anee iieiay caiyoinoue aeinoeaaaony
i?e iaee/ee yeiiiie/anee iaoeaeaniia?aciuo ?aai/eo iano eee oaeeo
?aai/eo iano, eioi?ua ia iaania/eaatho ?aaioieeai aeinoieiia
nouanoaiaaiea, ia niioaaonoaotho i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiio e
ia?aciaaoaeueiiio ninoaao ?aaioieeia eee ianooaau caiyoinoe a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa i?ioeai?a/ao caaea/ai aini?iecaiaenoaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
eaae?ia e ii?iaeueiiio aeaiia?aoe/aneiio ?acaeoeth, oaeay caiyoinoue
i?ioeai?a/eo iaua/aeiaa/aneei oeaiiinoyi e ia iiaeao ioeaieaaoueny
iieiaeeoaeueii.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iieiay i?iaeoeoeaiay e naiaiaeii eca?aiiay caiyoinoue
io?aaeaao i?aaeaea anaai ninoiyiea eiee/anoaaiiie e ea/anoaaiiie
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoueth ianaeaiey a ?aaioa e ?aai/eie
ianoaie, i?e eioi?ie nicaeathony aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
nioeeaeueiiai e yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna, o.a. o/eouaathony eioa?anu eae
ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe, oae e iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Anee caiyoinoue aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eaioe?iaaia ia /aeiaaea, oi iieiay
i?iaeoeoeaiay caiyoinoue a ioee/ea io /?acia?iie aeinoeaeeia oieueei a
aunieiyooaeoeaiie yeiiiieea. Ii i?e yoii iauaeoeaii neiaeaony ae?oaea
i?iii?oeee a ?ani?aaeaeaiee o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey ii noa?ai
i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea, /ai oa, eioi?ua i?enooe nia?aiaiiiio ninoiyieth
caiyoinoe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaecaaaeiu no?oeoo?iua naeaeae a caiyoinoe.

A oiaea yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu ii ia?a ?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea
o?iaaiue caiyoinoe i?ioanneiiaeueiui o?oaeii aoaeao iiieaeaoueny a
oeaeii ii no?aia. A yoii iniaaiiinoue ?acaeoey caiyoinoe a iaoae no?aia
ia aeeaeaeooth ia?niaeoeao. Caeanue aaaeii ia oieueei oi, /oi
aunieiyooaeoeaiay yeiiiieea aoaeao ioaeaeaoueny a ioiineoaeueii iaiueoai
/enea ?aaioieeia (yoi i?eciaaony anaie), ii e oi, /oi aiciiaeii
nieaeaiea iio?aaiinoe naiiai ianaeaiey a ?aai/eo ianoao a nayce n
ia?aeeth/aieai eioa?ania a ae?oaea noa?u iauanoaaiii iieaciie caiyoinoe
(o/aaa n io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa, aeeth/ay ?acee/iua oi?iu
ia?aiiaeaioiaee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee, ainieoaiea aeaoae, aeiiaoiaa
oicyenoai).

Iio?aaiinoue ethaeae a oii eee eiii aeaea iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiie
caiyoinoe e aiciiaeiinoue aa ?aaeecaoeee neaaeoao ieaiiia?ii
?aaoee?iaaoue, n oai /oiau oeo/oaoue oneiaey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea e yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee, ia ii?iaeaeaoue
/?acia?iue ni?in ni noi?iiu ianaeaiey ia iiea/eaaaioth ?aaioo, a a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa — ia nicaeaaaoue yeiiiie/anee iaoeaeaniia?aciua
?aai/ea ianoa.

Nioeeaeueii iainiiaaiiua i?iii?oeee a ?ani?aaeaeaiee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia
ii aaaeiaeoei noa?ai iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea — iai?aiaiiay i?aaeiinueea
aeinoeaeaiey iieiie caiyoinoe a eceiaeaiiii auoa iiieiaiee. Yoi o?aaoao
aieueoie ?aaiou ii ?aaoee?iaaieth ?ani?aaeaeaiey ianaeaiey ii noa?ai
caiyoinoe, i?eeiaeaiey iiea/eaaaiiai o?oaea e iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe ia eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii enoi?e/aneii
yoaia. Oaeay ?aaioa aeieaeia aeeth/aoue a naay aiaeec neiaeeaoaainy
ninoiyiey caiyoinoe e yenia?oioth ioeaieo ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey eaaeaeie
ec noa? iauanoaaiii iieaciie caiyoinoe ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai o/aoa
oaeoi?ia, iaiythueo iio?aaiinoue ianaeaiey a o?oaea, ia?aciaaiee,
aaaeaiee aeiiaoiaai oicyenoaa e ainieoaiee aeaoae.

Noaoon a caiyoinoe. Ioiioaiey caiyoinoe. Noaoon a caiyoinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony aeey /anoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, o/anoaothueo a iauanoaaiii
iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi eae a?oiia ethaeae, eioi?ua i?aaeeaaatho
?aai/oth neeo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
aeioiaea, oae e oa a?oiia ianaeaiey, eioi?ay o/anoaoao a iauanoaaiii
iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia i?eiinyuae i?yiiai aeaiaaeiiai aeioiaea,
eeai i?eiinyuae aeioiae, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia naycaiiue n i?iecaiaenoaii
aeaa e oneoa.

A ia?aoth a?oiio aoiaeyo a?aaeaeaia, caiyoua:

a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a yeiiiieee;

a eiiia?aoeaao, aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao;

a /anoiii naeoi?a.

Ai aoi?oth a?oiio aoiaeyo:

o/aueany n io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa;

neoaeauea ?inneeneie A?iee.

Oaeei ia?acii, e caiyoiio ianaeaieth ioiinyony a?aaeaeaia, ?aaioathuea
ii iaeio, a oii /enea auiieiythuea ?aaioo ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a oa/aiea
iieiiai eeai iaiieiiai ?aai/aai aeiy (iaaeaee), a oaeaea eiathuea
iiea/eaaaioth ?aaioo, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiioth niioaaonoaothuei aeiaiai?ii,
eiio?aeoii, niaeaoaieai, ii a?aiaiii ionoonoaothuea a nayce n
aieaciueth, ioioneii, caaanoiaeie, i?einoaiiaeie i?iecaiaenoaa. Caiyouie
n/eoathony eeoea, naiinoiyoaeueii iaania/eaathuea naay ?aaioie, a oii
/enea i?aaei?eieiaoaee e oa?ia?u, ana, eoi i?ioiaeeo neoaeao a ethauo
?iaeao aiene, o/aueany.

Ianaeaiea, euouaa ?aaioo, iaiythuaa ?aaioo, a?aiaiii ia ?aaioathuaa e ia
o/auaany n io?uaii io ?aaiou, a?aiaiii ia ?aaioathuaa a nayce n naciiiie
caiyoinoueth, ioiineony e yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiio iacaiyoiio ianaeaieth.
A /enei ia caiyoiai yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey aoiaeyo oaeaea
eeoea, eiathuea noaoon aac?aaioiiai.

Ioiioaiey caiyoinoe iaoneiaeeaathony yeiiiie/aneeie, aeaiia?aoe/aneeie e
nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeannaie. Yeiiiie/aneia niaea?aeaiea caiyoinoe
au?aaeaaony a aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?aaioieea naiei o?oaeii iaania/eoue naaa
aeinoieiia nouanoaiaaiea e niinianoaiaaoue ?inoo yooaeoeaiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, nioeeaeueiia — a oi?ie?iaaiee e ?acaeoee
ee/iinoe. Aeaiia?aoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea caiyoinoe io?aaeaao
acaeiicaaeneiinoue caiyoinoe n aic?anoii-iieiauie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
ianaeaiey, aai no?oeoo?ie e ae?.

Yooaeoeaiinoue caiyoinoe. Yooaeoeaiie iiaeao n/eoaoueny caiyoinoue
ianaeaiey, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao aeinoieiue aeioiae, caei?iauea,
aicauoaiea ee/iinoe, ?ino ia?aciaaoaeueiiai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy
aeey eaaeaeiai /eaia iauanoaa ia iniiaa ?inoa iauanoaaiiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Oa?aeoa?eciaaoue yooaeoeaiinoue caiyoinoe iiaoo iieacaoaee, eioi?ua
io?aaeatho eaeaieiaeth ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?acaeoey e oi?ie?othony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai aeeiaieee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.
Ai-ia?auo, yoi i?iii?oeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia o?oaea iauanoaa ii
oa?aeoa?o eo o/anoey a iauanoaaiii iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iie
iieacuaatho, i?e eaeii o?iaia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
oaeiaeaoai?yaony iio?aaiinoue ianaeaiey a ?aaioa e eaeeie iooyie
aeinoeaaaony iieiay caiyoinoue. Aeaei a oii, /oi /ai auoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, oai aieueoa iaeaieeaaaony
iaoa?eaeueiuo i?aaeiinueie aeey aunieeo aeioiaeia ?aaioieeia,
oaoieei-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey noa?u o?oaea, iiauoaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia, o/aoa niaoeeoeee oneiaee o?oaea e auoa ?acee/iuo
a?oii ianaeaiey. Aunieee o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea iicaieyao
iauanoao oaeaeyoue aieueoa aieiaiey o/aaa, ioaeuoo, ainieoaieth aeaoae.
Iiyoiio iieiay caiyoinoue iiaeao aeinoeaaoueny i?e nieaeathuainy o?iaia
o/anoey o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e/ai
aoaeao iiauoaoueny aeiey caiyouo ia o/aaa e a aeiiaoiai oicyenoaa.

Aoi?ie aaaeiaeoae oa?aeoa?enoeeie yooaeoeaiinoe caiyoinoe iiaeao
neoaeeoue o?iaaiue caiyoinoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey a iauanoaaiiii
oicyenoaa. Noaoenoe/anee ii io?aaeaaony ioiioaieai ianaeaiey, caiyoiai
i?ioanneiiaeueiui o?oaeii, i?eiinyuei aeioiae, ei anaio o?oaeiniiniaiiio
ianaeaieth. Yeiiiie/anee yoio iieacaoaeue io?aaeaao eae iio?aaiinoue
iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa a ?aaioieeao, oae e iio?aaiinoue ianaeaiey a
?aai/eo ianoao. A ethaii neo/aa aunieee o?iaaiue caiyoinoe
i?ioanneiiaeueiui o?oaeii icia/aao ieceoth yooaeoeaiinoue caiyoinoe,
iineieueeo a iaeiii neo/aa caiyoinoue ia iaania/eaaao aeinoaoi/iiai
o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, a a ae?oaii — i?eaieaiiai o?iaiy
iieaou o?oaea.

Aei ia/aea ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee a oeaeyo iaania/aiey iio?aaiinoe
io?aneae a ?aai/ae neea ieaiiaua e oicyenoaaiiua i?aaiu i?eaioe?iaaeenue
a iniiaiii ia ana aieueoaa aiaea/aiea o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey a
iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, e oaeie iiaeoiae ?ani?ino?aiyeny ia ana
nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneea a?oiiu ianaeaiey. A no?aia neiaeeeny
/?acia?ii aunieee o?iaaiue caiyoinoe. A 1950 a. a ?innee auei caiyoi a
iauanoaaiiii oicyenoaa 68% o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a 1960 a. — 73% e a 1970
a. — 85%. A aeaeueiaeoai iieacaoaeue caiyoinoe ianaeaiey oaaee/eeny
iaiaiiiai, iineieueeo ii aeinoea iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey. I?aeoe/anee
iaeeiaeiaui, eae iieacaii a ae. 1, noae o?iaaiue caiyoinoe aeaiuei e
ioae/ei, oiaaea eae, iai?eia?, a eiioea 50-o aa. cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
aeaiuei auea caiyoa a aeiiaoiai oicyenoaa. I?eaaaeaiiua oeeo?u io?aaeaee
iio?aaiinoue ianaeaiey a ?aaioa a oneiaeyo iayooaeoeaiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Eiuie neiaaie, neiaeeaoeeny e ia/aeo 70-o
aa. e nio?aieaoeeny aei ia/aea 90-o aa. o?iaaiue caiyoinoe ianaeaiey
iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae naa?ocaiyoinoue.

N/eoaaony, /oi iiaeiaiue o?iaaiue caiyoinoe cao?oaeiyao
nioeeaeueii-i?ioanneiiaeueiia ?acaeoea ?aaioathueo, ia niioaaonoaoao
caaea/ai oe?aieaiey caei?iauey ianaeaiey e aa?iiie/iiai ?acaeoey naiuee
e ee/iinoe, iineieueeo i/aiue auniea iauay o?oaeiaay iaa?ocea o aieueoeo
a?oii ianaeaiey e iaaeeaiii oaaee/eaaaony naiaiaeiia a?aiy o?oaeyueony
(iii caiaoii aic?anoaei aei eiioea 60-o aa.).

Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe caiyoinoe ii oa?aeoa?o o/anoey a iauanoaaiii
iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoe e o?iaith caiyoinoe a iauanoaaiiii oicyenoaa
iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue auoaiacaaiioth (ni. ae. 1) noaio aaeaina o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia.

O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu (iei /aeiaae):

a oii /enea o?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa (iei
/aeiaae), ?aaioathuea eeoea noa?oeo aic?anoia e iiae?inoee (iei /aeiaae)

?ani?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia’.

caiyoi a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa (aac ee/iiai iiaeniaiiai oicyenoaa (iei
/aeiaae), o/aueany (iei /aeiaae), aiaiiineoaeauea (iei /aeiaae),
iacaiyoua o?oaeiniiniaiua eeoea a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa (iei
/aeiaae), a oii /enea auioaeaeaiii iacaiyoua (euouea ?aaioo) (iei
/aeiaae).

Aeiey a iauae /eneaiiinoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, %:

caiyouo a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, ia o/aaa, iacaiyouo o?oaeiniiniaiuo eeoe
a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa, a oii /enea euoueo ?aaioo.

I?eaaaeai i?eia? aeey aiaeeca. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi a 1995 a. o?oaeiaua
?ano?nu ninoaaeee 86 iei /aeiaae, a oii /enea a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa
81,3 iei /aeiaae, ?aaioathuea eeoea noa?oeo aic?anoia e iiae?inoee — 4,7
iei /aeiaae. Ec ieo caiyoua a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa (aac EIO) ninoaaeee —
69,5 iei /aeiaae; o/aueany — 5,6 iei /aeiaae; aiaiiineoaeauea — 2,4 iei
/aeiaae; iacaiyoua o?oaeiniiniaiua a?aaeaeaia a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa
— 8,5 iei /aeiaae; a o./. auioaeaeaiii iacaiyoua (euouea ?aaioo) — 3,3
iei /aeiaae.

I?eaaaeaiiue i?eia? iieacuaaao, /oi a aeaiiii aiaeo a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa iaaethaeaeinue iayooaeoeaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia o?oaea ii
oa?aeoa?o caiyoinoe. Aunieay iio?aaiinoue ethaeae a iiea/eaaaiie ?aaioa
aiai?eo i ieceii o?iaia aeecie ianaeaiey, naycaiiii a oii /enea e n
iaaunieei o?iaiai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e aai iieaou. A
?acoeueoaoa iaeeoei naa?ocaiyoinoue iauanoaaiiui o?oaeii a oua?a ae?oaei
nioeeaeueii cia/eiui aeaeai caiyoinoe, a /anoiinoe, aeiea ianaeaiey,
caiyoiai ia o/aaa, oioy eiaiii yoio iieacaoaeue io?aaeaao aaaeiue aniaeo
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ethaeneeo ?ano?nia. O?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
aunieiyooaeoeaiue o?oae a oneiaeyo iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna aac
iaiaoiaeeiiai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, a yoi
i?aaeiieaaaao aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiua ianooaau caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ia
o/aaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii /ai aiaa/a iauanoai, oai aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey nicaeathony aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey aic?anoathueo iio?aaiinoae a
ia?aciaaiee.

Aeiey eeoe, euoueo ?aaioo, a iaoai i?eia?a ninoaaeyao 3,8% o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi ii?aaeaeaiiue aeeciaiiue noaiaea?o o
yoeo ethaeae iiaeaea?aeeaaaony, eae i?aaeei, aoi?uie-o?aoueeie /eaiaie
naiuee.

Noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui, /oi ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiuo
a?aaeaeai iinoiyiii ioaeaeaaony a ?aai/eo ianoao. Ionthaea aicieeaao
aii?in i nouiinoe aac?aaioeoeu a aa iauaoai?aoe/aneii e i?eeeaaeiii
aniaeoao. Caeanue iie oieueei iaicia/athony, a aeaoaeueiaa
?anniao?eaathony a ae. 4.

Aac?aaioeoea, n iauaoai?aoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, io?aaeaao ianiaiaaeaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu e ni?ina ia iaa a yeiiiieea, eo
eiee/anoaaiiia e no?oeoo?iia (oa??eoi?eaeueiia,
i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiia e ae?.) ianiioaaonoaea. Yoi iaeia ec
aaaeiuo e iinoiyiiuo /a?o nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeecie a oneiaeyo
oi?ie?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea.

?aaeueiay ioeaiea e ecia?aiea aac?aaioeoeu inouanoaeyaony niaeanii
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea (IIO) e n o/aoii
neiaeeaoaeny i?aeoeee o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee. A ?innee e aac?aaioiui
ioiinyony eeoea 16 eao e noa?oa, eioi?ua a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae ia
eiaee ?aaiou eee ae?oaiai aeioiaeiiai caiyoey, naiinoiyoaeueii eee i?e
/ueai-oi iin?aaeie/anoaa caieiaeenue iieneii ?aaiou e auee aioiau
i?enooieoue e iae.

Yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu a ?innee, i?iaiaeeiua n ia/aea 90-o aa., ii?iaeeee
?yae iiauo yaeaiee a noa?a caiyoinoe ianaeaiey. E iei iiaeii ioianoe
ne?uooth aac?aaioeoeo (iiae?iaii ni. ae. 4) e iaoi?iaeueioth caiyoinoue.
*aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey «iaoi?iaeueiay caiyoinoue» iiea ia
neiaeeeinue. Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iaeaieaa i?eaieaiui yaeyaony
ioianaiea e iaoi?iaeueii caiyoui eeoe, ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaaoeo a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue e ia
ieaoyueo iaeiaia. Iiea oi?ie?oaony i?aaiaia iiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee,
o?oaeii onoaiiaeoue no?iai i/a?/aiiua ?aca?aie/aiey iaaeaeo
iaoi?iaeueiie caiyoinoueth e yeiiiie/aneie iaaeoeaiinoueth a?aaeaeai. A
naiii iaoi?iaeueiii naeoi?a caiyoinoe o?oaeii auaeaeeoue oaiaaoth e
e?eieiaeueioth caiyoinoue, iao oai?aoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey e noaoenoeee
yoeo yaeaiee. Eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieoue ?acia? iaoi?iaeueiie caiyoinoe
iiaeii, eeoue einaaiiui iooai.

Iaoi?iaeueioth caiyoinoue /anoi eiatho eae eeoea, iioa?yaoea ?aaioo, oae
e ia eiathuea iieiie iaa?ocee ia iniiaiii ?aai/ai ianoa, /oi a
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a eiiiaine?oao iioa?th eo ca?aaioea.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0103 \* MERGEFORMAT 1.3. I?iaeaiu
caiyoinoe ?innee ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia

I?ioeann ?aoi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiieee ?innee iieacae, /oi ia?yaeo ni
naienoaaiiuie ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee i?ioeai?a/eyie, a /anoiinoe, iaaeaeo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii e nieaeaieai aac?aaioeoeu, oa?aeoa?ii,
oneiaeyie o?oaea e aai iieaoie, nouanoaotho /enoi ?inneeneea i?iaeaiu,
naycaiiua n aunieei o?iaiai o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey i?e ieceeo
o?iaia aeecie e yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea, n iaaeinoaoi/iie
oa??eoi?eaeueii-io?aneaaie iiaeeueiinoueth eaae?ia, ia anaaaea
niioaaonoaothuae ?uii/iui oneiaeyi nenoaiie iiaeaioiaee e
ia?aiiaeaioiaee eaae?ia, ia?acaeoinoueth eio?ano?oeoo?u ?uiea o?oaea.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, a oiaea ?aaeeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a
?innee auynieeinue, /oi neeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo iio?ynaiee a noa?a
caiyoinoe, i eioi?uo /anoi i?aaeoi?aaeaeaea i?anna, iiea ia
iaaethaeaaony. Ioeoeeaeueiay aac?aaioeoea ?anoao ioiineoaeueii
oia?aiiuie oaiiaie e nae/an aa o?iaaiue ia i?aauoaao 4% yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiiaea i?iaeaiu caiyoinoe i?eiyee aeoaeiiue oa?aeoa?.
?a/ue eaeao ia oaaee/aiee ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu, i ?inoa aeiee eeoe,
ia?auathueony a neoaeao caiyoinoe, n?aaee anao eeoe, eniuouaathueo
o?oaeiinoe n iieneii ?aaiou (aei 30%), i iiauoaiee aeiee auioneieeia
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee n?aaee anae aac?aaioiie iieiaeaaee. Iaeiia?aiaiii
auno?uie oaiiaie ?acaeaaaony caiyoinoue a oaiaaie yeiiiieea, ianooaau
eioi?ie ioeaieaathony a 10-15 iei. /aeiaae.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ?aa?anneaiue oa?aeoa? eciaiaiey io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u
caiyoinoe. Yoiio, a /anoiinoe, niinianoaoao iieeoeea a iaeanoe iieaou
o?oaea, i?e eioi?ie ca?ieaoa a io?aneyo OYE ?anoao ai?acaei aieaa
aunieeie oaiiaie, /ai a ae?oaeo noa?ao yeiiiieee. Iai?eia?, anee a 1990
a. o?iaaiue ca?ieaou ?aaioieeia iaooaaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
iia?aaeae o?iaaiue ca?ieaou a oeaeii ii anai io?aneyi a 1,7 ?aca, oi a
1995 a. – oaea a 2,7 ?aca. A oi aea a?aiy a iaoeiino?iaiee
iaaethaeaeanue ia?aoiay oaiaeaioeey: o?iaaiue ca?ieaou a 1990 a.
i?eia?ii ?aaiyeny n?aaeiae ca?ieaoa ii io?aneyi yeiiiieee, a a 1995 a.
ii ninoaaeye oaea 80% io n?aaeiae ca?ieaou ii ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao.

Ia 1 iiya?y 1996 a. ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaie caiyoinoe ca?aaeno?e?iaaii
2,5 iei. a?aaeaeai, ioaeaeathueony a o?oaeiono?ienoaa, ec ieo 2,2 iei.
/aeiaae eiatho noaoon aac?aaioiuo e ieiei 2,0 iei. /aeiaae iieo/atho
niioaaonoaothuea iiniaey. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi oeacaiiua aaee/eiu
io?aaeatho eeoue iioiee eeoe, ia?auathueony ca iiiiuueth a neoaeao
caiyoinoe. Cia/eoaeueiua aea eiioeiaaiou yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai
ianaeaiey naiinoiyoaeueii euoo ?aaioo. Ii aeaiiui auai?i/iuo
ianeaaeiaaiee Aineiinoaoa ?innee, oaeeo ethaeae i?eia?ii a 2 ?aca
aieueoa, e iauay /eneaiiinoue eeoe, ioaeaeathueony a o?oaeiono?ienoaa,
ninoaaeyao nae/an i?eia?ii 5 iei. /aeiaae (7% yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai
ianaeaiey).

Anee e eeoeai, oaea oaeoe/anee ieacaaoeiny “ia oeeoea”, aeiaaaeoue
i?eia?ii 4,5 iei. /aeiaae, iaoiaeyueony a auioaeaeaiiuo ioioneao,
?aaioathueo ia ii naiaio aeaeaieth iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue (iaaeaeth),
oi iauea ianooaau nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe a iauanoaa, naycaiiua n
caiyoinoueth ianaeaiey, aeiaieueii aiooeoaeueiu. Nauoa 12% yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey, a n o/aoii oiai, /oi n?aaeiee ?acia? naiuee a
?innee ninoaaeyao 3 /aeiaaea, – 27 iei. aeeoaeae (ii/oe 20% ianaeaiey
no?aiu) eniuouaatho ineoieiae/aneoth e i?ioanneiiaeueioth oua?aiinoue,
ii naiia aeaaiia – nouanoaaiiua iaoa?eaeueiua cao?oaeiaiey, /oi, eae
i?aaeei, ioa?anuaaao eo ca /a?oo aaaeiinoe.

A ?innee aaee/eia niaieoiiie aac?aaioeoeu ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec
eiee/anoaa a?aaeaeai, euoueo ?aaioo e ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a ea/anoaa
aac?aaioiuo a Oeaio?ao caiyoinoe (OeC). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ec /enea
aac?aaioiuo eneeth/athony oa, eoi ia eiaao ?aaioo, euao aa, ii i?e yoii
a ea/anoaa aac?aaioiiai ia ca?aaeno?e?iaai. Iineieueeo ioeoeeaeueiua
aeaiiua i eiee/anoaa aac?aaioiuo iniiaaiu ia aaeaiany/iie io/aoiinoe
OeC, caieaeaiea o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu, aiciiaeii, naycaii ia oieueei n
naiie i?ioeaaeo?ie ?aaeno?aoeee, ii e n i?enaiaieai noaoona
aac?aaioiiai.

?aaeueiue iaaeio/ao e, iaaeiioeaiea ?inneeneie aac?aaioeoeu caeiaeaiu a
naiii iaoaiecia aeaenoaey Caeiia i caiyoinoe, i?eiyoiai a 1991 a. e
aia?aua n 20-o aiaeia ocaeiieaoaai aac?aaioeoeo a ?innee. Iiaeii
iacaaoue ii e?aeiae ia?a ainaiue i?e/ei iaaeaeaiey ethaeae, iioa?yaoeo
?aaioo, ia?auaoueny a OeC, aneaaenoaea /aai iie eneeth/athony ec
ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeee aac?aaioeoeu.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa 70 eao aac?aaioeoea ?anniao?eaaeanue eae iacaeiiiia
yaeaiea. Ineoieiae/aneia iai?eyoea aac?aaioeoeu e naieo aac?aaioiuo aei
neo ii? nio?aiyaony a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee. Yoi a ?aaiie noaiaie
ioiineony eae e oai, eoi oa?yao ?aaioo e aei iineaaeiaai iiiaioa
iuoaaony o?oaeiono?ieoueny nianoaaiiuie neeaie, oae e e oai, eoi
iaieiaao ?aai/oth neeo /a?ac OeC.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee nouanoaoao ieiei 2500 ae?ae o?oaea, /oi yaii
iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey oaeie ia?iiiie no?aiu. Ianaeaiea ieioi eioi?ie?iaaii
i oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?aniieiaeaiee aeaiiuo neoaea, cia/eoaeueia
oaeaeaiiinoue OeC io ?yaea ianaeaiiuo ioieoia, iniaaiii a naeueneie
ianoiinoe, aaea ?annoiyiea aei aeeaeaeoaai OeC iiaeao i?aauoaoue 80 ei.

Caeii i caiyoinoe aeeth/aao iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi a?aaeaeaia ?innee,
iieo/athuea auoiaeiia iiniaea io i?aaei?eyoey (i?aaiecaoeee) , ia iiaoo
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iiiaea ec
/enea iioa?yaoeo ?aaioo e iieo/eaoeo auoiaeiia iiniaea eae ieieioi a
oa/aiea aeaoo ianyoeaa ia aeaey niunea ia?auaoueny a OeC, oi anoue
iaiaeay /anoue e?aoein?i/iuo aac?aaioiuo ii-aeaeeiiio, eneeth/aaony ec
ioeoeeaeueiuo aeaiiuo.

I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?aaei?eyoea, aunaiaiaeaeathuaa ?aaioieeia,
aeieaeii eioi?ie?iaaoue eo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaeno?aoeee a ?aeiiiii OeC.
Iaeiaei o i?aaei?eyoee iao ie noeioeia, ie iaycaiiinoae auiieiyoue yoo
ooieoeeth. Aieaa oiai i?aaei?eyoea, nie?auathuaa caiyouo, nei?aa anaai
iaoiaeeony a o?oaeiii iaoa?eaeueiii iieiaeaiee, e aeey iaai auaiaeiaa
ia eioi?ie?iaaoue ?aaioieeia, iineieueeo a oaeii neo/aa iii ia aoaeao
auiea/eaaoue ei auoiaeiia iiniaea ca o?aoee ianyoe.

Aiciiaeiinoe OeC ii o?oaeiono?ienoao aac?aaioiuo ia?aie/aiu.
Ianeaaeiaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?iaaaeaiiia a ethea 1993 a.,
iieacaei, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia i?eaaaatho e
oneoaai OeC i?e iienea e iaeia ?aai/ae neeu aeaaea i?e ?inoa aa
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea.

Aa?iyoiinoue iieo/aiey iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea aeey ia?aoeaoaainy a OeC
iaaaeeea, a ?acia? auiea/eaaaiiai iiniaey, eae i?aaeei, ieieiaeueiue.

Ia?aiiaeaioiaea aac?aaioiuo /a?ac OeC inouanoaeyaony iaaeinoaoi/ii
yooaeoeaii.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oaaee/eeinue /enei ?aaioieeia, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaiiea/eaaaiuo ioioneao. Ia?aaeei eiaiii oaeei
niiniaii aaeieieno?aoeey i?aaei?eyoee “nio?aiyao” /eneaiiinoue ?aai/aai
eieeaeoeaa, caieaeay oai naiui n?aaeithth ca?aaioioth ieaoo ii
i?aaei?eyoeth e ecaaaay iiauoaiiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey oiiaea iieaou
o?oaea.

A niioaaonoaee n ?inneeneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea
ninoaaeyao a ia?aua o?e ianyoea 75% n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou ia
iineaaeiai ianoa ?aaiou, a oa/aiea neaaeothueo o?ao ianyoeaa – 60, a a
inoaaoeany iieaiaea – 45%, ii ia ieaea onoaiiaeaiiiai ieieioia
ca?aaioiie ieaou e ia auoa n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou a ?aaeiia.

A n?aaeiai ca 1995 a. iiniaey auiea/eaaeenue iieiaeia aac?aaioiuo,
eiathueo i?aai ia iieo/aiea iiniaey. Inoaeueiua eeai ia eiaee oaeiai
i?aaa (iineieueeo iieo/aee auoiaeiia iiniaea io i?aaei?eyoey eee auee
oaieaiu ii noaoueyi ECiO), eeai ei i?einoaiiaeee auieaoo iiniaey ia n?ie
aei o?ao ianyoeaa (eae i?aaeei, ca ia?ooaiea ?aaeeia ia?a?aaeno?aoeee).
Ec iauaai /enea aac?aaioiuo – iaeaaeaoaeae iiniaey a 1995 a., 49,2%
iieo/aee aai a ieieiaeueiii ?acia?a, ?aaiii ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie
ieaoa.

A ?aaeiiao n aunieei o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu aeiey iieo/aaoeo iiniaea a
ieieiaeueiii ?acia?a ieacaeanue nouanoaaiii auoa: a ?anioaeeea
Aeaaanoai – 85,5%, a ?anioaeeea Eiaooaoey – 66, a Eaaiianeie iaeanoe –
57,3%. Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ii?aaeaeyao e
?acia? auiea/eaaaiuo iiniaee. Iaeiaei, niaeanii eioi?iaoeee
Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau caiyoinoe, a ?yaea ?aaeiiia iieeoeea ianoiuo
aeanoae iai?aaeaia ia nie?auaiea aeaiiie noaouee ?anoiaeia ?aaeiiaeueiuo
oiiaeia caiyoinoe.

Inaiueth 1995 a. aia?aua aicieeee i?iaeaiu n auieaoaie iiniaee ii
aac?aaioeoea. Anee a ia/aea 1996 a. ai iiiaeo ?inneeneeo ?aaeiiao
caaea?aeee n auieaoie iiniaee ninoaaeyee 3 ianyoea, oi e eiioeo aiaea
iie oaaee/eeenue aei 4-6 ianyoeaa. Iniaaiii ino?ay neooaoeey
neiaeeeanue a ?aaeiiao n aunieei o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu, /enei eioi?uo
aic?inei n 58 a eiioea 1995 a. aei 65 a eiioea 1996 a. Iinooiathuea ia
?an/aoiua n/aoa neoaea caiyoinoe n?aaenoaa n?aco aea ?anoiaeothony ia
auieaoo iiniaee. Ii iineieueeo iinooieaiea aeaiaa i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aaiiia?ii, neoaeau caiyoinoe ia iiaoo auieaoeoue iiniaey anai
aac?aaioiui, eoi eo aeieaeai iieo/aoue. Iiyoiio a ?yaea ?aaeiiia
?ac?aaioaiu “i?ei?eoaou” a auieaoa caaea?aeaiiuo iiniaee. Oae, a iaeiie
ec iaeanoae auieaou i?iecaiaeyony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aac?aaioiui, a
naiueyo eioi?uo anoue ae?oaea aac?aaioiua, ai aoi?oth – iaeeiieei
iaoa?yi, ainieouaathuei ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae, a o?aoueth –
iaeeiieei aac?aaioiui e o.ae.

?an/aou iieacuaatho, /oi a 1996 a. ia iiniaey, aeeth/ay auieaou
eaeaeeaaioeai, aeieaeii auei i?eoiaeeoueny 37,2% iaueo ?anoiaeia oiiaea
caiyoinoe, a a 1997 a. eo aeiey ninoaaeo 27%. Nie?auaiea ia aeanyoue
i?ioeaioiuo ioieoia icia/aao, /oi eeai oiaiueoeony /eneaiiinoue
aac?aaioiuo, eeai cia/eoaeueii aic?anoao noiia n?aaenoa, aeeoioee?oaiuo
a oiiaeao caiyoinoe. Ii yoe i?aaeiieiaeaiey iaeiaa?iyoiu , iineieueeo
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen a no?aia i?iaeieaeaaony, e /enei i?inoaeaathueo,
iae?aaeeoiniiniaiuo i?aaei?eyoee ?anoao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nie?auaaony e
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay aaca aeey io/eneaiee a oiiaeu caiyoinoe.

Aeaiiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa o/eouaaeenue ?ac?aaio/eeaie Oaaea?aeueiie
i?ia?aiiu niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ia 1996-1997 aa. E oioy a iae
oeacaiu eeoue iauea noiiu ?anoiaeia oiiaea caiyoinoe, iiaeii
iiaen/eoaoue, /oi aiaeiaay noiia auieao ia iaeiiai aac?aaioiiai
(iiniaea, iaoa?eaeueiay iiiiuue, iiniaea ia eaeaeeaaioeaa e o.i.),
eioi?ue iieo/ee au ana i?e/eoathueany aio n?aaenoaa (aue au aac?aaioiui
a oa/aiea anaai n?iea e aieaa, eiae au aeaoo aeaoae), ninoaaeo 1 iei.
90 oun. ?oa., eee 90,8 oun. ?oa. a ianyoe. Iineieueeo n iay 1996 a.
ieieiaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa oaea ninoaaeyea 75,9 oun. ?oa. a ianyoe, a
a 1997 a. iiauoaia aei 83,5 oun. ?oa., a?yae ee neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue
eaeiai-eeai oeo/oaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aac?aaioiuo.

I?aaaea, yoiai iiaeii aeiaeoueny, nie?aoea eiee/anoai aac?aaioiuo e
niioaaonoaaiii oaaee/ea auieaou ia iaeiiai aac?aaioiiai. Oaeie iaoaieci
a i?ia?aiia oeacai: “I?aaeiieaaaaony oniaa?oainoaiaaoue ii?yaeie
iacia/aiey iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea a iiauoaiiii ?acia?a, oaycaa aai n
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ia?eiaea oieaou no?aoiauo aciinia (noaaeai
?aaiou) e i?e/eiie oaieueiaiey”. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai n ?uii/iie
yeiiiieeie iiniaea eee no?aoiaea ii aac?aaioeoea ia auiea/eaaaony
?aaioieeai, oaieeaoeiny ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth. A ?inneeneie
yeiiiieea /enei iiaeiaiuo oaieueiaiee (ae?oaeie neiaaie, auioaeaeaiiuo
oaieueiaiee ec-ca inoaiiaie i?iecaiaenoaa, iaauieao ca?aaioiie ieaou e
o.i., iiiu?yaiuo aaeieieno?aoeeae, eioi?ie auaiaeiaa oaeay oi?ia
auauoey caiyouo, /ai nie?auaiea ia?niiaea, iineieueeo iineaaeiaa aea/ao
ca niaie auieaoo o?aoiany/iiai auoiaeiiai iiniaey) iaiiiai iia?aaeaao
eiee/anoai aunaiaiaeaeaiee ?aaioieeia ii eieoeeaoeaa aaeieieno?aoeee.
Oaaea?aeueiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe, ioneaaeeaay i?e/eiu oaieueiaiee ia
naiai naaiaioa i?eoiea a ?yaeu aac?aaioiuo, iieacuaaao, /oi oa, eoi aue
oaieai a nayce n nie?auaieai /eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea, ninoaaeee anaai 30%
io ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo. Aeaiiua Aineiinoaoa ii anai e?oiiui e
n?aaeiei i?aaei?eyoeyi iieacuaatho, /oi oaieueiaiey ii yeiiiie/aneei
i?e/eiai (nie?auaiea /eneaiiinoe eee eeeaeaeaoeey i?aaei?eyoey) a 1996
a. ninoaaeee ia aieaa 7-9% anao oaieueiaiee. Neeaaeuaaaony aia/aoeaiea,
/oi auioaeaeaiiua oaieueiaiey i?iaeieaeatho inoaaaoueny aoi?inoaiaiiie
ii aaaeiinoe i?e/eiie, ia i?aauoay 25% anao oaieueiaiee ia i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo. Aaaaeaiea aea oaeiai ia?aie/aiey ia iio/aiea iiniaey, eae
oaieueiaiea ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth, oaeoe/anee aoaeao icia/aoue
?aceia nie?auaiea /enea ?aaeno?e?oaiuo aac?aaioiuo. A iaeaieueoae
noaiaie yoi cao?iiao naioth aaaeioth eaoaai?eth a?aaeaeai, aeey eioi?uo
aeaaea ieca?iia iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea ia?aaeei yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiie
oi?iie aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee a naiaeiue athaeaeao. Ianeaaeiaaiea
aac?aaioiuo, i?iaaaeaiiia a 1996 a., iieacaei, /oi aeey 14,8% naiae
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo iiniaea – ia?aue ii cia/eiinoe enoi/iee
nouanoaiaaiey, a aeey 34% naiae – aoi?ie.

Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ?innee yaeythony iaiau/ii aieueoie iooie ec ?yaeia
aac?aaioiuo. Niiinoaaeyy neooaoeeth a ?innee n ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeie
no?aiaie, ?uiie o?oaea a eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ecoaony ieceeie iieacaoaeyie
i?eoiea a ?yaeu aac?aaioiuo, ii aua aieaa ieceeie iieacaoaeyie iooiea,
iu iaia?oaeeaaai, /oi a ?innee ai iiiaii i?ioeaiiieiaeiay ea?oeia – n
ieceeie i?eoieaie a aac?aaioeoeo, ii aeeiaie/iui iooieii, aeeth/ay
o?oaeiono?ienoai. Ia/eiay n ia?aiai eaa?oaea 1994 a. ia/aeinue
oaaee/aiea i?eoiea, i?eaaaeoaa e oiio, /oi aaeaiany/iue oaii i?eoiea a
?yaeu aac?aaioiuo ninoaaee 0,5% (io /eneaiiinoe caiyouo).

Oioy iieacaoaeue o?oaeiono?ienoaa inoaaony ia aunieii o?iaia: 6-7%
aac?aaioiuo aaeaiany/ii iaoiaeyo ?aaioo. Eae aeey i?eoiea, oae e aeey
iooiea oa?aeoa?iu i/aiue aunieea e onoie/eaua ai a?aiaie iieacaoaee
iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo ?acee/ee.

Ieceea iieacaoaee i?eoiea naycaiu n ?aoaieai i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua iiaoo
eae oeaeaiai?aaeaiii nie?auaoue eceeoithth ?aai/oth neeo, oae e
iieaaaoueny ia aeia?iaieueiia auauoea ?aaioieeia – a nayce n ooiaeii ia
iaineth e n oaieueiaieai ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth. A i?eioeeia, ?ino
o?iaiy oaieueiaiee aeieaeai eae-oi i?iyaeoueny a iiauoaiee i?eoiea a
?yaeu aac?aaioiuo. Iaeiaei i?aaei?eyoey aanueia iaioioii e neaai
nie?auatho ?aaioieeia. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?eoiea a ?yaeu aac?aaioiuo
naycaia n aeia?iaieueiuie ?aoaieyie ?aai/eo. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei,
iaiai?eoueny: ?aca?aie/eoaeueioth /a?oo iaaeaeo aeia?iaieueiuie e
auioaeaeaiiuie oaieueiaieyie i?iaanoe aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii, eai ooiae n
?aaiou ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth iiaeao auoue auioaeaeaiiui. Ii aeaaea
eiay yoi a aeaeo, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi /anoue aeia?iaieueii
inoaaeythueo naia ianoi ?aaiou n?aaee anao, eoi noaiiaeony aac?aaioiuie,
i?aiaeaaeaao, a yoi eiaao ii?aaaeaiea oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee
aa?iyoiinoue o?oaeiono?ienoaa aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea.

Ni noi?iiu iooiea ec ?yaeia aac?aaioiuo aeaiiua Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau
caiyoinoe iieacuaatho, /oi o?iaaiue o?oaeiono?ienoaa ia oieueei aunie –
nauoa 40% anaai iooiea, – ii e iai?aaeyaony ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii a
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, n iinoaiaiiui ?inoii aeiee noa?u oneoa e
nie?auaiee aeiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Oioy e
iaaethaeaaony ?ino n?aaeiae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe iieneia ?aaiou, /oi
60-80% o?oaeiono?aeaathueony iaoiaeyo ?aaioo iaiaa /ai ca 4 ianyoea.
Eoae, aeey oao, eoi iaoae ?aaioo, aoaeo/e aac?aaioiui, ia?eiae
i?aauaaiey aac ?aaiou aue ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeei: i?eia?ii o?aoue
iaoiaeeei ?aaioo iaiaa, /ai ca ianyoe a 1995 e iaeia iyoay – a 1996 a.

Oai ia iaiaa, iaaethaeaaony nieaeaiea o?iaiy iooiea e o?iaiy
o?oaeiono?ienoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee 1996 a. Yoi eciaiaiea iiaeao
iauyniyoueny e eciaiaieai i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea, e nie?auaieai nicaeaiey
iiauo ?aai/eo iano. O/eouaay iauoth aeanoeinoue iae?iyeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee ia?aie iieiaeiu 1995 a.,
i?aaenoaaeyaony aa?iyoiui, /oi aeiieie?iaaei nie?auaiea ni?ina ia o?oae,
/oi i?eaaei e nie?auaieth eiee/anoaa naiaiaeiuo ?aai/eo iano e
nieaeaieth iooiea ec ?yaeia aac?aaioiuo.

Aua iaeia iniaaiiinoue ?uiea o?oaea a ?innee. io?aaeathuayny a aunieii
o?iaia iooiea aac?aaioiuo – aunieee o?iaaiue iaeia. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 1995
e 1996 a. a oa/aiea eaa?oaea i?eia?ii 5% ?aai/ae neeu iaiyei ianoi
?aaiou. Cia/eoaeueioth aeieth yoiai iioiea ninoaaeyee i?yiua, ieioy
aac?aaioeoeo, ia?aoiaeu n iaeiiai ianoa ?aaiou ia ae?oaia. Yoa
aeoeaiinoue eanaeanue aac?aaioiuo a iaeiaiueoae noaiaie, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aac?aaioeoea a ?innee a oeaeii ia naiii aeaea iiaeao
auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia eae canoieiay. Eciaiaiey ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiie
aac?aaioeoeu neaaeoao iauyniyoue aeeiaieeie i?eoiea, a ia iooiea. Yoi ia
oaeeaeoaeueii, anee enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neeueiaeoee oie niaieoiiiai ni?ina, ia eioi?ue
yeiiiieea ia iiaeao ioaaoeoue eeoue iaeeeie «ia?aaeaeeaie» e
anoanoaaiiui na?inii eceeoeia. Oaeeaeoaeueii oi, ii/aio ana-oaee
o?iaaiue i?eoiea noieue iecie, o/eouaay ianooaau yoeo iio?ynaiee.

Aio oaea aieaa iieoaiaea ioeoeeaeueiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu e
eiee/anoai ioeoeeaeueii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo ninoaaeytho 3,4%
e 2,5-2,6 iei. /aeiaae niioaaonoaaiii. Aaconeiaii, ia?u, i?eieiaaiua
Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeaie caiyoinoe ?O ii niya/aieth iai?yaeaiiinoe ia
?uiea o?oaea, naea?aeeaaieth ianniaiai aunaiaiaeaeaiey, iniaaiii ia
a?aaeiia?acothueo i?aaei?eyoeyo, ianeieueei noaaeeece?iaaee neooaoeeth.
Iaeiaei i?eaaaeaiiua oeeo?u oa?aeoa?ecotho eeoue o?iaaiue ioeoeeaeueiie
aac?aaioeoeu. Anee aea o/anoue ieiei 2 iei. /aeiaae, iaoiaeyueony a
auioaeaeaiiuo ioioneao eee ?aaioathueo iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue (eo
iaeuecy ioianoe iai?yioth e aac?aaioiui, ii iie ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai
iiaoo eie noaoue), oi ia eiiaoe yiaa?y 1997 aiaea 9,5% yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey (6,9 iei. /aeiaae) eniuouaaei i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n
caiyoinoueth.

Naaiaeiy ia iaeio aaeaineth a n?aaeiai ii ?innee i?aoaiaeotho 10
aac?aaioiuo. Yoi iaeaieaa oi/ii oa?aeoa?ecoao neooaoeeth a yeiiiieea e
ia ?uiea o?oaea. Aeaei aeaaea ia a oii, /oi ethaee ieacuaathony aac
?aaiou, a a i?aeoe/aneii ionoonoaee oainia naay ?aaeeciaaoue. Aaeainee
aea ia/eiatho iiyaeyoueny n iaeeaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaa e noa?u oneoa,
o.a. n nicaeaieai iiauo ?aai/eo iano. Iniaaiii oyaeaeay neooaoeey
neeaaeuaaaony a iiiiai?iaeao e cae?uouo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oi?ie?iaaieyo, aaea a ioee/ea io aieueoeo ai?iaeia o
ethaeae iao auai?a ianoa ?aaiou (ia aanue ai?iae iaeii i?aaei?eyoea eee
oaooa), iao aiciiaeiinoe caiyoueny naiei aeaeii (aeaaea oi?aiaeae),
iioiio /oi o iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae – oaeeo aea aac?aaioiuo – iao
aeaiaa.

TC “” TC “” DOCPROPERTY Aeaaa02 \* MERGEFORMAT Aeaaa 2. Aac?aaioeoea
eae o?iie/aneia yaeaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0201 \* MERGEFORMAT 2.1. DOCPROPERTY
Ia?aa?ao0104 \* MERGEFORMAT Oai?aoe/aneea eiioeaioeee caiyoinoe .
I?e/eiu aac?aaioeoeu a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee

Aiaeec i?e/ei aac?aaioeoeu aeatho iiiaea yeiiiie/aneea oeieu. Iaeii ec
naiuo ?aiieo iauyniaiee aeaii a o?oaea aiaeeeneiai yeiiiienoa-nayuaiieea
O. Iaeueoona (eiiaoe 18 aaea) “Iiuo i caeiia ia?iaeiianaeaiey”. Iaeueoon
caiaoee, /oi aac?aaioeoeo aucuaatho aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?e/eiu, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo oaiiu ?inoa ia?iaeiianaeaiey i?aauoatho oaiiu ?inoa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaaeinoaoie yoie oai?ee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia ia iiaeao
iauynieoue aicieeiiaaiea aac?aaioeoeu a auniei?acaeouo no?aiao n ieceie
?iaeaeaaiinoueth.

Aeiaieueii ouaoaeueii enneaaeiaae aac?aaioeoeo E. Ia?en a “Eaieoaea”
(aoi?ay iieiaeia 19 a). Ianna n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ?ano?o a oneiaeyo
?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa n ?inoii i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea a
?acoeueoaoa IOI. Ni?in ia o?oae ii?aaeaeyaony ia anai eaieoaeii, a
oieueei aai /anoueth V, a aeiey ia?aiaiiie /anoe a eaieoaea V/(C+V)
ioiineoaeueii oiaiueoaaony, neaaeiaaoaeueii oiaiueoaaony e ni?in ia
?aai/oth neeo.

Ia?en aeiioneae e ae?oaea i?e/eiu, a /anoiinoe, oeeeee/iinoue ?acaeoey
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, /oi aeaeaao aa iinoiyiiui niooieeii ?acaeoey
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.

Auaaaeaiea aac?aaioeoeu ec oeeeee/aneiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee noaei iinea
Ia?ena onoie/eaie o?aaeeoeeae a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Anee yeiiiieea
?acaeaaaony oeeeee/anee, eiaaea iiaeuaiu e niaaeu niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa,
neaaenoaeai yoiai noaiiaeony aunaiaiaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu e naa?ouaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa, oaaee/aiea a?iee aac?aaioiuo.

Caneoaa Eaeina a ?ac?aaioea oai?ee aac?aaioeoeu a oii, /oi ii
i?aaenoaaee eiae/aneoth iiaeaeue iaoaiecia, ?ane?o/eaathuaai
yeiiiie/aneoth ianoaaeeueiinoue e aa eioaa?aeueioth ninoaaeythuoth –
aac?aaioeoeo. Eaein caiaoee, /oi ii ia?a ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai oicyenoaa
a ?acaeoii ?uii/iii oicyenoaa o aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey ia aanue aeioiae
iio?aaeyaony, ii?aaeaeaiiay aai /anoue i?aa?auaaony a naa?aaeaiey. *oiau
iie i?aa?aoeeenue a eiaanoeoeee iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue oae iacuaaaiiai yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina, iio?aaeoaeueneiai e
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai. Iaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina aaneo eioa?an
aeeaaeuaaoue eaieoae, e, eae neaaenoaea, iaaeaao ni?in ia eiaanoeoeee.
I?e iaaeaiee noeioeia e eiaanoe?iaaieth i?iecaiaenoai ia ?anoao e aeaaea
iiaeao naa?ouaaoueny, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aac?aaioeoea.

Eioa?ania o?aeoiaea aac?aaioeoeu aeaeiiai aiaeeeneiai yeiiiienoa A.
Ieao, eioi?ue a naiae ecaanoiie eieaa “Oai?ey aac?aaioeoeu” (1923 a.)
iainiiaae oacen i oii, /oi ia ?uiea o?oaea aeaenoaoao ianiaa?oaiiay
eiieo?aioeey. Iia aaaeao e caauoaieth oeaiu o?oaea. Iiyoiio iiiaea
yeiiiienou oeacuaaee, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeth auaiaeiaa caieaoeoue
aunieoth ca?aaioioth ieaoo eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiio niaoeeaeenoo, niiniaiiio
oaaee/eoue noieiinoue auionea i?iaeoeoeee. Ca n/ao
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeue eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
nie?aoeoue ?aai/ee ia?niiae (aeaenoaoao i?eioeei: eo/oa acyoue iaeiiai
ia ?aaioo e oi?ioi aio caieaoeoue, /ai aea?aeaoue 5-6 /aeiaae n iaiueoae
ca?ieaoie). A naiae eieaa Ieao aeaoaeueii e ananoi?iiia iainiiauaae
iiaiea, /oi anaiauaa nie?auaiea aeaiaaeiie ca?aaioiie ieaou niiniaii
noeioee?iaaoue caiyoinoue. Ii ana aea yoa oai?ey ia iiaeao aeaoue
iieiiai iauyniaiey enoi/ieeia aac?aaioeoeu. Aea e noaoenoeea ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi a?iey aac?aaioiuo anaaaea
iiiieiyaony ca n/ao ?aaioieeia ni n?aaieoaeueii ieceei o?iaiai
ca?aaioiie ieaou.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0202 \* MERGEFORMAT 2.2. Iieacaoaee
aac?aaioeoeu

A yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eniieuecoaony aeaa iieacaoaey, eioi?ua iiaoo
ia?eniaaoue iauaeoeaioth ea?oeio yeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe ia ?uiea
o?oaea. Yoi o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu e n?aaeiyy aa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue.

Iieacaoaeue o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu eniieuecoaony aeey ecia?aiey ianooaaia
aac?aaioeoeu e ecia?yaony eae aeiey ioeoeeaeueii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo
aac?aaioiuo e /eneaiiinoe caiyouo a i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aac?aaioeoeu oa?aeoa?ecoao n?aaeiaa a?aiy ia?a?uaa
a ?aaioa.

?acee/atho aac?aaioeoeo o?eeoeeiiioth, no?oeoo?ioth,
einoeoooeeiiaeueioth, oeeeee/aneoth, aeia?iaieueioth.

O?eeoeeiiiay aac?aaioeoea io?aaeaao oaeo/anoue eaae?ia, naycaiioth n
ia?aiaiie ?aai/eo iano, ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa. N?aaee niaieoiiie ?aai/ae
neeu eaeay-oi /anoue iinoiyiii iaoiaeeony a aeaeaeaiee, ia?aiauaynue ia
iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa. Yoio oei aac?aaioeoeu aeeth/aao a naay ethaeae,
eioi?ua iacaiyou a nayce n ia?aoiaeii n iaeiie ?aaiou ia ae?oaoth e a
oa/aiea iaaeaee ?ann/eouaatho i?enooieoue e ?aaioa ia iiaii ianoa, a
oaeaea ?aaioieeia a oao io?aneyo, aaea a?aiaiiua oaieueiaiey yaeythony
ii?iie aac aeeyiey ia iauee o?iaaiue aeioiaea ethaeae, iai?eia?, a
no?ieoaeuenoaa. A ia?eiae aiaae?aiey iiauo aeinoeaeaiee oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna, oaeia aeaeaeaiea noaiiaeony ia oieueei iaecaaaeiui , ii e
aieaa eioaineaiui. A eaeie-oi ia?a yoa aac?aaioeoea yaeyaony
aeaeaoaeueiie o.e. iiiaea ?aai/ea ia?aoiaeyo n ieceii?iaeoeoeaiie,
iaeiiiea/eaaaiie ?aaiou ia aieaa aunieiiiea/eaaaioth e aieaa
i?iaeoeoeaioth ?aaioo. Yoi icia/aao aieaa aunieea aeioiaeu aeey ?aai/eo
e aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aieueoee ?aaeueiue iauai ?aaeueiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa.

No?oeoo?iay aac?aaioeoea ii nouanoao yaeyaony oaeoaeaieai o?eeoeeiiiie.
N oa/aieai a?aiaie a no?oeoo?a iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina e a oaoiieiaee
i?ienoiaeyo aaaeiua eciaiaiey, eioi?ua , a naith i/a?aaeue, eciaiytho
no?oeoo?o iauaai ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo. Ec-ca oaeeo eciaiaiee ni?in ia
iaeioi?ua aeaeu i?ioannee oiaiueoaaony eee aiana i?ae?auaaony. Ni?in ia
ae?oaea i?ioannee, aeeth/ay iiaua, oaaee/eaaaony. Aicieeaao
aac?aaioeoea, o.e. ?aai/ay neea ?aaae?oao ia yoi eciaiaiea iaaeeaiii e
aa no?oeoo?a ia ioaa/aao iiaie no?oeoo?a ?aai/eo iano.

?acieoea iaaeaeo no?oeoo?iie e o?eeoeeiiiie aac?aaioeoeae aanueia
iaii?aaeaeaiiay. Nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea ninoieo a oii, /oi o
“o?eeoeeiiiuo” aac?aaioiuo anoue iaauee, eioi?ua iie iiaoo i?iaeaoue, a
no?oeoo?iua aac?aaioiua ia iiaoo n?aco iieo/eoue ?aaioo aac
ia?aiiaeaioiaee. O?eeoeeiiiay aac?aaioeoea iineo aieaa e?aoein?i/iue
oa?aeoa?, a no?oeoo?iay aieaa aeieaia?aiaiiay e iiyoiio n/eoaaony aieaa
na?ueaciie i?iaeaiie.

Einoeoooeeiiaeueiay aac?aaioeoea aicieeaao, eiaaea naia i?aaiecaoeey
?uiea o?oaea iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaia. Aeiionoei, iaiieia eioi?iaoeey i
aaeaioiuo ?aai/eo ianoao. O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu aue au ieaea i?e
iaeaaeaiiie ?aaioa nenoaiu eioi?iaoeee. A yoii aea iai?aaeaiee
aeaenoaoao caauoaiiia iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea eee caieaeaiiua iaeiae ia
aeioiaeu. A yoii neo/aa aic?anoaao i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aac?aaioeoeu
o.e. aanyony noeioeu aeey yia?ae/iuo iieneia ?aaiou.

Oeeeee/aneoth aac?aaioeoeo aucuaaao niaae i?iecaiaenoaa ai a?aiy
i?iiuoeaiiiai e?ecena, aeai?annee, niaaea, o.a. oaca yeiiiie/aneiai
oeeeea, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth iaueo, eee
niaieoiiuo, ?anoiaeia. Eiaaea niaieoiiue ni?in ia oiaa?u e oneoae
oiaiueoaaony, caiyoinoue nie?auaaony, a aac?aaioeoea ?anoao. Ii yoie
i?e/eia oeeeee/aneoth aac?aaioeoeo eiiaaea iacuaatho aac?aaioeoeae,
naycaiiie n aeaoeoeeoii ni?ina. N ia?aoiaeii e iaeeaeaieth e iiaeuaio
/enei aac?aaioiuo iau/ii noaiiaeony iaiueoa.

Aeia?iaieueiay aac?aaioeoea aucaaia oai, /oi a ethaii iauanoaa
nouanoaoao i?ineieea ethaeae, eioi?ua ii naiaio ineoe/aneiio neeaaeo eee
ii eiui i?e/eiai ia oioyo ?aaioaoue. A iaoae no?aia oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi
oneeey ii i?eioaeeoaeueiiio ono?ienoao oae iacuaaaiuo “aiiaeae” ia
i?eaaee e ia?ai?eaioaoeee yoie eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, aac?aaioeoea yaeyaony oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee. Iiyoiio iieiay caiyoinoue – iiinain, ia niaianoeiue n eaeaae
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. A oi aea a?aiy iiiyoea “iieiay caiyoinoue” ia
icia/aao iieiiai ionoonoaey aac?aaioeoeu. Yeiiiienou n/eoatho
o?eeoeeiiioth e no?oeoo?ioth aac?aaioeoeo niaa?oaiii iaecaaaeiie,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?e iieiie caiyoinoe ?aaai noiia
o?iaiae o?eeoeeiiiie e no?oeoo?iie aac?aaioeoeu. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?e iieiie caiyoinoe aeinoeaaaony a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea oeeeee/aneay aac?aaioeoea ?aaia ioeth. O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?e
iieiie caiyoinoe iacuaaaony anoanoaaiiui o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu. Iai?eia?,
a 60-uo aiaeao a NOA anoanoaaiiie aac?aaioeoeae n/eoaeenue 4% io caiyoie
?aai/ae neeu. Naaiaeiy yoio o?iaaiue iiaeiyeny aei 5-6%, /oi naycaii n
eciaiaieai aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ninoaaa ?aai/ae neeu e einoeoooeeiiaeueiuie
eciaiaieyie.

Naaiaeiyoiyy eioi?iaoeey i ianooaaao aac?aaioeoeu, i?aaeinoaaeyaiay
Aineiinoaoii, caieaeaao iiaeeeiiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?eaeeceoaeueii
a 5 ?ac, /oi nicaeaao aeiiieieoaeueioth o?aaiao e aac oiai ianoaaeeueiie
yeiiiieea ?innee.

Caeanue naiia a?aiy iciaeiieoueny n iaoiaeeeie, ?ac?aaioaiiie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeeae o?oaea (IIO), e a /anoiinoe n iiuoii,
iaeiieaiiui a yoie iaeanoe NOA.

Aeey ?an/aoa iieacaoaeae aac?aaioeoeu i?iecaiaeeony nai? aeaiiuo ia
iniiaaiee aaeaiany/iuo ii?inia ieiei 50 ouny/ neo/aeii aua?aiiuo
naiaeiuo oicyenoa. Aii?inu eanathony neaaeothueo i?iaeai: eiae ee oio
eee eiie eiaeeaeae ?aaioo ia i?ioeie iaaeaea; iuoaeny ee ii iaeoe
?aaioo; neieueei a?aiaie ii oaea iio?aoee ia o?oaeiono?ienoai; eaeea
aeaenoaey ii i?aaei?eieiae n yoie oeaeueth. Enoiaey ec ioaaoia ia
aii?inu, e aac?aaioiui ioiinyo eeoe noa?oa 16 eao, eioi?ua a
?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae: ia eiaee ?aaiou (aeioiaeiiai caiyoey);
caieiaeenue aeoeaiuie iieneaie ?aaiou; auee aioiau i?enooieoue e ?aaioa.

Ia caiyouo a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa e ia no?aiyueony iieo/eoue
?aaioo eeoe ia o/eouaatho i?e ii?aaeaeaiee /eneaiiinoe ?aai/ae neeu (oi
anoue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey). Iiiaea ethaee ec yoie eaoaai?ee
iiaoo o?oaeeoueny, ii ia aeaeatho yoiai a neeo oao eee eiuo i?e/ei. Yoi
nooaeaiou aeiaaiuo ioaeaeaiee, iaineiia?u, aeiiioicyeee. Aaoiiaoe/anee
eneeth/athony ec eaoaai?ee yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey aeaoe a
aic?anoa aei 16 eao e caeeth/aiiua, ioauaathuea iaeacaiea a oth?ueia.

Iniaoth eaoaai?eth i?aaenoaaeytho aiaiiineoaeauea. *enei eeoe, ninoiyueo
ia aeaenoaeoaeueiie aieineie neoaeaa, aoiaeeo a aaee/eio niaieoiiie
?aai/ae neeu, a i?e ii?aaeaeaiee /eneaiiinoe ?aai/ae neeu, caiyoie a
a?aaeaeaineii naeoi?a yeiiiieee, yoa eaoaai?ey yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai
ianaeaiey ia o/eouaaaony, /oi neacuaaaony a ?an/aoa iauae ii?iu
aac?aaioeoeu e ii?iu aac?aaioeoeu aeey a?aaeaeaineiai naeoi?a. Yoe
iieacaoaee io?aaeatho oaeaeueiue aan aac?aaioiuo a /eneaiiinoe
niaieoiiie ?aai/ae neeu e /eneaiiinoe ?aai/ae neeu aeaiiiai naeoi?a
niioaaonoaaiii. ?anoiaeaeaiea iaaeaeo aaee/eiaie ninoaaeyao ieiei
aeanyoie aeiee i?ioeaioa, e a ioaeeeaoeeyo /aua ano?a/aaony iineaaeiee
iieacaoaeue.

Oai ia iaiaa iaoiaeieiaey Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea ia iiaeao
i?aiaeieaoue iaeioi?uo iaoi/iinoae, naycaiiuo n ecia?aieai o?iaiy
aac?aaioeoeu, a nayce n /ai ioeoeeaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea ii?iu
aac?aaioeoeu iiaeii e?eoeeiaaoue eae ca oiaiueoaiea enoeiiiai /enea
aac?aaioiuo, oae e ca aai i?aoaaee/aiea. Iaeiei ec niiniaia ecaaaeaiey
iayniinoae yaeyaony niiinoaaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
aac?aaioiiai n iiiyoeyie “ia?aaioathuee” e “ianiiniaiue iaeoe ?aaioo”.

“Aac?aaioiue e “ia?aaioathuee”. Ia i?aeoeea ii?aaeaeaiey aac?aaioiiai e
caiyoiai nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io iiiyoee “?aaioathuee” e
“ia?aaioathuee”. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiiaea ?aaioathuea ia iiiaaeatho a
eaoaai?eth caiyouo, iai?eia?, aeiiioicyeee. Iie o/eouaathony a ea/anoaa
caiyouo oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iie ca naie o?oae iieo/atho aeaiaaeiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. E?iia oiai, a /enei caiyouo ia aeeth/athony
?aaioathuea aeaoe aei 16 eao, iacaaeneii io oiai, iieo/atho ee iie
ca?aaioioth ieaoo ca o?oae eee ?aaioatho aanieaoii.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, nianai ia eaaeaeue “ia?aaioathuee” iiiaaeaao a
eaoaai?eth aac?aaioiuo. E iei iiaeii ioianoe iiiai ethaeae, ia
aeaeathueo ie/aai, /oiau iaeoe naaa iiaoth ?aaioo. Aac?aaioiuie ia
n/eoathony oa, eoi ionoonoaoao a aeaiiue iiiaio ia ?aai/ai ianoa ec-ca
aieacie eee ieioie iiaiaeu, a oaeaea oae iacuaaaiua “/anoe/ii caiyoua”
(?aaioathuea iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue e o.ae.).

“Aac?aaioiue” e “ianiiniaiue iaeoe ?aaioo”. Yoe noiaeiua iiiyoey ia
naiii aeaea oaeaea eeoue i?eaeeceoaeueiu. Iai?eia?, a /enei aac?aaioiuo
iiiaaeatho ethaee, a?aiaiii oaieaiiua n ianoa neoaeau, a oaeaea
iaoaaeoea ianoi ?aaiou e i?aaeiieaaathuea ia/aoue ?aaioaoue a oa/aiea
ianyoea. A?yae ee iiaeii oaeaea aiai?eoue i “ianiiniaiinoe iaeoe ?aaioo”
o oao, eoi inoaaee i?aaeiaa ianoi a iieneao eo/oaai aa?eaioa.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0204 \* MERGEFORMAT 2.3. Iaoiaeu ai?ueau n
aac?aaioeoeae

Iaoiaeu ai?ueau n aac?aaioeoeae ii?aaeaeyao eiioeaioeey, eioi?ie
?oeiaiaenoaoaony i?aaeoaeuenoai eiie?aoiie no?aiu.

Ieao e aai iineaaeiaaoaee, n/eoathuea, /oi ei?aiue cea – a aunieie
ca?aaioiie ieaoa, i?aaeeaaatho:

niaeaenoaiaaoue nieaeaieth ca?aaioiie ieaou;

?acuyniyoue i?ionithcai, /oi ?ino ca?aaioiie ieaou, eioi?iai iie
aeiaeaathony, iai?a/eaaaony ?inoii aac?aaioeoeu;

ainoaea?noao o?oaeiono?aeaaoue ?aaioieeia, i?aoaiaeothueo ia iaaunieee
aeioiae, a /anoiinoe, iiiu?youe ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie noa?u.

Ec ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Ieao oe?iei i?eiaiyaony aeaeaiea noaaee ca?aaioiie
ieaou e ?aai/aai a?aiaie iaaeaeo ianeieueeeie ?aaioieeaie.
Eniieueciaaiea /anoe/iiai ?aai/aai aeiy nie?auaao aac?aaioeoeo aeaaea
i?e nio?aiaiee iaaeaaii?eyoiie eiiuthieoo?u .

A ie?a iaeiieai aiaaoue iiuo ai?ueau n aac?aaioeoeae. Iiiaea iiaeoiaeu e
?aoaieth yoie i?iaeaiu eniieueciaaeenue ia i?aeoeea a eiioea 70-o
aiaeia, a ia noieue oae ioaeaeaiiii i?ioeii, ai a?aiy iaooyiuo e?ecenia.
Aeaeaa aoaeao ?anniio?ai acaeyae ia i?aiaeieaiea aac?aaioeoeu n oi/ee
c?aiey aeaoo oeie: eaeineaineie e iiiaoa?enoneie.

A 1950-o aiaeao a iieeoeea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?eiaiyeenue
eaeineaineea iaoiaeu. Eaeineaioeu n/eoaee, /oi naii?aaoee?othuayny
yeiiiieea ia iiaeao i?aiaeieaoue aac?aaioeoeo. O?iaaiue caiyoinoe
caaeneo io oae iacuaaaiiai “yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina”.

Aeae.-I. Eaein ienae: “O?iie/aneay oaiaeaioeey e iaiieiie caiyoinoe,
oa?aeoa?iay aeey nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa, eiaao naie ei?ie a
iaaeiiio?aaeaiee…”.

Iaaeiiio?aaeaiea au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi ii ia?a iiauoaiey aeioiaeia o
iio?aaeoaey o iaai a neeo ineoieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia “neeiiiinoue e
naa?aaeaieth” i?aauoaao “iiaoaeaeaiea e eiaanoeoeeyi”, /oi aea/ao niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa e aac?aaioeoeo.

Oaeei ia?acii, eaeineaioeu, iieacaa iaecaaaeiinoue e?ecena
naii?aaoee?othuaeny yeiiiieee, oeacuaaee ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey aeey aeinoeaeaiey iieiie
caiyoinoe.

I?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao iiauneoue yooaeoeaiue ni?in, nieaeay nnoaeiue
i?ioeaio e oaaee/eaay eiaanoeoeee. Iaieaeineaioeu aaiaeyo iiiyoea
“ioeueoeieeeaoi? caiyoinoe”, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?e?ino anae
caiyoinoe ii ioiioaieth e ia?ae/iie caiyoinoe a io?aneyo, neeueii
acaeiinaycaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii, a eioi?ua i?iecaaaeaiu eiaanoeoeee.

Niaeanii acaeyaeai aaoi?a “Iauae oai?ee Caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e aeaiaa”,
“iiaeeeiiay” eioeyoeey aicieeaao oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea yeiiiieea no?aiu
aeinoeaaao o?iaiy iieiie caiyoinoe, aei yoiai iiiaioa ?ino aeaiaaeiie
iannu aeeyao ia ia o?iaaiue oeai, a ia iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaaieueoay
(“iieco/ay”) eioeyoeey eiaao, n oi/ee c?aiey eaeineaioeaa, iieaciue
yooaeo, niioonoaoy ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa e aeioiaea.

A 60-o aiaeao noi?iiieee eaeineaineiai iiaeoiaea eniieueciaaee e?eaoth
Oeeeeina, aeey oiai /oiau aea?aeaoue a iiea c?aiey aac?aaioeoeo e
eioeyoeeth e o/eouaaoue eo iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea a aeieain?i/iii ieaia.

Iiiaoa?enou aunooieee i?ioea eaeineaineiai enoieeiaaiey e?eaie Oeeeeina
eae i?inoiai e aeinooiiiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu auai?a oeaeae yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee. Eioeyoeey ia ?anniao?eaaaony eie eae “iaecaaaeiay ieaoa” ca
aeinoeaeaiea aunieiai o?iaiy caiyoinoe. A 1967 aiaeo I. O?eaeiai
auneacae iuneue i nouanoaiaaiee “anoanoaaiiiai o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu”,
eioi?ue aeanoei ii?aaeaeai oneiaeyie ?uiea o?oaea e ia iiaeao auoue
eciaiai ia?aie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee. Anee i?aaeoaeuenoai noa?aaony
iiaeaea?aeaoue caiyoinoue auoa aa “anoanoaaiiiai o?iaiy” n iiiiuueth
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo athaeaeaoiuo e e?aaeeoiuo iaoiaeia oaaee/aiey ni?ina, oi
yoe ia?u aoaeoo eiaoue e?aoeia?aiaiiue yooaeo e i?eaaaeoo eeoue e ?inoo
oeai.

N iiceoeee iiiaoa?enoia, /ai auoa oaiiu eioeyoeee, oai a aieueoae
noaiaie o/anoieee aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna o/eouaatho a naieo
aeaenoaeyo i?aaenoiyuee ?ino oeai e noa?athony aai iaeo?aeeciaaoue n
iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo iaiai?ie a o?oaeiauo niaeaoaieyo, eiio?aeoao e
o.i. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n oa/aieai a?aiaie noeioee?othuee yooaeo
eioeyoeee, ia eioi?ue aeaeaee oii? eaeineaioeu, ineaaaaaao. *oiau
aeoeaece?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai, i?aaeoaeuenoai auioaeaeaii i?eaaaaoue e
aeiiieieoaeueiui nea/eai eioeyoeee, /oi aaaeao ei ana aieaa e?oiiui
aeicai aeaoeoeeoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey ec athaeaeaoa. Aeaey
“aanniuneaiiinoue” iieeoeee noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina, O?eaeiai n/eoae
ia?aoeeiiaeueiui aeinoeaeaiea iieiie caiyoinoe.

N?aaee a?aoiaioia iiiaoa?enoia ii iiaiaeo ianinoiyoaeueiinoe
eaeineaineie iieeoeee noaaeeny aeoeaio ia iai?aaeneacoaiinoue
?acoeueoaoia ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ec-ca aieueoeo caaea?aeae
a i?iyaeaiee yooaeoa yoeo ia?. Iicaeiaa iiiaoa?enou oeacuaaee oaeaea ia
yooaeo auoaniaiey /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee aneaaenoaea iooiea
iaoa?eaeueii-aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia a noa?o ainoaea?noaaiiuo iia?aoeee: oi,
/oi auea?uaaao oicyenoai io oaaee/aiey aineiaanoeoeee, iii oa?yao ec-ca
nie?auaiey aeeaaiee ec /anoiiai naeoi?a.

Iaeiaei i?e anao naieo iieiaeeoaeueiuo /a?oao oai?ey anoanoaaiiie ii?iu
aac?aaioeoeu nieiaao n eaieoaeecia ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca noaeueau
ieeeeiiia aac?aaioiuo e iauyaeyao iaoaaoeo aaeaioiuo ?aai/eo iano
?acoeueoaoii “naiaiaeiiai auai?a” ethaeae, aeia?iaieueii ioeacuaathueony
o/anoaiaaoue a o?oaeiaii i?ioeanna.

Iiiaoa?enoneea iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeeeaeueiu,
ii ia ianoo a naaa a oi aea a?aiy aaeaeaaoiie yooaeoeaiinoe. Iiiaoa?enou
iaaeiytho ?aai/eo a oii, /oi iie aicaea?aeeaathony io ?aaiou e iieo/atho
eiiiainaoeeth a aeaea iiniaee. Ionthaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiaieoue yoe
iiniaey, /oiau canoaaeoue ethaeae ?aaioaoue. Iiiaoa?enou i?aaeeaaatho
ioeacaoueny io noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iooai oaaee/aiey
ni?ina. Iaeiaei iieeoeea ia?aie/aiey ni?ina iiaeao aucaaoue
ianiiinoaaeiua iioa?e aeey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Aeaaa03 \* MERGEFORMAT Aeaaa 3. Aiaeec iniiaiuo
oaiaeaioeee oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia a ?aaeiiao ?O

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0301 \* MERGEFORMAT 3.1. Aeaeaeaiea ?aai/ae
neeu a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa ?innee

Oaiiu ?inoa (nieaeaiey) /eneaiiinoe caiyouo a io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a 1997-1999 aa., %

Io?anee Oaiiu i?e?inoa (+), nieaeaiey (—) /eneaiiinoe caiyouo ca ia?eiae

aeaeaa?ue 1998 a. e aeaeaa?th 1997 a. aeaeaa?ue 1999 a. e aeaeaa?th
1998 a.

1. I?iiuoeaiiinoue

a oii /enea: -8,1 -12,7

yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea +4,1 +2,5

iaooaaeiauaathuay +4,3 -9,5

aaciaay +6,0 +4,9

oaieueiay -3,7 -9,2

iaoaeeo?ae/aneay -2,5 -8,0

oeieei-eaniie eiiieaen -10,5 -12,4

iaoeiino?iaiea -11,7 -15,9

a oii /enea:

i?eai?ino?iaiea -17,4 -20,6

eaaeay +2,0 -20,7

ieuaaay -0,6 -6,0

2. Naeueneia oicyenoai -6,2 -9,6

3. O?ainii?o -2,0 -5,7

4. Naycue +0,3 -2,1

5. No?ieoaeuenoai -11,7 -11,3

6. Oi?aiaey, iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea, niaaaeaiea, nauo -7,9 -7,9

7. Eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiia ianeoaeeaaiea -26,4 -15,0

8. AEeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai, auoiaia ianeoaeeaaiea +4,0 +11,6

9. Cae?aaiio?aiaiea,nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea +2,9 +1,8

10. Ia?aciaaiea +6,2 +5,1

11. Eoeueoo?a,eneonnoai +2,4 +1,8

12. Iaoea e iao/iia ianeoaeeaaiea -22,7 -10,7

13. E?aaeeo e no?aoiaaiea +13,6 +18,7

14. I?aaiu oi?aaeaiey +11,9 +12,0

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0302 \* MERGEFORMAT 3.2. I?iaeaiu eco/aiey
e oi?ie?iaaiey ?uiea ?aai/ae neeu a ?O

?uiie o?oaea — yoi neiaeiay nenoaia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee,
eioi?ua neeaaeuaathony a i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeaeo
aeaaeaeueoeaie oiaa?a “?aai/ay neea” e aeaaiuie aai iio?aaeoaeyie —
ainoaea?noaii e i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie ii iiaiaeo oneiaee o?oaea e aaee/eiu
aai iieaou, o?iaiy eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia, iauaia, eioaineaiinoe e
noaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe auiieiyaiie eie ?aaiou.

Aianoa n ?uieii oiaa?ia e eaieoaeia ii ia?acoao yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. ssaeyynue yeaiaioii iauayeiiiie/aneiai ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia, ?uiie o?oaea auiieiyao iniaoth ooieoeeth ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ii noa?ai e io?aneyi yeiiiieee a
niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaeai caeiia ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia iniiaa
oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoiuo i?eioeeiia niaeaniaaiey e oaycee, ea/anoaaiii
?acee/athueony eioa?ania noauaeoa ?uiea o?oaea. Yoi naycaii a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue n oai, /oi aeeeoaeueiia ?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea iaaeaeo ni?inii
ia o?oae e aai i?aaeeiaeaieai ia ?uiea iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue eeoue a
oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeyo. A ?aaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie aeecie aiieeooaea
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea oi?ie?oaony iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?yaea
oaeoi?ia noauaeoeaiiai e iauaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ie
iaeia ?aaioa ia iiaeao eaeaaeueii oaeiaeaoai?eoue /aeiaaea, a /aeiaae ia
a ninoiyiee eaeaaeueii iiaeoiaeeoue e ?aaioa. Ionthaea — oaeo/anoue
eaae?ia, /anoi iaaeaeaoaeueiay, iaiinyuay oua?a e ?aaioieeo, e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaee/ea ?aca?aiie a?iee o?oaea e
ia?eiaee/aneea anieanee aac?aaioeoeu a ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia
eae ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia, i?enoueo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea.

Iiyoiio ?uiie o?oaea caieiaao iniaia ianoi a yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?a
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa aeaaiaea?y ia?auaieth ia iai niaoeeoe/aneiai oiaa?a
— ?aai/ae neeu, eioi?ue ia eiaao aiaeiaia a iiiaiia?aciii ie?a oiaa?ia,
a naii aeaeaeaiea yoiai oiaa?a ia ?uiea o?oaea nii?yaeaii n ?yaeii
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo iniaaiiinoae.

Ai-ia?auo, ?uiie o?oaea yaeyaony ianoii ano?a/e aeaoo iacaaeneiuo
noauaeoia ?uii/iie yeiiiieee: aeaaeaeueoea eaieoaea e aeaaeaeueoea
?aai/ae neeu. Ia ?uiie eo i?eaiaeyo i?ioeaiiieiaeiua aeaeaiey e oeaee:
iaeei oi/ao eoieoue, a ae?oaie aeaeaao i?iaeaoue oieeaeueiue oiaa? —
?aai/oth neeo. Iaaeaeo ieie i?ienoiaeeo oi?a ioiineoaeueii iieoiee ia
naiiai aeaaeaeueoea ?aai/ae neeu’, a oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea
o?oaea, eioi?ue niiniaai auiieiyoue ?aaioiee (iai?eia?, ieioiee,
aooaaeoa? e o. ae.), aai oneiaee e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe eniieueciaaiey.
?acoeueoaoii naeaeee yaeyaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa, eioi?oth iieo/aao
?aaioiee ca i?aaeinoaaeaiiia i?aai aeaaeaeueoeo eaieoaea eniieueciaaoue
eoieaiiue oiaa? (?aai/oth neeo) ii naiaio oniio?aieth. I?e/ai
ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu o?oaea yaeyaony
iinoiyiiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo aeiaiaa?eaathueie noi?iiaie a ioiioaiee
o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou (iieoiaoaeue iuoaaony nieceoue aa, a i?iaeaaaoe,
iaiai?io, oaaee/eoue), e ia anaaaea yoa ai?ueaa ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei
?aieaie ?uiea o?oaea’.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia ?uiea o?oaea, eae e ia ethaii oiaa?iii ?uiea, aicieeaao
eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie ca i?aai caiyoue naiaiaeiia
?aai/aa ianoi. Caeanue i?ienoiaeeo anoanoaaiiue ioai? ii yeiiiie/aneei
e?eoa?eyi, e anee ?aaioiee eaiea, ia?anoi?iiai, a aai niiniaiinoe
iaaeinoaoi/ii ?acaeou, oi iaeoe ?aaioo e oaea?aeaoueny ia iae aio
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii. ?uiie o?oaea ia uaaeeo neaauo. I?aeiouanoai ia iai
iieo/atho oa ?aaioieee, eoi niiniaai naiei o?oaeii oaeiaeaoai?eoue
aeaaioth iio?aaiinoue ?aaioiaeaoaey — iaania/eoue iieo/aiea i?eauee,
aeinoaoi/iie aeey naiiaic?anoaiey eaieoaea.

A-o?aoueeo, ?uiie o?oaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony onoie/eaie oaiaeaioeeae e
iinoiyiiiio i?aauoaieth niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea iaae niaieoiiui
ni?inii ia iaai, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii au?aaeaaony a iiyaeaiee ia ?uiea
iacaiyoie /anoe ?aaioieeia (aac?aaioiuo), eioi?ua ii ii?aaeaeaiiui
yeiiiie/aneei i?e/eiai ia niiaee i?iaeaoue naie oiaa? — ?aai/oth neeo.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey oaeiai iieiaeaiey eiatho
iaiaeiicia/iia aeeyiea ia ?uii/ioth yeiiiieeo. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
eiee/anoaaiiia oaaee/aiea iacaiyouo a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?aaioieeia e nieaeaiea iauaai o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioathueo a
?acoeueoaoa iaaeaiey ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo iiaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiii
io?aceoueny ia niaieoiiii ieaoaaeaniiniaiii ni?ina iioaioeeaeueiuo
iieoiaoaeae (iai?eia?, oao aea aeaaeaeueoeaa ?aai/ae neeu), /oi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, iaiaaeeaiii neaaeaony /a?ac ?uii/iue iaoaieci ia iauai
ninoiyiee ae?oaeo iiae?acaeaeaiee ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa (oiaa?u ia?anoaioo
?aneoiaoueny, i?ioeann e?oaiiai?ioa eaieoaea aoaeao cao?oaeiai, e
aic?anoaiea eaieoaeece?iaaiiie noieiinoe noaiao aeaaiie i?iaeaiie
aeaaeaeueoeaa eaieoaea). E eae iaiauathuee ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey anao
yoeo i?ioeannia ?uii/iay yeiiiieea noaiiaeony ?acaaeaine?iaaiiie e
ia?anoaao yooaeoeaii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, ieacaaoenue a iieina
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaeiio?iee?oaiue ?ino
iacaiyouo ?aaioieeia a yeiiiieea iiaeao aianoe e ii?aaeaeaiiue
aeeneiioi?o a nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee eeeiao iauanoaa, iniiaaiiiai ia
?uii/iuo i?eioeeiao e i?e noa/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiaaea
aac?aaioeoea aeinoeaiao e?eoe/aneie iannu, iia iiaeao
aeanoaaeeece?iaaoue iieeoe/aneoth ianoaiiaeo, /oi /?aaaoi ?acee/iuie
nioeeaeueiuie iio?ynaieyie.

A-/aoaa?ouo, oeeeee/aneia ?acaeoea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, eae i?aaeei,
nii?iaiaeaeaaony eioeyoeeae e aac?aaioeoeae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie nouanoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiay acaeiinaycue, a eiia/iii n/aoa, au?aaeathuayny a iauai
iaaeaiee aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy o?oaeyueony iann (?ino oeai, nie?auaiea
ca?aaioiie ieaou, nieaeaiea ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina e o. ae.). I?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo iauay neooaoeey ia ?uiea o?oaea
iiaeao noaoue aeaoiiaoi?ii aeey ?inoa eioeyoeee eee, iaiai?io, neoaeeoue
oi?iicii aeey aa ?acaeoey. *ai ieaea aeiey aac?aaioiuo a iauae
/eneaiiinoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey, oai auoa oaiiu eioeyoeeiiiiai
?inoa oeai. Aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno A. Oeeein onoaiiaee caeiiiia?iinoue
iaaeaeo ?inoii eioeyoeee e aac?aaioeoeu (e?eaay Oeeeina). Aeey oiai
/oiau nieceoue o?iaaiue eioeyoeee ia 1 %, iaiaoiaeeii oaaee/eoue ?ino
aac?aaioeoeu ia 2 %. Caeanue aaaeouay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noao,
eioi?ia i?iaaaeaieai a?aiioiie (iao/ii iainiiaaiiie) yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee aeieaeii iaania/eoue onoaiiaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea a ?uii/iie
nenoaia oaeeo i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo o?iaiai caiyoinoe, iauaiii
i?iecaiaenoaa e ca?aaioiie ieaoie, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe iicaieyo ia
oieueei eiio?iee?iaaoue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu e eioeyoeee, ii e
yooaeoeaii iaeo?aeeciaaoue eo iaaeaaii?eyoiia aicaeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea
yeiiiieee e o?iaaiue aeecie ianaeaiey, oai naiui, nicaeaaay
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeiinueee aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e
iiauoaiey aeaaininoiyiey a iauanoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?uiie o?oaea caieiaao aaaeouaa iieiaeaiea a no?oeoo?a
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, oaeoe/anee yaeyynue ooiaeaiaioii, ia eioi?ii
aace?oaony any ?uii/iay nenoaia. Aac aunieii?aaieciaaiiiai ?uiea o?oaea
a i?eioeeia iaaiciiaeii yooaeoeaiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yeiiiieee
?uii/iiai oeia. ?ieue ?uiea o?oaea a ?uii/iie nenoaia ii?aaeaeyaony
aeaoiy iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie, eioi?ua ii auiieiyao a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ia?aay ooieoeey naycaia iai?yioth n iaoaieciii
niaaeeiaiey ?aaioieea ni n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa a i?ioeanna o?oaea e
yooaeoeaiui ?aaoee?iaaieai aeaeaeaiey iacaiyoie ?aai/ae neeu a ?aieao
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. Aoi?ay ooieoeey ?uiea o?oaea ?aaeecoaony n
iiiiuueth aini?iecaiaenoaa niaieoiiie ?aai/ae neeu ia iniiaa nio?aiaiey
e iiauoaiey aa ea/anoaa. Iaa ooieoeee acaeiinaycaiu e aeaenoaotho eae
aaeeiue iaoaieci, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao ia oieueei ?aoeeiiaeueiia e
yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ?aai/ae neeu a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna,
ii e noeioee?oao ea/anoaaiiue ?ino i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy ?aaioieeia,
eae aeaaiiai enoi/ieea aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai o?oaea.

Iaeiaei, i?aaeaea /ai ?uiie o?oaea caiye noieue ioaaonoaaiiia ianoi a
no?oeoo?a ?uii/iie nenoaiu, aio i?eoeinue i?ieoe ii?aaeaeaiiue iooue
yaiethoeee niaianoii n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Oae, i?e aiaeeca
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa ia aa ia/aeueiie noaaeee
?acaeoey E. Ia?en ii?aaeaeye ?uiie o?oaea eae noa?o i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo nianoaaiieeii n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaaeaeueoeai
oiaa?a ?aai/ay neea ii iiaiaeo eoiee-i?iaeaaee iineaaeiae, a naii
iiiyoea “?uiie o?oaea” ii ioiinee e noa?a ia?auaiey. A yoie
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
eaieoaeenoaie e iaaiiuie ?aaioieeaie naiaeeeinue i?aeoe/anee e ieieioio,
a naie yoe ioiioaiey iineee y?ei au?aaeaiiue aioaaiienoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Ia?aoiae eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu a noaaeeth
nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey
?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey e iaino?aiey eeanniaie ai?ueau iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ca
naie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?aaa iaoneiaee aeoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai
ainoaea?noaa a iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea n oeaeueth
i?eaaaeaiey e iauaio ciaiaiaoaeth ?acee/iuo eioa?ania noauaeoia
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eciaieeny e noaoon ?uiea o?oaea: e?iia
noa?u ia?auaiey oiaa?a ?aai/ay neea ii noae naiinoiyoaeueiui
iiae?acaeaeaieai ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia e iaeiia?aiaiii aeaaiui iauaeoii
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia a ?uii/iie
nenoaia.

Niioaaonoaaiii i?aoa?iaea eciaiaiea e no?oeoo?a ?uiea o?oaea, eioi?ay a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeeth/aao a naay:

— ainoaea?noai e nithcu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae—?aaioiaeaoaeae,
i?aaeuyaeythueo ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo;

— i?ionithcu — i?aaiecaoeee iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ii i?ioanneiiaeueiiio
i?eciaeo, eioi?ua ionoaeaatho eioa?anu ?aaioieeia ia ?uiea o?oaea;

— ae?aee o?oaea, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ainoaea?noai aunooiaao a ea/anoaa
iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e ?aaioieeaie i?e iaeia ?aai/ae
neeu.

E?iia oiai, ainoaea?noai i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao inouanoaeyao
ooieoeeth aa?oiaiiai a?aeo?a a o?oaeiauo nii?ao iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e i?ionithcaie, neaaey ca oai, /oiau ia aue ia?ooai
aaeain eioa?ania caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii, /anoi i?eieiay aeey yoiai
eiii?iienniia ?aoaiea.

Aeey nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?iu aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea ?uiea
o?oaea — aiaoiee e aioo?aiiee, eioi?ua oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie.
Aiaoiee ?uiie o?oaea ioaaouaaao noa?o ia?auaiey oiaa?a ?aai/ay neea
/a?ac nenoaio ioiioaiee (eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay yeiiiie/aneea,
th?eaee/aneea e nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
?uiea o?oaea a oeaeii e iauee o?iaaiue caiyoinoe a yeiiiieea) iaaeaeo
?aaioiaeaoaeyie e iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeie.

Iniiao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aioo?aiiaai ?uiea o?oaea ninoaaeyao eiiieaen
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu) iaaeaeo
oi?aaeai/aneei, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e ianeoaeeaathuei ia?niiaeii ii
iiaiaeo oneiaee e iieaou o?oaea, a oaeaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiiaea
ca?aaioiie ieaou iaaeaeo yoeie iiae?acaeaeaieyie. Iauei e?eoa?eai aeey
auaeaeaiey eaaeaeiai aeaea ?uiea o?oaea yaeyaony iaoaieci ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeaeaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu eae ia o?iaia iae?iyeiiiieee (ia?aaeaeaeaiey
?aai/ae neeu iaaeaeo oe?iaie e i?aaei?eyoeyie — aiaoiee ?uiie o?oaea),
oae e ia o?iaia iee?iyeiiiieee (ia?aiauaiey eaae?ia aioo?e oe?iu e
i?aaei?eyoey — aioo?aiiee ?uiie o?oaea).

Ia?auaiea oiaa?a ?aai/ay neea ia ethaii ec yoeo ?uieia caaeneo a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue io ea/anoaa naiie ?aai/ae neeu, eioi?ia neeaaeuaaaony ec
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie e i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e o?iaiy
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieea, oae eae i?e niaia ?aaiou eee aa iienea yoe
oaeoi?u yaeythony ii?aaeaeythueie aeey oniaoa ia ?uiea o?oaea.

I?ioeann noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai ?uiea o?oaea i?ienoiaeeo ia
oiia e iiae aicaeaenoaeai eeth/aauo eciaiaiee eae a nenoaia ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe, oae e a naiie yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?a iaoaai iauanoaa,
aaea e?iia ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a iiyaeeny iaainoaea?noaaiiue
(/anoiue) naeoi? yeiiiieee. Iaaeaeo ieie e inouanoaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaiea
?aai/ae neeu a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, i?e/ai iiauoaaony aeiey caiyoinoe
?aai/ae neeu a iaainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a, a aeiey i?iecaiaenoaa
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a aaeiaii aioo?aiiai i?iaeoeoa (AAI) e
ia/aeo 1995 a. ninoaaeea 60 %.

?ino iaainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iauyniyaony
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai aiaoiaai ?uiea o?oaea, eioi?ue oaeiaeaoai?yao ni?in
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia iaaiioth ?aai/oth neeo, aeaaea ianiio?y ia
ioaeaeueiua iaaeinoaoee, i?enouea nia?aiaiiiio ?uieo o?oaea, eioi?ua
io/anoe cao?oaeiytho niaaeeiaiea aauanoaaiiuo e /aeiaa/aneiai oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa (iaee/ea i?iienee, neaai ?acaeoua ?uiie aeeeuey e
aaia?aoe/aneay iiaeeueiinoue ianaeaiey e o. ae.).

Eia/a ianoieo aeaei n aioo?aiiei ?uieii o?oaea, eioi?ue naaiaeiy aua
iaoiaeeony ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yoi
au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a
nouanoaoao cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eceeoiae ?aai/ae neeu, eioi?ay
oaeoe/anee ia o/anoaoao a i?iecaiaenoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea (IAe)
no?aiu.

E?iia “eeoiae” ?aai/ae neeu, iaaei ioiaoeoue aua aeaa i?iaeaiu
?inneeneie yeiiiieee: ia/eiay n 1990 a. e ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iaaethaeaaony onoie/eaay oaiaeaioeey nieaeaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa
IAe, eioi?ay nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaaeaieai o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

A ?innee ii yenia?oiui ioeaieai io 5 aei 10 iei. /aeiaae /eneyony
caiyouie eeoue aeaaiaea?y noaneaeeyi, iieo/aaiui i?aaei?eyoeyie io
i?aaeoaeuenoaa (i?e/ai niaea?aeaiea iaeiiai ia?aaioathuaai iaoiaeeeinue
ainoaea?noao ao?ia aei?iaea auieaou aio iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea).

aeey aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa ?inneyi — yoi aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee
nouanoaiaaiey (auaeeaaiey) a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee, iaaeaiey ?aaeueiuo
aeioiaeia, iaanoeaieaaiey iaeiieaiee. A no?aiao n oi?ioi ?acaeoie
nenoaiie nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey e nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?ie o
ethaeae, eioi?ua oa?iyo iaoaea/o a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa ia ?uiea o?oaea,
anoue auai?: i?iaeieaeaoue yoo ai?ueao eee aeeoue ia iiniaey (eioi?ua a
no?aiao Caiaaea ia?aaeei iiaoo iaania/eoue eo/oea oneiaey aeecie, /ai
eiatho “?aaioathuea aaaeiyee”). I?e nouanoaothuae a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
?innee nenoaia no?aoiaaiey ii aac?aaioeoea e nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey
oaeiai auai?a oaeoe/anee iao.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iaeanoe caiyoinoe ianaeaiey neiaeeeanue iaaeaaii?eyoiay
neooaoeey, eiaaea iaee/ea cia/eoaeueiie iannu ecauoi/iie ?aai/ae neeu
i?aaenoaaeyao ?aaeueioth oa?ico aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee a ?innee. Iiyoiio oi?ie?iaaiea caiyoinoe ?uii/iiai oeia ia
iniiaa ?acaeoey ?uiea o?oaea noaiiaeony iaeiie ec aeaaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
e iieeoe/aneeo caaea/, iniiaiui e?eoa?eai oniaoiiai ?aoaiey eioi?ie
yaeyaony iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?aai/ae neeu a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey ?aai/ay neea a iao/iie yeiiiie/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a eiaao iaiaeiicia/iia oieeiaaiea. Iai?eia?, E. Ia?en
ii?aaeaeye ?aai/oth neeo eae niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea e o?oaeo, o. a.
?anniao?eaae aa eae niaieoiiinoue oece/aneeo e aeooiaiuo nee, eioi?ua
/aeiaae iiaeao eniieueciaaoue a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo
aeaa.

Iaeioi?ua nia?aiaiiua yeiiiienou ii?aaeaeytho ?aai/oth neeo eae
naiinoiyoaeueiia ianaeaiea, o. a. eae iauaa /enei eeoe a aic?anoa io 16
eao e noa?oa, ?aaioathueo eee aac?aaioiuo, ca eneeth/aieai
niaea?aeaueony a ineoe/aneeo aieueieoeao e eni?aaeoaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo. Oioy yoe aeaa ii?aaeaeaiey ianeieueei ?aciyony iaaeaeo
niaie, oai ia iaiaa iie iaeaieaa iieii ?ane?uaatho yeiiiie/aneoth
nouiinoue ?aai/ae neeu. ?aai/ay neea eae niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea e o?oaeo
nouanoaoao a ethaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia, iaeiaei eeoue a oneiaeyo
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa iia noaiiaeony oiaa?ii. A ia?uii/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo
nenoaiao ?aai/ay neea ia yaeyeanue oiaa?ii, oae eae iauaeoii
eoiee-i?iaeaaee aue /aeiaae, eeoaiiue naiaiaeu, eioi?ue aneaaenoaea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo oneiaee ia eiae i?aaa ia naith
?aai/oth neeo e iiyoiio ia iia i?iaeaoue naith niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo
(?eineee ?aa, e?aiinoiie e?anoueyiei). Oieueei a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa oi?ie?othony ?aaeueiua nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeiinueee,
eioi?ua iaoneiaeeaatho iiyaeaiea ia ?uiea oiaa?a ?aai/ay neea,
iineieueeo aeaaeaeaoe ?aai/ae neeu noaiiaeony naiaiaeiui a ?aciuo
aniaeoao: ee/iay (th?eaee/aneay) naiaiaea ni/aoaaony ni naiaiaeie io
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. Eae neaaenoaea yoeo naiaiae ?aaioiee auioaeaeai
i?eia?aoaoue iaiaoiaeeiua n?aaenoaa nouanoaiaaiey oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa
i?iaeaaee ia ?uiea o?oaea naiae ?aai/ae neeu.

Eae ethaie oiaa?, ia?auathueeny ia ?uiea, ?aai/ay neea eiaao naith
iio?aaeoaeueioth noieiinoue e noieiinoue. Iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue
oiaa?a ?aai/ay neea ninoieo a niiniaiinoe oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoue
nianoaaiieea eaieoaea a iieo/aiee i?eauee.

Noieiinoue ?aai/ae neeu aeeth/aao a naay niaieoiioth noieiinoue anao
aeeciaiiuo aeaa, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu ?aaioieeo ia oieueei aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae, ii e aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ia
iaiaoiaeeiii o?iaia aeaoo acaeiinaycaiiuo i?ioeannia: aini?iecaiaenoaa
?aai/ae neeu e iiauoaiey aa ea/anoaa.

Noieiinoue ?aai/ae neeu yaeyaony aaee/eiie ia?aiaiiie, oae eae iia
iiaeao iiauoaoueny eee iiieaeaoueny iiae aeeyieai ?yaea oaeoi?ia,
aeaenoaothueo a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee. E oaeoi?ai, iiauoathuei
noieiinoue ?aai/ae neeu, ioiinyony: iauaeoeaiue ?ino iio?aaiinoae a
?aai/ae neea, iiauoaiea eioaineaiinoe o?oaea, oaaee/aiea ?anoiaeia ia
iieo/aiea ia?aciaaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee. Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii,
iiieaeathuei noieiinoue ?aai/ae neeu, yaeyaony ?ino iauanoaaiiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth noieiinoe aeeciaiiuo n?aaenoa,
oaeiaeaoai?ythueo iio?aaiinoe ?aai/aai e aai naiuee.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, iniaaiii a i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao,
i?aiaeaaeaao oaiaeaioeey iiauoaiey noieiinoe ?aai/ae neeu. Yoa
oaiaeaioeey iaoneiaeaia ?yaeii i?e/ei, naycaiiuo n iineaaeieie
aeinoeaeaieyie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e oneoa, /oi iicaieeei ?anoe?eoue e?oa
iio?aaiinoae ?aai/aai eeanna iin?aaenoaii oaaee/aiey cao?ao ia
i?eia?aoaiea aei?iainoiyueo oiaa?ia aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey (auoiaay
oaoieea, ?aaeei- e oaeaaiia?aoo?a, iaaaeue, aaoiiiaeee e o. ae.) e
nianoaaiiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeeeuey. Aianoa n oai cia/eoaeueii
aic?inee ?anoiaeu ia iieo/aiea aunieiai o?iaiy ia?aciaaiey e
eaaeeoeeaoeee, aac eioi?uo i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii iieo/eoue
aunieiiiea/eaaaioth ?aaioo.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0303 \* MERGEFORMAT 3.3. Aeeiaieea e
no?oeoo?a aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee, oaiiu i?e?inoa /enea ioeoeeaeueii
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo a ?innee

Nia?aiaiiay neooaoeey ia ?uiea o?oaea ?innee nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io
oie, /oi auea aua 4 aiaea iacaae. Ca yoe aiaeu /eneaiiinoue caiyoiai
ianaeaiey nie?aoeeanue ia 9%. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa,
eioi?ua ia io?aaeatho ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aeae, aieaa 6,5 iei. /aeiaae
ia eiatho caiyoey, ii aeoeaii aai euoo; ii/oe 2,7 iei. /aeiaae
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a i?aaiao neoaeau caiyoinoe a ea/anoaa aac?aaioiuo.

A nayce n eciaiaieai io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u caiyoinoe (oiaiueoaieai /enea
?aaioathueo a io?aneyo ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iniaaiii a
iaoeiino?iaiee e eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe) iaino?eeenue ?aaeiiaeueiua
i?iaeaiu caiyoinoe. A 47 noauaeoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aac?aaioeoea
i?aauoaao n?aaeiee o?iaaiue ii no?aia, a ioaeaeueiuo ai?iaeao
iaaethaeaaony ianniaay aac?aaioeoea.

?aaeiiaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ino?iou aac?aaioeoeu n ia?auo aea
ianyoeaa ?aaeno?aoeee ieacaeanue aanueia cia/eoaeueiie. Oaea e eiioeo
1991 a. naiue aunieee e naiue ieceee ?aaeiiaeueiua o?iaie aac?aaioeoeu
ioee/aeenue aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac, ii ca i?ioaaeoee ia?eiae oeacaiiia
?acee/ea aic?inei aua ii/oe a 5 ?ac. A na?aaeeia 1995 a. naiue aunieee
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu aue ca?aaeno?e?iaai a Eiaooaoee (20,2 %), a naiue
ieceee a Iineaa (0,4%).

Aiaeiae/iay ea?oeia iaaethaeaeanue e ii iai?yaeaiiinoe ia ?uiea o?oaea.
Naiay aunieay iai?yaeaiiinoue a na?aaeeia 1995 a. ioia/aeanue a
Eiaooaoee (321 /aeiaae ia iaeii aaeaioiia ianoi), a naiay ieceay a
Iineaa, aaea ia aeaoo aac?aaioiuo i?eoiaeeeinue o?e aaeaioiuo ?aai/eo
ianoa.

Naiue aieueoie i?e?ino eiee/anoaa aac?aaioiuo (e o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu) ca
ia?aia iieoaiaeea 1995 a. iaaethaeaeinue oaeaea a Eiaooaoee – 2,5 ?aca.
I?e yoii a iaeioi?uo ?aaeiiao ioia/aii iaeioi?ia nieaeaiea eiee/anoaa
aac?aaioiuo (e o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu): I?eianeay, Eo?neay, Iaaaaeaineay
iaeanoe, ?anioaeeea Aaeuaay. A Iineaa ca ia?aia iieoaiaeea 1995 aiaea
/eneaiiinoue aac?aaioeoeu e o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?aeoe/anee ia
eciaieeenue.

Auioaeaeaiiay iaiieiay caiyoinoue iaeaieaa ino?a ai Aeaaeeie?neie,
Oeueyiianeie, Eaaiianeie iaeanoyo – aieaa 15% (o.a. a aeaa ?aca aieueoa
n?aaeia?inneeneiai iieacaoaey ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa) caiyouo
iaoiaeeeenue a ia?aii iieoaiaeee 1995 a. a aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ioioneao
eee auioaeaeaiii ?aaioaee iaiieiia ?aai/aa a?aiy. Ieieiaeueia
auioaeaeaiiay iaiieiay caiyoinoue a iaeioi?uo naaa?iuo
?ano?niaeiauaathueo ?aaeiiao: Iaiaoeeii AI, ssiaei-Iaiaoeeii AI,
sseooee. A yoeo ?aaeiiao ath ioaa/aii iaiaa 0,7% caiyouo (o.a. a 10 ?ac
iaiueoa /ai a n?aaeiai ii ?innee).

Eioa?ania oaeaea aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ?aaeiiia no?aiu ii ninoaao
aac?aaioiuo. Ia?aiia/aeueii iniiaioth ianno aac?aaioiuo a ?innee
ninoaaeyee aeaiueiu, eeoea n aunoei e n?aaeiei niaoeeaeueiui
ia?aciaaieai, eeoea i?aaeiaineiiiiai aic?anoa. Ii caoai a oao ?aaeiiao,
aaea o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu aue auoa n?aaeiaai, noaee ?anoe aeiey
ioae/ei, aeiey eeoe n ieceei o?iaiai ia?aciaaiey, aeiey iieiaeaaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii ninoaao aac?aaioiuo iiaeii noaeeoue i i?iaeaeiooinoe
oiai eee eiiai ?aaeiia ii ino?ioa aac?aaioeoeu. A oao ?aaeiiao, aaea
i?aiaeaaeatho ”aunieiia?aciaaiiua aeaiueiu i?aaeiaineiiiiai aic?anoa”,
iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue i ia/aeueiie noaaeee aac?aaioeoeu. O?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu e iai?yaeaiiinoue ia ?uiea o?oaea a oaeeo ?aaeiiao eae
i?aaeei iaaaeeee (iai?eia?, a Iineaa), oioy ?anoe iie iiaoo aunieeie
oaiiaie (iai?eia?, a Oaoa?ee). A oao ?aaeiiao, aaea n?aaee aac?aaioiuo
i?aiaeaaeaao iieiaeaaeue, ioae/eiu, eeoea n ieceei o?iaiai ia?aciaaiey,
i?iaeaia aac?aaioeoeu i/aiue ino?a, ii /eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo
ca/anooth ?anoao iaaeeaiiaa, /ai a n?aaeiai ii no?aia

A iauai neo/aa ana ?aaeiiu ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii ino?ioa
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiie aac?aaioeoeu iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei a?oii.

Ia?aay a?oiia – ?aaeiiu n i/aiue aunieie aac?aaioeoeae. Yoi Eiaooaoey,
Naaa?iay Inaoey, Ea?a/aaai-*a?eanney, Oaaa?ianeee e?ae, Aio?neay
iaeanoue, Eai/aoneay iaeanoue aianoa n Ei?yeneei AI. A yoo aea a?oiio,
ii anae aeaeeiinoe, aoiaeeo e *a/aineay ?anioaeeea, aeaiiua ii eioi?ie
Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeaie caiyoinoe ia niae?athony. Yoe ?aaeiiu ioee/athony
aunieei o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu, aunieeie oaiiaie aai ?inoa (a 2 ?aca auoa
n?aaeia?inneeneeo), aieueoie iai?yaeaiiinoueth ia ?uiea o?oaea. I?e yoii
naiay aunieay aac?aaioeoea – a Eiaooaoee e Naaa?iie Inaoee e naycaia iia
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n i/aiue aieueoie eiioeaio?aoeeae aaaeaioeaa e
auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia (aieaa 10% – iaeneiaeueiue iieacaoaeue ii
?innee).

Aoi?ay a?oiia – ?aaeiiu n aunieei o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu e aieueoie
iai?yaeaiiinoueth ia ?uiea o?oaea (iieacaoaee i?aauoatho
n?aaeia?inneeneea). Ii oaiiu ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu caeanue n?aaeiea eee
ieaea n?aaeieo. A iniiaiii yoi ?aaeiiu naaa?iie iieiaeiu aa?iiaeneie
/anoe no?aiu. Iiiaea ec yoeo ?aaeiiia ioee/athony iiauoaiiie
auioaeaeaiiie iaiieiie caiyoinoueth. Eeaee?otho caeanue Aeaaeeie?neay e
Eaaiianeay iaeanoe, aaea aeiey iaoiaeyueony a aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ioioneao
e ia iieiinoueth eniieueciaaaoeo ?aai/aa a?aiy i?aauoaao 20 e 15%
niioaaonoaaiii.

O?aouey a?oiia – o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu e iai?yaeaiiinoue ia ?uiea o?oaea
ieaea n?aaeia?inneeneeo, ii oaiiu ?inoa o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu auoa
n?aaeia?inneeneeo. Oaeoe/anee ii ino?ioa aac?aaioeoeu yoa a?oiia
n?aaeiyy.

*aoaa?oay a?oiia – ?aaeiiu n iaeiaiaa ino?ie aac?aaioeoeae a no?aia. A
ieo o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ieaea n?aaeiaai, iecea iai?yaeaiiinoue ia
?uiea o?oaea, oaiiu ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu ieaea n?aaeia?inneeneeo. A
aeaiiie a?oiia iiiai naaa?iuo ?aaeiiia n aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoueth:
Oaiou-Iaineeneee AI, ssiaei-Iaiaoeeee AI, sseooey, Iaaaaeaineay
iaeanoue, *oeioneee AI. Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu caeanue eee iauaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa nie?aoeeenue iacia/eoaeueii ii n?aaiaieth ni
n?aaeia?inneeneie neooaoeeae (ie?oaa Othiaineie iaeanoe, sseooey), eee
/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?acei nie?aoeeanue ec-ca iea?aoeeiiiiai iooiea
(Iaaaaeaineay iaeanoue, *oeioea). Eioa?anii, /oi a a?oiio iiiaaeatho
Iineaa e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, a oaeaea Eaeeieia?aaeneay iaeanoue. N aycaii
yoi n ianniaui nicaeaieai caeanue iiauo ?aai/eo iano a ?uii/iuo io?aneyo
(oi?aiaey, aaieianeay aeayoaeueiinoue, iin?aaeie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue).
A eoiaa aeey iie?uoey aeaoeoeeoa ?aaioieeia a iai?anoeaeiuo io?aneyo
(o?ainii?o, no?ieoaeuenoai, eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai) a Iineaa,
ioee/athuaeny iaeaieueoei aeaoeoeeoii ?aaioathueo, i?eoeinue
eniieueciaaoue a?aiaiiuo ?aaioieeia n Oe?aeiu, ec Aaei?onnee,
Caeaaeacuey.

Eoae, a ?innee ino?ay aac?aaioeoea eiaaony a ?aaeiiao aeaoo oeiia.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi ?aaeiiu n aunieei anoanoaaiiui i?e?inoii ianaeaiey
(Aeaaanoai, Eaeiueey, Ooaa, Ea?a/aaai-*a?eanney, *a/iy, Aaeineee
Ao?yoneee AI e o.i.). Caeanue ia ?uiie o?oaea iinoiyiii auoiaeeo
aieueoia eiee/anoai iieiaeaaee, oiaaea eae eiee/anoai ?aai/eo iano a
oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena ia oieueei ia oaaee/eaaaony, ii e
nie?auaaony. A iniaue iiaeoei auaeaeythony ?aaeiiu, aaea aunieee
anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino ni/aoaaony n ianniaui i?eoieii aaaeaioeaa (
Eiaooaoey e Naaa?iay Inaoey). A ?aaeiiao aeaiiiai oeia aac?aaioeoea
nouanoaiaaea e a i?ioeii a aeaea aa?a?iiai ia?aianaeaiey.

Ai-aoi?uo, aeai?anneaiua ?aaeiiu, o.a. n i?aiaeaaeaieai iaeaieaa
e?eceniuo io?aneae. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio oaeiauie yaeythony eaaeay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue e aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen, ioee/athueany
iaeaieueoei nie?auaieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ii n?aaiaieth n eiioeii
80-o. E yoiio oeio ioiinyony Eaaiianeay, Aeaaeeie?neay, Eino?iineay,
ss?ineaaneay, Ee?ianeay e ae?. iaeanoe, Oaeio?oey, Ii?aeiaey, Ia?ee-Ye.

Aaaeai oaeaea aii?in naeueneie aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee. A i?iaiicao ia/aea
90-o aiaeia iaeeaeaeny ?aceee anieane aac?aaioeoeu a ai?iaeao a eoiaa
?acaaea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, noi?ie?iaaaoaeny ca niaaoneee ia?eiae
(aeaaioneea i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua ?aaioaee a iniiaiii ia iai?iio,
ieacaeenue ianiiniaiu aaeaioe?iaaoueny e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi). Naeueneay
aea ianoiinoue n/eoaeanue e?aeia o?oaeiaeaoeoeeoiie, niiniaiie ioaea/ue
aieueoia eiee/anoai aac?aaioiuo ec ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee. Nia?aiaiiay
neooaoeey iieacuaaao, /oi e yoe i?iaiicu ia ii?aaaeaeenue. Ia/eiay n
1994 a. o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu n?aaee naeueneiai ianaeaiey i?aauoaao
aiaeiae/iue iieacaoaeue aeey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey. I/aiue auniea oaeaea
iai?yaeaiiinoue ia naeueneii ?uiea o?oaea, o.e. naiaiaeiuo ?aai/eo iano
caeanue i?aeoe/anee iao. A iniiaiii naeueneay aac?aaioeoea iaaethaeaaony
a ?aaeiiao n aunieei anoanoaaiiui i?e?inoii e a naaa?iuo
ianaeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaeiiao. Oae, a Oaiou-Iaineeneii AI, a Oiineie
iaeanoe e ae?. o?iaaiue naeueneie aac?aaioeoeu a 2 ?aca i?aauoaao
ai?iaeneie iieacaoaeue (ia eiiaoe 1995 a.). Iiauoaiiie naeueneie
aac?aaioeoeae ioee/athony oaeaea aeai?anneaiua naeueneea ?aaeiiu ni
cia/eoaeueiui ?acaeoeai a i?ioeii iayoieeiauo iea?aoeee ec naea a
ai?iaeneea iinaeaiey (Eaaiianeay, Aeaaeeie?neay e ae?. iaeanoe).

Eoae, ?acaeoea aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia nouanoaaiii
ioee/aaony io iauaie?iauo caeiiiia?iinoae. I?e ?aceii nie?auaiee iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa (aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca) o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu n o/aoii
iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aac?aaioiuo ia i?aauoaao 10%. I?e yoii o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu a naeueneie ianoiinoe auoa, /ai a ai?iaeneeo iinaeaieyo. A
i?e/eiao aac?aaioeoeu nouanoaoao cia/eoaeueiay ?aaeiiaeueiay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey. Nouanoaaiiuie ieacaeenue e nioeeaeueiua i?e/eiu
(iioiee aaaeaioeaa e auioaeaeaiiuo ia?anaeaioeaa, aunieee anoanoaaiiue
i?e?ino, cia/eoaeueiue iea?aoeeiiiue iooie), e yeiiiie/aneea (?aceee
niaae i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeieo io?aneyo, iacia/eoaeueiue – a ae?oaeo).

Iaaethaeaaony ?ino aeeeoaeueiinoe aac?aaioeoeu.

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, naaiaeiyoiyy eioi?iaoeey i ianooaaao
aac?aaioeoeu, i?aaeinoaaeyaiay Aineiinoaoii, caieaeaao iiaeeeiiue
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu i?eaeeceoaeueii a 5 ?ac. Iaeioi?ua ?inneeneea
yeiiiienou-aiaeeoeee aeaeyo a niciaoaeueiii caieaeaiee o?iaiy
ioeoeeaeueiie aac?aaioeoeu i?e/eiu oeiainiaiai oa?aeoa?a, oae eae
Ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae caiyoinoe niiniaai naaiaeiy iaania/eoue
oeiaine?iaaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe oieueei i?e o?iaia
aac?aaioeoeu ia aieaa 3%.

Ca ieceei iieacaoaeai ioeoeeaeueii ?aaeno?e?oaiie aac?aaioeoeu ia
aeaeia, iai?eia?, ne?uoay aac?aaioeoea (auioaeaeaiiue aein?i/iue ooiae
ia iaineth, nio?aiaiea ?aai/aai ianoa aac ?aaeueiie io?aaioee e o.ae.),
/oi noaaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaen/aoa iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo ecaea?aeae ?inoa
aac?aaioeoeu. Oaeay oeaia ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu aeieaeia ii?aaeaeyoueny a
aieueoae ia?a ia ?inoii eiiiainaoeeiiiuo auieao e oeiaine?iaaieai
i?ia?aii caiyoinoe, a a oi?ia iioa?ue aiciiaeiiai, ii ia i?iecaaaeaiiiai
AII aneaaenoaea iacaiyoinoe /anoe ?aai/ae neeu. Ecaanoiue aia?eeaineee
yeiiiieno A?oo? Ioeai iaoaiaoe/anee au?acee niioiioaiea iaaeaeo o?iaiai
aac?aaioeoeu e ionoaaaieai iauaia AII. Caeii Ioeaia iieacuaaao, /oi anee
oaeoe/aneee o?iaaiue i?aauoaao anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ia
iaeei i?ioeaio, oi ionoaaaiea iauaiia AII ninoaaeyao 2,5%. Iai?eia?,
iiiuoee a 1953-1980 aa. oiaiueoeoue eioeyoeeth iooai ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu
nicaeaee aeey NOA iioa?e a n?aaeiai io 6 aei 18% AII. I?e ae?oaii
aa?eaioa yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee caiyoinoue ianaeaiey iiaea au
oaaee/eoueny ia 4,5 iei. /aeiaae.

Eae ioia/aeinue auoa, ioeoeeaeueiay noaoenoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey i
aac?aaioeoea aeaeaei ia aaeaeaaoia ?aaeueiiio iieiaeaieth aeae.

Oae, a io/aoa Aineiinoaoa ca 1996 a. niiauaaony, /oi ioeoeeaeueiue
noaoon aac?aaioiiai eiatho 2,5 iei. /aeiaae, oi anoue 3,4% yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. Oaeea oeeo?u yaii ia niioaaonoaotho ea?oeia niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oieueei iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi oaeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth
ia ?uiea o?oaea ii?aaeaeyao ne?uoay aac?aaioeoea.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea (IIO) i?iaaea enneaaeiaaiea,
iieacaaoaa, /oi o?iaaiue aac?aaioiuo a ?O cia/eoaeueii auoa ioeoeeaeueii
i?eciaiiiai. Aee?aeoi? IIO Aae Noaiaeeia, ninoaaeyaoee io/ao ii
?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiey, cayaee, /oi ?inneeneea enoi/ieee “naiui
aan/aeiaa/iui ia?acii” ne?uaatho enoeiiia iieiaeaiea aauae. Ii aeaiiui
IIO aac?aaioeoea a ?innee a 1996 a. ninoaaeea 9,5% (16,72 iei. /ae.).
I?e/eia oaeiai ?anoiaeaeaiey aeaiiuo Aineiinoaoa e IIO a oii, /oi
ethaeyi ia auaiaeii ?aaeno?e?iaaoueny a ea/anoaa aac?aaioiuo (n ooiaeii
n iiieiaeueiie ?aaiou /aeiaae eeoaaony eueaio), a i?aaei?eyoey
noa?athony aea?aeaoue “ia?oaua aeooe” /oiau nie?aoeoue iaeiae.

A io/aoa IIO oaeaea ioia/aaony iaoeeiiiia nieaeaiea iauaai eiee/anoaa
?aai/eo iano n 1980 a. i?e oii /oi o?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea au?inei. N
1990 ii 1995 aa. Eiee/anoai ?aai/eo iano oiaiueoeeinue ia 8,2 iei.

Iaeiie ec aeoaeiiuo i?e/ei ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu noaiiaeony oneeeaathuayny
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ianaeaiey ii aeioiaeai. Yeeoiua neie ianaeaiey, a
iieueco eioi?uo ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony naaiaeiy iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, ia
iiaoo noi?ie?iaaoue iiuiiai ni?ina ia i?aaeiaou ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey
ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi niinianoaoao aai noaaiaoeee e, eae
neaaenoaea, aac?aaioeoea.

A 1994 – 1995 aa. aeeooa?aioeeaoeey aeioiaeia i?iaeieaeaea ?anoe. I?e
nio?aiaiee yoie oaiaeaioeee iu oaea /a?ac aeaa aiaea aeiaiiei
eaoeiiaia?eeaineea no?aiu ii aeoaeia ?anneiaiey iauanoaa ii aeioiaeai.

Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao ia?aioeaieaaoue cia/aiea aac?aaioeoeu eae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoi?a. Iia aeinoaoi/ii oneiaia –
iniaaiii ii ioiioaieth e aeaiia?aoe/aneei i?ioeannai, a ?aieao e i?e
iiiiue eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony caiyoinoue ianaeaiey. Naaiaeiy
aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?ioeannu a ?innee i?ioiaeyo i/aiue ianneienoe/ii. Ec
anao i?iaiicia a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie noa?a aeaiia?aoe/aneea
yaeythony naiuie oi/iuie a neeo oiai, /oi aeaiia?aoey eae iaoea oniaoii
i?iaeaeioeanue, eniieuecoy io?aaioaiiua iaoiaeeee e iieioth
eioi?iaoeeth. Oae, Oeaio? yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O e
Aineiinoao iiaeaioiaeee i?iaiic /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey iaoae no?aiu.
Ianaeaiea ?innee aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue oiaiueoaoueny ianiio?y ia iuooeiue
iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino, o?iaaiue eioi?iai caaeneo io
yeiiiieei-iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee a NIA e iaania/aiey i?aa ?onneiycu/iiai
ianaeaiey. A no?aia onei?yaony noa?aiea iaoeee, /eneaiiinoue e
oaeaeueiue aan ianaeaiey a aic?anoa iieiaea o?oaeiniiniaiiai (iniiaiie
enoi/iee iiiieiaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia) nie?aoeony n 25,1 iei. /aeiaae a
1993 aiaeo aei 21,4 iei. /aeiaae a 2005 aiaeo (n 23,7% aei 15,4%).

Yoi i?eaiaeeo e iaia?aoeiui ecia?aieyi a i?ioanneiiaeueiii ninoaaa
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia: ethaeyi a c?aeii aic?anoa o?oaeiaa niaieoue
eaaeeoeeaoeeth, – neiaii, nieaeaaony iiaeeueiinoue o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.
Oaea naaiaeiy a ?yaea oa??eoi?ee Oeaio?aeueiie e Caiaaeiie ?innee aeiey
eeoe iiaeeeiai aic?anoa aieueoa 30-40% e eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo.
Oaeaea a aeeaeaeoea aeaa aiaea i?iecieaeoo eciaiaiey a /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa. A yoo eaoaai?eth aieaeao
iiiai/eneaiiia iiiieiaiea 80-o aiaeia i?e auauoee ethaeae iaei/eneaiiiai
iieieaiey aiaiiuo eao, /oi aeiiieieoaeueii iaino?eo i?iaeaio caiyoinoe,
a iniaaiiinoe aeey iieiaeaaee.

Eoae, a nayce n auoaia?a/eneaiiuie iieacaoaeyie iae?iyeiiiie/aneee niaae
iaecaaaeai. Oieueei ca n/ao aeaiia?aoe/aneiai oaeoi?a AAI nie?aoeony e
2000 aiaeo ia 4,8% ii n?aaeiaio aa?eaioo i?iaiica eee ia 8% ii
ianneienoe/aneiio, a e 2005 aiaeo – niioaaonoaaiii ia 7% eee 13%.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ianoaeaeaaiuo naaiaeiy i?ia?aiiao auoiaea yeiiiieee
?innee ec e?ecena aac?aaioeoea iiieiaaony eae ?acoeueoao e neaaenoaea
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ai?ueaa n aac?aaioeoeae ia
ioaiaeeony no?aoaae/aneie ?iee a nenoaia ia? ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. Iaaeaeo oai, aac?aaioeoea oaea auoea ia o?iaaiue, a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?aaeii?aaeaeythuee aai a?yaeouoth aeeiaieeo.

O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, aeinoeaiooue a 1995-1996 aiaeao, aiai?eo ca oi,
/oi e?ecen caiyoinoe aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny ii iaiueoae ia?a a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo iineaaeothueo eao. Aicieeioo ?acee/iua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea aeeni?iii?oeee, a oii /enea: ?aceea
?aaeiiaeueiua ?acee/ey a aeeiaieea caiyoinoe, naaiaioaoeey e
ia?aeiaeecaoeey ?uiea o?oaea. ?aceee ?ino aac?aaioeoeu caionoeo a
aeaenoaea iaoaieci aeiiieieoaeueiiai nieaeaiey aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe:
e?iia nie?auaiey iio?aaeoaeueneiai e eiaanoeoeeiiiiai ni?ina ?ino
aac?aaioeoeu aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny aeeiaieeie iacaiyoinoe i?aaeuaeoueo
ia?eiaeia. Ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee oaeay oae
iacuaaaiay “aenoa?aceniay ninoaaeythuay” ninoaaeo 15-20% iauaai
eciaiaiey aac?aaioeoeu. Aac?aaioeoea aoaeao naiiaini?iecaiaeeoueny e
iaoneiaeo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue niaae, aucaaiiue aeieaia?aiaiiie, canoieiie
iacaiyoinoueth: yoi aoaeao aeaci?eaioe?iaaoue ?aoeeiiaeueiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0304 \* MERGEFORMAT 3.4. ?ani?aaeaeaiea
?aaeiiia ?O ii niioiioaieth iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai ia ?uiea
o?oaea

?uiie o?oaea, eae e ethaie oiaa?iue ?uiie, iniiaai ia ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiee. Ni?in a aeaiiii neo/aa aunooiaao a oi?ia iio?aaiinoe ia
caiyoea naiaiaeiuo ?aai/eo iano e auiieiaiey ?aaio, a i?aaeeiaeaiea-
iaee/ea iacaiyoie ?aai/ae neeu eee aeaeaiea eciaieoue ianoi ?aaiou.
Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea inouanoaeythony a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie ca caiyoea oiai eee eiiai ?aai/aai ianoa
eee auiieiaiea ?aaiou, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu iaaeaeo ?aaioiaeaoaeyie ca
i?eaea/aiea ioaeiie ?aai/ae neeu, eae ii naiaio eiee/anoaaiiiio oae e
ea/anoaaiiiio ninoaao. Ni?aaaaeeeaia ?aoaiea yoie ninoycaoaeueiinoe
i?aaeiieaaaao niaethaeaiea oeaeiai ?yaea oneiaee. I?aaeaea anaai
iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu, ?aoeeiiaeueiia ?aciauaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
nee. Aeey iaoae no?aiu a neeo aieueoie inaaeeinoe ianaeaiea, aucaaiiie
iaoeeiiaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie, oa?aeoa?ii ?acaeoea ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieia
o?oaea, /oi iiaeao iaaaoeaii neacuaaoueny ia niioiioaiee iaaeaeo ni?inii
e i?aaeeiaeaieai a ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao no?aiu. N oeaeueth au?aaieaaiey
iieiaeaiey iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie ?aaeiiaeueiuie ?uieaie o?oaea, iaania/aiea
nioeeaeueiie caueuaiiinoe o?oaeyueony, i?iaeeaathueo a ?aaeiiao n
ecauoi/iuie o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie, ia ianoiuo o?iaiyo ?ac?aaaouaathony
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?ia?aiiu caiyoinoe. E?iia oiai ainoaea?noai
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?u oeiainiai- e?aaeeoiie, eiaanoeoeeiiiie e iaeiaiaie
iieeoeee, iiiu?aiey nicaeaiey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e i?eiaiaiea aeaeeo
?aaeeiia o?oaea e ae?oaea ia?u, niinianoaothuea nio?aiaieth e ?acaeoeth
nenoaiu ?aai/eo iano.

Ia/iai aiaeec iaoaiecia ?uiea o?oaea n eeanne/aneie eiioeaioeee
caiyoinoe i?eiaieoaeueii e oneiaeyi niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee. Iiae
eeanne/aneie oai?eae a iaia?enenoneie yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
iiae?acoiaaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii oai?ey aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo
yeiiiienoia , aace?othueony ia o/aiee, eaeouai io Nieoa e ?eea?aei e
Ia?oaeeo, Ieao e ae?oaei o/aiui, iinayoeaoei naay ?ac?aaioea oai?ee
iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney.

Iaieeanne/aneay oai?ey caiyoinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iino?iaiea ooieoeee
niaieoiiiai ni?ina ia o?oae e niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea,
i?eiaieiuo e oneiaeyi niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee. Yoe neiaeiua ooieoeee
iieo/athony iooai aa?aae?iaaiey ooieoeee ni?ina ioaeaeueii acyouo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ooieoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo ?aaioieeia.
Noauaeoaie ia ?uiea o?oaea aunooiaoue aecian e ainoaea?noai, a
noauaeoaie i?aaeeiaeaiey- aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa.

Eiioeao?aoeey e?eaie e aa io?eoeaoaeueiue iaeeii iieacuaatho, /oi aieaa
ieceie ca?aaioiie ieaoa niioaaonoaoao aieueoee ni?in e iaiai?io.

Eia/a ianoieo aeaei n ooieoeeae i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea.

Iia oaeaea caaeneo io aaee/eiu ca?aaioiie ieaou, iieo/aaiie ca
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua oneoae. Eae i?aaeei (ii anoue e eneeth/aiey)
i?iaeaaoeu ia ?uiea o?oaea. a oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee
no?aiyony oaaee/eoue i?aaeeiaeaiea a oneiaeyo ?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou.
Iiyoiio e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea (?en 2) i?eieiaao eiie aeae, /ai
e?eaay ni?ina ia o?oae.

E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey ia o?oae iieacuaaao, /oi i?e iiauoaiee ?aaeueiie
ca?aaioiie ieaou aic?anoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea, a i?e aa nieaeaiee
i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea oiaiueoaaony.

Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea a iauanoaa, ii iiaieth I. Naiyeueniia,
ii?aaeaeyaony eae ieieioi /aou?ueiy iieacaoaeyie:

1. iauae /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey;

2. oie aeieae, eioi?oth ninoaaeyao naiiaeayoaeueiia ianaeaiea a iauae
/eneaiiinoe aeeoaeae;

3. n?aaeiei /eneii /ania, io?aaioaiiuo ?aai/eie ia i?ioyaeaiee iaaeaee e
ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea;

4. ea/anoaii, eiee/anoaii e eaaeeoeeaoeeae oiai o?oaea, eioi?ue aoaeoo
cao?a/eaaoue ?aai/ea.

I?aaeaea /ai iauaaeeieoue iaa a?aoeea- ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea-
?anniio?ei aua iaeii aaaeiia yeiiiie/aneia yaeaiea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaa
i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea. Aa?iaa aeaa yaeaiey iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea yooaeo
caiauaiey e yooaeo aeioiaea

Yoe yooaeou i?iyaeythony oiaaea, eiaaea iu iiaeaeaai auynieoue, eae
io?acyony ia i?aaeeiaeaiee o?oaea ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiiu o?oaeyueony eee
eiaeeaeaeooia iiauoaiea noaaie ca?aaioiie ieaou. Ia ia?aue acaeyae,
i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea aeieaeii au?anoe. Iaeiaei anoue aeeyiea yooaeoa
aeioiaea e yooaeo caiauaiey.

Ia ?enoiea 3. ecia?aaeaia e?eaay, iieacuaathuay iauaa eiee/anoai
?aai/aai a?aiaie, io?aaioaoue eioi?ia i?e aeaiiie aaee/eia ca?aaioiie
ieaou niaeania eaeay-eeai eaoaai?ey o?oaeyueony. Io iau/iie e?eaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea yoa e?eaay ioee/aaony naiae eiioeao?aoeeae.

Aei oi/ee I e?eaay iieacuaaao oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea i?e ?inoa
ca?aaioiie ieaou – iia oaeaeyaony io ine i?aeeiao. Iaeiaei, i?ieaey
oi/eo I, e?eaay LS iaiyao iai?aaeaiea. Iia naeaaaony e niiaa
i?eaeeaeaaony e ine i?aeeiao, iieacuaay, ia ia?aue acaeyae,
ia?aaeienaeueioth neooaoeeth- oiaiueoaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea i?e
aeaeueiaeoai ?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou aei ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?acia?ia (W\P
oiiiaeeoue ia I) aaaeao e ?inoo i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea, eioi?ia iinea
aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiiai o?iaiy (LI) ia/eiaao nie?auaoueny
aneaaenoaea aeaeueiaeoaai ?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou. Iaeia e oa aea i?e/eia
– oaaee/aiea ca?aaioiie ieaou i?eaiaeeo e e ?inoo e e nie?auaieth
i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iineieueeo i?e oaaee/aiee
ca?aaioiie ieaou eaaeaeue /an io?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie eo/oa iiea/eaaaony,
eaaeaeue /an naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie aini?eieiaaony ?aaioieeii eae aic?inoee
oauoie, oi/iaa, oiouaiiay auaiaea. Yoa auaiaea iiaea au auoue
?aaeeciaaia i?e i?aa?auaiee naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie a ?aai/aa- ionthaea
no?aieaiea caianoeoue naiaiaeiia a?aiy aeiiieieoaeueiie ?aaioie.
Niioaaonoaaiii aeinoa caiauaaony oai iaai?ii oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua
?aaioiee iiaeao i?eia?anoe ia aic?inooth ca?ieaoo. Auoaiienaiiue
i?ioeann iieo/ee iacaaiea yooaeoa caiauaiey. Ia ?enoiea 3. yooaeo
caiauaiey i?iyaeyaony aei oi/ee I, o.a. aei ia/aea aeaeaeaiey e?eaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea aeaai, e ine i?aeeiao.

Yooaeo aeioiaea i?ioeainoieo yooaeoo caiauaiey e noaiiaeony iuooei i?e
aeinoeaeaiee ?aaioieeii ii?aaeaeaiiiai, aeinoaoi/ii aunieiai o?iaiy
iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey. Eiaaea ?aaioiee aeinoeaaao iaoa?eaeueiiai
aeaaiiieo/ey iaiyaony aai ioiioaiea e naiaiaeiiio a?aiaie. Aicieeaao
aeaeaiea eoieoue ia oieueei aieueoa oiaa?ia, ii e eiaoue aieueoaa eie-ai
naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie. A naeaeaoue yoi iiaeii, eeoue nie?aoea
i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea , eoiea naiaiaeiia a?aiy ia ca iaee/iua aeaiueae, a
ca oa aeaiueae, eioi?ua iiaee au auoue iieo/aiu i?e ioeaca io aeinoaa a
iieueco aeiiieieoaeueiie ?aaiou. Iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey e?eaie LS oi/ee I
yooaeo aeioiaea noaiiaeony i?aiaeaaeathuei, /oi au?aaeaaony a nie?auaiee
i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea i?e ?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou, a i?aeoe/anee a
no?aieaiee e ia?aoiaeo ?aaioieea ia nie?auaiiue ?aai/ee aeaiue eee
iaaeaeth, e iieo/aieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo auoiaeiuo aeiae e ioioneia.

A oaia?ue iauaaeeiei iaa a?aoeea- e?eaoth ni?ina e e?eaoth i?aaeeiaeaiey
o?oaea e i?iaiaeece?oai aieaa aeaoaeueii iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea o?oaea
(?enoiie 4.)

Oi/ea A yaeyaony oi/eie ia?ana/aiey e?eaie ni?ina ia o?oae e e?eaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea. Yoie oi/ea ia a?aoeea niioaaonoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou (W\P x E) e caaeaiiia yoei o?iaiai
i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea (LE). A oi/ea A ni?in ia o?oae ?aaai i?aaeeiaeaieth
o?oaea, oi anoue ?uiie o?oaea iaoiaeeony a ?aaiiaaniii ninoiyiee. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi ana i?aaei?eieiaoaee, niaeaniua ieaoeoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo
W\Px E, iaoiaeyo ia ?uiea iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai o?oaea, eo ni?in ia
o?oae oaeiaeaoai?ai iieiinoueth. A iieiaeaiee ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney
iieiinoueth o?oaeiono?iaiu ana ?aaioieee, aioiaua i?aaeeiaeeoue naie
oneoae i?e ca?aaioiie ieaoa W\PxE. Iiyoiio oi/ea A ii?aaeaeyao
iieiaeaiea iieiie caiyoinoe.

I?e ethauo ae?oaeo oneiaeyo ca?aaioiie ieaou, ioee/iuo io W\PxE,
?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea o?oaea ia?ooaaony. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa- yoi oeaia
?aaiiaaney ia ?uiea o?oaea.

A neo/aa iiauoaiey ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou o?iaiy ?aaiiaaniie (neo/ae
W*\P) i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea o?oaea (I-LS*) i?aauoaao ni?in (I-LD*) ia
aaee/eio LD*-LS*. A yoie neooaoeee i?ienoiaeeo ioeeiiaiea io iieiaeaiey
iieiie caiyoinoe, ?aa. iano ia oaaoaao aeey anao aeaeathueo i?iaeaoue
naie o?oae i?e ca?aaioiie ieaoa W*\P. Aicieeaao ecauoie i?aaeeiaeaiey
o?oaea, ecia?yaiue io?aceii LD *- LS * ia ine aanoeenn.

A neo/aa nieaeaiey ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou ii n?aaiaieth n
?aaiiaaniie (iai?eia?, aei o?iaiy W”\?) ni?in ia ?uiea o?oaea (I-LD”)
i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea (I-LS”) ia aaee/eio LS”-LD”. A ?acoeueoaoa
ia?acothony iacaiieiaiiua ?aai/ea ianoa aneaaenoaea iaoaaoee ?aaioieeia,
niaeaniuo ia aieaa ieceoth ca?aaioioth ieaoo.

Iaa yoe neooaoeee (aac?aaioeoea e iaee/ea iacaiyouo ?aai/eo iano) a
oneiaeyo ?uiea niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee ia iiaoo auoue onoie/eauie, iie
iiaeaa?aathony ei??aeoeee ni noi?iiu ?uii/iuo iaoaieciia a iai?aaeaiee
ainnoaiiaeaiey iieiie caiyoinoe.

Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea i?aauoaao ni?in ia iaai aneaaenoaea
onoaiiaeaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou auoa ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy, iiyaeythony
aac?aaioiua, aioiaua i?aaeeiaeeoue naie o?oae ii aieaa ieceie oeaia, ia
eioi?oth auioaeaeaiu niaeaneoueny e oa, eoi caiyo a i?iecaiaenoaa, /oiau
ia iioa?youe naie ?aai/ea ianoa. I?aaei?eieiaoaee aioiau caiyoue
aieueoaa eiee/anoai o?oaea, ii i?e oneiaee nieaeaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou
neeaaeuaaaony eae a noa?a i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea, oae e a noa?a ni?ina ia
o?oae.

Eiaaea ni?in ia o?oae i?aauoaao aai i?aaeeiaeaiea ec-ca nieaeaiey
ca?aaioiie ieaou ii n?aaiaieth n aa ?aaiiaaniui cia/aieai, iaaethaeaaony
eiay ea?oeia. ?aaioiaeaoaee, /oiau caiieieoue ionoothuea ?aai/ea ianoa,
aioiau iiauneoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo. Aeaaiaea?y oaeiio iiauoaieth
?anoe?yaony e?oa ?aaioieeia, aioiauo i?e aieaa aunieie ca?aaioiie ieaoa
i?aaeeiaeeoue naie o?oae.

Eae e a ia?aii, oae e ai aoi?ii neo/ayo ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea o?oaea
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony, e yoio ?uiie i?eoiaeeo a ninoiyiea iieiie caiyoinoe.
Eieaaaiey ni?ina ia o?oae e i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea iicaieytho a iauai
aeaea aeaoue ioaao ia aii?in i oii ii/aio auniea eee iecea ca?aaioiay
ieaoa.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Aeaaa04 \* MERGEFORMAT Aeaaa 4. Ainoaea?noaaiiay
iieeoeea e nenoaia caiyoinoe: no?oeoo?a, iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey
ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0401 \* MERGEFORMAT 4.1. Ainoaea?noaaiiay
iieeoeea caiyoinoe e a? yooaeoeaiinoue a ?O

Aiaeec yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey ?innee ca iineaaeiea ianeieueei
eao iieacae, /oi ainoaea?noai ieacaeinue ia a ninoiyiee aeeyoue ia
aeeiaieeo ?uiea o?oaea. ?aai/ay neea inoaaony ianneaiie, oneiaey aa
aini?iecaiaenoaa oooaeoathony.

Onei?aiea niaaea yeiiiieee ia iiaei ia neacaoueny ia aeeiaieea
caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu a 1996 aiaeo. Iauaa /enei caiyouo a
yeiiiieea, ninoaaeythuaa a 1993 aiaeo 70.9 iei. /aeiaae,
oiaiueoeeinue e eiioeo 1996 aiaea ia 5 iei. /aeiaae.

Nie?auaiea caiyoinoe i?iecioei a oaeeo aaaeiaeoeo io?aneyo yeiiiieee,
eae i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia oicyenoai, o?ainii?o, no?ieoaeuenoai,
oi?aiaey e iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea, iaoea e iao/iia ianeoaeeaaiea.
Onoie/eaue ?ino iaaethaeaeny eeoue a i?aaiao oi?aaeaiey anao aeaeia –
aieaa iieoieeeeiia /aeiaae ca yoio aea ia?eiae.

E?iia oiai , 1996 aiae i?eian e nie?auaiea caiyoinoe a
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaie e no?aoiaie noa?a, aaea aei yoiai iaaethaeaeny
auno?ue ?ino. A i?iiuoeaiiinoe a oeaeii e naeueneii oicyenoaa
/eneaiiinoue caiyouo nie?aoeeanue ia 23%.Oioy /eneaiiinoue naeueneiai
ianaeaiey ca yoio ia?eiae aia?aua a iiaaeoae enoi?ee oaaee/eaaeanue e
aic?inea ii n?aaiaieth n 1991 aiaeii, iineaaeiei aiaeii aa oiaiueoaiey.
Oaeei ia?acii, aaca aeey ?inoa yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe a naeueneie
ianoiinoe aia?aua aic?inea, a ?uiie o?oaea, iaiai?io, noceeny.

Ec 16 e?oiiuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?ino /eneaiiinoe caiyouo
iaaethaeaeny a 5,i?e yoii naiue cia/eoaeueiue a 4 nu?ueaauo io?aneyo :
aeiauaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue (aaea ?ino iaaethaeaeny n 1995 aiaea e
iniaaiii cia/eoaeueiue a 1996 aiaeo ),yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea ,iaooaaeiau/a
e aaciaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iaeiia?aiaiii a ia?a/eneaiiuo io?aneyo
iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ca iineaaeiea o?e aiaea a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao
nie?aoeeny ia 5-15%,e eeoue a aaciaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a 1996 aiaeo
iaiaoeeanue noaaeeecaoeey. ?ino caiyoinoe, ianiio?y ia
i?iaeieaeathuaany iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, nio?aiyaony a io?aneyo –
anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieenoao.

Ioaao ia aii?in i i?e/eia niaaea yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe a iaeieo
io?aneyo e ?inoa ae?oaeo e?iaony a neaaeothueo oeeo?ao:

anee n?aaeiee o?iaaiue iieaou o?oaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 653 ouny/e
?oaeae – i?eiyoue ca aaco (100%),oi a eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iieaoa
o?oaea ninoaaeyea 48%,a iaoeiino?iaiee – 68%,a oi a?aiy eae a
yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea – 155% ,a oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee – 177% e a oiieeaiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 178%. Yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea eae y?eee iiiiiieeno
?inneeneie yeiiiieee ana o?e aiaea nieaeaea iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa,
ia?aueaaea caiyoinoue i?e iaaeaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e
ieaoeea i?e yoii naiue aunieee n?aaee io?aneae iaeia n noiiu i?aauoaiey
ii?iaoeaa ?anoiaeia ia iieaoo o?oaea.

A yoeo aea o?ao io?aneyo – oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, oiieeaiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea – auee e naiua aunieea cao?aou a
?an/aoa ia iaeei io?aaioaiiue /aeiaaei-/an ia oieueei a i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
ii e n?aaee anao io?aneae yeiiiieee. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiui nieaeaiea
caiyouo auei a eaaeie (62% io o?iaiy 1993 aiaea) e
aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae (64%) i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aua iaeiei “eeaea?ii”
iaaeaiey auei iaoeiino?iaiea (68%) .A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoaaeoeo
no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a caiyoinoe ca /aou?a aiaea oaeaeueiue aan
aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe oiaiueoeeny a 1,4 ?aca e aeinoea a 1996
aiaeo ,a anaai ia?ae/iiai naeoi?a – ia o?aoue e aeinoea, /oi ia
niioaaonoaoao aeaaea i?eaeeceoaeueii i?iii?oeeyi yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo
no?ai.

Iauay iioaioeeaeueiay /eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo, aeeth/ay euoueo
?aaioo iaineiia?ia e nooaeaioia i?aauneea a 1996 aiaeo o?iaaiue a 9% io
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. Oaiaeaioeee 1995 aiaea aeaaaee
iaaeaaeaeo ia nie?auaiea iaiieiie caiyoinoe e ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu e
a 1996 aiaeo, oai aieaa, /oi a i?iaiice?iaaeanue noaaeeecaoeey
yeiiiieee eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ieieiaeueiue a 1-2% niaae. Ii
ieacaeenue aeeaea e enoeia oa ianneienou, eioi?ua i?aae?aeaee
i?aa?auaiea ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu a ioe?uooth. Iaaeeaiiue ?ino
aac?aaioeoeu aucaai a iaiaeie noaiaie cia/eoaeueiui ?inoii caiyouo
iaiieiia ?aai/aa a?aiy (ia 66% ii n?aaiaieth ni n?aaeiei o?iaiai
aoi?iai iieoaiaeey 1995 aiaea, eiaaea aaeaiany/iue iauai nionoeeny
ieaea o?iaiy a 2 iei. /aeiaae, a a aeaeaa?a i?aaunee yoo ioiaoeo) e aua
aieaa cia/eoaeueiui ?inoii /eneaiiinoe iaoiaeyueony a oae iacuaaaiuo
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ioioneao. Iauay /eneaiiinoue iaoiaeeaoeony a oaeeo
ioioneao (iaiaa oi/iue iieacaoaeue) aic?inea a 1996 aiaeo a n?aaeiai a
2,6 ?aca. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue naieo ioioneia ii eieoeeaoeaa
aaeieieno?aoeee (aieaa oi/iue iieacaoaeue ecia?yaiue /eneii aeiae ia
iaeiiai ?aaioieea), yaeaoay oaeeaeoaeueioth noaaeeueiinoue a oa/aiee
anaai 1996 aiaea e e?aeia ieceee o?iaaiue ii c?aaiaieth n 1994 aiaeii,
oaaee/eeanue aieaa /ai a 3 ?aca.

O?iaaiue ?aaeno?e?oaiie aac?aaioeoeu ninoaaee a eiioea 1996 aiaea –
ia/aea 1997 aiaea anaai eeoue 3,4% , ii aeaaiia, ia iie acaeyae, a
eciaiaiee iauae aeeiaieee ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu . 1996 aiae
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i yaiii oyaioaiee e noaaeeecaoeee , eioi?ay io/aoeeaa
aeaeia a iineaaeiea 6 ianyoeaa.

A aieueoeinoaa ?aaeiiia n e?eoe/aneie neooaoeeae ia ?uiea o?oaea
ianooaau aunaiaiaeaeaiey ?aaioieeia n e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoee
i?aauoaao n?aaeia?ineeneee o?iaaiue a 1,5-2 ?aca. A 1,5 ?aca –
Aeaaeeie?neay e Eaaiianeay iaeanoue, a a 2 ?aca – Aeaaanoai, Ia?ee Ye,
Eiaooaoey, A?oaiaaeueneay iaeanoue.

A yoeo ?aaeiiao iaino?eeanue eiieo?aioeey ia ?uieao o?oaea – a Eaeiueee
ia 1 ?aai/aa ianoi i?aoaiaeiaaee 470 /aeiaae, a Eiaooaoee – 415, a
Eaaiianeie – 190, a oi a?aiy eae ii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee – ieiei 10.

Iaiaeeaeaiiui aeey iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaoaeae i?iaeai aeaineiai o?oaea
yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi ia iieiaeia yoeo e?eceniuo oa??eoi?ee a 1996
aiaeo aac?aaioiuie auei i?eciaii ioae/ei aieueoa (ia 20 %), /ai aeaiuei.
A Eaaiianeie iaeanoe yoio iieacaoaeue ninoaaee aeaaea ii/oe 40%.

Caiyoinoue ioiineony e iaeiiio ec aaaeiaeoeo aeieia iaiaoiaeeiuo
nenoaiiuo eciaiaiee . Aianoa n oai caiyoinoue – iaeia ec iaeaieaa
iaoaea/iuo noa? aeayoaeueiinoe iaoaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. O iaai ia aeioee
?oee aei aeanoeie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ii ioiioaieth e anoanoaaiiui
iiiiiieeyi.

I?e yoii ia o/eouaaeenue a iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea e i?aaeaea anaai
a oeaiiia?aciaaiee oaeoi?u yooaeoeaiie caiyoinoe e caiyoinoe eae oneiaea
yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0402 \* MERGEFORMAT 4.2. Neoaeaa caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey: oaaea?aeueiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua neoaeau, oiiaeu caiyoinoe

Iaeiei ec naiuo yooaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee a aeoeaiie iieeoeea ia ?uiea
o?oaea yaeyaony oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea aaaeiaeoaai
einoeoooa ?uiea o?oaea – niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie neoaeau
caiyoinoe. Aa iniiaiay caaea/a ninoieo a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea ca n/ao ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee i
?uiea o?oaea, ai-ia?auo, iaania/eaathuae nie?auaiea a?aiaie iienea
aaeainee aac?aaioiuie e ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, a ai-aoi?uo,
niinianoaothuae iaeio ?aaioiaeaoaeyie ?aaioieeia, iaeaieaa
niioaaonoaothueo eo o?aaiaaieyi, e iicaieythuae ?aaioieeai iaeoe ianoi n
iiaeoiaeyueie oneiaeyie o?oaea e o?iaiai ca?aaioiie ieaou.

E?iia oiai, e caaea/ai neoaeau caiyoinoe ioiineony: i?ioannei-/aeueiitha
eiinoeueoe?iaaiea euoueo ?aaioo e iao/aiea aac?aaioiuo iiaui
niaoeeaeueiinoyi; eaioe?iaaiea ?aai/eo iano aeey eiaaeeaeia, iieiaeaaee,
aeaiiaeeeciaaiiuo aiaiiineoaeaueo e ae?oaeo a?oii aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai,
ioaeaeathueony a nioeeaeueiie caueoa; oa??eoi?eaeueiia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu; iiaeaea?aeea ?aai/eo iano aeey
niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue o?oaeiono?iaiu
iau/iui iooai (iiiaiaeaoiuo e iaeeiieeo ?iaeeoaeae, aaaeaioeaa e o.ae.);
niaeaenoaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao e naiicaiyoinoe aac?aaioiuo;
iiaeaea?aeaiea aeioiaeia aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai e /eaiia eo naiae;
inouanoaeaiea eiiiainaoeeiiiuo auieao aeey naea?aeeaaiey ianniauo
oaieueiaiee.

Oaaea?aeueiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe ?innee auea nicaeaia a 1991 a.
In-iiaiua1a i?eioeeiu ?aaiou ?inneeneie neoaeau caiyoinoe niioaaonoaotho
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea. Oae, ii Caeiio i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a ?o
«ainoaea?noai aa?aioe?oao a?aaeaeaiai… aanieaoiia niaeaenoaea a
iiaeai?a iiaeoiaeyuae ?aaiou e o?oaeiono?ienoaa» (no. 12 i. 1),
aac?aaioiui i?aaeinonoaaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue aanieaoiiai iao/aiey (i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe) iiaie i?ioannee n auieaoie noeiaiaeee, aiciiaeiinoue
o/anoey a iiea/eaaaiuo iauanoaaiiuo ?aaioao, inouanoaeyaony iieeoeea
iiaeaea?aeaiey aeioiaeia aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai. Neoaeaa caiyoinoe
eioi?ie?oao ia?auathueony a neoaeao caiyoinoe o?oaeyueony e
?aaioiaeaoaeae i aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey ?aaiou e iaania/aiey ?aai/ae
neeie, i o?aaiaaieyo, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e a?aaeaeaiai, aeaeathuei
i?eia?anoe oo eee eioth i?ioanneth; ieacuaaao niaeaenoaea a?aaeaeaiai a
auai?a iiaeoiaeyuae ?aaiou, a a ?aaioiaeaoaeyi a iiaeai?a iaiaoiaeeiuo
?aaioieeia (no. 9 i. 1, no. 15 ie. 1, no. 26 i. 3). Neoaeaa caiyoinoe
aa?aioe?oao ?aaioiaeaoaeyi iiaeaea?aeeo o i?ia?aii ii nio?aiaieth e
nicaeaieth ?aai/eo iano aeey iieiaeaaee, eiaaeeaeia, iaeeiieeo e
iiiaiaeaoiuo ?iaeeoaeae e o.i. Eae e ath?i ii o?oaeiono?ienoao a
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao, ?inneeneea i?aaiu neoaeau o caiyoinoe
iaania/eaatho iioaeeeiaaiea noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia i i?aaeeiaeaiee e ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo, aiciiaeiinoyo
o?oaeiono?ienoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee ooieoeeiie?otho ieiei 2,5 ouny/ oeaio?a
caiyoinoe),e anoue a eaaeaeii ai?iaea e ?aeiia), iiaeaioiaeaiu
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eaae?u (ieiei 40 oun. /aeiaae), io?aaioaia oaoiieiaey
ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia, ii?aaeaeaiu oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey e iio?aaiinoe
?uiea o o?oaea, iaeaaeaii eioi?ie?iaaiea aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai e
?aaioiaeaoaeae e i aeayoaeueiinoe neoaeau caiyoinoe. A 1991—1995 aa. i?e
niaeaenoaee neoaeau caiyoinoe iaoee ?aaioo 6 iei ?inneyi.

Ethaie /aeiaae, aac?aaioiue eee aeaeathuee niaieoue naia ?aai/aa ianoi,
iiaeao ia?aoeoueny a neoaeao caiyoinoe, caiieiea ?aaeno?aoeeiiiue eeno,
e aeaeaa ?aaioieee neoaeau i?iaiaeyo ia?aiia/aeueiue ioai? n?aaieaay
cai?inu ?aaioiaeaoaey e ?aaeno?aoeeiiiua eenou. Neoaeaa caiyoinoe
i?aaeinoaaeyao oaeaea ?yae ae?oaeo oneoa, eioi?ua iiiiaatho aac?aaioiui
auno?aa iaoiaeeoue ?aai/ea ianoa. Yoi, e i?eia?o, eeoau euoueo ?aaioo,
eo?nu «Iiaue noa?o», y?ia?ee aaeainee, niaoeeaeueiua iieiaeaaeiua e
aeaineea ae?aee o?oaea. Yoe iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou ieacaeenue naiuie
yooaeoeaiuie e iiioey?iuie aeaeaie oneoa ?inneeneie neoaeau caiyoinoe.
Yoi i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu, eioi?ua iicaieytho aac?aaioiui ia?anoe
oaa?aiiinoue a naaa, iao/eoueny ii?aaeaeyoue aiciiaeiinoue
o?oaeiono?ienoaa, aioiaeoue aeieoiaiou, o?aaoaiua ?aaioiaeaoaeyi, e a
oeaeii iiauneoue naith i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aeey ?aaioiaeaoaeae.

Iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua neoaeau caiyoinoe ?aaoee?otho ii?aaeaeaiiue naaiaio
?uiea o?oaea. Iaiauaiea i?aeoeee ?acaeouo no?ai iieacuaaao, /oi
ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoay /anoue aaeainee caiieiyaony n eo iiiiuueth,
i?e/ai yoi i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aai/ea ianoa ieceie e n?aaeiae
eaaeeoeeaoeee. E i?eia?o, a Oaaoeee ieiei 35% euoueo ?aaioo anooiatho a
eiioaeo ni neoaeaie caiyoinoe, ai O?aioeee — ieiei 15%, a a NOA — ieiei
5%. Iiaen/eoaii, /oi aieueoeinoai euoueo ?aaioo (aieaa 50%) iieo/atho
eioi?iaoeeth i ?aai/eo ianoao io ae?ocae eee ?iaeiuo.

I?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea e ia?aiiaeaioiaea n/eoaaony aeaaiui
iai?aaeaieai a aeoeaiie iieeoeea ia ?uiea o?oaea, oae eae ia?niaeoeaa
auoue caiyoui a nia?aiaiiii ie?a, oa?aeoa?ecothuainy auno?uie ia?aiaiaie
e no?oeoo?iuie i?aia?aciaaieyie, aeanoei naycaia n aeiaeaieyie a
/aeiaa/aneee eaieoae — iieo/aieai aunieiea/anoaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey e
nia?aiaiiie i?ioannee, eioi?ua aunooiatho aa?aioeae io aac?aaioeoeu.
Iiiai/eneaiiua oaeou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu, oa?aeoa?iue aeey ?aaioieeia aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee, a 4—7
?ac iaiueoa, /ai o iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia.

Iiyoiio i?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao ie?a i?aeoeeoaony ?ac?aaioea
?aciiia?aciuo i?ia?aii i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e ia?aiiaeaioiaee
aac?aaioiuo e ?aaioieeia, iaoiaeyueony iiae oa?icie oaieueiaiey. I?e
yoii iie i?eaioe?iaaiu a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ia oao, /uey i?aaeiyy
i?ioanney ia ioaa/aao no?oeoo?iui i?aia?aciaaieyi a yeiiiieea e iiaie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie no?oeoo?a ?aai/eo iano, a oaeaea ia neaaicaueuaiiua
a?oiiu ianaeaiey (iieiaeaaeue, ia eiathuoth iiea iaiaoiaeeiie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee; aeaiuei, ?aoeaoeo aa?iooueny ia ?uiie
?aai/ae neeu; eiaaeeaeia, ioaeaeathueony a i?ioanneiiaeueiie i?eaioaoeee
e ae?.). *aua anaai eaiaeeaeaoia aeey i?ioiaeaeaiey iao/aiey auyaeyao
ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe.

I?ia?aiiu i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e ia?aiiaeaioiaee
?ac?aaaouaathony e inouanoaeythony i?e o/anoee ainoaea?noaa,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, i?ionithcia. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?aaiecaoi?ii yoeo
i?ia?aii /aua anaai yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe, eioi?ay
i?aaiecoao o/aaiue i?ioeann a niaoeeaeueii ?acaa?iooie naoe oeaio?ia e
o/aaiuo eo?nia, a oaeaea ii aeiaiai?ai n o/aaiuie caaaaeaieyie eee
i?aaei?eyoeyie; i?aaeinoaaeyao noeiaiaeee iao/athueiny. Iai?eia?, a 1995
a. a oeaeyo oaaee/aiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iacaiyouo a?aaeaeai ?innee
neoaeaa caiyoinoe iai?aaeea ia iao/aiea 317 oun. /aeiaae, a oii /enea
307 oun. aac?aaioiuo.

Neoaeaa caiyoinoe, i?aaenoaaeyy eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa, noeioee?oao
iao/aiea e ia?aiao/aiea aac?aaioiuo /a?ac auieaoo ei iiniaee a oi?ia
aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a oo i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo, eioi?oth iie
auaa?oo. Ainoaea?noai noeioee?oao e i?aaei?eieiaoaey /a?ac niyoea
iaeiaia ia n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee, iai?aaeyaiua ia iao/aiea ia?niiaea.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai neaaeothuei ia?acii oeene?oao yoi
iieiaeaiea: «Aac?aaioiua a?aaeaeaia eiatho oaeaea i?aai ia aanieaoiua
i?ioanneiiaeueioth i?eaioaoeeth, i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo,
ia?aiiaeaioiaeo e iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee ii iai?aaeaieth neoaeau
caiyoinoe» (no. 92 Caeiia i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a ?O); yoe i?aaa oaeaea
aa?aioe?othony a no. 12 i. 2, no. 23 Caeiia i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a ?O.

Iniiaiay neiaeiinoue a ?aaeecaoeee yoiai iai?aaeaiey aeoeaiie iieeoeee
ia ?uiea o?oaea caeeth/aaony a iaaeinoaoea eioi?iaoeee i aoaeouae
i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee e i oii, eaeei
aoaeao ni?in ia o?oae a i?ioanneiiaeueiii ?ac?aca a n?aaeiae e
aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa. I?iaeaiie yaeyaony oaeaea ieceee ni?in ia
i?ioanneiiaeueioth ia?aiiaeaioiaeo ni noi?iiu eeoe, iioa?yaoeo ?aaioo,
iineieueeo iineaaeiea iaaeathony, /oi niiaoo o?oaeiono?ieoueny ii
i?aaeiae i?ioannee. Oaeoi?ii, naea?aeeaathuei ?acaeoea aeaiiiai
iai?aaeaiey aeoeaiie iieeoeee ia ?uiea o?oaea, yaeyaony e ia?aie/aiiia
oeiainiaia iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe neoaeau caiyoinoe.

Naiinoiyoaeueiay caiyoinoue e nenoaia iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?aieao aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?aaeecaoeee aeoeaiie iieeoeee
ia ?uiea o?oaea ana aieaa aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho i?ia?aiiu
niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth naiinoiyoaeueiie caiyoinoe, iao/aieth
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei iaaueai e nicaeaieth iaeiai aeciana. Yoi
iai?aaeaiea iieeoeee ia ?uiea o?oaea i?ecaaii ?aoaoue aaaeiaeooth
nioeeaeueioth caaea/o aeey ?innee — oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai o?oaeiaiai
ie?iaicc?aiey, iiaiai oeia o?oaeiaie nioeeaeecaoeee.

Aac?aaioiua, aeaeathuea ioe?uoue nianoaaiiia aeaei, iiaeatho cayaeaiea a
neoaeao caiyoinoe ia o/anoee a eiieo?na i?iaeoia n iaiaoiaeeiui
iainiiaaieai (aecian-ieaiii), aaea aai ?anniao?eaatho niaoeeaeenou e
aioiayo naia caeeth/aiea. Anee i?inueaa oaeiaeaoai?yaony, oi a ea/anoaa
noa?oiaiai eaieoaea aeey iiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey neoaeeo any noiia
iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea, i?e/eoathuayny aio ca ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie e
auiea/eaathuayny aaeeiia?aiaiii.

Ecaanoii, /oi oieueei 3—5% ethaeae eiatho neeiiiinoe e niiniaiinoe e
ioe?uoeth e aaaeaieth naiaai aeaea. Enoiaey ec yoiai, ooieoeeae neoaeau
caiyoinoe yaeyaony ioai? ec /enea ia?aoeaoeony a iaa oao, eoi iiaeao
nicaeaoue naith oe?io. Ae?oaie aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae neoaeau caiyoinoe
yaeyaony iao/aiea aeaeathueo caieiaoueny naiinoiyoaeueiie o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth n oeaeueth i?eia?aoaiey eie iniiaiuo aeaeiauo iaaueia
(iniiau oeaiiia?aciaaiey, aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, ieaie?iaaiey e o.ae.).
Caaea/a neoaeau caiyoinoe — ?acuynieoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeth, /oi icia/aao
naiinoiyoaeueiay caiyoinoue (iai?eia?, cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea
nioeeaeueiuo aeaa, oaaee/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aai/aai a?aiaie,
aunieay noaiaiue ?enea, aa?iyoiinoue ?aci?aiey, ianiaa?oainoai
?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e o.ae.).

Iiaeaea?aeea iiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey aeeth/aao a naay oaeaea:
i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo oneoa, eueaioiuo e?aaeeoia, iiiiuue a
iaania/aiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iiiauaieyie, nu?ueai, iaeaaeeaaiea naycae
n iinoaaueeaie e nauo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ?innee oi?ie?iaaiea iaeeiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa naiicaiyoinoe e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eieoeeaoeau eiaao oe?ieea ia?niaeoeau. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oaea ieiei 15% caiyouo ?aaioatho ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo anao oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe. Oaeea yaeaiey, eae i?eaaoecaoeey, nie?auaiea ?acia?ia
i?aaei?eyoee a nayce n iaino?aieai eiieo?aioeee e ia?aoiaeii io
ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaeie niaoeeaeecaoeee, a oaeaea ia/eiathueeny
a ?innee i?ioeann no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee, iiaoo i?eaanoe, eae n/eoatho
niaoeeaeenou, e oiio, /oi a ?innee, eae e a ae?oaeo no?aiao n
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie, aeiey iiauo ?aai/eo iano, nicaeaaaaiuo ia
e?oiiuo oe?iao, aoaeao iaiueoa, /ai ia iaeuo.

TC “” DOCPROPERTY Ia?aa?ao0404 \* MERGEFORMAT 4.3. Ia?niaeoeau e
iniiaiua iooe iiauoaiey caiyoinoe a ?O

Ia?aoiae io oeaio?aeeciaaiii-ieaiiaie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie e
?uii/iie nenoaia oicyenoaiaaiey iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e iaino?aieth
i?iaeaiu caiyoinoe, aicieeiiaaieth e ?anoe?aieth aac?aaioeoeu, /oi
iauaeoeaii o?aaoao ?ac?aaioee ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe e
iaoaiecia aa ?aaeecaoeee, aeeth/ay nioeeaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo
aac?aaioiuo.

Iauanoai, oi?ie?othuaa a yeiiiieea ?uii/iua ioiioaiey, i?eciaao
aac?aaioeoeo a ea/anoaa niooieea yoie nenoaiu. A yoeo oneiaeyo
niaea?aeaiea iieiie caiyoinoe naiaeeony ia e iaeneiaeueiiio aiaea/aieth
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey a noa?o iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a e
ii?aaeaeaiiui i?eioeeiai iaania/aiey caiyoinoe o?oaeiniiniaiiai
a?aaeaeaieia, i?eiinyuae aio aeioiae eae iaaiiiio ?aaioieeo eeai eae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth.

Nenoaia ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe iin?aaenoaii ei??aeoe?iaee iaoaieciia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey e naii?aaoee?iaaiey i?icaaia iaania/eoue
oneiaey aeey aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/ae neeu e ?aai/eo iano, eo ia?ae/iiai
niaaeeiaiey e iiaoi?iiai ainniaaeeiaiey. Oi?ie?iaaiea oaeie nenoaiu a
ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ineiaeiyaony a nayce n ?acee/eyie
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna o ?aai/ae neeu (oeeee aini?iecaiaenoaa,
eioi?ue enoiaeeo ec aeaiia?aoe/aneie aacu, oi anoue naycai n oeeeeii
aini?iecaiaenoaa ianaeaiey) e o ?aai/eo iano (oeeee aini?iecaiaenoaa,
eioi?ue caaeneo io yeiiiie/aneeo e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo
oaeoi?ia). Yoei ii?aaeaeythony ?acee/ey a oneiaeyo e oaeoi?ao aeaeaeaiey
?aai/ae neeu e ?aai/eo iano.

?aaoee?othuay ooieoeey ainoaea?noaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaeneiaeueii
naeeceoue ni?in ia iaaiioth ?aai/oth neeo (ni noi?iiu ?aaioiaeaoaeae) e
i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey. I?e/ai naeeaeaiea e
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue ia oieueei ii eiee/anoao e
ea/anoaaiiie no?oeoo?a, ii e ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa, ia iae?io?iaia e
ia iee?io?iaia. A neeo ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe iauaeoii iee?io?iaiy
yaeyaony i?aaei?eyoea, eae ia?ae/iia caaii yeiiiieee, e ai?iae
(ianaeaiiue ioieo), eae ia?ae/iia caaii oa??eoi?ee, aeeoaee eioi?iai
oa?aeoa?ecothony iauiinoueth eioa?ania a ?aaeecaoeee i?aaa eaaeaeiai ec
ieo ia o?oaeiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Enoiaeiui ioieoii i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie no?aoaaee caiyoinoe aeieaeai noaoue
i?eioeei i?aaeioa?auaiey aac?aaioeoeu, a ia i?eioeei ai?ueau n
aac?aaioeoeae.

Eiioeaioeey ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe aeieaeia aace?iaaoueny
ia e?eoa?eyo yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe e nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
i?eaioaoeey ia eioi?ue i?ecaaia ?aoaoue caaea/e niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe e
caueou o?oaeiniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai io o?iie/aneie e ianniaie aac?aaioeoeu.
A naith i/a?aaeue, aicaeaenoaoy ia ?aoaiea caaea/ a iaeanoe caiyoinoe e
nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee a oeaeii, ainoaea?noai nenoaiie acaeiinaycaiiuo
ia? o/anoaoao a nicaeaiee e iiaeaea?aeaiee iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey
yeiiiie/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai eeeiaoa. Oaeei
ia?acii, ?a/ue eaeao i oi?ie?iaaiee ?aaoee?othuae ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa
a iaeanoe caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, eioi?ia ia aeieaeii ia?aie/eaaoueny
i?aaiecaoeeae niaeaenoaey a o?oaeiono?ienoaa ianaeaiey, ei neaaeoao
ioaaoeoue e noa?o “caiyoiai” iaaiiiai o?oaea (aioo?eoe?iaiiue ?uiie
o?oaea). Iaaieiaiea e yoie noa?a iiaeao neacaoueny ia o?iaia caiyoinoe e
aac?aaioeoeu, iinoiyiii naiaey ia iao ia?u ii o?oaeiono?ienoao
iacaiyoiai ianaeaiey, ninoaa eioi?uo aoaeao iiiieiyoueny ec n?aaeu
caiyoiai iaaiiiai o?oaea. Iauay caeiiiia?iinoue, aeaenoaea eioi?ie a
oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi ia
aucuaaao niiiaiey, ninoieo a caaeneiinoe o?iaiy e aeeiaieee eiaanoeoeee.
E iniiaiay i?iaeaia i?e yoii caeeth/aaony ia a iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aceiai
nieaeaiey aeia?o?ioe?iaaiii ?acaeooiai iauaia eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, a
a eciaiaiee enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey, aeaaiui ec eioi?uo aue
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao, a noi?iio iiauoaiey ?iee iaainoaea?noaaiiiai
(aeoeeiia?iiai, /anoiiai) eaieoaea. Ae?oaay caeiiiia?iinoue,
iaoneiaeaiiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii e aai aeeyieai ia oaeou
aunaiaiaeaeaiey ?aaioieeia, oa?aeoa?iay aeey eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai,
iiea /oi ia oa?iaeaao iauanoao nieaeaieai o?iaiy caiyoinoe e oaaee/aieai
aac?aaioeoeu. Oaeia ninoiyiea iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny aei oao ii?, iiea a
?innee ia ianooieo oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiay e oeaiiaay noaaeeecaoeey e
oicyenoaaiiua noauaeou a iienea iooae oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa ia ia?aoyony e ?aca?aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Ooieoeey ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe, aoaeo/e /anoueth oi?ie?othuaeny
nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie i?ioeannaie a iauanoaa,
iauaeoeaii o?aaoao eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea i?e ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee
ia? ii nicaeaieth oneiaee, iaania/eaathueo niaeaniaaiiia aeaeaeaiea
?aai/ae neeu e ?aai/eo iano eae ia o?iaia iniiaiiai caaia yeiiiieee e
ia?ae/iiai caaia oa??eoi?ee, oae e ia iaua?inneeneii o?iaia. Eiiieaeniue
iiaeoiae iiaeao auoue iaania/ai ia iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaiia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, a oie eee eiie noaiaie (iaiin?aaenoaaiii eeai
iiin?aaeiaaii) o/anoaothueo a au?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee caiyoinoe. Aei na?aaeeiu 1992 aiaea a yoii aeaea
caaeaenoaiaaiiuie ieacaeenue Ieienoa?noai o?oaea e caiyoinoe,
Ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee e Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey.

Ii iiaio iiaieth, ninoaa oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe,
i?ecaaiiuo acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue i?e ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe, oeaeaniia?acii ?anoe?eoue ca n/ao
i?eaea/aiey Aineiieoaoa ?O ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth e Eiieoaoa ii aeaeai
iieiaeaaee (?aaoee?iaaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey auioneieeia ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee e aocia), Ieienoa?noaa nioeeaeueiie caueou (?aaoee?iaaiea
caiyoinoe iaineiia?ia e eiaaeeaeia), Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia (iieeoeea
iaeiaiauo eueaio, e?aaeeoia, i?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee), Aineiieoaoa ii
i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeea (eiiaa?ney), Aineiieoaoa ii oi?aaeaieth
ainoaea?noaaiiui eiouanoaii (iiaeaea?aeea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee,
?aaoee?iaaiea oneiaee i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea aii?in i
?aai/eo ianoao), Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu (nie?auaiea /eneaiiinoe
aiaiiineoaeaueo), Aineiieoaoa ii noaoenoeea. I?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iie
acaeiiaeaenoaey oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia oaaea?aeueiie eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe, ii iiaio iiaieth, iiaeao noaoue Iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue
eiinoeueoaoeaiue niaao, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue i?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa
?O ii aii?inai ?ac?aaioee e ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee
caiyoinoe (n aeeth/aieai a iaai caianoeoaeae ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
ia?a/eneaiiuo aaaeiinoa e ieienoa?noa), e aicaeaaeoue eioi?ue aeieaeai
caianoeoaeue ieieno?a, ioaaonoaaiiue ca nioeeaeueioth iieeoeeo.

?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeey iieeoeee caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ai iiiaii caaeneo
io acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau caiyoinoe “ii
aa?oeeaee” e “ii ai?eciioaee” eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiuo noauaeoia ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee a noa?a caiyoinoe ianaeaiey – ?aaioiaeaoaey e iaaiiiai
?aaioieea (o?oaeiniiniaiiai eeoea, euouaai ?aaioo), eioa?anu eioi?iai
i?aaenoaaeytho niioaaonoaaiii annioeeaoeee (nithcu) ?aaioiaeaoaeae e
iauaaeeiaiey i?ionithcia. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo “aoeeeaniaie iyoie”
yaeyaony neaaia acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau “ii
ai?eciioaee” n ?aaeiiaeueiuie no?oeoo?aie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.
Aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao acaeiiaeaenoaea ?aaeiiaeueiuo oeaio?ia
caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee n o/?aaeaeaieyie
ia?aciaaoaeueiie nenoaiu ii iiaiaeo i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey e
ia?aiiaeaioiaee eaae?ia (?aaioathueo e iacaiyouo) ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa.
Yooaeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea caeioa?aniaaiiuo noauaeoia e i?aaiecaoeee
yoiai i?ioeanna aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue ii?iaeueiiio ooieoeeiie?iaaieth
?uiea ?aai/ae neeu, i?eniiniaeyaiiai e o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea ?aai/eo iano.
Iinoaaeaiiay ai aeaao oaea ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe oeaeue –
ieieiece?iaaoue ia nioeeaeueii aeiionoeiii o?iaia aac?aaioeoeo ia iniiaa
nie?auaiey niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa, aai noaaeeecaoeee e iineaaeothuaai
?inoa – iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooa i?e oneiaee ?ac?aaioee e ?aaeecaoeee
yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia iaania/aiey caiyoinoe ianaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oae iacuaaaiiai aiaoiaai ?uiea o?oaea.

Yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci aeeth/aao a naay:

i?iaiice?iaaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu e ni?ina ia iaa;
oeiaine?iaaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth caiyoinoe e
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth ?uiea o?oaea. I?iaiice?iaaiea yaeyaony enoiaeiui
ioieoii ?ac?aaioee nenoaiu ia?ii?eyoee, ?aaeecaoeey eioi?uo i?ecaaia
iaania/eoue ?aaoee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia ?uiie o?oaea – eae ia
i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu, oae e ia aa ni?in.

Iniiaiay oyaeanoue a ?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee caiyoinoe eiaeeony ia
?anioaeeee e ?aaeiiu, cia/eo, e niioaaonoaothuea oeiainiaua ?ano?nu
(athaeaeaoiua e aiaathaeaeaoiua) aeieaeiu auoue a eo ?oeao.

  

TC “” Caeeth/aiea

Enoiaey ec auoaeceiaeaiiiai, i/aaeaeii, /oi i?iaeaia aac?aaioeoeu
yaeyaony eeth/aaui aii?inii a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, e, ia ?aoea aai
iaaiciiaeii iaeaaeeoue yooaeoeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue yeiiiieee. Iniaaiii
ino?i i?iaeaia aac?aaioeoeu noieo nae/an ia?aae ?inneae, /oi ia
oaeeaeoaeueii, o.e. ninoiyiea yeiiiieee ?innee nae/an oae?o/athuaa.
Ia?iiiue yeiiiie/aneee niaae, ?acaaeea i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ia iia ia
cao?iiooue ?uiie o?oaea. Ca iineaaeiea 4 aiaea /eneaiiinoue caiyoiai
ianaeaiey nie?aoeeanue ia 9 i?ioeaioia.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie I?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee ia ia?auaei aeieaeiiai
aieiaiey ia aeaiioth i?iaeaio, /oi aucuaaei aeinoaoi/ii ni?aaaaeeeaua
iianaiey. Ii iieiaeaiea io/anoe iiiaiyeinue n i?eiyoeai “I?ia?aiiu
nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia ia?eiae 1996 – 2000 a.”,
a eioi?ie oii? aeaeaaony ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?uii/iuo iaoaieciia
?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe.

Aoaeai iaaeayoueny, /oi aeaiiue ii?iaoeaiue aeo ia noaiao i?inoie ii?/ae
aoiaae, a aoaeao yooaeoeaii i?aoai?youeny a aeeciue, noaa i?aaeiinueeie
aeey yeiiiie/aneiai aic?iaeaeaiey ?innee.

TC “” Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia:

Eieae:

1) E. Ia?en – “Eaieoae ” – 1997 .

2) E. Ia?en e O. Yiaaeuen – Ni/eiaiey – 1961

3) A. I. Ee?e/aiei – “Onei?aiiia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea e
ia?niaeoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea” – 1987

4) A. A. Einoeeia – “I?iaiic caiyoinoe ianaeaiey” – 1979

5) A. A. Aeoiaaneee – “Aini?ieca. ianae, e iauanoai ” – 1982

6) I. A- Caaaeueneee – “Yeiiiieea e nioeeieiaey o?oaea ” – 1998

7) ?ioa – “Caiyoinoue ianaeaiey ” – 1997

8) Aia?ueyi – “Nioeeaeeci: ianaeaiea e yeiiiieea” – 1983

9) A. A. Aieaeu?aa – “Ia?iaeiianaeaiea a ?acaeoii nioeeaeenoe/aneii
iauanoaa ” – 1983

10) N. E. Eocueiei – “Yooaeoeaiay caiyoinoue ianaeaiey ” – 1990

11) E. A. ?enei – “Yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea” – 1990

12) E. A. Aiaeeia – “Aini?iecaiaenoai ?aai/ae neeu i?e nioeeaeecia” –
1979

Noaouee:

1) A.E. Aaaeyiei, “Iauay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey” Iineaa, 1995 a. ,

2) A.A. Ieeeoi?iaa, “?uiie o?oaea: caiyoinoue e aac?aaioeoea ” Iineaa,
1991 a.

3) N. Nie?iia, I. Enaaa – “Nioeeaeueiay ieeoea: iiaue eo?n ” – Aii?inu
yeiiiieee ?2/ 1999 a.

4) A. Eaueineay, TH. Iaeaaa – ” I?iaeaiu caiyoinoe a Iineaa ” –
Yeiiiieno ?12/1997 a.

5) Aeae. A?a//e – “Iiaua oi?iu caiyoinoe, eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee ” –
Aii?inu yeiiiieee ?2/1998 a.

6) A. Ai?enia, E. Kqawna, E. Oa?oaeianeay – “I?iaeaiu oaoo??neie
aac?aaioeoeu ” Aii?inu yeiiiieee ?2/1998 a.

7) A. Eaaaeeia, 3. ?uaeeeiaa – “Iaiieiay caiyoinoue a ?innee ” – Aii?inu
yeiiiieee ?2/1998 a.

8) O. *aoaa?ieia, E. Eaeooeia – “Iai?yae?iiinoue ia ?inneeneii ?uiea
o?oaea e iaoaieci a? i?aiaeieaiey ” – Aii?inu yeiiiieee ?2/1999 a.

9) ?. Eaiaethoieeia – “Aeaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu e ?aai/eo iano a
?inneeneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ” – Aiiinu yeiiiieee ?2/1998 a.

10) E. Ieeoeueneee – “Oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie iiaeaee caiyoinoe” – Yeiiiieno
?12/1997 a.

11) A. Aoaianueaa – “Aeeiaieea e no?oeoo?a caiyoinoe ia ainoaea?noaaiiie
neoaeaa a NOA ” – Yeiiiieno ?12/1997 a.

12) O. *aoaa?ieia – “Iieiaeaiea aac?aaioiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea
ia ?uiea o?oaea ” – Aii?inu yeiiiieee ?2/1997 a.

13) A. Eaooeueneee – “Iioeaaoeey ia ?uiea o?oaea ” – Aii?inu yeiiiieee
?2/1997 a.

14) E. Caneaaneee – “E oa?aeoa?enoeea o?oaea a nia?aiaiiie ?innee” –
Aii?inu yeiiiieee ?2/1997 a.

15) A. Aeiiaeuenii – “*anoiue naeoi? a ?innee: caiyoinoue e iieaoa
o?oaea ” – Ie?iaay yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey ? “/1997 a.

16) I. Aeoiaaneay – “?uiie o?oaea ia oaca iiaeu?ia ianooiee ee ia?aeii?
” – Ie?iaay yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey ?3/1996 a.

17) A. Aaeaoeeee – “?aaoee?iaaiea caiyoinoe a naaoa oai?ee
ioeueoeieeeaoi?a ” – Ie?iaay yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey
?4/1996 a.

18) A. Oanoeei – “Iiaeaee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea” – Aii?inu yeiiiieee ?5/1998 a.

– “Iauay oai?ey caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e aeaiaa” Aeae.-I. Eaein, Iineaa,
1993 a.

– a aeaiiii aacaoea i?eaiaeyony oeeo?u ca 1995 a. ec-ca ionoonoaey
ioeoeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee ia iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ca 1996 a.

Aiiaea?aiei TH. I. “Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiie
caiyoinoe ianaeaiey” (eo?niaay ?aaioa)

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