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Функции ЦБ РФ и ФРС США

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?O

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneay ainoaea?noaaiiay eiaeaia?ii-yeiiiie/aneay aeaaeaiey

Einoeooo i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e oeiainia

Eaoaae?a enneaaeiaaiee iia?aoeee a yeiiiieea

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

ia oaio

?IEUe E OOIEOeEE OeA? E O?N NOA

ii aeenoeeieeia

yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1997 a.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

TOC \o “1-2” ?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ainoaea?noaa GOTOBUTTON
_Toc468598818 PAGEREF _Toc468598818 3

Ooieoeee OeA? e O?N NOA GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598819 PAGEREF
_Toc468598819 5

Eciaiaiea o/aoiie noaaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598820 PAGEREF
_Toc468598820 8

Iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598821 PAGEREF
_Toc468598821 9

Eciaiaiea ii?iu ?aca?ae?iaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598822 PAGEREF
_Toc468598822 11

Aeiiieieoaeueiua eino?oiaiou aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee OeA?
GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598823 PAGEREF _Toc468598823 14

?aoeiaine?iaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598824 PAGEREF _Toc468598824 14

Aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598825 PAGEREF
_Toc468598825 17

?aaoee?iaaiea iaee/iie aeaiaaeiie iannu GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598826
PAGEREF _Toc468598826 21

Aeiiieieoaeueiua eino?oiaiou aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee O?N NOA
GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598827 PAGEREF _Toc468598827 23

I?aaeienuaaaiay caeiiii ia?aea GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598828 PAGEREF
_Toc468598828 23

?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii aeaiiceoai GOTOBUTTON
_Toc468598829 PAGEREF _Toc468598829 24

Iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598830 PAGEREF
_Toc468598830 26

Oaauaaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598831 PAGEREF _Toc468598831 26

AEAEEIA?AOEss GOTOBUTTON _Toc468598832 PAGEREF _Toc468598832 28

?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ainoaea?noaa

Iniaua ianoi e ?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea a oeiainiaie nenoaia
nia?aiaiiiai ainoaea?noaa ii?aaeaeythony o?iaiai e oa?aeoa?ii ?acaeoey
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. Oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey ia ?aciuo yoaiao naiaai
?acaeoey i?aoa?iaaatho nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa y?eeo
i?iyaeaiee yoiai yaeyaony eciaiaiea ?iee e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia, a
/anoiinoe aaieia.

A yiioo ainiiaenoaa i?eioeeia “ionoue ana eaeao eae eaeao” ?uiie aue
noeoeeiui, a aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea – cieioiiiiaoiui. Aaiee a yoio ia?eiae
auee i?inouie iin?aaeieeaie a inouanoaeaiee oi?aiauo iia?aoeee. I?aaaea,
e oiaaea eaeie-ieaoaeue aaie iau/ii auaeaeyeny ec iauaai /enea eae
iaeaieaa e?oiiue eee ianeoaeeaathuee ioaeaeu i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A oa/aiee
iiiaeo aaeia iiaeiaioth ?ieue auiieiyee ecaanoiua, iaeaaeathuea
cia/eoaeueiui ninoiyieai e aiooaaoea aeiaa?ea eiie?aoiua aaiee. Ii a
oeaeii a oao enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo (/enoi noeoeeiia ?acaeoea e oi, /oi
ainoaea?noai noiyei a noi?iia io yeiiiieee) aaiee ioee/aeenue ae?oa io
ae?oaa naieie ?acia?aie, a ia niaoeeaeecaoeeae. Aeaaea aeecinoue e
i?aaeoaeuenoao ia aeaeaea eaeie-eeai aaie oeaio?aeueiui a nia?aiaiiii
iiieiaiee.

Eaeay oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ca?iaeeeanue a oneiaeyo ioiineoaeueii
?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/anee-?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, eiaaea a iai aicieeea
enoi?e/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay iio?aaiinoue, eiaaea noaei ynii, /oi
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ?uiea aiiaua e oeiainiaiai ?uiea a /anoiinoe aac
oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea eae i?aaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey e iaaeci?a
/?aaaoi iaii?aaaeaiiuie iioa?yie.

A aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea auee
cae?aieaiu ca ii?aaeaeaiiuie aaieaie n na?aaeeiu XIX – ia/aea XX a. Oae,
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie ?innee aue o/?aaeaeai a 1860a., Oaaea?aeueiay
?aca?aiay nenoaia NOA auea ia?aciaaia a 1913a.

Auaeaeaiea ec iauaai ?yaea aaieia iaeiiai ec ieo ia ?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai
icia/aao ia/aei oi?ie?iaaiey aeaooo?iaiaaie aaieianeie nenoaiu, ia
aa?oiai o?iaia eioi?ie ?aniieaaaaony oeaio?aeueiue aaie. A naith
i/a?aaeue iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey aeaooo?iaiaaie nenoaiu aaieia
iaoneiaeaia i?ioeai?a/eaui oa?aeoa?ii ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee: n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iie o?aaotho naiaiaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e ?anii?yaeaiey
/anoiuie oeiainiauie n?aaenoaaie, e yoi iaania/eaaaony yeaiaioaie
ieaeiaai o?iaiy – eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie e e?aaeeoiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie; n
ae?oaie noi?iiu yoei ioiioaieyi iaiaoiaeeii ?aaoee?iaaiea (eiio?ieue e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea), e yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai o?aaoao, a
/anoiinoe, iniaiai einoeoooa a aeaea oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea.

Enoi?ey iiiaeo no?ai aeieacaea, /oi oeaio?aeecaoeey e iauanoaaiiue
eiio?ieue neoaeao iaycaoaeueiuie i?aaeiinueeaie yooaeoeaiinoe aaieianeie
nenoaiu. Noaoai aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea
aaieianeiai aeaea ec-ca ?acii?iaeiinoe aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa, ieioiai
?aaoee?iaaiey e aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, ia niioaaonoaothuaai ioaeaeai
yeiiiieee, aiineo aeiiieieoaeueiue aanii?yaeie a e aac oiai noeoeeioth
yeiiiieeo. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey nicaeaiea oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia n
ooieoeeyie ?aaoee?iaaiey e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee yaeeinue
enoi?e/aneei ioe?uoeai, iicaieeaoei yooaeoeaii iaocaeaoue noeoeth ?uiea
i?e nio?aiaiee naiaiaeu /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?innee e Oaaea?aeueiay ?aca?aiay nenoaia NOA eae
oeaio?aeueiua aaiee ainoaea?noa, i?aaeaea anaai, yaeythony iin?aaeieeaie
iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e yeiiiieeie /a?ac naoue eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. A
ea/anoaa oaeeo o/?aaeaeaiee iie, aoaeo/e aeaaiui caaiii
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiuo nenoai, i?ecaaiu ?aaoee?iaaoue aeaiaaeiua e
e?aaeeoiua iioiee n iiiiuueth eino?oiaioia, eioi?ua cae?aieaiu ca ieie a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea. Ii nooe aeaea ana oi?aaeaiea
iiiaiieeeea?aeiuie eiuaeoeeyie aeaiaa a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io, ?aaii eae
e ecuyoea aeaiaa ec yeiiiie/aneiai iai?ioa, inouanoaeyaony ec yoeo
aaeeiuo oeaio?ia. Iiyoiio cia/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia
aeey yeiiiieee no?aiu o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue. Ii eaeea ooieoeee ia
aiceaaaeenue au ia oeaio?aeueiue aaie, ii anaaaea inoaaony i?aaiii
?aaoee?iaaiey, ni/aoathuei /a?ou aaiea e ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaaeiinoaa.

Ooieoeee OeA? e O?N NOA

Iaeaaeay oaeeie ?ano?naie, eioi?uie ia a ninoiyiee iaeaaeaoue ie iaeei
eiiia?/aneee aaie, oeaio?aeueiua aaiee auiieiytho aieueoia eiee/anoai
?aciiia?aciuo ooieoeee. Oae, ii iiaieth Eueaiaa TH.E., Oeaio?aeueiue
aaie ?innee auiieiyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua ooieoeee:

– iiiiiieueii inouanoaeyao yienneth iaee/iuo aeaiaa e i?aaiecoao eo
ia?auaiea;

– yaeyaony aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e?aaeeoi?ii iineaaeiae einoaioeee.
Iie iieo/atho io iaai e?aaeeou a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea en/a?iaee naie
?ano?nu eee ia eiatho aiciiaeiinoe iiiieieoue eo ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia;

– io eiaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa oi?aaeyao ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii, oi anoue
?aciauaao, iiaaoaao e i?iaiaeeo ae?oaea iia?aoeee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, yieoe?iaaiiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaii;

– ia?yaeo n eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie inouanoaeyao eanniaia ianeoaeeaaiea
athaeaeaoa, aaaeao n/aoa aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, ianeoaeeaaao
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua e eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe, auaeaao
e?aoein?i/iua nnoaeu i?aaeoaeuenoao e ianoiui aeanoyi;

– yaeyaony aaieii aaieia . Ii aaaeao n/aoa eiiia?/aneeo aaieia,
naycaiiua n iaaeaaieianeeie iia?aoeeyie e o?aiaieai ?aca?aia.

I?e yoii aaoi? ioia/aao, /oi aaaeiaeoae ec ooieoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea
?innee yaeythony ?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaiea niaianoii n i?aaeoaeuenoaii
?innee aaeeiie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia caueoo e
iaania/aiea onoie/eainoe ?oaey.

A ii iiaieth Iaeeiiiaeea e A?th1, Oaaea?aeueiay ?aca?aiay nenoaia NOA
auiieiyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua ooieoeee:

– o?aieo aeeaaeu aaieia e naa?aaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, eioi?ua
iacuaathony ?aca?aaie;

– iaania/eaaao iaoaieci eieannaoeee /aeia;

– aunooiaao a ?iee oeneaeueiiai aaaioa oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa;

– ia?yaeo n Oaaea?aeueiie ei?ii?aoeeae ii no?aoiaaieth aeaiiceoia e
Eiio?iea?ii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey inouanoaeyao iaaeci? ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth aoiaeyueo a iaa aaieia;

– ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue a eiia/iii n/aoa ca eiio?ieue iaae
i?aaeeiaeaieai aeaiaa.

I?e yoii aaoi?u iacuaatho iineaaeithth ooieoeeth naiie aeaaiie.

N?aaieaay yoe aeaa nienea ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ainoaea?noaa, ia
ia?aue acaeyae iu caia/aai oieueei aeaa noiaenoaa: o?aiaiea aeeaaeia
aaieia e inouanoaeaiea e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee. Ii ia aeaea
noiaenoa iaaeaeo ooieoeeyie OeA? e O?N NOA ai?acaei aieueoa, a
ianiaiaaeaiey iiaoo aicieeaoue a aeaeo ?acee/iiai iacaaiey iaeieo e oao
aea ooieoeee eee ?aciiai ii?aaeaeaiey nienea iniiaiuo ooieoeee. Oae,
i/aaeaeii, /oi e O?N NOA iiiiiieueii inouanoaeyao aeaiaaeioth yienneth,
e?aaeeooao aaiee e auaeaao e?aoein?i/iua nnoaeu i?aaeoaeuenoao
(i?aaeoaeuenoai ii nooe yaeyaony aeey iaai iaeiei ec eeeaioia), a OeA?
eiio?iee?oao aaiee ia i?aaeiao auiieiaiey eie aeaaioneiai /enea
i?aaeienaiiuo ei i?aaee, auyaeyao niiieoaeueiua iia?aoeee eee
iioaiie/anoai.

Iaeiaei, ianiiiaiii, iaaeaeo ooieoeeyie oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia aeaoo
?aciuo ainoaea?noa iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue e cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey. Iiyoiio
OeA? ia aunooiaao a ?iee oeneaeueiiai aaaioa oaaea?aeueiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a, iai?eia?, a nayce n oai, /oi ia aeaiiue iiiaio a
?innee /aee ia iieo/eee oaeiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey, eae a NOA, ooieoeey
iaania/aiey iaoaiecia eieannaoeee /aeia iiaeao ia aoiaeeoue a /enei
iniiaiuo ooieoeee OeA?.

Ii iniiaiie ooieoeeae e O?N NOA e OeA? yaeyaony ?aaoee?iaaiea
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey a niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie yeiiiieee, o.a.
inouanoaeaiea e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee. Iaoaeeaeoaeueiui iiyoiio
yaeyaony niaiaaeaiea iniiaiuo iaoiaeia e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee.
Eie yaeythony:

– eciaiaiea o/aoiie noaaee;

– iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea;

– eciaiaiea ii?iu ?aca?ae?iaaiey.

I?e inouanoaeaiee yoeo iia?aoeee oeaio?aeueiue aaie ia oieueei ?aaeecoao
naith e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeioth iieeoeeo, ii e niaeaenoaoao eiiia?/aneei
aaieai a iiaeaea?aeaiee ia iaiaoiaeeiii o?iaia eo eeeaeaeiinoe, oi anoue
niiniaiinoe naiaa?aiaiii auiieieoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae eeeaioaie
– eae th?eaee/aneeie, oae e oece/aneeie eeoeaie.

Eciaiaiea o/aoiie noaaee

Oeaio?aeueiue aaie i?iaiaeeo ?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey a
i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, au?aaeathuaeny a e?aaeeoiie
yeniainee eee a e?aaeeoiie ?ano?eeoeee. E?aaeeoiay yeniainey
oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea oaaee/eaaao ?ano?nu eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, eioi?ua a
?acoeueoaoa auaeaaaaiuo e?aaeeoia oaaee/eaatho iauoth ianno aeaiaa a
ia?auaiee. E?aaeeoiay ?ano?eeoeey aea/ao ca niaie ia?aie/aiea
aiciiaeiinoae eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ii auaea/a e?aaeeoia e oai naiui ii
ianuuaieth yeiiiieee aeaiueaaie. Eino?oiaioaie e?aaeeoiie yeniainee eee
e?aaeeoiie ?ano?eeoeee yaeythony o/aoiay noaaea oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea e
iaeioi?ua ia?u iayeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Ioeoeeaeueiay o/aoiay noaaea
– yoi i?ioeaiou ii nnoaeai, eioi?ua oeaio?aeueiue aaie eniieuecoao i?e
e?aaeeoiaaiee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?a o/aoiie noaaee –
iaeei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aniaeoia e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee, a
eciaiaiea o/aoiie noaaee yaeyaony iieacaoaeai eciaiaiee a iaeanoe
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. O/aoiay noaaea iau/ii ii?aaeaeyaony
iaeeaeaaiui o?iaiai eioeyoeee e a oi aea a?aiy ieacuaaao ia iineaaeithth
aieueoia aeeyiea. Eiaaea oeaio?aeueiue aaie iaia?ai niya/eoue eee
oaeanoi/eoue e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeioth iieeoeeo, ii nieaeaao eee iiauoaao
o/aoioth noaaeo. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iiaeao onoaiaaeeaaoue iaeio eee
ianeieueei noaaie ii ?acee/iui aeaeai iia?aoeee eee i?iaiaeeoue
i?ioeaioioth iieeoeeo aac oeenaoeee i?ioeaioiie noaaee. I?ioeaioiua
noaaee oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ieieiaeueiua noaaee, ii
eioi?ui yoio aaie inouanoaeyao naie iia?aoeee. Ii eniieuecoao
i?ioeaioioth noaaeo aeey aicaeaenoaey ia ?uii/iua i?ioeaioiua noaaee a
oeaeyo inouanoaeaiey aua?aiiie iieeoeee. O/aoiay noaaea iiaeao
ia?aniao?eaaoueny, a caaeneiinoe io yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia.
Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?aaoee?oao iauee iauai auaeaaaaiuo ei e?aaeeoia a
niioaaonoaee n i?eiyouie i?eaioe?aie aaeeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Iiauoaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo noaaie nie?auaao
aiciiaeiinoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iieo/eoue ?ano?nu aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey,
/oi aea/ao ca niaie nie?auaiea aeaiaaeiie iannu. Nieaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiie
o/aoiie noaaee aeaenoaoao a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee. I?ioeaioiua noaaee
oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea iaiaycaoaeueiu aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia a noa?a eo
e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee ni naieie eeeaioaie e n ae?oaeie aaieaie,
iaeiaei o?iaaiue ioeoeeaeueiie o/aoiie noaaee yaeyaony aeey eiiia?/aneeo
aaieia i?eaioe?ii i?e i?iaaaeaiee e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee.

Iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea

Iiae iia?aoeeyie ia io e?uoii ?uiea iiae?acoiaaaaony eoiey-i?iaeaaea
oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aaeaea anaai,
iaeeaaoeee e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeuenoa. Yieoaioii oeaiiuo aoiaa yaeyaony
i?aaeoaeuenoai, oeaio?aeueiue aaie aea auiieiyao ?ieue aeaaiiai aeeea?a
e aaaioa ii ianeoaeeaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Iia?aoeee n
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie i?iaiaeyo aieueoia eiee/anoai ioeoeeaeueiuo aeeea?ia
(a ?innee – 50), a ?iee eioi?uo aunooiatho eiiia?/aneea aaiee. Anee
oeaio?aeueiue aaie iieoiaao oeaiiua aoiaae o eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, ii
ia?aaiaeeo aeaiueae ia eo ei??aniiiaeaioneea n/aoa; oaeei ia?acii
oaaee/eaathony e?aaeeoiua aiciiaeiinoe aaieia. Iie ia/eiatho auaeaaaoue
nnoaeu, eioi?ua a oi?ia aaciaee/iuo ?aaeueiuo aeaiaa aoiaeyo a noa?o
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe – o?ainoi?ie?othony a
iaee/iua aeaiueae. Anee oeaio?aeueiue aaie i?iaeaao oeaiiua aoiaae, oi
eiiia?/aneea aaiee iiea/eaatho oaeoth iieoieo ni naieo
ei??aniiiaeaioneeo n/aoia, oai naiui nie?auay naie e?aaeeoiua
aiciiaeiinoe, naycaiiua n yienneae aeaiaa. Anee oeaio?aeueiue aaie
aeieaeai eoieoue oeaiiua aoiaae i?inoi o ianaeaiey (eee i?iaeaoue), oi
aicaeaenoaea ia ?aca?au eiiia?/aneeo aaieia aoaeao, ii nouanoao, oi aea
naiia.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea – iaeaieaa aaaeiia
n?aaenoai aeaiaaeiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, o OeA? iii iiyaeeinue oieueei iinea
ia/aea yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. Aei ia?aciaaiey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey i?iaiaeeeinue a ii?yaeea
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey eeieoia e?aaeeoiaaiey e ?acee/iiai aeaea
eanniauo yoaeiiia. Iie yaeyeenue aee?aeoeaaie aeey oeeeaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaieia. Aaeaaiaeii aic?anoaaoee aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa
iie?uaaeny aeaiiceoiie yienneae, i?e eioi?ie i?aaeoaeuenoai iieo/aei
ie/ai ia iaania/aiiua aeaiueae. Yoi noaiiaeeinue iaeiie ec iniiaiuo
i?e/ei aunieie eioeyoeee. Aei 1992 aiaea ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa a ?innee
aue ia?aie/ai ainoaea?noaaiiuie caeiaie, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiyeenue
n?aaee ianaeaiey e ia athaeaeao nouanoaaiii ia aeeyee. A oi aea a?aiy
iiuo no?ai n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi iaee/ea
oe?ieiai ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa iicaieyao:

– inouanoaeoue i?aaeoaeuenoao caeinoaiaaiea /a?ac oeaio?aeueiue aaie
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaa o eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?, eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
e o ianaeaiey;

– nie?aoeoue eioeyoeeiiiia oeiaine?iaaiea aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa;

– eniieueciaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae aeey i?iaaaeaiey
oeaio?aeueiui aaieii e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee e ia iniiaa aa ?aaoee?iaaoue
iauoth ianno aeaiaa a ia?auaiee;

– iiauneoue iaaeaaeiinoue eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, oi?ie?othueo naie aeoeau
iooai i?eia?aoaiey aa?aioe?iaaiiuo ainoaea?noaii oeaiiuo aoiaa.

A ia/aea 1992 aiaea OeA? niaianoii n Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia ia/ae
iiaeaioiaeo ii nicaeaieth eio?ano?oeoo?u nia?aiaiiiai ?uiea oeaiiuo
aoiaa. I?e yoii noaaeeanue aeaoaaeeiay caaea/a: iaania/aiea
iaeioeyoeeiiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey aeaoeoeeoa e nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey
?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey yeiiiie/aneeie iaoiaeaie. A 1993
aiaeo ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa ia/aee ia?auaoueny ainoaea?noaaiiua
e?aoein?i/iua iaeeaaoeee (AEI) e eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa (EI), a
oaeaea ae?oaea oeaiiua ainoaea?noaaiiua aoiaae. OeA? e eiiia?/aneea
aaiee noaee aeoeaiuie o/anoieeaie oiiaeiaiai ?uiea.

Eciaiaiea ii?iu ?aca?ae?iaaiey

Yoio eino?oiaio yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii «a?oaui» e i?eiaiyaony aeiaieueii
?aaeei, eiaaea ?aiaa ?anniio?aiiuo ?aaoeyoi?ia iaaeinoaoi/ii. Oaeoe/anee
eciaiaiea ii?iaoeaa ?aca?aia aicaeaenoaoao ia anth aaieianeoth nenoaio a
oeaeii. Anee ana aaiee nenoaiu a oi/iinoe niaethaeatho o?aaiaaiey
aaee/eiu ?aca?aia, oi eciaiaiea ii?iaoeaa ?aca?aia aeaeaao eo
iaeiia?aiaiii eeai ?aca?aii-ecauoi/iuie (i?e oiaiueoaiee ii?iaoeaa),
eeai ?aca?aii-aeaoeoeeoiuie (i?e oaaee/aiee ii?iaoeaa). Iineieueeo ana
aaiee a yoeo oneiaeyo aaaeoo naay iaeeiaeiai, iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi a
neeo i?eiaiyaiie i?aeoeee i?iaiaeee /aeia /a?ac ?aca?aiua aeeaaeu,
aaieianeay nenoaia a oeaeii ia aoaeao ioeueoeieeoee?iaaoue aeaiueae. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yooaeo ioeueoeieeeaoeee nio?aiyaony. Iieaaeai yoi ia
i?eia?a.

Aeiionoei, enoiaeiue ii?iaoea ninoaaeye 10%. A ?acoeueoaoa ia 1000 oun.
aeie. oaeoueo n/aoia aaieianeay nenoaia eiaea iaiaoiaeeiue ?aca?a 100
oun. aeie. A oeaeyo oaaee/aiey i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa oeaio?aeueiue aaie
nieaeaao ii?iaoea ?aca?aa aei 8%. Oaia?ue aaieianeay nenoaia eiaao
ecauoie ?aca?aia a 20 oun. aeie. ii ioiioaieth e enoiaeiie aaee/eia
oaeoueo n/aoia. Ecauoie aaieianeeo ?aca?aia nieaeaao i?ioeaio ia ?uiea
oaaea?aeueiuo oiiaeia. Iineieueeo ?aca?aiua aeeaaeu a oeaio?aeueiii
aaiea ia i?eiinyo eiiia?/aneei aaieai i?ioeaioia, ei inoaaony
aaeeinoaaiiue iooue oaaee/aiey aeioiaea – iiiaie?aoiia ?anoe?aiea
«ca?aaaouaathueo» aeoeaia, ianeieueei iicaieytho ecauoi/iua ?aca?au i?e
iiaii ii?iaoeaa. Eiaiii ioeueoeieeeaoeaiinoue ?inoa aeoeaia iicaieyao
aaieai oaaee/eoue aeioiae, ianiio?y ia nieaeaiea i?ioeaioa ii iei. N
oeaeueth oaaee/aiey iauaia «ca?aaaouaathueo» aeoeaia aaiee i?aaeeaaatho
e?aaeeou aeiiaoiei oicyenoaai (e aeciano) iiae iaiueoee, /ai ?aiaa
i?ioeaio, caeioa?aniauaay oai naiui aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa a ?anoe?aiee
caeiia.

Aeiionoei, aaiee oaaee/eee ?acia?u e?aaeeoia ia 100 oun. aeie., /oi
iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a niioaaonoaothueo eciaiaieyo aeoeaia e ianneaia eae
aaieia, oae e aeiiaoieo oicyenoa. Ii i?e iiaii ii?iaoeaa 20 oun. aeie.
ecauoi/iuo ?aca?aia iicaieytho aaieai oaaee/eoue ?acia? ianneaia ia 250
oun. aeie. Iiyoiio aaiee ia/eiatho neoiaoue /a?ac aeeea?ia eacia/aeneea
iaycaoaeuenoaa o aeiiaoieo oicyenoa. Iiauoaiea ni?ina ia iaycaoaeuenoaa
iiauoaao eo oeaiu e nieaeaao aeioiaeiinoue aei o?iaiy i?ioeaioa ii
e?aaeeoai. I?aeoe/anee iaa i?ioeanna eaeoo iaeiia?aiaiii – ?anoe?aiea
e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee e iieoiea iaycaoaeuenoa. Aeeea?u iai?aaeytho ni?in
ia iaycaoaeuenoaa e aeiiaoiei oicyenoaai. Iineieueeo aeeea?u oaeoe/anee
ia?ai?iaeatho iaycaoaeuenoaa ia 150 oun. aeie., ?aca?aiua n/aoa
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iaeiia?aiaiii oiaiueoathony (i?e o/aoa /aea aaiea) e
oaaee/eaathony (i?e o/aoa /aea aeeea?a) ia 150 oun. aeie. A ?acoeueoaoa
noiia ?aca?aia inoaaony iaeciaiiie, a noiia oaeoueo n/aoia (e aeeaaeia
aeiiaoieo oicyenoa) aeinoeaaao aaee/eiu 1250 oun. aeie., i?e eioi?ie 100
oun. aeie. ?aca?aia niioaaonoaotho iiaiio ii?iaoeao. I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi
eaieoaeueiua n/aoa ie aaieia, ie aeiiaoieo oicyenoa ia eciaiythony.
Iaoaieciu aicaeaenoaey iiauoaiey ii?iaoeaa ?aca?aia ia oiaiueoaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa aeaenoaotho aiaeiae/iui ia?acii.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeaio?aeueiua aaiee e ?innee e NOA eiatho iaeeiaeiaua
iniiaiua iaoiaeu eiio?iey iaae i?aaeeiaeaieai aeaiaa. Ii iiieii iniiaiuo
iaoiaeia nouanoaotho aua aoi?inoaiaiiua. E n?aaee aoi?inoaiaiiuo
iaoiaeia OeA? e O?N NOA nouanoaotho cia/eoaeueiua ioee/ey.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua eino?oiaiou aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee OeA?

Aeiiieieoaeueiuie eino?oiaioaie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee OeA?
n/eoathony: ?aoeiaine?iaaiea, aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, oi?aaeaiea
iaee/iie aeaiaaeiie iannie.

?aoeiaine?iaaiea

Iiae ?aoeiaine?iaaieai iiieiaaony i?aaeinoaaeaiea OeA? e?aaeeoa
eiiia?/aneei aaieai. ?aoeiaine?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony iooai i?iaaaeaiey
e?aaeeoiuo aoeoeeiiia, i?aaeinoaaeaiee eiiaa?aeiiai e?aaeeoa e ia?ao/aoa
aaenaeae.

Aei 1994 aiaea OeA? i?aaeinoaaeye eiiia?/aneei aaieai e?aaeeou a
ii?yaeea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey. N iiiiuueth yoeo e?aaeeoia
nnoaeiue oiiae no?aiu iai?aaeyeny ia i?aaei?eyoey, a io?anee e ?aaeiiu
aac o/aoa yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe e ?aaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae
aica?aoa. Oaeia e?aaeeoiaaiea ia o?aaiaaei io eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
i?eaea/aiey aeaiiceoia. Iie ea?aee ianneaioth ?ieue oeiainiauo
iin?aaeieeia, i?aaeinoaaeyy caaiueeai e?aaeeou ii noaaea, cia/eoaeueii
ieaea o/aoiie noaaee OeA?. ?acieoea iie?uaaeanue ec athaeaeaoa n o/aoii
oiai, /oi ?acia? ia?aee ninoaaeye – iacaaeneii io e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe
caaiueea – 3 i?ioeaioa. A 1995 aiaeo auaea/a oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoia
?acei nie?aoeeanue, oioy e nio?aieeanue aeey iiaeaea?aeee iaeioi?uo
io?aneae. Oaia?ue aaiee iiaoo ?ann/eouaaoue ia iieo/aiea e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia io OeA? ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa iooai eo iieoiee ia e?aaeeoiuo
aoeoeeiiao. Iie i?iaiaeyony a oi?ia oaeiaeaoai?aiey aoeoeeiiiuo cayaie
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia n /anoioie e a n?iee, ii?aaeaeyaiua OeA?, enoiaey
ec caaea/ aai e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee.

Eiiaa?aeiue e?aaeeo – oi?ia ?aoeiaine?iaaiey, i?e eioi?ie OeA?
i?aaeinoaaeyao nnoaeu iiae caeia. A ioee/ea io nnoae, iaania/aiiuo
iaaeaeaeeiinoueth (eiioaea), eiiaa?aeiua iia?aoeee yaeythony nnoaeaie
iiae caeia aeaeaeeiiai iauaeoa. I?aaeiaoii caeiaa noaiiayony a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iaaeaaeiua oeaiiua aoiaae, eioe?oaiua ia ae?aea. Nnoaeu
auaeathony a i?aaeaeao noiiu, ia i?aauoathuae ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe eo
eo?niaie noieiinoe, iineieueeo aiciiaeii iaaeaiea eo?na. Ia?yaeo n
ainoaea?noaaiiuie iaycaoaeuenoaaie a caeia iiaoo i?eieiaoueny aaenaey.
Nienie oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?eieiaaiuo e caeiao, ii?aaeaeyaony OeA?. Yoi, eae
i?aaeei, ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae, ii a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iiaoo
i?eieiaoueny e ei?ii?aoeaiua oeaiiua aoiaae. OeA? onoaiaaeeaaao eeieo
auaea/e eiiaa?aeiiai e?aaeeoa a oeaeii ii no?aia e aeey eaaeaeiai
Aeaaiiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey (Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea).
Eiiaa?aeiue e?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia iniiaa aaeaaiaeii caeeth/aaiiai
aaia?aeueiiai e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a, a eioi?ii iaiaa?eaathony
i?eioeeieaeueiua oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey. Eaaeaeay nnoaea i?aaeinoaaeyaony
ia n?ie aei 50 aeiae e ioi?ieyaony ninoaaeaieai ioaeaeueiiai e?aaeeoiiai
niaeaoaiey. Iaeiia?aiaiii eiiia?/aneee aaie aeieaeai auaeaoue
iaycaoaeuenoai i iiaaoaiee nnoaeu a iaoneiaeaiiue n?ie e ia?aaeaoue
oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?aaio OeA? aeiaa?aiiinoue ia i?aai ?aaeecaoeee
oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?eiyouo a caeia, anee nnoaea ia aoaeao aica?auaia a
n?ie. Eiiaa?aeiue e?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony a ?acia?a aei 75 i?ioeaioia
?uii/iie noieiinoe oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?eiyouo a caeia. I?aaii iieo/aiey
eiiaa?aeiiai e?aaeeoa iieuecothony aaiee, eioi?ua ioaa/atho
ii?aaeaeaiiui oneiaeyi. Aei ia?auaiey ca e?aaeeoii iie aeieaeiu oniaoii
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue ia iaiaa iaeiiai aiaea, niaethaeaoue onoaiiaeaiiua
ii?iaoeau, naiaa?aiaiii ia?a/eneyoue aeaiueae a ?aca?aiua oiiaeu OeA? e
i?aaenoaaeyoue aio a n?ie e a iieiii iauaia io/aoiinoue. Aeinoiaa?iinoue
io/aoiinoe e niaethaeaiey i?aaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
aoaeeoi?neie i?aaiecaoeeae. Ia iiiaio auaea/e eiiaa?aeiiai e?aaeeoa
eiiia?/aneee aaie ia iiaeao eiaoue i?in?i/aiioth caaeieaeaiiinoue ii
?aiaa iieo/aiiui io OeA? nnoaeai. Aeaaiua oa??eoi?eaeueiua oi?aaeaiey
OeA? (Iaoeeiiaeueiua aaiee) noaee i?aeoeeiaaoue auaea/o eiiaa?aeiuo
e?aaeeoia oieueei a 1995 aiaeo.

O?aoee niinia ?aoeiaine?iaaiey – ia?ao/ao aaenaeae -aace?oaony ia
eniieueciaaiee aaenaeae. Aaenaeue i?eiaiyaony a oeiainiauo nenoaiao
?aciuo no?ai eae eino?oiaio ioi?ieaiey e?aaeeoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai a
oiaa?iie oi?ia iinoaaueeii iieoiaoaeth. I?aeiouanoai aai caeeth/aaony a
niaaeeiaiee aeaoo aaaeiaeoeo ooieoeee – e?aaeeoiie e ?an/aoiie. Eae
?an/aoiue eino?oiaio aaenaeue iiaeao yooaeoeaii caiaiyoue a iai?ioa
aeaiueae aeaaiaea?y aiciiaeiinoe aai ia?aaea/e ii eiaeinnaiaioo.
Aaaeiui i?aeiouanoaii aaenaey yaeyaony e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ana
eeoea, o/anoaothuea a i?ioeanna eiaeinnaiaioia, ianoo ia?aae iineaaeiei
aai aeaaeaeueoeai nieeaea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iiaaoaiea
aaenaeueiiai aeieaa. Yoi naeaeaei aaenaeue i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, i?aeoeeothueo iieoieo o naieo eeeaioia aaenaeae,
iniiaaiiuo ia ?aaeueiuo oiaa?iuo naeaeeao. ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?aeoeee
o/aoa aaenaeae eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie i?eaaei e ?acaeoeth ia?ao/aoiuo
iia?aoeee. N iiiiuueth iaoaiecia ia?ao/aoa aaenaeae OeA? inouanoaeyao
naith aeeneiioioth iieeoeeo, oi anoue ii?aaeaeyao oneiaey, ia eioi?uo ii
iieoiaao aaenaey e i?aaeinoaaeyao eiiia?/aneei aaieai e?aaeeou a
ii?yaeea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey. A /anoiinoe, ii onoaiaaeeaaao:

– oeaio i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoa, oi anoue aaee/eio ia?ao/aoiie noaaee;

– eiee/anoaaiiua ?aiee aeeneiioiie iieeoeee;

– ea/anoaaiiua o?aaiaaiey e ia?ao/eouaaaiui aaenaeyi.

Ii?aaeaeyy naith ia?ao/aoioth noaaeo, OeA? einaaiii aicaeaenoaoao ia
noaaee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Ia?aie/aiey noiiu i?e ia?ao/aoa aaenaeae
icia/atho, /oi OeA? onoaiiaee eeieo aaenaeueiiai ia?ao/aoiiai
e?aaeeoiaaiey aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. A caaeneiinoe io o?aaiaaiee
e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee e ninoiyiey eiiia?/aneiai aaiea OeA? iiaeao
nieaeaoue eee oaaee/eaaoue eeieou aaenaeueiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey. Yoi a
eiia/iii n/aoa aeeyao ia ?acia?u naiaiaeiuo eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa aaieia.
I?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee ii ia?ao/aoo aaenaeae i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony iaeiei
ec ia?niaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe OeA?. Oaeie niinia
?aoeiaine?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiui e i?eaieaiui aeey
oaeouaai e?aaeeoiaaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Ii
niinianoaoao oiaiueoaieth iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee a iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoaao e onei?aieth eo iai?a/eaaaiinoe, oi anoue e iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. A naith i/a?aaeue OeA? iieo/aao eino?oiaio
yeiiiie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeo.

Aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea

Aei 1992 aiaea aaethoiua iia?aoeee auee iiiiiieeae ainoaea?noaa. Any
iinooiaaoay a no?aio aaethoa a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea i?iaeaaaeanue
Aiaoyeiiiiaaieo. Aeey inouanoaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo ieaoaaeae ca eiii?o eee
aeey ?an/aoia ii ae?oaei iia?aoeeyi Aiaoyeiiiiaaie i?iaeaaae aaethoo a
i?aaeaeao ooaa?aeaeaiiiai aeey eaaeaeiai iieoiaoaey eeieoa. Aaethoa
iieoiaeanue e i?iaeaaaeanue ca ?oaee ii eo?no, onoaiiaeaiiiio
oeaio?aeeciaaiii. A 1991 aiaeo eniieueciaaeenue e ioaeeeiaaeenue o?e
aeaea aaethoiuo eo?nia ?oaey: ioeoeeaeueiue, eiiia?/aneee e
niaoeeaeueiue. Ia?yaeo n ieie nouanoaiaae ae?aeaaie eo?n,
ii?aaeaeyaoeeny ia aoeoeeiiao, eioi?ua i?iaiaeee Aiaoyeiiiiaaie n iiya?y
1989 aei iay 1991 aiaea. N?aaeiee aoeoeeiiiue eo?n ?oaey ninoaaeye 22,6
?oaey ca 1 aeieea? NOA. A oi aea a?aiy iaioeoeeaeueiue eo?n «/a?iiai
?uiea» a aeanyoee ?ac i?aauoae ana ae?oaea eo?nu. A oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e
?uii/iui ioiioaieyi aicieeea iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey
aaethoiiai eo?na ?oaey, aaeaeaaoiiai oaeei ioiioaieyi. Ia aaethoiue
eo?n ieacuaaao aeeyiea iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia: ii caaeneo io ninoiyiey
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, io iauaia yenii?oa e eiii?oa, io aeiee aiaoiae
oi?aiaee a aaeiaii aioo?aiiai i?iaeoeoa, io aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa e
enoi/ieeia aai iie?uoey, io yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee e
ae?oaeo i?e/ei. ?aaeueiue a aeaiiuo eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo aaethoiue eo?n
iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai a ?acoeueoaoa naiaiaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eoiea
e i?iaeaaea aaethou ia aaethoiuo ae?aeao. A 1992 aiaeo OeA? e 30
aaaeoueo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia no?aiu o/?aaeeee Iineianeoth
iaaeaaieianeoth aaethoioth ae?aeo (IIAA) eae aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai
cae?uoiai oeia. Ia ae?aea ?aaoey?ii ii?aaeaeyaony eo?n ?oaey e aeieea?o
NOA, eioi?ue n 1 ethey 1992 aiaea eniieuecoaony OeA? aeey ioeoeeaeueiie
eioe?iaee ?oaey e eiino?aiiui aaethoai. Ae?aeaaie eo?n ?oaey noae
iaeaieaa oi/iui eiaeeeaoi?ii aeeiaieee iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia e
eino?oiaioii aicaeaenoaey ia ieo. Enoiaey ec ?iee aaethoiiai eo?na e aai
aeeyiey ia aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea a no?aia, OeA? inouanoaeyao aaethoiia
?aaoee?iaaiea, i?aaiecoao aaethoiue eiio?ieue, ioaeeeoao eo?n ?oaey ii
ioiioaieth e eiino?aiiui aaethoai e ?aaeaiaioe?oao ii?yaeie ?an/aoia n
eiino?aiiuie ainoaea?noaaie.

Yooaeoeaiie nenoaiie aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony aaethoiay
eioa?aaioeey. Iia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi OeA? aiaoeaaaony a iia?aoeee
ia aaethoiii ?uiea n oeaeueth aicaeaenoaey ia eo?n ?oaey iooai eoiee eee
i?iaeaaee eiino?aiiie aaethou: aeey iiauoaiey aai eo?na OeA? i?iaeaao
eiino?aiioth aaethoo, aeey nieaeaiey – neoiaao. OeA? i?iaiaeeo aaethoiua
eioa?aaioeee aeey oiai, /oiau iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeceoue eo?n ?oaey e aai
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe e a oi aea a?aiy iaeoe eiii?iienn iaaeaeo
eioa?anaie yenii?oa?ia e eiii?oa?ia. A caieaeaiee eo?na ?oaey
caeioa?aniaaiu i?aaei?eyoey nu?ueaaiai eiiieaena, iaania/eaathuea
iniiaioth /anoue aaethoiie au?o/ee ?innee, a a caauoaiee – oa
i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua iieo/atho nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, eiiieaeoothuea
aeaoaee ec-ca ?oaaaea, a oaeaea io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ua iiea
i?iecaiaeyo i?iaeoeoeeth, iaeiieo?aioiniiniaioth ii n?aaiaieth n
eiino?aiiie i?iaeoeoeeae. Iniaaiii aeooaeueii yoi aeey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oae eae iio?aaiinoue no?aiu a
i?iaeiaieuenoaee aieaa /ai ia o?aoue oaeiaeaoai?yaony ca n/ao eiii?oa.

Ia?yaeo n aaethoiie eioa?aaioeeae OeA? i?eieiaao ?yae aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
ia?, eioi?ua yaeythony eino?oiaioaie ?aaoee?iaaiey aaethoiiai eo?na a
iai?aaeaiee, ioaa/athuaio oe?aieaieth aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. E oaeei
ia?ai, a /anoiinoe, ioiinyony:

– ?aoaiea ia iaycaoaeueiie i?iaeaaea /anoe yenii?oiie au?o/ee. Aa
inouanoaeytho ia aaethoiuo ae?aeao yenii?oa?u /a?ac oiieiiii/aiiua
eiiia?/aneea aaiee;

– eeieoe?iaaiea iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea
eiino?aiiie aaethou ia aaethoiii ?uiea. Aeey yoiai aaieai, eiathuei
aaethoioth eeoeaiceth, onoaiaaeeaaaony oae iacuaaaiay “ioe?uoay
iiceoeey”. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony aeey aaiea eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie
eiino?aiiie aaethou, eoieaiiie ei ca naie n/ao n 1 yiaa?y io/aoiiai
aiaea, e noiiie eiino?aiiie aaethou, i?iaeaiiie aaieii ca oio aea
ia?eiae a?aiaie;

– o/eouaay, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aaethou a ?acoeueoaoa yenii?oa
inaaeaea a eiino?aiiuo aaieao, OeA? niaianoii n Ainoaea?noaaiiui
oaiiaeaiiui eiieoaoii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ?ac?aaioaee nenoaio,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuoth iaoiaeu yeiiiie/aneiai e aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia yenii?oa?ia, caaea?aeeaathueo aica?ao aaethou a
ioa/anoaaiiua aaiee;

– eae a?aiaiioth ia?o aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey OeA? onoaiiaee aa?oiee e
ieaeiee i?aaeae eieaaaiey eo?na ?oaey i?e iia?aoeeyo ia aaethoiii ?uiea
– oae iacuaaaiue “aaethoiue ei?eaei?”. Onoaiiaeaiea “aaethoiiai
ei?eaei?a” yaeyaony oaaii ii aaaaeaieth ?aaoee?oaiiai aaethoiiai eo?na,
iineieueeo ia?aaoee?oaiay aeeiaieea aaethoiiai eo?na ieacuaaao
iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea aioo?aiiaai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, ia
oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea aaieia e i?aaei?eyoee, inouanoaeythueo
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aeaaiaea?y aaethoiie eioa?aaioeee a ?aieao «aaethoiiai ei?eaei?a» OeA?
eiaao aiciiaeiinoue iaania/eoue ?aaiiia?ioth e i?aaeneacoaioth
aeeiaieeo aaethoiiai eo?na, oaycaiioth n ae?oaeie iae?iyeiiiie/aneeie
iieacaoaeyie, a oii /enea e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n oaiiaie eioeyoeee e
i?ioeannii naeeaeaiey o?iaiy aioo?aiieo oeai n o?iaiai ie?iauo oeai.

?aaoee?iaaiea iaee/iie aeaiaaeiie iannu

?aaoee?iaaiea ia?auaiey iaee/iuo aeaiaa, yienney, i?aaiecaoeey eo
ia?auaiey e ecuyoey ec ia?auaiey inouanoaeythony eneeth/eoaeueii OeA?. A
oneiaeyo, eiaaea a ?innee ii nooe aue oieueei iaeei aaie –
Ainoaea?noaaiiue, aeey aai oeeeaeia ia nouanoaiaaei i?iaeaiu e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia, oae eae iie nicaeaaaeenue aaoiiaoe/anee aeaaiaea?y
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth o.i. iaaeoeeeaeueiuo iai?ioia. A yoio ia?eiae
i?aaeoaeuenoai ieaie?iaaei e no?iai eeieoe?iaaei i?ioeann i?aa?auaiey
aeaiiceoiie yiennee a aaieiioioth, oi anoue i?ioeann i?aa?auaiey
aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa a iaee/iua, eai a ?innee auoiaaei iiaiea, /oi a
aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee oee?eoee?otho oieueei iaee/iua aeaiueae, a
aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa ii aaieianeei n/aoai – yoi eeoue ia?auaiea aaieianeeo
caienae, a ia aeaiaa. A NOA e a ae?oaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a
ia/aea XX noieaoey yeiiiienou oaeaea n/eoaee aeaiueaaie eeoue aaieiiou e
iaoaeee/aneea iiiaou. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu a yoeo no?aiao oaea ia
i?iaiaeeeinue yeiiiie/aneiai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo iaee/iuie e aaciaee/iuie
aeaiueaaie. ?acee/ey naiaeeeenue e oaoie/aneei iniaaiiinoyi oao e
ae?oaeo e naycaiiuo n yoei ecaea?aeeaie ia?auaiey. Iauaeoeaiua oneiaey
ia?aoiaea ?innee e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi e nicaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia noeioee?iaaee eaeaioe/iue n ae?oaeie ?acaeouie
no?aiaie iiaeoiae e ioeaiea eiiiiiaioia aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee.
Aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao aeiey iaee/iuo aeaiaa a iauae aeaiaaeiie ianna
iaoiaeeony ia o?iaia 5-10 i?ioeaioia. A ?innee aea oaeaeueiue aan
iaee/iuo aeaiaa a eo iauae noiia iiea iaoeeiiii aic?anoaao. Oae, ia 1
yiaa?y 1992 aiaea a ia?auaiee iaoiaeeeinue 166 ie?ae. iaee/iuo ?oaeae,
eee 17 i?ioeaioia anae aeaiaaeiie iannu, a ia 1 naioya?y 1993 aiaea
iaee/iay /anoue aeaiaaeiie iannu oaaee/eeanue a 46 ?ac, aeinoeaioa 7,6
o?ei. ?oaeae, eee 30 i?ioeaioia. Ii aeaiiui aaeaina OeA? ii ninoiyieth
ia 1 ieoya?y 1994 aiaea iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiay ianna aeinoeaea 36 o?ei.
?oaeae. Yoi naycaii n e?aeia ieceei ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie no?aiaie
o?iaiai ?acaeoey nenoaiu aaciaee/iuo ieaoaaeae. A 1995 aiaeo a oeaeyo
nie?auaiey iauaiia iaee/iie aeaiaaeiie iannu OeA? e eiiia?/aneea aaiee
i?iecaaee e?oiiua eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey eae ni noi?iiu OeA?, oae e ni
noi?iiu eiiia?/aneeo aaieia a nicaeaiea iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu
aeey nouanoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey nenoaiu aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia, a oii /enea
e n ianaeaieai. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy OeA? i?iecaiaeeo i?iaiiciua ?an/aou
eanniauo iai?ioia, oeaeueth eioi?uo yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a
iaee/iuo aeaiueaao ii no?aia a oeaeii, ii ?aaeiiai e ii aaieai. A oaeeo
?an/aoao ii?aaeaeythony iauai e enoi/ieee iinooieaiey iaee/iuo aeaiaa a
eannu eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e a iai?ioiua eannu OeA?, ?acia?u e iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey ii auaea/a iaee/iuo aeaiaa i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?aaiecaoeeyi,
o/?aaeaeaieyi e a?aaeaeaiai, a oaeaea iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiue yienneiiiue
?acoeueoao, oi anoue noiia auionea eee ecuyoey iaee/iuo aeaiaa ec
ia?auaiey. OeA? ooaa?aeee iieiaeaiea, ?aaoee?othuaa iia?aoeee n
iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie, eioi?ia, a /anoiinoe, i?aaeoniao?eaaao
onoaiiaeaiea aeey eaaeaeie i?aaiecaoeee eeieoia iaee/iuo aeaiaa a
eannao. Cai?auaaony iiea/eaaoue iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie naeaeee ia noiio
aieaa onoaiiaeaiiuo OeA? eeieoia. Ana ?an/aou iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie
eeoeaie naa?o yoie noiiu aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoueny oieueei a aaciaee/iii
ii?yaeea. Aeayoaeueiinoue OeA? a iaeanoe ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey e eniieueciaaiey aai a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa noaaeeecaoeee
yeiiiieee iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia n i?ioeannii aoiaeaeaiey ?innee a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia yeiiiie/aneia niiauanoai, ieacuaathuaa niaeaenoaea
?acaeoeth ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua eino?oiaiou aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee O?N NOA

O?e iniiaiuo eino?oiaioa e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee ia?eiaee/anee
aeiiieiythony iaeioi?uie iaiaa aaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie eiio?iey a oi?ia
naeaeoeaiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, eioi?ia eanaaony oiiaeiaie ae?aee,
?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii aeaiiceoai, iieoiie a ?ann?i/eo e
oaauaaaiey.

I?aaeienuaaaiay caeiiii ia?aea

O?ie aaeeeiai “e?aoa” oiiaeiaie ae?aee a 1929 a. ninoieo a oii, /oi
aacoaea?aeiay niaeoeyoeey iiaeao aeinoaaeoue yeiiiieea na?ueaciua
i?iaeaiu. Iai?eia?, iaaeaiea eo?na aeoeee iiaeao oie/oiaeeoue ninoiyiey
/anoiuo eeoe eee i?aaei?eyoee, eiathueo cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai aeoeee.
Yoi auioaeaeaao eo o?acaoue naie iio?aaeoaeueneea e eiaanoeoeeiiiua
?anoiaeu e oieeaao yeiiiieeo e niaaeo, eee aeai?annee. Aiaeiae/iui
ia?acii i?aaei?eyoea, aeaeathuaa ?anoe?eoueny, iaia?oaeeo, /oi oiaaoea
oeaiu aeoeee cao?oaeiytho iieo/aiea iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa. A ea/anoaa
ia?u i?ioea eceeoiae niaeoeyoeee ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea e aiciiaeiinoe
e?aoa Niaao oi?aaeythueo Oaaea?aeueiie ?aca?aiie nenoaiu eiaao i?aai
onoaiaaeeaaoue i?aaeienuaaaioth caeiiii ia?aeo, eee ieieiaeueiue
i?ioeaio ia?aiia/aeueiiai aciina, eioi?ue aeieaeai naeaeaoue iieoiaoaeue
aeoeee. Oae, iuiaoiyy i?aaeienuaaaiay caeiiii ia?aea a 50% icia/aao, /oi
eeoue 50% iieoiiie oeaiu oeaiiie aoiaae iiaoo auoue iiea/aiu caaiiuie
n?aaenoaaie, ca inoaaoeany 50% neaaeoao “aueiaeeoue aeaiueae ia ai/eo”.
Yoa ii?ia iiaeao iiauoaoueny, eiaaea n/eoaaony aeaeaoaeueiui ia?aie/eoue
niaeoeyoeaioth neoieo aeoeee, e iiieaeaoueny – aeey iaeeaeaiey ayeiai
?uiea.

?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii aeaiiceoai

?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii aeaiiceoai ni noi?iiu Oaaea?aeueiie
?aca?aiie nenoaiu (oae iacuaaaiay eino?oeoeey “Q”) aicieeei a
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie i?aeoeea NOA a 1933 aiaeo. Niaeanii i?eiyoiio
oiaaea iinoaiiaeaieth onoaiaaeeaaeenue aa?oiea ii?iu i?ioeaioa, eioi?ua
iiaee auiea/eaaoueny ii naa?aaeaieyi (naa?aaaoaeueiui aeeaaeai) e
n?i/iui aeeaaeai, ?aciauaiiui a eiiia?/aneeo aaieao. A oi a?aiy
eacaeinue, /oi iiaeiaiua ia?ii?eyoey ia?aie/ao iaaeaaieianeoth
eiieo?aioeeth ca i?eaea/aiea aeeaaeia e i?aaeoi?aaeyo aeiaeaiea
eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie n?aaenoa a i/aiue ?eneiaaiiua aeoeau (nnoaeu e
eiaanoeoeee). Naaiaeiy a?yae ee iaeaeaony oioy au iaeei cae?aaiiuneyuee
yeiiiieno, eioi?ue i?aaeeiaeeo ai?ioueny n eiieo?aioeeae e iiiuoaaony
ia?aaeeoue aaiee io /?acia?ii ?eneiaaiiuo i?iaeoia oaeei niiniaii.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi onoaiiaeaiea aa?oieo i?aaeaeia i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii
aeeaaeai ia iaoaao aaieai i?aaeinoaaeyoue nnoaeu eeai i?iaiaeeoue
eiaanoeoeee, i?eaioe?oynue ia aieaa aunieea ii?iu i?ioeaioa, e
iaeneiece?iaaoue oai naiui naith i?eaueue.

Iinea Aoi?ie Ie?iaie aieiu eino?oeoeey “Q” ciinianoaiaaea iiieaeaieth
noieiinoe aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, i?eaeaeaaiuo a aeaea aeeaaeia aaieaie e
nnoaeinaa?aaaoaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie. I?e ieceie noieiinoe aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa oeiainiaua einoeooou iiaee eo i?aaeinoaaeyoue a ea/anoaa
e?aaeeoia e nnoae ii ioiineoaeueii iaaunieei i?ioeaioiui noaaeai.
Neiaeeeinue ia?aaeienaeueiia iieiaeaiea: ieceay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue
aeeaae/eeia eiiiaine?iaaeanue aunieie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a iieo/aiee
caeia; ieeiaaea ii?ia i?eauee, auiea/eaaaiay aeeaae/eeai ia auea oaeie
ieceie.

Aei 1957 aiaea aaiee-/eaiu O?N eiaee i?aai auiea/eaaoue ia aieaa 2,5%
aiaeiauo ii naa?aaaoaeueiui e n?i/iui aeeaaeai. A yoi a?aiy iiiaea
eiiia?/aneea aaiee ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe
eino?oeoeeae “Q”, /oi iicaieyei iieo/aoue ei iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa n ioiineoaeueii iaaunieeie cao?aoaie. Iaeiaei, ii ia?a ?inoa
?uii/iuo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, iie noaee iooiaeeoue io yoie i?aeoeee, oae
eae nnoaeinaa?aaaoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey (aeey eioi?uo ia nouanoaiaaei
iiaeiaiuo ia?aie/aiee aieioue aei 1966 aiaea) iieo/eee caiaoiia
i?aeiouanoai a eiieo?aioeee ca naa?aaaoaeueiua e n?i/iua aeeaaeu. Eiaaea
iiaeiaiue eiio?ieue aue aaaaeai, ii?iu i?ioeaioa nnoaeinaa?aaaoaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee onoaiiaeeenue ia o?iaia, iacia/eoaeueii i?aauoathuai
i?ioeaioiua noaaee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

Aieueoeinoai i?aaee, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaaoeo ii?iu i?ioeaioa ii aeeaaeai,
n1973 ii 1986 aiae iinoaiaiii en/acaee n oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie a?aiu.
?aceee nea/ie ?uii/iuo ii?i i?ioeaioa 1965-1981 aiaeia auioaeee
oaaea?aeueiua aeanoe ia?aniio?aoue onoaiiaeaiiua aeey aaieianeie naoe
ii?iu i?ioeaioa, iaania/eaay aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue n ae?oaeie
oeiainiauie einoeoooaie.

Iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo

A?aiy io a?aiaie eiia?ann iaaeaeyao Niaao oi?aaeythueo iieiiii/eyie
iaeeaaeuaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey ia iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo.
Iai?eia?, eniieuecoy eiathuothny o iaai caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeanoue,
i?aceaeaio Ea?oa? aaniie 1980 a. i?eeacae Oaaea?aeueiie ?aca?aiie
nenoaia aaanoe iiaua ia?aie/aiey ia iieo/aiea caeiia iio?aaeoaeyie, /oi
auei /anoueth aai aioeeioeyoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu. A eiaiii: e?aaeeoi?u
iaycuaaeenue aeaeaoue “niaoeeaeueiua aeeaaeu” a oaaea?aeueiua ?aca?aiua
aaiee, ?aaiua 15% ethaiai oaaee/aiey iauaai eiee/anoaa e?aaeeoa,
auaeaiiiai a oi?ia iieoiee e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae eee iaiaania/aiiuo caeiia
/anoiui eeoeai. Iineieueeo yoe niaoeeaeueiua aeeaaeu ia i?eiineee
i?ioeaioa, iie oaaee/eaaee ecaea?aeee e?aaeeoi?ia e ioaeaaee ioioo e
aeaeueiaeoaio ?anoe?aieth iio?aaeoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa.

Oaauaaaiea

?oeiaiaeyuea e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiua o/?aaeaeaiey eiiaaea, eniieuecotho
iaiaa inycaaiue i?eai oaaaeaeaiey aeey aicaeaenoaey ia e?aaeeoioth
iieeoeeo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Oaauaaaiea iii?inoo icia/aao
eniieueciaaiea ?oeiaiaeyueie e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie
“ae?oaeaneiai oaaaeaeaiey” – iieeoe/aneiai cayaeaiey, iauanoaaiiiai
?aoaiey, ioe?uoiai i?ecuaa e oiio, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue eceeoiaai
?anoe?aiey eee nie?auaiey aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa, eioi?ia iiaeao eiaoue
na?ueaciua iineaaenoaey aeey aaieianeie nenoaiu e yeiiiieee a oeaeii.
Iai?eia?, /oiau niinianoaiaaoue ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae, Oaaea?aeueiay
?aca?aiay nenoaia a ia?oa 1980 a. “ianoiyoaeueii ?aeiiaiaeiaaea” aaieai
ia?aie/eoue aaeaaiaeiia ?anoe?aiea e?aaeeoa aei 6-8%, /oi cia/eoaeueii
ieaea i?aaeiieaaaaoaainy 20-i?ioeaioiiai ?inoa.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu cia/aiea oaeeo iaoiaeia eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee ?acei nieceeinue, oae eae iiaeiaiua
iaoaieciu ?aaoee?iaaiey i/aiue neiaeiu a ?aaeecaoeee ia i?aeoeea. E?iia
oiai, yoe ia?ii?eyoey iinyo eieaeueiue oa?aeoa? e i?iea?uaatho a yoii
niunea aieaa iiuiui e anaiauaiethuei eino?oiaioai eiio?iey ca
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiuie ioiioaieyie, ?anniio?aiiui ?aiaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, OeA? e O?N NOA eae oeaio?aeueiua aaiee ainoaea?noa
ea?atho /?acau/aeii aaaeioth ?ieue a i?ioeannao ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, yaeythony aeaaiui caaiii aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiuo
nenoai no?ai; n?aaee ooieoeee OeA? e O?N NOA anoue iauea ooieoeee (e
iaoaieciu eo ?aaeecaoeee) oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia, ii anoue e
niaoeeoe/aneea, naycaiiua n ?acee/eai yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie
neooaoeee a no?aiao, n eo enoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai.

AEAEEIA?AOEss

1. Aeieai Y. Aeae. e ae?. Aeaiueae, aaieianeia aeaei e
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea. Iiae iau. ?aae. A.Eoeaoaae/a,
I.ss?oeaaa.-NIa.,1994a.

2. Eyiiaaee ?. Iaeeiiiaee, Noyiee E. A?th. Yeiiiieen. I?eioeeiu,
i?iaeaiu e iieeoeea. Oii 1. -I.: ”?anioaeeea”.-1992a.

3. Eueaia TH.A. Iniiau yeiiiieee e i?aaiecaoeee aeciana.-NIa.: AII
“Oi?ieea”.-1992a.

4. Eueaia TH.E. Aaiee e oeiainiaue ?uiie. -NIa.:
”EoeueoEioi?iI?ann”.-1995a.

5. Aaieianeay nenoaia ?innee. Ianoieueiay eieaa aaiee?a. OeA?.-I.: OII
“AeaEa”.-1995a.

6. Aaneeueaa A.A. Ec iiuoa aia?eeaineeo aaieia. // Aaieianeea
oneoae.-1995a.-N9.-n.28.

7. Eiinoaioeiiaa A.TH. Aia?eeaineea eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee e
oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia ?uiea ia?auo yiennee. // NOA: yeiiiieea, iieeoeea,
eaeaieiaey.-1994a.-N4.-n.32-42.

8. Iineiaa E.ss. Iniaaiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo aaieia
NOA. // Oeiainu.-1994a.-N9.-n.46.

9. Noaiaiia TH. Iiuo i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia a
ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao. // Aii?inu yeiiiieee.-1995a.-N10.-n.20.

Oeacaiiay ?aaioa, no?. 234

1 Oeacaiiay ?aaioa, no?. 279

Ni. Eueaia TH.E., oeacaiiay ?aaioa, n. 230-246

Ni. Aeieai Y. Aeae. e ae?., oeacaiiay ?aaioa, n. 233-236

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