.

Финансы предприятий и корпораций

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2983
Скачать документ

OEIAINU I?AAeI?EssOEE E EI?II?AOeEE.

( EAEOeEE Eaiioueaaa A.A. )

Nouiinoue oeiainia i?aaei?eyoee. Cia/aiea oeiainia e oeiainiaie ?aaiou
ia i?aaei?eyoee.

niaea?aeaiea oeiainia ia i?aaei?eyoee;

ooieoeee oeiainia;

i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee oeiainia;

i?aaiecaoeey oeiainiaie ?aaiou ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Oeiainu – yoi nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo,
aeaaiui ia?acii, n ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai AAI e oi?ie?iaaieai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia.

Oeiainu – nenoaia aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo, aeaaiui ia?acii, n
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai i?eauee e oi?ie?iaaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia. Oeiainu iie?athony ia
aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, yeiiiie/aneee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiue aiaeec, ia
aeaenoaothuoth iaeiaiaoth nenoaio e o.ae.

Oeiainu – nenoaia ioiioaiee, nicaeaiiay ainoaea?noaii, o.a. ainoaea?noai
ana ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n oeiainaie, ?aaoee?oao naii.

I?e naiaiaeiii ?uiea oeiainiaua ioiioaiey ioaaouaatho oieueei athaeaeao
(i?aaei?eyoey ?aaioatho ii naiei, ia iiae/eiythueiny yeiiiieea caeiiai),
i?e ?aaoee?oaiie yeiiiieea /anoue ioiioaiee oi?ie?oaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ainoaea?noaii, /anoue – ?aaoee?oaony.

Ana oeiainiaua ioiioaiey aeaenoaotho oieueei ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoee, eae
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. Ana oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, aeaenoaothuea aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoey, yaeythony oneiaiuie oeiainiauie ioiioaieyie.

Aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiua oiiaeu – ana oiiaeu, nicaeaaaaiua ia o?iaia
i?aaei?eyoey (oiiae iaeiieaiey, oiiae iio?aaeaiey, ?aca?aiue oiiae,
aii?oecaoeeiiiue oiiae).

Ioee/ea oiiaea io n?aaenoa: n?aaenoaa = noiia n?aaenoa, a oiiae = noiia
n?aaenoa, eioi?ay eiaao oeaeaaia iacia/aiea.

Ia i?aaei?eyoee oeiainu eniieuecothony ec neaaeothueo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee:

ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, a oiaea
auiieiyaiie oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. E oeiainiaui
ioiioaieyi ia ioiinyony ioiioaiey eoiee-i?iaeaaee, iaiaia e o.i., a
ioiineony oieueei i?eiaiaiea oeiainiauo naieoeee ca iaauiieiaiea eee
iaea/anoaaiiia auiieiaiea;

iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie e iiae?acaeaeaieyie, aoiaeyueie a aai ninoaa. Yoe
ioiioaiey caaenyo io no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey e oeiainiauo ioiioaiee,
aicieeathueo oieueei iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie, eiathueie
naiinoiyoaeueiua aaeainu e n/aoa. Yoe ioiioaiey iiaoo auoue iiiieiaiu
oi?ie?iaaieai onoaaiuo oiiaeia, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai i?eauee, oieaoie iaeiaia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie;

iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie e ?aaioieeaie ii iiaiaeo auieaou aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, aeaaiui ia?acii ec i?eauee, e /anoe, iiiaaeathuae iiae
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea;

iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e ainoaea?noaaiiui athaeaeaoii ii iiaiaeo oieaou
iaeiaia e ii iiaiaeo iieo/aiey eueaio, oeaeaaiai oeiaine?iaaiey,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia a ?acee/iuo oi?iao e o.ae.;

iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie ii iiaiaeo iieo/aiey e
aica?aoa e?aaeeoia;

iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie e eiaanoeoeeiiiuie einoeoooaie ii iiaiaeo
oi?ie?iaaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia e eo eniieueciaaiey
(eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu, iaineiiiua oiiaeu e o.ae.);

iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e auoanoiyueie i?aaiaie (oieaeeiae, eiioea?iu) ii
iiaiaeo ia?aeeaa eaieoaea.

Oeiainu ia i?aaei?eyoee auiieiytho neaaeothuea ooieoeee:

oi?ie?iaaiea – ooieoeey iaania/eaaao aeaiaaeiuie ?ano?naie, e?oaiiai?io
n?aaenoa ia i?aaei?eyoee, o.a. ooieoeey oi?ie?iaaiey aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia.
Caaea/a caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau noi?ie?iaaoue oae aeaiaaeiua iioiee ia
i?aaei?eyoee, /oiau ana oeiainiaua iioiee ?aaioaee e ?aaioaee
yooaeoeaii. Iniiaiua iieacaoaee – ieaiiaua;

eniieueciaaiea – ooieoeey eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oiiaeia;

eiio?ieueiay ooieoeey – ia naieo i?aaei?eyoeyo, iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie,
anee nouanoaoao ia?ooaiea caeiia – ia o?iaia athaeaeaoa, eee
ainoaea?noaa.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie naycai n ia?auaieai oeiainiaiai eaieoaea.

Oeiainiaue iioie ii?aaeaeyao caaii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, aaea
inouanoaeyaony ?uiie oeiainiauo eaieoaeia e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Aeeth/athony 3 caaia:

?uiie eaieoaeia;

?uiie e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia;

?uiie aeaiaa;

+ 3) = ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa (yoi e anoue oeiainiaue ?uiie), ?uiie
eiaanoeoeee, eioi?ue ?aaoee?oaony ainoaea?noaii.

I?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee oeiainia.

I?eioeei naii?aaoee?iaaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe –
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao i?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeth iieiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe
a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee i iai?aaeaieyo ?acaeoey, enoiaey ec eiathueony
oneiaee e iaee/ey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia o i?aaei?eyoey, eee o
nianoaaiieea.

I?eioeei naiiieoiaaiinoe – i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi n?aaenoaa, aiineiua a
eaeia-eeai iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey, aoaeoo ieoiaoueny ca n/ao i?eauee eee
ae?oaeo nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey.

I?eioeei naiioeiaine?iaaiey – i?aaeiieaaaao ia oieueei ?aioaaaeueioth
?aaioo i?aaei?eyoey, ii e oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia,
aeinoaoi/iuo eae aeey i?inoiai, oae e aeey ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaei?eyoea eiaao i?aai oi?ie?iaaoue ia oieueei nianoaaiiua, ii e
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

Iniiaiua enoi/ieee naiioeiaine?iaaiey:

i?eaueue;

n?aaenoaa ?aiiioiuo oiiaeia;

aioo?aiiea oeiainiaua ?aca?au;

iaaaua aciinu;

auione oeaiiuo aoiaa e o.i.

I?eioeei aeaeaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ia nianoaaiiua e caaiiua –
i?aaeiieaaaaony ii oaoie/aneiio i?ioeanno, /oi naycaii n i?iecaiaenoaii
i?iaeoeoeee e oi?ie?iaaieai /enoie i?eauee.

I?eioeei ia?aciaaiey eee iaee/ey oeiainiauo ?aca?aia – i?eciae
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Yoe ?aca?au nicaeathony ca n/ao /enoie
i?eauee e aeeth/atho a naay: aa?aioeeiua ?aca?au e ?aca?au ia
ainiieiaiea nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie.

Ca oeiainiaoth ?aaioo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, a niioaaonoaee n A?aaeaeaineei
Eiaeaenii, ioaa/aao aee?aeoi? aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, a ca iaoa?eaeueiua
ecaea?aeee – nianoaaiiee. Ca oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie ioaa/aao oeiainiaue
aee?aeoi? eee aeaaiue aooaaeoa?.

Ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo nicaeathony niaoe neoaeau: ioaeaeueii
niaoeeaeenou ii iia?aoeaiui, oaeouei e no?aoaae/aneei aeaiaaeiui
iioieai.

Caaea/e oeiainiaie neoaeau.

eiio?ieue ca auiieiaieai i?eiyouo ?aoaiee;

o/ao e aiaeec i?ioeiai iiuoa e yeno?aiieyoeey aai ia aoaeouaa;

o/ao oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey e aiciiaeiuo iai?aaeaiee eciaiaiee ai aiaoiae
n?aaea oicyenoaiaaiey;

o/ao no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae e ia?niaeoea;

i?eaioaoeey ia yeno?aiiue oa?aeoa? i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee eee i?iaiaeeiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee;

iainiiaaiea e i?eciaiea iai?aaeneacoaiinoe aeeyiey iaeioi?uo aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia.

Iniiaiay caaea/a oeiainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioa: oi?aaeaiea aeaiaaeiuie
iioieaie ia i?aaei?eyoee e aiciiaeiinoue aaeaine?iaaiey oi?aaeaieai
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeie e aeaiaaeiuie ?ano?naie.

Oeiainiaue iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey.

Oeiainiaue iaoaieci – niaieoiiinoue niiniaia, iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Oeiainiaua iaoiaeu:

ieaie?iaaiea,

i?iaiice?iaaiea,

e?aaeeoiaaiea,

oeiaine?iaaiea,

iaoa?eaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue,

noeioee?iaaiea, e o.i.

I?iaiic – ?an/ao ii?aaeaeaiiuo iieacaoaeae i?e caaeaiiuo ia?aiao?ao.

Oeiainiaua ?u/aae:

i?eaueue,

aeioiae,

aii?oecaoeey,

au?o/ea e o.i.

I?aaiaia iaania/aiea – caeiiu, oeacu, iinoaiiaeaiey, ienueia, Onoaa.

Ii?iaoeaiia iaania/aiea – eino?oeoeee, iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey, ii?iu,
ii?iaoeau.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea: oeiainiaay eioi?iaoeey, i?iecaiaenoaaiiay,
eiiia?/aneay.

NIANOAAIIUE EAIEOAE I?AAeI?EssOEE E EI?II?AOeEE.

NE i?aaei?eyoee e ei?ii?aoeee.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu e ?aca?au.

Oiiaeu.

Ana oai?ee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?anniao?eaatho eaieoae, eae
ninoaaeythuoth /anoue i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa. Oai?ey o?oaeiaie
iai?aaeaiiinoe ?anniao?eaaao eaieoae eae ninoaaeythuoth /anoue
aini?iecaiaenoaa, oai?ey ?uii/iie iai?aaeaiiinoe – eae oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aaoi?u anao yeiiiie/aneeo oai?ee i?eciatho ca eaieoaeii ?aoathuoth ?ieue
e enneaaeotho eae iauea aii?inu, oae e /anoiua aa?eaiou eniieueciaaiey
eaieoaea. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo no?ai auaeaeytho eaieoae ni
naieie iniaaiiinoyie: ?anniao?eaatho e eaieoae ainoaea?noaa, e eaieoae
ei?ii?aoeee, e eaieoae iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iauaaeeiaiee.

?ieue eaieoaea e aai eco/aiea naycaii n oai, /oi ainoaea?noai oa?yao
naie iiceoeee a oi?aaeaiee eaieoaeii, o.a. aeeciaiiay i?aeoeea
iia?aaeaao ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea e eaieoae ooiaeeo io
ainoaea?noaa.

Iauai?eciaiiui yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea eaieoaea eae niaieoiiinoe
noieiinoae n?aaenoa a aeaiaaeii-iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia, eioi?ua i?eiinyo eee
aeiaaai/iue eaieoae, eee i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue, eee i?eaueue.

Ia i?aeoeea ?acee/atho ianeieueei iaeiaiiaaiee eaieoaea: NE,
i?eaea/aiiue eaieoae, caaiiue eaieoae.

NE – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue n?aaenoa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo
nianoaaiieeo i?aaei?eyoey ia i?aaao nianoaaiiinoe, o/anoaothuea a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e i?eiinyuea i?eaueue.

A i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe nianoaaiiee i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao ia ethauo
oneiaeyo i?eaeaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua eaieoaeu a?aaeaeai ae?oaeo
i?aaei?eyoee, ainoaea?noaa, eae ia aiciacaeiie, oae e ia aacaiciacaeiie
iniiaa.

Caaiiue eaieoae – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caeinoaiaaiea n?aaenoa a
e?aaeeoiie noa?a, n aica?aoii iinea eniieueciaaiey e oieaoie i?ioeaioia.
Yoi caeinoaiaaiea iiaeao auoue eae e?aoein?i/iui, oae e aeieain?i/iui.

Eaieoae ii ooieoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
iniiaiie e iai?ioiue.

Iniiaiie eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue IO e IA, a IN, ia
eiathuea eiie?aoiiai iacia/aiey, ii eniieuecothueany a i?iecaiaenoaa,
oaeaea ioiinyony e iniiaiiio eaieoaeo.

A nayce n i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e i?iecaiaenoao eaieoae iiae?acaeaeyaony
ia: iniiaiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eaieoae e iniiaiie iai?iecaiaenoaaiiue
eaieoae.

Iau/ii iniiaiie eaieoae i/aiue o?oaeii ioaeaeeoue io iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia, o.a. io oao, eioi?ua iai?yioth ia o/anoaotho a i?iecaiaenoaa.

N oi/ee c?aiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiiai ninoaaa
iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu ninoiyo a ?innee ec 13 a?oii (caeaiey,
nii?oaeaiey e o.i.), eaaeaeay ec yoeo a?oii ii-?aciiio o/anoaoao a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio nouanoaoao aua aeaeaiea a o/anoee ia
aeoeaiia e ianneaiia. Ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iniiaiua oiiaeu iiaoo oaeaea
aeaeeoueny ia aeoeaiua e ianneaiua, ii aeeyiea eo ia i?iecaiaenoai
iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eeoue oneiaii.

Iai?ioiue eaieoae – n?aaenoaa, aeiaeaiiua a iai?ioiua aeoeau
i?aaei?eyoey, eniieuecothueany eee i?aaeiacia/athueany e eniieueciaaieth
a i?iecaiaenoaa. Iai?ioiue eaieoae o/anoaoao ia anao noaaeeyo
i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acee/iue oi?iao e iiyoiio iiaeao auoue: aeaiaaeiue,
iaoo?aeueiue eee oiaa?iue.

Iai?ioiue eaieoae iiae?acaeaeyaony ii noaaeeyi ia:

i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iai?ioiue eaieoae, eioi?ue aeeth/aao a naay i?aaeiaou
o?oaea, n?aaenoaa o?oaea, iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo
ia?eiaeia;

iai?ioiue eaieoae a noa?a ia?auaiey, aeeth/athuee a naay caianu aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, n?aaenoaa ia ?an/aoiuo e aaethoiuo n/aoao, a eanna, a
oaeaea n?aaenoaa a ?an/aoao.

O.e. iai?ioiue eaieoae ia aeaenoaothuai i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeai auoue
iaeiia?aiaiii ia anao noaaeeyo, oi neaaeiaaoaeueii i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii
eiaoue iaa aeaea eaieoaeia.

Anee iiniio?aoue ii aaeaino, iniiaiie iai?ioiue eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aeoea aaeaina. Iniiaiie eaieoae eniieuecoaony ia i?aaei?eyoee a
oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea, a iai?ioiue eaieoae, i?ioiaey noaaeee
iai?ioa, iieiinoueth aiciauaaony ca n/ao au?o/ee. Iiyoiio ia i?aeoeea
?acee/atho aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiua ia i?eia?aoaiea eee
no?ieoaeuenoai, ?anoe?aiea eee ?aeiino?oeoeeth (aeiaeaiey a iniiaiie
eaieoae); a aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiua ia i?eia?aoaiea
iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa e o.i., n/eoathony aaaine?iaaiiuie a iai?ioiue
eaieoae.

I?eia?aoaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea aiciauaaony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao.
Ana ninoaaeythuea iniiaiiai eaieoaea, a iiiaio eo i?eiyoey ia aaeain,
ioeaieaathony ii ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe, eioi?ay oaeoe/anee
noaiiaeony aaeainiaie noieiinoueth. A oeaeyo i?eaaaeaiey aaeainiaie
noieiinoe eaieoaea e aeaenoaeoaeueiui oneiaeyi, i?iecaiaeyony
ia?aioeaiee ii ?aoaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa. Eiyooeoeeaiou ia?an/aoa ii
iniiaiiio eaieoaeo onoaiaaeeaathony I?aaeoaeuenoaii, ii i?aaei?eyoey n
1997 aiaea eiatho i?aai, aeey ?aaeueiie ioeaiee noieiinoe eaieoaea,
i?eaaaaoue e iacaaeneiui aoaeeoi?ai.

Iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu, cao?aou,
aoiaeyuea a iai?ioiue eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey ia?aioeaiea ia iiaeeaaeao.
Ooeaiea i?iecaiaeeony ca n/ao i?eauee.

N?aaenoaa aii?oecaoeee ii IO oi?ie?othony iooai ia/eneaiey aaeaiany/iuo
io/eneaiee, eioi?ua ?ann/eouaathony eae i?iecaaaeaiea n?aaeiaaiaeiaie
noieiinoe ia ii?io aii?oecaoeee. Ii?ia aii?oecaoeee onoaiaaeeaaaony
enoiaey ec n?iea neoaeau eee ii ?aoaieth i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iiaeii
i?eiaiyoue nenoaio onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee ia iiaaeoea IO e aeey IO
iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?e/ai oieueei ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu. Ia
i?eiaiyaony onei?aiiay aii?oecaoeey IO ii?iaoeaiue n?ie neoaeau eioi?uo
iaiaa 3 eao, yoi i?aaeei oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oieeaeueioth
oaoieeo, iai?oaeiaaiea e o.i.

Aaeainiaay noieiinoue, oiaiueoaiiay ia noiio aii?oecaoeee, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue. Inoaoi/iay noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ii
?an/aoai.

Iai?ioiue eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey ioeaieaaaony ii oaeoe/aneie n/n, eioi?ay
aeeth/aao a naay: cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, iieaoa
i?ioeaioia ca e?aaeeou, iaoeaiee, eiienneiiiua, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu,
o?ainii?oiua oneoae e o.i.

Aeey ioeaiee noieiinoe caiania ia eiie?aoioth aeaoo eniieuecothony:

ioeaiea ii oaeouei oeaiai – ii oaeoe/aneie n/n iineaaeiae caeoiee, a
inoaoee caiania ia eiiaoe ia?eiaea, ii oaeoe/aneie n/n ia?auo caeoiie;

ioeaiea ii oaeoe/aneei oeaiai – ii oaeoe/aneie n/n ia?auo caeoiie, a
inoaoee ia eiiaoe ia?eiaea, ii oaeoe/aneie n/n iineaaeieo caeoiie;

ioeaiea ii n?aaeiei oaeoe/aneei oeaiai – inoaoee caiania ioeaieaathony
eae n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay aaee/eia, acaaoeaaiea inouanoaeyaony io noiia?iie
noieiinoe iaeii?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e eiee/anoao aaeeieoe yoeo ?ano?nia.

O.i. aeey ioeaiee caiania, eae i?aaeei noiie?otho iinooieaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ca ianyoe e oiaaea noiia ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo ia
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee oeaiiinoae i?eia?aoaao aaeainiaoth noieiinoue,
a inoaoee ioeaieaathony eee ii iineaaeiae eee ii ia?aie ia?oee.

Eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey aeeth/aao a naay e IA. Iie iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue
niaie noieiinoue eeoeaicee, iaoaioia, oiaa?iuo ciaeia e o.i., a oaeaea
eae aaee/eia cao?ao ia inaiaiea iiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaie oaoieee e
o.i.

Niaieoiiinoue nianoaaiiiai, iai?ioiiai eaieoaea e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo
aeoeaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianoaaiiue ?aaeueiue eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey.

A ninoaa nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea iiaeao aoiaeeoue e noiia n?aaenoa,
aeiaeaiiuo a oeaiiua aoiaae (ainoaea?noaaiiua e ei?ii?aoeaiua). Oaeay
/anoue nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea iacuaaaony oeiainiaie /anoueth. Aeaiiay
nenoaia iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee naycaia n eniieueciaaieai
naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa eee ?ano?nia. No?oeoo?a oeiainiaiai
eaieoaea iiaeao aeeth/aoue ?acee/iua oeaiiua aoiaae: eae e?aoein?i/iua,
oae e aeieain?i/iua.

Ii?aaeaeaiea aaee/eiu oeiainiaiai eaieoaea inouanoaeyaony ii oeaiai
i?eia?aoaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa eee eo iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe, aeeth/ay a
naay e noaiaiue ?enea e noaiaiue aeioiaeiinoe.

Aaee/eia NE ia yaeyaony iinoiyiiie aaee/eiie, iia eciaiyaony a
niioaaonoaee ni noa?ie aeayoaeueiinoe e oeaeyie ?acaeoey. Ei??aeoe?iaea
i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee.

Iauay noieiinoue eaieoaea, iaoiaeyuaainy a ?anii?yaeaiee nianoaaiieea,
iacuaaaony aaeainiaie ioeaieie NE, iaeiaei eniieuecoaony e oaeouay
ioeaiea noieiinoe eaieoaea, aoaeouay noieiinoue e ?uii/iay noieiinoue
eaieoaea, i?e/ai yoe iiiyoey eiatho ?acee/iue oa?aeoa?.

Oaeouay noieiinoue – aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue – aoaeouee aeaiaaeiue
iioie, o.a. enoiaey ec i?eioeeia, /oi aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea naaiaeiy
noieo aei?iaea, /ai caao?a, ?ann/eouaaaony aeioiae, iieo/aiiue iicaea,
o.a. ?ann/eouaaaony noieiinoue n o/aoii aeioiaeia aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia.

Aoaeouay noieiinoue – noieiinoue a aoaeouai, yieoe?iaaiiay
i?iecaiaenoaii, o.a. eiia/iay noieiinoue i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaeouay noieiinoue aeey o/aoa aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey (a
aooaaeoa?neii iiieiaiee) – yoi aaeainiaay noieiinoue ca ieionii noiiu
ia/eneaiiiai eciina ii IO e IA.

?uii/iay noieiinoue – yoi aoaeouay noieiinoue n o/aoii aeioiaeiinoe,
noaiaie ?enea, oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee e o.i.

OE i?aaei?eyoee e ei?ii?aoeee.

Ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey OE ia eaaeaeii
i?aaei?eyoee ?aaoee?oaony o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie e
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii oiai ainoaea?noaa, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?iai
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii i?aaei?eyoea.

OE – ia?aiia/aeueiue enoi/iee oi?ie?iaaiey NE i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia?aiia/aeueii OE i?aaei?eyoey oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao aeeaaeia o/?aaeeoaeae
a aeaea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ethaie aaethoa, oeaiiuo aoiaa, ?acee/iuo
aeaeia eiouanoaa, i?aa iieueciaaiey eee aeaaeaiey e o.i. Noieiinoue
aeeaaeia ioeaieaaaony a aaethoa ?O o/?aaeeoaeai eee niaianoiui ?aoaieai
o/?aaeeoaeae. Anee aeeaae a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, o/ao aaaeaony a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa e i?iecaiaeeony aaeaeaa?oaeueiue ia?an/ao ii eo?no
OeA?O.

Noi?ie?iaaiiue ia?aiia/aeueiue eaieoae yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii n iaeiie
noi?iiu aaeeiiee/iie eee eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoueth o/?aaeeoaeae, a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu nianoaaiiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey, eae th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.

O.e. a ninoaa o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aciinia iiaoo aoiaeeoue e n?aaenoaa,
eioi?ua ia yaeythony eaieoaeii, o.a. ia aoaeao aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey eo a i?iecaiaenoaa, oi a yoii neo/aa OE aoaeao aieueoa
noiia?iie aaee/eiu NE.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai onoaiiaeei ieieiaeueii aeiionoeiua
aaee/eiu OE aeey i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i,
ii ia iaiai?eei ?acee/ey a eaieoaea e a n?aaenoaao. E?iia oiai,
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii onoaiiaeaii ia?aie/aiey iii i?aaei?eyoeyi, ?aiaa
iaoiaeeaoeiny a ?anii?yaeaiee ainoaea?noaa (aeey eo i?eaaoecaoeee ioaeii
?aoaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa).

Ia /anouo i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaoee?iaaieai ioiioaiee caieiathony
nianoaaiieee ia iniiaa AE ?O. Nianoaaiiee eiaao i?aai ia?aaeaaaoue
/anoue ooieoeee i?aaei?eyoey iaaiiui ?aaioieeai a noa?a oi?aaeaiey.

Oi?ie?iaaiea OE AI iniiauaaaony ia caeiia ia AI. OE neeaaeuaaaony ec
iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe aeoeee, eiathueo iaeeiaeiaoth ioeaieo. Iauanoai
iiaeao eiaoue iau/iua e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua aeoeee. Ana aeoeee AI, eae
i?aaeei, eiaiiua, a ia?aue auione iacuaaaony o/?aaeeoaeueneei. Aeey AI
nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea yiennee, ia?aaea/e e ia?ai?iaeaaee
aeoeee.

A i?ioeanna oicyenoaiaaiey iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii oaaee/aiea OE.
I?e/eiie iiaeao auoue oaaee/aiea NE eee aeeaeaeaiaeiay iieeoeea.
Iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeony e ii iau/iui, e ii i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui aeoeeyi.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniao?eaaao aeaa aa?eaioa iiieaeaiey OE:

iiieaeaiea iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe aeoeee;

nie?auaiea iauaai eiee/anoaa aeoeee.

Ii, oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee yoi i?aaeoniio?aii a onoaaa.

OE i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeaia neeaaeuaaaony ec eiouanoaa
eiiia?aoi?ia, o.a. aeeaaeia a aeaea iaaauo aciinia /eaiia eiiia?aoeaia.
*eaiaie eiiia?aoeaia iiaoo auoue a?aaeaeaia, oi?ie?iaaiea eiouanoaa ca
n/ao i?eauee io nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, e?aaeeoia e o.i.

OE – iaaaie oiiae, eioi?ue oi?ie?oaony a oa/aiea aiaea iinea
?aaeno?aoeee, a iaaaie aciin (ia?aiia/aeueiue) aeieaeai auoue ia iaiaa
10% iauaai aeeaaea.

OIA nicaeaaony, eae i?aaeei, ia aeia?iaieueiuo ia/aeao eee a ii?yaeea
eiinieeaeaoeee aeoeee ii ?aoaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa, eee o/?aaeaeaieai AI
ioe?uoiai oeia, eee ia?aaea/ae a?oiiu i?aaei?eyoee a aeiaa?eoaeueiia
oi?aaeaiea, eee i?eia?aoaieai iaeiei ec o/anoieeia iaeaoia aeoeee
ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee.

A OIA iiaoo aoiaeeoue ia oieueei i?aaei?eyoey, ii e e?aaeeoiua
o/?aaeaeaiey.

Onoaaiua oiiaeu oaeeo a?oii oi?ie?othony ia iniiaa
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i, ii ainoaea?noai iiaeao eciaiyoue oiiae e
?aaoee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue.

OEIAINIAUA ?ANO?NU E ?ACA?AU I?AAeI?EssOEE E EI?II?AOeEE.

NE i?aaei?eyoey, aai noi?ie?iaaaoayny /anoue (onoaaiie oiiae),
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiao aeey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. E?iia NE,
i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoue anaaiciiaeiua ?ano?nu. Oeiainiaua
?ano?nu, oiiaeu e ?aca?au eiatho a iniiaa iaoa?eaeueioth /anoue. Eo
aaee/eia caaeneo io aaee/eiu iinooiathuae au?o/ee, i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa,
?aaeecaoeee nianoaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa. A oaeaea n?aaenoaa, iinooiathuea
/a?ac athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey io iia?aoeee ia oeiainiaii ?uiea – yoi
aiaoiyy /anoue iinooieaiee.

Enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey oiiaeia e ?aca?aia aeaeyony ia aioo?aiiea e
aiaoiea.

Oeiainiauie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoee iacuaatho anth niaieoiiinoue
aiciiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a
i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeiainiaua ?aca?au – niaieoiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo /anoae aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu oieueei i?e ianooieaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu e ?aca?au iiaoo auoue a oi?ia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a
oaeaea iaoa?eaeia, oeaiiuo aoiaa, e o.ae.

Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue oeiainiaua ?ano?nu a iia?aoeaiie, oaeouae e
ia?niaeoeaiie i?aeoeea.

A iia?aoeaiie ?aaioa oeiainiaua ?ano?nu iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ii
i?yiiio e ia ii i?yiiio iacia/aieth, ii i?e oneiaee eo iaeaieeaaiey e
eniieueciaaiey a iineaaeothueo ia?eiaeao aeayoaeueiinoe.

Athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue a iia?aoeaiie i?aeoeea.
O.i. enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a iia?aoeaiie
i?aeoeea cia/eoaeueii oe?a /enea enoi/ieeia a ia?niaeoeaiii e oaeouai ca
n/ao i?eaea/aiey a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Aioo?aiiea oeiainiaua ?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey.

Aioo?aiiea oeiainiaua ?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey oi?ie?othony a i?ioeanna aai
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a aaee/eia caaeneo io ianooaaia e
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe n o/aoii OE.

Enoi/ieee: aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, i?eaueue eee aeioiae.

Iniaaiiinoe aii?oecaoeeiiiuo oiiaeia – eae oiiaeu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
iie ia iainiaeaiu e iinoiyiii iaoiaeyony a aeaiaaeiii iai?ioa
i?aaei?eyoey.

I?eaueue oieueei io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa – ?acoeueoao
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii aa aaee/eia iiaeao eieaaaoueny a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie a caaeneiinoe io ?aaeecaoeee eiouanoaa,
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia, a aa eniieueciaaieai ?oeiaiaeeo
nianoaaiiee. Iniaaiiinoue i?eauee a oii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea eiaao i?aai
eniieueciaaoue eae oeiainiaue ?ano?n anth i?eaueue eee 10 – 50% i?eauee
(yoi caaeneo io iainiiaaiey, noa?u oicyenoaiaaiey,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu i?aaei?eyoey).

A /anoe eniieueciaaiey i?eauee i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao iieo/aoue eueaiou: ca
n/ao eciaiaiey iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu, iiieaeaiey noaaie, eneeth/aiey
i?eauee ec iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu, ion?i/ee ieaoaaea.

Eniieueciaaiea i?eauee iaoiaeeony a ?anii?yaeaiee nianoaaiieea, eae
i?aaeei, ia i?ienoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea aaeeiiai oiiaea, a nouanoaoao
ianeieueei ?acaeaeueiuo oiiaeia. O.e. oi?ie?iaaiea e eniieueciaaiea
i?eauee ia noueothony, neaaeiaaoaeueii, n?aaenoaa iiaoo iai?aaeyoueny ia
oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea iaaeaeo yoeie ia?eiaeaie (ia cao?aaeaay naio
i?eaueue eae oaeiaoth).

Aua iaeei enoi/iee aioo?aiieo ?aca?aia – aeiaaai/iue eaieoae –ia?acoaony
a ?acoeueoaoa i?e?inoa noieiinoe eiouanoaa, auyaeaiiie a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aioeaiee; iieo/aiea yienneiiiiai aeioiaea (io aeiiieieoaeueiie
yiennee aeoeee, i?iaeaaee aeoeee auoa iiieiaea); aacaiciacaeiia
iieo/aiea oeaiiinoae eee eiouanoaa io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee e eeoe (eae
i?aaeei, iinyo no?iai oeaeaaie oa?aeoa?). A onoaaiuo aeieoiaioao iiaeao
i?aaeoniao?eaaoueny nicaeaiea iaaeaeeiiai oiiaea naa?o noiiu OE, oiiae
eniieuecoaony, eae oeiainiaue ?ano?n.

A AI, e?iia oeacaiiuo oiiaeia, iiaeii oi?ie?iaaoue: aueoiiie oiiae,
eioi?ue oi?ie?oaony ec ?aaoey?iuo io/eneaiee n?aaenoa aeey aueoia naieo
iaeeaaoeee eee aeoeee; ioeiaeaiiue oiiae – aeey aueoia i?aaei?eyoeai
/anoe eee anao aeoeee.

Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea eiaao, e?iia oiai, naie aeiiieieoaeueiua
oeiainiaua ?ano?nu: aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue (aioo?aiiyy e
aiaoiyy), no?aoiaua oiiaeu, ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia.

Aiaoiea enoi/ieee eee caaiiua oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa.

Athaeaeaoiua – i?aaeinoaaeythony i?aaei?eyoeth i?yiui ia?a/eneaieai ii
ooaa?aeaeaiiui i?ia?aiiai (+ ion?i/ea iaeiaia, aica?ao e?aaeeoia).
I?aaeinoaaeaiea athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa inouanoaeyaony i?aaei?eyoeyi,
caieiathueiny no?aoaae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth e anee i?aaeoniio?aia
aica?aoiinoue n?aaenoa, oi a ioee/ea io e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia, iao oieaou
i?ioeaioia.

I?eaea/aiea n?aaenoa n ?uiea e?aaeeoia e e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia –
noauaeoaie naeaeie iiaoo aunooiaoue eiiia?/aneea aaiee, ainoaea?noai e
ioieoeeiaeueiua i?aaiu. Eniieueciaaiea caaiiiai eaieoaea inouanoaeyaony
ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe, n?i/iinoe e ieaoiinoe. Noa?a aeieai- e
n?aaeian?i/iiai e?aaeeoiaaiey ?aaoee?oaony OeA?O e oneiaeyie aeiaiai?ia
e?aaeeoiaaiey.

E?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo eniieueciaaoue, eae oeiainiaue ?ano?n,
n?aaenoaa ii ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth aioo?e i?aaei?eyoee eee ei?ii?aoeee,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia yoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo nicaeaaony iao/ii iainiiaaiiay
nenoaia oi?aaeaiey eaieoaeii e oeiainiauie ?ano?naie.

?inneeneea i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo eniieueciaaoue oaeaea: ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo oiiaeia a /anoe aeueoa?iaoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa (ieiei 5% io n/n); i?eaea/aiea
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee (a iniiaiii eae i?eaea/aiiua, a ia eae caaiiua
n?aaenoaa). Yoi eniieuecoaony, eae i?aaeei, ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
i?e iieiie aa?aioee aica?aoa noiiu.

N?aaenoaa eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia: aaiee, no?aoiaua i?aaiecaoeee,
iaineiiiua oiiaeu (eae e?aaeeou e aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa oiiaeia). Ii
eniieuecothony yoe ?ano?nu ia oieueei a ia?eiae noaaeeecaoeee, eiay a
aeaeo, /oi yoe oiiaeu yaeythony iiae?acaeaeaieyie e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu nicaeathony ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo e?oaiiai?ioa
eaieoaea. Iie iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ii?iaeueiiai i?ioaeaiey i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aa?auaiea yoeo ?ano?nia ec oiaa?iie oi?iu a
aeaiaaeioth i?ienoiaeeo ia iineaaeiae noaaeee (iieo/aiea au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee). Aeaenoaothuaa ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ii?aaeaeyao
oeiainiaua ?ano?nu eae oiiaeu iaeiieaiey e oiiaeu iio?aaeaiey.

Oiiaeu iaeiieaiey.

A i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa n?aaenoa oeiainiaua ?ano?nu i?eieiatho
?acee/iua iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiua oi?iu e iinea caaa?oaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaiiai?ioa ia?aae i?aaei?eyoeai noiyo ?acee/iua
caaea/e: ?anoe?aiea, nie?auaiea eee aini?iecaiaenoai, a caaeneiinoe io
i?eiyoie oeiainiaie iieeoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea
oiiaea aiciauaiey ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo ?ano?nia, oiiaea iieaou o?oaea naiiai
nianoaaiieea e ?aaioieeia, oiiaea aeaeueiaeoaai ?anoe?aiey.

Ii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao e nenoaia o/aoa cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai, nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey oiiaeia aiciauaiey a /anoe
eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao, oiiaea ?anoe?aiey a /anoe iiauoaiey eiee/anoaa
i?eia?aoaaiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e noieiinoe IA iauaaeeiaiu a oiiaeu
iaeiieaiey, oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey a ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa – EA. O.i.
aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa a aini?iecaiaenoai ?aiaa aeaenoaothuaai e /anoe/ii
eniieueciaaiiiai nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, aeiaeaiey a iiaoth aaee/eio
eaieoaea inouanoaeythony n iiiiuueth nicaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey oiiaea
iaeiieaiey.

Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey yoeie oiiaeaie ?aaoee?oaony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ii
ia i?aeoeea ionoonoaoao nenoaia niiinoaaeaiey oaeoa e ieaia e
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yoiai niiinoaaeaiey. Iniiaiie i?eioeei:
eiio?ieue oaeoe/aneiai eniieiaiey niao, i?aaeeueiinoe eniieueciaaiey
niao e oi?ie?iaaiey cao?ao. Nicaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea oiiaea iaeiieaiey
iaoiaeeony a iieiie caaeneiinoe io ?aoaiey nianoaaiieea eaieoaea, a a
iia?aoeaiie i?aeoeea yoe ooieoeee auiieiytho eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu
oi?aaeaiey a ?aieao, iaiai?aiiuo a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao.

No?oeoo?a oiiaea iaeiieaiey no?ieony a caaeneiinoe io enoi/ieeia, a
?acaeaeaiea ia oiiaeu ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui, ii yoi
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa n oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey, o/aoa e
o.i.

Enoi/ieee oiiaeia oi?ie?otho iacaaiey oiiaeia:

aii?oecaoeeiiiue;

eiaanoeoeeiiiue;

?aca?aiue;

no?aoiaie;

annioeeaoeaiue eee io?aneaaie;

iaineiiiue e i?i/ea.

N auoiaeii iiaiai Oaieiaiiai Eiaeaena nouanoaaiii eciaieeinue ia/eneaiea
aii?oecaoeee e oi?ie?iaaiea oiiaeia.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu oi?ie?othony eae naiinoiyoaeueiua oiiaeu, a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Nouanoaoao i?yiia e
einaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia.

Eiaanoe?iaaiea a eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey ( EA ).

Ia i?aaei?eyoee oi?ie?oaony oiiae eiaanoe?iaaiey a EA eee a IO
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eee iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey. E?iia oiai,
oi?ie?othony oiiaeu ia caeoieo iai?oaeiaaiey, oiiaeu iiiieiaiey
nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa eee eo i?e?inoa, oiiae inaiaiey iiaie
oaoieee e oaoiieiaee. Oi?ie?othony niaoeeaeueiua oiiaeu aeey ?aaiou ia
oeiainiaii ?uiea (i?e oneiaee, /oi au?aaaouaaaony nenoaia ?aaiou ia
?uieao aeaiaa, e?aaeeoa e oeaiiuo aoiaa).

O.e. eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu cao?aaeaatho no?aoaaeth ?acaeoey aeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, oi oi?ie?iaaiea e eniieueciaaiea yoeo n?aaenoa iaoiaeeony
a eiiiaoaioeee nianoaaiieeia. Oaoie/anee eniieueciaaiea ioi?ieyaony a
aeaea niao, ?an/aoia, oaoie/aneeo iainiiaaiee.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia iiaoo i?eaeaeaoueny eae
nianoaaiiua, oae e caaiiua ?ano?nu. E nianoaaiiui ?ano?nai: iaeia ia
i?eaueue, noaia ianoiuo iaeiaia, n?aaenoaa athaeaeaoiuo e
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia. Anneaiiaaiey athaeaeaoiuo e aiaathaeaeaoiuo
oiiaeia aeieaeiu iineoue oeaeaaie oa?aeoa?.

N?aaenoaa, i?eaeaeaaiua a eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu, aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny
ioaeaeueii, o.e. eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea eiaao ia iaeio oeaeue, a
ianeieueei, o.a. oiiae nicaeaaony aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee.

I?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee aiciiaeii oieueei aeey
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee eee e?oiiuo eiiiaiee, o.e. iie eiatho
aiciiaeiinoue oi?ie?iaaoue ?aaeueioth i?eaueue e ia?aaeaaaoue
nianoaaiieeo.

?aca?aiue oiiae – oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao aaeiaie i?eauee, n 1997 aiaea –
ca n/ao /enoie i?eauee. Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea iaycaii noi?ie?iaaoue
?aca?aiue oiiae aeey iie?uoey eaeeo-eeai ?anoiaeia a i?aaeaeao aei 25%
io OE.

Io?aneaaua oiiaeu nicaeathony oieueei oai, aaea nouanoaoao io?aneaaay
no?oeoo?a.

A nayce n o?aaiaaieyie ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey oi?ie?iaaiea e
eniieueciaaiea oiiaeia iiaeao auoue a ?aieao eaa?oaea eee aiaea e o.ae.
e ii iai?aaeaieyi.

Oiiae iio?aaeaiey oi?ie?oaony ec aeaoo /anoae:

oiiae iio?aaeaiey nianoaaiieea;

oiiae iiaeaea?aeee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Oiiaeu iiae?acaeaeythony ia ninoaaiua /anoe a caaeneiinoe io enoi/ieeia
oi?ie?iaaiey. Iniiaa aeaeaiey – caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eioi?ia ?aaoee?oao
?acee/iua aa?eaiou ecuyoey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ii?aaeaeaiiua oiiaeu.

Caaiiua e i?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua aeaeaa iai?aaeythony a oiiaeu
iio?aaeaiey a ?innee, eae i?aaeei, ia eniieuecothony. N?aaenoaa oiiaeia
iio?aaeaiey oi?ie?othony eae ia i?aaei?eyoee, oae e aia i?aaei?eyoey
(iaineiiiua oiiaeu, oiiaeu no?aoiaaiey), o.a. iaainoaea?noaaiiua oiiaeu,
eioi?ua auiea/eaathony ?aaioieeai.

Oiiae iio?aaeaiey aeaeeony ia o?e iniiaiuo:

oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou;

oiiae nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a;

i?i/ea oiiaeu iio?aaeaiey.

Enoi/ieeii yoeo oiiaeia iiaeao auoue n/n, ecaea?aeee e i?eaueue, a
niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieai i ninoaaa cao?ao.

Oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou – iieaoa ca io?aaioaiiia a?aiy ii oa?eoai eee
oa?eoiui noaaeai, eee a i?ioeaioao io au?o/ee, i?aiee e
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, auieaou ca iaio?aaioaiiia a?aiy, iinyuea ?aaoey?iue
oa?aeoa? (ioionea), aaeeiia?aiaiiua iiiu?eoaeueiua auieaou,
iaoa?eaeueiay iiiiuue, iieaoa aeeeuey, eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa, auieaou ia
ieoaiea, e o.i.

Oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou aeaeeony ia:

oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeia iniiaiiai e aniiiiaaoaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoa;

oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou oi?aaeai/aneiai ninoaaa.

Oiiaeu nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a oi?ie?othony ca n/ao /enoie i?eauee, eo
oi?ie?iaaiea ioi?ieaii ?aoaieai nianoaaiieea eee o/?aaeeoaeae –
iaaeaaaee e iainee ca n/ao i?eauee, no?aoiaua ieaoaaee, aciinu ia
aeia?iaieueiia iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea, ?anoiaeu ii iooaaeai e o.i.

O.e. ?anoiaeu ii yoei oiiaeai oa?aeoa?ecotho oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea
i?aaei?eyoey e aiciiaeiinoe noeioee?iaaiey ?aaioieeia ca n/ao i?eauee,
oi yoe oiiaeu aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny iainiaeaiii ia noan/aoao e
naycuaaoueny n ii?yaeeii ?ani?aaeaeaiey /enoie i?eauee.

?ani?aaeaeaiea /enoie i?eauee a AI ii aeoeeyi, iaeeaaoeeyi e ae?oaei
oeaiiui aoiaaai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaii ainoaea?noaii, ii auieaoa aeeaeaeaiaeia
e i?ioeaioia, ii oeaiiui aoiaaai aeey iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

O.e. ?aaoee?iaaiea oiiaeia iio?aaeaiey e iaeiieaiey ai i?aaei?eyoee
inouanoaeyaony ii oaeoe/aneiio eo eniieiaieth, o.a. ii aaee/eia
ia/eneaiiuo eee auiea/aiiuo noii, oi ?yae noaoae iiaoo auoue
i?iaiice?oaiu, a ?yae noaoae ia eiaao aa?eaioa i?iaiica. E?iia oiai, a
caaeneiinoe io o/aoiie iieeoeee, i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao nicaeaaaoue
aeiiieieoaeueiua oiiaeu eae ca n/ao /enoie i?eauee, oae e ca n/ao n/n.

ECAeA?AEEE.

Ninoaa cao?ao, aeeth/aaiuo a n/n i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa, aeeythueo
ia oi?ie?iaaiea oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa.

A i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoea i?iecaiaeeo
eiiieaen aeaiaaeiuo cao?ao e ?anoiaeia. A ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea ia
i?eiaiythony ?acaeaee eiiieaena cao?ao e eiiieaena ?anoiaeia.

Cao?aou – i?aaeoniio?aiiue iiiaio aiciauaiey.

?anoiaeu – iai?aaeoniio?aiiue iiiaio aiciauaiey.

Cao?aou e ?anoiaeu iauaaeeiythony a ianeieueei a?oii:

cao?aou ia aini?iecaiaenoai eaieoaea;

cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee;

cao?aou ia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua i?ia?aiiu;

iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu.

Cao?aou ia aini?iecaiaenoai eaieoaea iaania/eaatho i?ioeann iai?a?uaiue
i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeoniao?eaatho eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa ia
nicaeaiea, ?aeiino?oeoeeth e ?anoe?aiea IIO. Oi?ie?iaaiea iai?ioiiai
eaieoaea – cao?aou ia oi?ie?iaaiea caiania oiaa?iiaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, caaeaeia iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, AI, ?an/aoia, o.a.
aaaine?iaaiea i?inoiai e ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai neeaaeuaathony ec iniiaiiai eaieoaea, iai?ioiuo
aeoeaia e o?oaea. Yoe cao?aou iieiinoueth aiciauathony ec au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa.

Cao?aou ia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua i?ia?aiiu – cao?aou ia iiauoaiea
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia, iiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia, auoiauo oneiaee e o.i.

Iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu – cao?aou ?aciaiai oa?aeoa?a eee eiathuea aeey
i?aaei?eyoey niaoeeoe/aneia cia/aiea (cao?aou ia ia?aioeaieo IO, cao?aou
ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aciauo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio).

Yeiiiie/aneia niaea?aeaiea cao?ao i?aaeoniao?eaaao eo eeanneoeeaoeeth
ia:

iaoa?eaeueiua;

o?oaeiaua;

aeaiaaeiua;

a oae aea:

yaiua;

iayaiua.

O.a. aeaeaiea iiaeao auoue /aoei ?aca?aie/aii, a iiaeao oieueei
i?iniao?eaaoueny.

Cao?aou oaeaea aeaeyony ia:

aooaaeoa?neea;

yeiiiie/aneea;

aeueoa?iaoeaiua.

Auai? aa?eaioa ai iiiaii ?aoaao yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e
aiciiaeiinoue yeiiiiee anao eiathueony ?ano?nia.

Ii enoi/ieeai oeiaine?iaaiey ana cao?aou aeaeyony ia:

oeiaine?iaaiea ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo e i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey;

oeiaine?iaaiea ca n/ao athaeaeaoa e athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee;

cao?aou, iie?uaaaiua ca n/ao e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia.

Cao?aou ia aini?iecaiaenoai eaieoaea ii enoi/ieeai aeaeyony ia o?e
/anoe:

cao?aou ia ainnoaiiaeaiea IIO, ?aiiio e ianeoaeeaaiea; inouanoaeyaony ec
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

iai?ioiua aeoeau, aaaine?iaaiiua a i?iecaiaenoai;

cao?aou ia oi?ie?iaaiea, ?aeiino?oeoeeth, ?anoe?aiea IIO, i?e?ino
iai?ioiuo aeoeaia, i?iecaiaenoai ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo, i?eaea/aiiuo e
caaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee aiciauathony ec au?o/ee, ii n
o/aoii iieiaeaiey i ninoaaa cao?ao. Iai?aaeaiea n?aaenoa ia
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?ioth i?ia?aiio inouanoaeyaony oieueei ca n/ao
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, n iacia/eoaeueiui eniieueciaaieai e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia aaieia. Iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu iiaoo iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao anao
enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa.

Ii enoi/ieeai e iaoiaeai oeiaine?iaaiey ana cao?aou iiae?acaeaeythony ia
aeaa a?oiiu:

oeiaine?oaiua ec nianoaaiiuo, i?eaea/aiiuo e caaiiuo n?aaenoa;

aiciauaaiua ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.

E ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony:

cao?aou, naycaiiua n ainnoaiiaeaieai e ?anoe?aieai iniiaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaea, eiathuea eaieoaeueiue oa?aeoa?;

cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?iiaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae;

cao?aou, naycaiiua n ?aciauie ?anoiaeaie;

cao?aou, naycaiiua n eiaanoe?iaaieai naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia ioiinyony:

iieaoa caaeieaeaiiinoe aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey;

cao?aou ?aciaua, ii iinyuea iaeaieoaeueiue oa?aeoa?;

cao?aou ia eiaanoe?iaaiea iaeaieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ia?aay a?oiia – cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee –
aeiaeaiea naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey. Aoi?ay – cao?aou,
naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii, iie e ia?acotho ecaea?aeee.

Oae aea eae e cao?aou, ecaea?aeee aeaeyony ia:

yeiiiie/aneea;

aooaaeoa?neea;

aeueoa?iaoeaiua.

A ninoaa aooaaeoa?neeo ecaea?aeae aeeth/athony oieueei yaiua cao?aou,
o.a. noieiinoue anao aeaeia cao?a/aiiuo ?ano?nia ia i?iecaiaenoai e
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee.

A ninoaa yeiiiie/aneeo ecaea?aeae aeeth/athony aooaaeoa?neea cao?aou e
aeioiaeu oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue au?aaeaiu a
noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee.

Aeueoa?iaoeaiua ecaea?aeee – ieieiaeueiua ecaea?aeee; eo/oee aa?eaio
ni/aoaiey eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia i?e i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee.

A ?inneeneie i?aeoeea iiiyoea ecaea?aeee ?aaii n/n. Oieueei a oi?aiaea
iauanoaaiiui ieoaieai a aeieoiaioao auaeaeaiu ecaea?aeee.

?acee/atho:

i?iecaiaenoaaiioth n/n – niaieoiiinoue anao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao,
naycaiiuo n ecaioiaeaieai i?iaeoeoeee;

iieiay n/n – i?iecaiaenoaaiiay n/n iethn cao?aou, naycaiiua n
?aaeecaoeeae, o.a. iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua, eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu.

Cao?aou, ioiineiua ia n/n, eeanneoeoee?othony ii i?eciaeai:

iaoiae ioianaiey ia n/n;

naycue n iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa;

noaiaiue iaeii?iaeiinoe cao?ao.

Cao?aou:

oneiaii-iinoiyiiua;

oneiaii-ia?aiaiiua;

iaeiiyeaiaioiua (eee eiiieaeniua).

Cao?aou aeaeyony ii yeaiaioai e ii noaoueyi cao?ao.

Cao?aou, aoiaeyuea a n/n, a?oiie?othony ii yeaiaioai:

iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou;

cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea;

io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu;

aii?oecaoeey IO;

i?i/ea cao?aou.

E?iia oiai, a eaaeaeie io?anee nouanoaoao niaoeeoe/aneee ?yae cao?ao,
eioi?ua iiaoo ii-ae?oaiio o/eouaaoueny a ninoaaa n/n e anao cao?ao:

cao?aou, naycaiiua n oaoiieiaeae e i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa;

cao?aou, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai i?e?iaeiiai nu?uey;

cao?aou iaeaieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a naycaiiua n niaa?oainoaiaaieai
oaoiieiaee;

cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia ianeoaeeaaiea;

io/eneaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiua e aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu;

ieaoaaee ii e?aaeeoai aaieia;

cao?aou naycaiiua n aini?iecaiaenoaii IO, aeeth/aaiua a n/n;

eciin IA;

iaeiae, io/eneaiey ec n/n;

e ae?oaea aeaeu cao?ao.

Cao?aou, aoiaeyuea a n/n a aaethoa, ia?an/eouaathony ii eo?no OeA?O e
io?aaeathony a ?oaeyo.

Ninoaa cao?ao ii yeaiaioai oi?ie?oaony a io?aneaauo eino?oeoeeyo e
oa?aeoa?ecoao io?aneaaoth no?oeoo?o n/n. Ecaea?aeee a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai yaeythony iniiaiui iieacaoaeai, o.e. iieacaoaeue
eniieuecoaony a oeiainiaie ?aaioa, i?e ?an/aoa i?eauee, noiiu iaeiaia,
acaeiiioiioaiee n athaeaeaoii, ?aioaaaeueiinoe a oeaeii e ii i?ia?aiiai.

Oi?aaeaiea n/n aeeth/aao a naay ana yoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa, a oeiainiaia
oi?aaeaiea yaeyaony ia/aeueiui e caaa?oathuei yoaiii. Ia ia/aeueiii
yoaia – yoi ii?aaeaeaiea eiathueony ?ano?nia, ia caaa?oathuai –
ii?aaeaeaiea au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee. Ia caaa?oathuai yoaia i?iaiaeeony
aiaeec n oi/ee c?aiey aacoauoi/iinoe iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee, ?uieia nauoa, o.e. aeey oi?aaeaiey eee i?aaiecaoeee
oeiainiaiai oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey eniieuecothony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua
aeaiiua niao cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee, eee
athaeaeao i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee. Oaeea niaou eee athaeaeaou
yaeythony ?an/aoiuie, eiatho ?acee/iua oi?iu e ninoaaeythony aeey
?ac?aaioee oaoiieiae/aneeo athaeaeaoia eee niao, niao iaania/aiey
o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie, niao iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, niao i oeiainiauo
?ano?nao e o.ae. E?iia oiai, a ?an/aoao i?eiaiythony aeueoa?iaoeaiua
niaou, iie aa?oony eee ec oneiaiuo ia?aiao?ia, eee n eiieo?e?othueo
i?aaei?eyoee, iiaoo auoue ?ann/eoaiu niaoeeaeenoaie.

Niaoa iicaieyao ?ann/eoaoue:

iauai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii n/n;

i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

ioeaieoue iaoa?eaeiaieinoue e o?oaeiaieinoue;

ni?iaiice?iaaoue iio?aaiinoue a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao e o.i.

ia i?aeoeea i?eiaiytho aeaa aeaea niao:

niaoa i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (athaeaeao i?iecaiaenoaa);

niaoa i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee.

Aeey oaeianoaa e aieaa iieiiai iainiiaaiey n/n ia i?aeoeea iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny aiaeiaua, eaa?oaeueiua e iany/iua niaou.

O.e. oeiainenou ?aaioatho n ieaiiauie iieacaoaeyie, oi ieaiiaue iauai
?aaeecaoeee ?ann/eouaaai ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ii n/n = inoaoee ia ia/aei ia?eiaea + iauai
auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee – inoaoee ia eiiaoe ia?eiaea.

A caaeneiinoe io o/aoiie iieeoeee inoaoee ia ia/aei e ia eiiaoe aiaea
iiaoo eiaoue ?acee/iue ninoaa:

anee i?aaei?eyoea ?aaioaao ii iinooieaieth n?aaenoa a eanno eee ia
?an/aoiua n/aoa, oi inoaoee ia ia/aei aiaea aeeth/atho a naay:

inoaoee ia neeaaea AI;

oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua, n?ie iieaou eioi?uo ia ianooiee;

oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua, n?ie iieaou eioi?uo enoae;

oiaa?u ia ioaaonoaaiiii o?aiaiee;

ia eiiaoe aiaea:

oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua ia neeaaea;

oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua, n?ie iieaou eioi?uo ia ianooiee;

i?e o/aoiie iieeoeea ii ioa?ocea ?ann/eouaathony oieueei inoaoee ii AI
ia ia/aei e eiiaoe aiaea ia
neeaaea AI.

OI?IE?IAAIEA AU?O*EE IO ?AAEECAOeEE I?IAeOEOeEE, ?AAIO, ONEOA.

Iiiaio ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa a ie?iaie i?aeoeea
ii?aaeaeyaony iiiaioii ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe io ia?auo
aeaaeaeueoeaa e ae?oaei. Ia?aaea/a yoiai i?aaa inouanoaeyaony a
niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie aeiaiai?ia eoiee-i?iaeaaee, aeiaiai?ia iaiaia e
?aaoee?oaony a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii oie no?aiu, aaea inouanoaeyaony
iia?aoeey.

A ?innee ia?aoiae i?aa inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii
aeaoi aa?eaioai:

ii iieaoa;

ii ioa?ocea;

I?e oneiaeyo aa?oa?iie naeaeee iiiaioii ?aaeecaoeee n/eoaaony iiiaio
iinooieaiey i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa iieoiaoaeth.

Noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaeeciaaiiie iieoiaoaeth, iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue ii ?acee/iui oeaiai:

iioiaui;

?icie/iui;

aeiaiai?iui, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue aeaeyony ia ioioneiua e iieoiiua;

ie?iaui;

Ia i?aeoeea iiaeii oae aea i?eiaieoue oneiaii-?an/aoiua oeaiu. Au?o/ea
o.i. aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny ii aeaeaieth i?aaei?eyoey, enoiaey ec
o?aaiaaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Io naiaa?aiaiiinoe iinooieaiey n?aaenoa caaeneo oeiainiaia ninoiyiea e
onoie/eainoue iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey, ninoiyiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa,
?an/?oia n athaeaeaoaie e aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie. ( A niioaaonoaee n
?inneeneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, eae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay iieaoa, oae e
caaea?aeea i?eaiaeyo e aeiiieieoaeueiui ?an/?oai n athaeaeaoii ii
iaeiaai.)

?an/?ou ii aeiaiai?ai iinoaaie inouanoaeythony, eae i?aaeei, a aaethoa
?innee; o/?o au?o/ee oae aea a ?oaeyo. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?an/?ou
inouanoaeythony a niioaaonoaee n nenoaiie aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa (nouanoaotho ii?aaeae?iiua i?aaeea iieoiee,
i?iaeaaee aaethou; i?aaeea o/?oa aaethou, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aaethoiuo
iia?aoeee).

I?aaei?eyoey, yenii?oe?othuea i?iaeoeoeeth, iieo/atho au?o/eo ia
aaethoiua n/aoa aaieia, inoaoee ii aaethoiui n/aoai ia?an/eouaathony a
?oaee, i?e ?an/?oa au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee. Nouanoaotho ii?aaeae?iiua
i?aaeea ca/eneaiey n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiue n/ao e eo ?anoiaeiaaiey.

Au?o/ea, iinooieaoay ia n/aoa eee n eanno, eae i?aaeei, n?aco
eniieuecothony ia ii?aaeae?iiua oeaee ( iieoiea nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e
o.i.).

Ia niio?y ia ana aiaoiea i?eciaee, o.a. aeaiaaeiay oi?ia ?an/?oia ca
auiieiaiea ?aaio e oneoa eee ca ioa?oaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, au?o/ea ia
yaeyaony aeioiaeii a iieiii niunea neiaa, o.e. iia aeeth/aao a naay, ii
aioo?aiiaio niaea?aeaieth, n?aaenoaa ii aiciauaieth cao?ao, n?aaenoaa ii
iieaoa iaeiaia e i?eaueue.

Ia aaee/eio au?o/ee aeeytho iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u.

E iauaeoeaiui ioiinyony aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea.

Aioo?aiiea – iau?i i?iecaiaenoaa, o?iaaiue ecaea?aeae, ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee, ?eoie/iinoue auionea, anni?oeiaio (a i?iecaiaenoaa);
?eoie/iinoue ioa?ocee, naiaa?aiaiiia ioi?ieaiea aeieoiaioia,
iioeiaeueiua oi?iu ?an/?oia (a ia?auaiee).

Aiaoiea – ?uiie nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, iieooaa?eeaoia, iau?i i?iecaiaenoaa
a naiae eiiiaoaioeee, ea/anoai ii n?aaiaiee n aiaeiaaie ae?oaeo
i?aaei?eyoee, ?eoie/iinoue iinoaaie (a i?iecaiaenoaa); n?iee
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa, niaethaeaiee oneiaee aeiaiai?ia, iioeiaeueiay oi?ia
?an/?oia (a noa?a ia?auaiey).

E?iia oiai, iiaoo auoue aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu: ia?ooaiea n?ieia
iinoaaee iaoa?eaeia e ae?oaeo ?ano?nia, ioeaee a o?ainii?oiii
iaania/aiee, ianaiaa?aiaiiay iieaoa.

E noauaeoeaiui oaeoi?ai ioiinyony: oaeoi?u ii?aeueiiai ieaia,
iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea ia ?uiea, noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aeeaia eee
aioe?aeeaia.

Eae i?aaeei, au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iniiaaia ia: iau?ia
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ia noi?iio, enoiaey ec oeai aac IAeN, aeoeecia,
oi?aiauo e nauoiauo neeaeie; aac oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei e oa?eoia.

IAeN e aeoeecu, eae einaaiiua iaeiae, iiaeeaaeao iieaoa a athaeaeao e ia
i?eiaaeeaaeao i?aaei?eyoeth.

Oi?aiai-nauoiaua neeaeee iinooiatho iin?aaeie/aneei i?aaiecaoeeyi.

Iioeeiu iiea/eaathony aei ?aaeueiiai inouanoaeaiey yenii?oa eee eiii?oa.

Aaee/eia au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee oneoa ii?aaeaeyaony io iau?ia
?aaeecaoeee oneoa, auiieiaiiuo aeey noi?iiieo i?aaei?eyoee ii
iai?aaeaieyi e a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie oa?eoaie e ?anoeaieaie.

A ninoaa iau?ia ?aaeecaoeee aeeth/athony oaeaea: ?aaeecaoeey naiei
?aaioieeai, ?aaeecaoeey aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey, auaeaiiay a ea/anoaa
aiciauaiey.

Aeaiueae e eiua n?aaenoaa, iinooiathuea io ?aaeecaoeee eee auauoey IN,
IA, IA ia aeeth/athony a au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio,
oneoa. Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae, oeaiiuo aoiaa iiaeao
aeeth/aoueny a iau?i au?o/ee i?e ii?aaeae?iiuo oneiaeyo.

?acee/iua iaoiaeu o/?oa au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee, niaoeeoeea
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu i?aaei?eyoey
i?aaeiieaaatho e ?acee/iua aa?eaiou a? io?aaeaiey.

I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea o/aoa au?o/ee ii ioa?ocea o/eouaaaony a ie?iaie
i?aeoeea ia iieiaeaiee i oii, /oi aeioiaeu, ia/eneythony a oii aea
ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iie ca?aaioaiu, iacaaeneii io iinooieaiey
aeaiaaeiiai yeaeaaeaioa, a oae aea ia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i ia?aoiaea
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. A ?innee oaeay nenoaia o/?oa i?eiaiyaony, eae
i?aaeei, oieueei i?aaei?eyoeyie, ?aaioathueie n ca?oaaaeiuie eeeaioaie.

Aaee/eia au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony ii
aiaeiae/iie oi?ioea, eae e aaee/eia ecaea?aeae ia i?iecaiaenoai e
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee.

Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai=Cao?aou a inoaoeao ia ia/aei ia?eiaea + Cao?aou
ia i?iecaiaenoai a aeaiiii ia?eiaea – Cao?aou a inoaoeao ia eiiaoe
ia?eiaea.

Au?o/ea=Au?o/ea a inoaoeao ia ia/aei ia?eiaea + Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee a
io/?oiii ia?eiaea – Au?o/ea a inoaoeao ia eiiaoe ia?eiaea.

Au?o/ea ii?aaeaeyaony a oeaiao oiai ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii i?iecaiaeeony
?aaeecaoeey. Inoaoee ia ia/aei e ia eiiaoe aiaea ia?aaiaeyony a oeaiu
aeaiiiai ia?eiaea, aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe
e eiaeaen oeai.

Ana ninoaaeythuea au?o/ee au?aaeathony a oeaiao ?aaeecaoeee: inoaoee
ia?an/eouaathony ia ia/aei ieaiiaiai aiaea ec oeai i?aaeoanoaothuaai
ieaie?oaiiio ia?eiaeo n o/?oii eiyooeoeeaioia eioeyoeee e
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Auiouaiiay i?iaeoeoeey io?aaeaaony a aeaenoaothueo
oeaiao, inoaoee ia eiiaoe ia?eiaea o/eouaathony a oeaiao ieaiiaiai
ia?eiaea, o.a. ia ia?an/eouaathony.

A nayce n au?o/eie, nouanoaotho oaeea iiiyoey, eae ieieiaeueiue iau?i
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyao eiee/anoai ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, i?e eioi?ii i?aaei?eyoea oaea ia ian?o oauoea io
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e ia iieo/aao i?eauee.

Caeanue i?eiaiyaony oi?ioea:

Iinoiyiiua ieaiiaua cao?aou / 1-Aaceniay aeiey ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao, aaea

Aaceniay aeiey ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao=Ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu a
aaceniii ia?eiaea / Iau?i ?aaeecaoeee a aaceniii ia?eiaea.

Ieieiaeueiue iau?i ?aaeecaoeee iicaieyao iie?uoue ana iinoiyiiua
?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey iie?uoey cao?ao a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth (a
aieueoai iau?ia) aeieaeia auoue iieo/aia eaeay-eeai i?eaueue, i?eiaiyai
neaaeothuoth oi?ioeo:

Ieieiaeueiue iau?i ?aaeecaoeee * (1- aaceniua ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu) –
Iinoiyiiua ieaiiaua ?anoiaeu.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi oaeea oi?ioeu ?an/aoa iau?ia ?aaeecaoeee
i?eiaiythony oieueei aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, aaea nouanoaotho 1-2
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?ia?aiiu.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue ?u/aa.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue ?u/aa naycai n iau?iii ?aaeecaoeee e iaiin?aaenoaaiii
n i?eaueueth.

I?eiaiythony aeaa iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea:

niiinoaaeaiea i?aaeaeueiie au?o/ee n i?aaeaeueiuie cao?aoaie;

niiinoaaeaiea au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee n noiia?iuie cao?aoaie (iinoiyiiuie
eee ia?aiaiiuie);

I?e ?aoaiee iaaeo yoeo caaea/ ia i?aeoeea, iaia?oaeeaaaony, /oi eaaeaeia
eciaiaiea au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee ii?iaeaeaao au? aieaa neeueiia
eciaiaiea i?eauee (yoi neea ?u/aaa).

Neea aicaeaenoaey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?u/aaa=?acoeueoao
io ?aaeecaoeee – Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou / I?eaueue.

Yoa oi?ioea eniieuecoaony a caiaaeiie i?aeoeea, eae oi?ioea
athaeaeaoe?iaaiey cao?ao, o.a. ia eaaeaeia i?iecaiaenoai ninoaaeytho
niaoo cao?ao, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ieieiaeueiuo iinoiyiiuo e ieieiaeueiuo
ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe eee i?aaeaea aaciianiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey ?ann/eouaaaony ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe – yoi oaeay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee,
eioi?ay=Iinoiyiiua cao?aou / ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee-Ia?aiaiiua
cao?aou.

O.i. I?eaueue=(?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee-Ia?aiaiiua cao?aou * Ii?ia
?aioaaaeueiinoe) – Iinoiyiiua cao?aou=0

Nouanoaotho aeaa oi?ioeu ii?iaiaiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia:

ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe aeaiiiai oiaa?a / oeaia ?aaeecaoeee;

iinoiyiiua cao?aou / oeaia ca aaeeieoeo oiaa?a – ia?aiaiiua cao?aou ia
aaeeieoeo oiaa?a;

E?iia oiai ia iauoth au?o/eo iiaoo aeeyoue e ae?oaea iieacaoaee: au?o/ea
io ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia, IA, eiouanoaa e o.ae. Oaeay au?o/ea,
eae i?aaeei, ieeaeeo caeiiiia?iinoae ia eiaao e ?acoeueoao, iieo/aiiue
io aeaiiie iia?aoeee, caaeneo io aeinoiaa?iinoe o/?oa
oiaa?iiaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae.

I?e i?iaiice?iaaiee au?o/ee o/eouaathony ianeieueei oaeoi?ia:
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey IO, aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaaee
IO, o.a. oeaia ?aaeecoaiuo IO e IA aoaeao caaenaoue io ni?ina,
i?aaeeiaeaiey e inoaoi/iie noieiinoe.

Oi?ie?iaaiea au?o/ee, a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth, ii naiaio
yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth oanii naycaii n a? ?ani?aaeaeaieai e
eniieueciaaieai o.e. yeaiaiou, oi?ie?othueany iaeiia?aiaiii, yaeythony
yeaiaioaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey. Iaeia /anoue au?o/ee
(iniiaiay) eae?o ia aiciauaiea cao?ao; ae?oaay /anoue ia iieaoo iaeiaia,
nai?ia e io/eneaiee, eioi?ua aeeth/athony a n/n eee ia aeeth/athony a
n/n, ii iaycaoaeueiu e oieaoa ec au?o/ee. O?aouey /anoue au?o/ee –
i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey e iaoiaeeony a iieiie nianoaaiiinoe aeaaeaeueoea.

Oi?ie?iaaiea e eniieueciaaiea au?o/ee ia ?acee/iuo oeiao i?aaei?eyoee
eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe. Iiyoiio ?acee/atho ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee
eniieueciaaiey au?o/ee.

Ia II oi?ie?iaaiea au?o/ee naycaii n ia?aie/aiiinoueth oeiainiauo e
ae?oaeo ?ano?nia e n?aaieoaeueii auno?iai iieo/aiey au?o/ee a aeaiaaeiie
oi?ia. Iniiaiay oeaeue oaeiai i?aaei?eyoey – iiaeaea?aeaiea o?iaiy
aacoauoi/iinoe e ecuneaiea aa?eaioia ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae; eae
i?aaeei, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?eauee oaeiai i?aaei?eyoey eniieuecoaony
ia ioaeaeu naiiai nianoaaiieea.

Ia n?aaeieo e e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo cia/aiea au?o/ee ianeieueei
nieaeaii, o.e. eiaaony ?yae aiciiaeiinoae aeueoa?iaoeaiiai a?
eniieueciaaiey, o.a. ieioy i?ioeann iieo/aiey n?aaenoa ia ?an/?oiue eee
aaethoiue n/?o.

Iniiaiay /anoue au?o/ee, a /anoe i?eauee, iai?aaeyaony ia ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia oiaiueoaiea aeiee oieaou iaeiaia, ieaoaaeae e nai?ia.

Ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e ei?ii?aoeeyo oi?ie?iaaiea e eniieueciaaiea
au?o/ee iieiinoueth caaeneo io noaiaie yeiiiiee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
a?aiioiinoe nianoaaiieea e ?oeiaiaeeoaey.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee
?aaio e oneoa iiaeao iacuaaoueny noieiinoiia au?aaeaiea iau?ia cao?ao,
noiia iaee/iuo e aaciaee/iuo iinooieaiee e o.i. Io iacaaiey caaeneo
aaee/eia e aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey.

A ?innee a nenoaio au?o/ee aoiaeyo:

-nenoaia acaeiica/?oia;

-nenoaia aaainia;

-aa?oa?;

-nenoaia o?ieiuo acaeiinaycae;

-noaia iinooieaiee aaethoiuo n?aaenoa ia o?aiceoiue e oaeouee n/aoa.

Noaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee e oi?ie?iaaiey
i?eauee.

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
Aaee/eia IAeN, aeoeecia,

eee oneoae ii ioioneiui oeaiai n
oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei e o.ae.

IAeN, aeoeecaie, oaiiaeaiiuie

iioeeiaie.

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
Iieiay n/n i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio,

?aaio, oneoa a ioioneiuo oeaiao aac
oneoa.

IAeN, aeoeecia e o.i. (/enoue iai?io)

?acoeueoao io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee IO,
I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee

IA e ae?oaeo oiaa?ii- iaoa?eaeueiuo

oeaiiinoae.

?acoeueoao aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo
I?eaueue io anae ?aaeecaoeee.

iia?aoeee.

Aaee/eia ei??aeoe?iaee aaeainiaie
Aaeiaay eee aaeainiaay i?eaueue.

i?eauee aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue ii aeaeai
Aaee/eia iaeiaa ia i?eaueue

aeayoaeueiinoe.
ii aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe.

*enoay i?eaueue.

Oiiae iaeiieaiey Oiiae iio?aaeaiey
?aca?aiue oiiae

I?EAUEUe.

Nouiinoue i?eauee.

Oi?ie?iaaiea i?eauee.

Iaoiaeu ieaie?iaaiey i?eauee.

Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea i?eauee.

?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee.

I?eaueue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, noi?ie?iaaiiie
a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa, aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?acee/iuo
iio?aaiinoae.

I?aa?au?iiay oi?ia noieiinoe – oeaiu, ii eioi?ui ?aaeecothony oiaa?u,
i?iaeoeoeey e o.i. ia anaaaea niioaaonoaotho cao?aoai o.e.

?uiie aeeyao ia aaee/eio oeaiu e i?eauee;

i?eaueue ia anaaaea io?aaeaaony aaee/eiie ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa,
a a ia? au? aeeth/aaony i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee eiouanoaa e
aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua iia?aoeee, /oi aeeyao ia niaieoiiue aeioiae.

A ?innee nouanoaotho iiiyoey:

aaeainiaay i?eaueue – i?eaueue io?aaeaaony a aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey;

iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay i?eaueue – i?eaueue, iiaeeaaeauay iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth;

/enoay i?eaueue – i?eaueue, inoathuayny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey,
eee nianoaaiieeia i?aaei?eyoey;

A ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a:

aooaaeoa?neay i?eaueue – i?eaueue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea
iaaeaeo au?o/eie i?aaei?eyoey e aiaoieie ecaea?aeeaie (oa cao?aou,
eioi?ua i?aaei?eyoea ian?o a iieueco ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee);

yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue – iauay aaee/eia au?o/ee i?aaei?eyoey ca au/aoii
aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo ecaea?aeae;

/enoay i?eaueue – ?acieoea iaaeaeo au?o/eie e yeiiiie/aneeie
ecaea?aeeaie;

ii?iaeueiay i?eaueue – ieieiaeueiay i?eaueue, eioi?ay inoa?ony o
i?aaei?eyoey e eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aai no?aieaiee
eniieueciaaoue naie eaieoae ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee;

yeno?aiaeueiay i?eaueue – a iniiaiii ?aciaay i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay ii
?eneiaui iia?aoeeyi.

Oi?ie?iaaiea i?eauee naycaii n ?acee/iui iaai?ii oaeoi?ia.

Aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u: iau?i au?o/ee (iauai i?iaeaae, iau?i ?aaeecaoeee),
ecaea?aeee (n/n).

Ia eaaeaeii i?aaei?eyoee, a caaeneiinoe io noa? aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeyiea
yoeo aeaoo oaeoi?ia naycaii au? n iaeioi?uie oaeoi?aie, aeeythueie ia
aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u.

Io i?aaeeueiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu i?eauee ia i?aaei?eyoee caaeneo
aai iaania/aiiinoue aeaiaaeiuie ?ano?naie, a oi?ie?iaaiea i?eauee
aeeth/aao ?acee/iua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe: o/?o eciaiaiee iau?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, o/?o eciaiaiee anni?oeiaioa, o/?o ecaea?aeae, o/?o oeai
ia iaoa?eaeu, nu?ue?, oiieeai, aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

Iiyoiio ieaie?iaaiea i?eauee aeaeeony ia: ieaie?iaaiea naiie aaee/eiu
i?eauee e ieaie?iaaiea a? eniieueciaaiey.

A ieaie?iaaiee iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny ?acee/iua eiyooeoeeaiou:

i?iaiic ?aioaaaeueiinoe aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea, aaea eaieoae ii?aaeaeyaony
eae iai?ioiue eaieoae + eiaanoeoeee a iniiaiie eaieoae;

eiyooeoeeaio i?eaueueiinoe;

eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe – i?eaueue / iai?ioiue eaieoae.

Ana yoe eiyooeoeeaiou naycaiiu n e?eoe/aneeie oi/eaie oauoi/iinoe.

Ia Caiaaea i?eiaiyaony iiiai aeaeia ieaie?iaaiey i?eauee. Iie caaenyo io
noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe, oiiaeiaii?oae?iiinoe e o.i.

A ?innee nouanoaotho 5 iaoiaeia ieaie?iaaiey i?eauee, eioi?ua iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue oieueei n o/?oii niaoeeoeee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaoiae i?yiiai n/?oa.

Aiaeeoe/aneee iaoiae, eioi?ue aeaeeony ia aeaa:

iin?aaenoaii ecaea?aeae ia ?oaeue i?iecaaae?iiie (eee ?aaeeciaaiiie)
i?iaeoeoeee;

ii o?iaith aaciaie ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Niaiau?iiue iaoiae – 1) + 2);

Ii?iaoeaiue iaoiae – eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao 1 – 2 aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee;

Yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae – ia o?iaia e?oiiuo e e?oiiaeoeo
i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaoiae i?yiiai n/?oa: ?an/?o i?eauee inouanoaeyaony ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo
?aaeeciaaiiuo ecaeaeee, ii anaio anni?oeiaioo.

I?eioeei ?an/?oa: ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a
?an/?o i?eieiaai iau?i ?aaeecaoeee, a oeaiao ?aaeecaoeee ( eiee/anoai *
oeaio ), iieioth n/n ( aaeeieoea i?iaeoeoeee * *cao?aou ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee ) – ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieie e aea?o i?eaueue. O.a. ii
eaaeaeiio aeaeo i?iaeoeoeee aa??i: oeaia – iieiay n/n * eiee/anoai
auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee = i?eaueue.

Aiaeeoe/aneee iaoiae. Iniiaiie i?eioeei: i?e ?an/?oa i?eauee iia
oaaee/eaaaony eee oiaiueoaaony a niioaaonoaee n oaaee/aieai
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, n o/?oii iiieaeaiey ecaea?aeae, eciaiaiey
oeai, anni?oeiaioa. Iau/ii i?eaueue ieaie?otho ia ii?aaeae?iiue ia?eiae,
eioi?ue au? ia ianooiee, iiyoiio eniieuecotho ?an/?ou i?aaeuaeouaai
ia?eiaea.

1 yoai: ?an/?o aaciaie i?eauee, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec
oaeoe/aneeo io/?oiuo aeaiiuo, nei??aeoe?iaaiiuo ia ii?aaeae?iiua
eciaiaiey a oaeouai aiaeo.

2 yoai: ii?aaeaeyao i?ioeaio aaciaie ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee,
auiouaiiie a oaeouai aiaeo n o/?oii ei??aeoe?iaie.

3 yoai: ?an/?o ieaie?oaiiai iau?ia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

4 yoai: ?an/?o i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee n o/?oii aaciaie ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

5 yoai: ei??aeoe?iaea ia ian?aaieioth i?iaeoeoeeth, aeeyiea oaeoi?a oeai
e o.i.

Niaiau?iiue iaoiae. Aai eniieuecotho, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao
n?aaieioth e ian?aaieioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Ii ia?aie – aiaeeoe/aneee
iaoiae, ii aoi?ie – iaoiae i?yiiai n/?oa. Anee niaiau?iiue iaoiae
i?eiaiyaony oieueei ii n?aaieiie i?iaeoeoeee, oi yoi cia/eo, /oi
aiaeeoe/aneee iaoiae eniieuecoaony eae n?aaieoaeueiue iaoiae aeey
i?iaa?ee.

Ii?iaoeaiue iaoiae. Eniieuecoaony, anee ia i?aaei?eyoee 1 – 2 aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee, eee a neo/aa, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
onoaiiaeoue eiie?aoiua ii?iaoeau ii ?anoiaeiaaieth n?aaenoa (
i?eiaiyaony nenoaia athaeaeaoe?iaaiey ), o.a. eiaaea iaoiae i?yiiai
n/?oa niaiauaaony n ii?iaie cao?ao.

Yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneee iaoiae. Eniieuecoaony ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
aaea nouanoaoao aieueoay ii?iaoeaiay e o/?oiay aaca. Ia ia?aii yoaia
eniieuecotho noaiaea?oiua i?ia?aiiu aiaeeca ( oaeoi?iue,
ei??aeyoeeiiiue, eiaeaeniue ). Aaiaeeony 15 – 30 iieacaoaeae, aeeythueo
ia i?eaueue. Ii?aaeaeyaony eo aeeyiea ia aaee/eio i?eauee ( oaniioa
nayce iaaeaeo i?eaueueth e iieacaoaeyie, iaaeaeo naieie iieacaoaeyie ),
ii?aaeaeyaony iniiaiie oaeoi? ( eae i?aaeei i?eaueue ?aaeecaoeee ) e
aeeyiea inoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia ia yoio iieacaoaeue noiia?ii.

O.i. nouanoaotho 5 iaoiaeia, eioi?ua oanii naycaiu n ooieoeeyie i?eauee,
eioi?ua iia auiieiyao. Nouanoaoao aaeainiaay i?eaueue, eioi?ay
ioee/aaony io iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie, a yoa a naith i/a?aaeue ioee/aaony io
/enoie. Aeeyiea yoeo ooieoeee caaeneo io oiai, eaeoth i?eaueue iieo/aao
i?aaei?eyoea e eae iii a? eniieuecoao.

Ooieoeee i?eauee.

ioeaii/iay;

noeioee?othuay;

iniiaiie aeioiaeiue enoi/iee athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa ainoaea?noaa.

Ioeaii/iay ooieoeey – i?eaueue oa?aeoa?ecoao yooaeo, iieo/aiiue a oiaea
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii o.e. i?eaueue ia yaeyaony
oieaa?naeueiui iieacaoaeai, i?e ieaie?iaaiee eniieuecoaony nenoaia
iieacaoaeae ( ioiineoaeueiuo e aaniethoiuo ), eioi?ua aeeytho ia
i?eaueue, eae ia yooaeo. Cia/aiea i?eauee i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi yoi
eiia/iue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao. A ia a? aeeiaieeo aeeytho eae caaenyuea
io aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, oae e ia caaenyuea oaeoi?u. E?iia oiai,
/anoue oaeoi?ia aeeyao i?yii, a /anoue einaaiii.

Noeioee?othuay ooieoeey ninoieo a oii, /oi i?eaueue yaeyaony iniiaiui
yeaiaioii oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey, ?aaeueii iaania/eaaao
i?eioeei naiioeiaine?iaaiey

( ec-ca yoiai oaeaea iaiaoiaeeia ?aaeueiay ioeaiea i?eauee e ?aaeueiia
ieaie?iaaiea ). Oieueei /enoay i?eaueue iieacuaaao ?aaeueiue enoi/iee
oeiaine?iaaiey, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue iai?aaeai ia ii?aaeae?iiua oeaee.

Aeioiaeiue enoi/iee athaeaeaoia: 12%-Oaaea?aeueiue Athaeaeao, aei
22%-athaeaeaou noauaeoia ?O.

O.e. ooieoeee i?eauee i?iyaeythony a ?aaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ieaie?oy a?, iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue ia oieueei i?eaueue eee
?I, ii e anth AI, iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth, /enooth.

Ia i?aeoeea nouanoaotho 3 a?oiiu ei??aeoe?iaie AI:

ia noiio ?aaeeciaaiiiai eiouanoaa;

ii i?aaeiieaaaaiui cao?aoai;

ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth ( eneeth/athony ana aeaeu ae?oaeo aeioiaeia, o/?o
eueaio ).

Iauay noaia ei??aeoe?iaie ninoaaa cao?ao aeaeeony ia:

iieacaoaee, oaaee/eaathuea aaeainiaoth i?eaueue aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

iieacaoaee, oiaiueoathuea aaeainiaoth i?eaueue aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

Iieacaoaee, oaaee/eaathuea aaeainiaoth i?eaueue aeey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Aeiiieieoaeueiay i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay io ia?an/?oa au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee, iaiaia e aacaiciacaeiie ia?aaea/a, ii oeaiai ia auoa
oaeoe/aneie n/n. Oneiaea: i?aaei?eyoea i?eaioe?oaony ia i?iaeaaeo
aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee a oa/aiea iineaaeieo 30 aeiae, e aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aaee/eia au?o/ee oaaee/eaaaony ia ?acieoeo iaaeaeo
oeaiie oaeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee e iaeneiaeueiie oeaiie ?aaeecaoeee ca
iineaaeiea30 aeiae. Anee ca iineaaeiea 30 aeiae ia auei ?aaeecaoeee, oi
eniieuecoaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo ?uii/iie oeaiie e oaeoe/aneie oeaiie
?aaeecaoeee.

Cao?aou, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu a n/n ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaio, oneoa naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia, ii?i e ii?iaoeaia: a
niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieai ?552 ii?aaeae?iiue ?yae noaoae iiaeao auoue
aeeth/?i a n/n a iieiii iau?ia, ii aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
onoaiiaeaiu eeieou:

noiia i?aauoaiey i?ioeaioia ii ?oae?aui e?aaeeoai aaieia = noaaea
?aoeiaine?iaaiey + 3 ioieoa;

noiia i?aauoaiey ii aaethoiui e?aaeeoai = noaaea OeA?O – 15%;

noiia i?aauoaiey ii athaeaeaoiui nnoaeai, naa?o onoaiiaeaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?acia?a;

ia anth noiio ii i?in?i/aiiui nnoaeai;

ia?aie/aiey a eiiaiaee?iai/iuo ?anoiaeao ( onoaiaaeeaathony
I?aaeoaeuenoaii, i?e/?i ioaeaeueii ii ?oae?aui, ioaeaeueii ii
aaethoiui);

ia?aie/aiea ?anoiaeia ii ?aeeaia ( i?ioeaio caaeneo io iau?ia
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ), an? naa?o ii?i eae?o ca n/?o /enoie i?eauee,
aeeth/ay iaeia;

ia?aie/aiea i?aaenoaaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia ( caaeneo io iau?ia
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee );

?anoiaeu ia iiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia naa?o ii?i;

eiiiainaoeee ca eniieueciaaiea neoaeaaiuo aaoiiiaeeae a ee/iuo oeaeyo;

noieiinoue aacaiciacaeii iieo/aiiiai eiouanoaa;

oauoee io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee, aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu a oii /enea
cao?aou, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeo i?aaei?eyoea, ii oieueei ca n/?o /enoie
i?eauee ( io ?aaeecaoeee IO e eiouanoaa, iieoiea e i?iaeaaea aaethou );

a niioaaonoaee n Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O i?aaei?eyoea iaycaii
ii enoa/aiee 4 ianyoeaa aeaaeoi?neoth e e?aaeeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue
nienuaaoue ia i?eaueue eee oauoie;

ia/eneaiiua, ii ia oiea/aiiua oo?aou, iaiy, iaonoieee ii oicyenoaaiiui
aeiaiai?ai;

ooeaiea nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e AI;

i?i/ea.

Iieacaoaee, oiaiueoathuea aaeainiaoth i?eaueue aeey oeaeae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

i?enoaeae?iiua a iieueco i?aaei?eyoey eee i?eciaiiua aeieaeieeii oo?aou,
iaiy, iaonoieee ii oicyenoaaiiui aeiaiai?ai;

i?i/ea.

Ei??aeoe?iaee a /anoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, iie naycaiu n aiciiaeiinoueth
eniieueciaaiey i?aaei?eyoeai nouanoaothueo eueaio ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth.

iaeiaiaua eueaiou, nicaeathuea oneiaey aeey oaaee/aiey EA: iniiaiua
eueaiou naycaiu n oaeoe/aneeie cao?aoaie, i?iecaaae?iiuie ia
oeiaine?iaaiea EA i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey e iiaaoaiea aaieianeeo
e?aaeeoia ii iei;

eueaiou a /anoe oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao, i?iecaaae?iiuo ia niaea?aeaiea
iaoiaeyueony ia aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey iauaeoia cae?aaiio?aiaiey,
ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u e o.i. + ia aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee a i?aaeaeao
ii?aaeae?iiuo noii;

eueaiou, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua II: ii ia?a/ith noa? aeayoaeueiinoe
inaiaiaeaeathony io iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a ia?aua aeaa aiaea
nouanoaiaaiey, 25% – 50% iauae noaaee iineaaeothuea 3 – 4 aiaea; i?aai
iieo/aoue eiaanoeoeeiiiua e?aaeeou ( a ?acia?a aei 10% iauae au?o/ee );
ii ia?a/ith noa? aeayoaeueiinoe iiaoo eniieueciaaoue onei?aiioth
aii?oecaoeeth ( nienuaaoue 50% a ia?aue aiae nouanoaiaaiey );

ia iiaeeaaeao iaeiaeaieth iaeiaii ia i?eaueue ?yae ieaoaeueueeia:
?aeeaeiciua iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaiecaoeee eiaaeeaeia a /anoe eo onoaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e o.i.

nieaeaiea noaaie – eiaaea ec iauaai /enea ?aaioieeia aieaa 50% –
eiaaeeaeu;

ia iaeaaathony iaeiaii ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?ioeey ( anee aeiey oaeeo ?aaio aieaa 70% ).

Iaeioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey ii-ae?oaiio iaeaaathony iaeiaii ia i?eaueue:
i?aaei?eyoey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa, AIE, ii/oa e ae?.

Ec aaeiaie i?eauee au/eoaaony ?yae ?anoiaeia, eioi?ua iaeaaathony
ioaeaeueii e ii ae?oaei noaaeai:

aeeaeaeaiaeu, i?ioeaiou, iieo/aiiua ii anai aeaeai oeaiiuo aoiaa ( ii
noaaea = 15% o enoi/ieea );

aeioiaeu io eaceii, eai?iuo aeiiia e o.ae. ( ii noaaea = 90% );

aeaeainaeiiu, aeaeaii?ieao ( ii noaaea = 70% ).

E?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey iieo/atho eiinieeaee?iaaiioth i?eaueue ( a ia
i?eaueue ii ioaeaeueiui iia?aoeeyi ) – yoi i?eaueue ii naiaeiie
aooaaeoa?neie io/?oiinoe i aeayoaeueiinoe iaoa?eineeo e aei/a?ieo
i?aaei?eyoee. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiinieeaeaoeee i?eauee naycaia n
yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoueth e eiaao iniaaiiinoe:

naiaeiay io/?oiinoue, ec eioi?ie aa?oony aeaiiua, eae i?aaeei, ia
yaeyaony th?eaee/aneie io/?oiinoueth ( eniieuecoaony oieueei aeey
iaeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey oe?iu ) e eiaao y?ei au?aaeaiioth
iai?aaeaiiinoue a aa?eaioao:

ieieiecaoeey iieiaiiaeiaeaiey;

yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea eaieoaea;

a oaeie io/?oiinoe io?aaeathony aeoeau e ianneau, aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ii
?an/?oai n o?aoueeie eeoeaie ca ?aieaie eiiiaiee ( o.a. aioo?aiiea
iai?iou ec io/?oiinoe eneeth/athony ).

Iinea iioeiaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey aaee/eiu i?eauee, ia i?aaei?eyoee
ieaie?otho a? eniieueciaaiea. ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee: ec aaeiaie i?eauee
au/eoatho iaeia ia i?eaueue e ae?oaea aeaeu iaeiaia, eioi?ua iaeaaathony
ii ae?oaei noaaeai, n o/?oii ei??aeoe?iaie aaeiaie i?eauee e o
i?aaei?eyoey inoa?ony /enoay i?eaueue.

*enoay i?eaueue ?ani?aaeaeyaony:

oo?aou, iaiy, iaonoieee, eioi?ua ieaoyony ec *I;

/anoue ianoiuo iaeiaia, eeoeaiceiiiua nai?u, iaeiae, eioi?ua aaaaeaiu
ianoiuie caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe;

oiiae iaeiieaiey:

oeiaine?iaaiea EA a IO,

oeiaine?iaaiea EA a iai?ioiua oiiaeu,

ana aeiaeaiey a nioeeaeueioth noa?o,

oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey a ae?oaea i?aaei?eyoey e oeiainiaua no?oeoo?u,

aica?ao aeieain?i/iuo nnoae,

ana ?aca?aiua oiiaeu,

aeaaioai?eoaeueiua aciinu,

i?i/ea.

oiiae iio?aaeaiey:

ana i?aiee,

niaea?aeaiea nioeeaeueiie noa?u,

oaeaoaaeaiea ieoaiey,

iieoiea niaoeiaeaaeaeu,

ana nnoaeu ?aaioieeai,

iaainoaea?noaaiiia iaineiiiia no?aoiaaiea,

naa?oeeieoiia eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa a /anoe iio?aaeaiey,

i?i/ea.

Iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey oiiaea iio?aaeaiey a Iieiaeaiee ?552, Caeiia i
iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa e iaoiaee/aneeo oeacaieyo IeiOeia ii en/eneaieth
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa.

Ieaie?iaaiea e ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea n oi/ee
c?aiey i?aaeeueiinoe eniieueciaaiey *I.

Eiyooeoeeaiou ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

A ?inneeneii iiieiaiee ?aioaaaeueiinoe eiaaony aaeaeo ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaenoaa eee ?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeecaoeee. A
ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea ana iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe yaeythony einaaiiuie
( ioiineoaeueiuie ) e a ?an/?oao, eae i?aaeei, i?enoonoaoao AI eee *I.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae = au?o/ea io i?iaeaae – n/n

au?o/ea io i?iaeaae

Eiyo. *I = *I ( iinea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey )

Au?o/ea io i?iaeaae

Eiyo. ?aioaaaeueiinoe NE = *I – aeeaeaeaiaeu ii
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui aeoeeyi

NE – i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua aeoeee ii iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe

Eiyo. ?aioaaaeueiinoe aeoeaia = *I
_

Iauay noiia iaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia

Aeioiaeiinoue (1) = *I ( iinea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey _

Iauay noiia iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao

Aeioiaeiinoue (2) = au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee _
*I _

Iauay noiia iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao *
au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee

?aioaaaeueiinoue eaieoaea ( oi?ioea Aethiiia )

*I _ = *I _
iai?io _ aeoeau _

Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae iau?i i?iaeaae * aeoeau *
aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae

Iieacaoaeue Eaaa?eaeae (?u/aa)

a) i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eaaa?eaeae

oaiiu i?e?inoa aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa _

oaiiu i?e?inoa iauaia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee

a) oeiainiaue eaaa?eaeae

oaii i?e?inoa *I _

oaii i?e?inoa aaeiaiai aeioiaea

a) i?iecaiaenoaaiii – oeiainiaue eaaa?eaeae = i?iecaiaenoaaiiue *
oeiainiaue

a) eaaa?eaeae ii ca?iiui n?aaenoaai

e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue aaieo

aeoeau aaeaina

Ae?eia – io?aaeaao ioiioaiea ca?iiiai eaieoaea e nianoaaiiiio.

Eaaa?eaeae oe?iu iieacuaaao eciaiaiea ca?iiuo n?aaenoa n oeene?iaaiiui
i?ioeaioii, aeey iiauoaiey i?eauee aea?aeaoaeae iaueiiaaiiuo aeoeee:

Ca?iiua n?aaenoaa n oeene?iaaiiui i?ioeaioii

I?eaueue ii iaueiiaaiiui aeoeeyi

Iia?aoeeiiiue eaaa?eaeae

I?eaueue eee eciaiaiea i?eauee
_

Aeoeau eciaiaiea iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo
cao?ao

Yooaeo oeiainiaiai ?u/aaa eae i?e?auaiea e ?aioaaaeueiinoe nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo iinea eniieueciaaiey e?aaeeoia.

n?aaeiyy i?ioeaioiay noaaea = noiia i?ioeaioia ca e?aaeeo * 100%

iauay noiia
ca?iiuo n?aaenoa

aeeooa?aioeeae = i?ioeaio ( eee i?eaueue )
_

?aioaaaeueiinoue – n?aaeiyy noaaea i?ioeaioa

iea/i ?u/aaa ( ae?eia ) = ca?iiua n?aaenoaa _

nianoaaiiua
n?aaenoaa

yooaeo oeiainiaiai ?u/aaa = aeeooa?aioeeae * iea/i ?u/aaa,

eee n o/?oii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey = 2/3 aeeooa?aioeeaea * iea/i ?u/aaa.

Yooaeo oeiainiaiai ?u/aaa aeieaeai auoue aieueoa eee ?aaai
?aioaaaeueiinoe

( 2/3 ?aioaaaeueiinoe ).

Iieacaoaee i?eaueueiinoe.

Iieacaoaee i?eaueueiinoe ?ann/eouaathony, eae i?aaeei, ioiineoaeueii
iau?ia i?iaeaae, aeoeaia aaeaina e aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea.

Eiyooeoeeaio L = a?oooi i?eaueue

Iau?i i?iaeaae, iieacuaaao, ia neieueei auaiaeiu auee caeoiee
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ( eae iie iiaeeyee ia aaee/eio cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai ) e oeaiu i?iaeaae.

L = iau?i i?iaeaae – cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai

iau?i i?iaeaae

Eiyooeoeeaio M iieacuaaao, eaeay aeiey i?eauee aoaeao i?eoiaeeoueny ia
iau?i i?iaeaae, anee a?oooi i?eaueue aoaeao oiaiueoaia ia ?anoiaeu ii
niaea?aeaieth aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey e aii?oecaoeeth e ?ann/eouaaaony:

noiia i?eauee aei oieaou i?ioeaioia aaieo e iaeiaia

iau?i i?iaeaae

a?oooi i?eaueue – iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu

iau?i i?iaeaae

aaeiaay i?eaueue

iau?i i?iaeaae

N?aaiaiea eiyooeoeeaioia L e M iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue eciaiaiea
i?eaueueiinoe a i?ioeaioao a caaeneiinoe io iau?ia i?iaeaaee
oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Eiyooeoeeaio N iieacuaaao i?ioeaio aica?aoa a iai?io n?aaenoa, eae
naieo, oae e ca?iiuo. A i?eioeeia, yoi oa noiia, eioi?oth neaaeoao
ieaoeoue eeoeai, oeiaine?othuei i?aaei?eyoea, o.a. n?aaieoue ni
noieiinoueth eaieoaea:

N = i?eaueue aei oieaou i?ioeaioia e iaeiaia

iauay noieiinoue aeoeaia

Eiyooeoeeaio I oa?aeoa?ecoao i?eaueueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa aeey
aeoeeiia?ia:

I = *I _

Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae , enoiaey ec yoiai, i?eieiaaony
?aoaiea ia ecuyoee /anoe i?eauee ec iai?ioa eee nio?aiaiey a? a iai?ioa.

Eiyooeoeeaiou P e Q oa?aeoa?ecotho e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue oe?iu,
ioiineoaeueii aica?aoa aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia, iieacuaaao iie?uoea
aaieianeeo i?ioeaioia iieo/aaiie i?eaueueth:

? = i?eaueue aei oieaou i?ioeaioia e iaeiaia

Noiia caaeieaeaiiinoe

I?eia/aiea: anee ?an/?o aaae?ony ca ii?aaeae?iiue ia?eiae, oi aeaeei ia
iauoth noiio caaeieaeaiiinoe; anee ia ii?aaeae?iioth aeaoo, oi ia noiio
aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa.

Q = iauay noiia caaeieaeaiiinoe aaieo _

i?eaueue, inoathuayny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey

Eiyooeoeeaio R oa?aeoa?ecoao n?aaeiaaiaeiaie iau?i i?iaeaae, yoi
eiyooeoeeaio aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?aaei?eyoey. Iieo/aiiue eiyooeoeeaio
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai auoue nei??aeoe?iaai ia o?iaaiue eioeyoeee, ia
oi?iaeueiue ?ino i?iaeaae e o.i.:

R = eciaiaiey a iau?ia i?iaeaae * 100%

iau?i i?iaeaae ca iineaaeiee aiae

EIAANOEOeEE.

Nouiinoue eiaanoeoeee.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaoao neaaeothuay oa?ieiieiaey,
naycaiiay n eiaanoeoeeyie: EA, aeiaeaiey a iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa eee
aeoeau, eiaanoeoeee.

Eiaanoeoeee iauaaeeiytho EA, aeiaeaiey a iai?ioiua aeoeau e oeiainiaua
aeiaeaiey. ?acee/ea a oii, aeieain?i/iua eiaanoeoeee – EA, e?aoein?i/iua
eiaanoeoeee – aeiaeaiey a iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa eee aeoeau.

Nianoaaiiua eiaanoeoeee – ?acee/iua ?ano?nu e ?aca?au, iai?aaeaiiua ia
eiaanoeoeee.

Aiaoiea eiaanoeoeee – ?inneeneea e ca?oaaaeiua.

Nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee eiaanoeoeee:

i?eaueue;

aii?oecaoeeiiiue oiiae;

onoaaiue oiiae.

E?aoein?i/iua aeiaeaiey, eae i?aaeei, ia cao?aaeaatho enoi/ieeia, o.a.
eaeoo ec au?o/ee.

Noauaeou eiaanoe?iaaiey: ainoaea?noai; i?aaei?eyoey ( i?aaiecaoeee );
/anoiua eiaanoi?u oece/aneea eeoea ); ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee ( oiiaeu,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu e o.ae. ); eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u.

Iniiaiua aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth:
Caeii i /anoiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?O ( ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia oece/aneeo e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe – ?aceaeaioia ), Caeii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a
?O, Oaiiaeaiiue Eiaeaen, iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

Ainoaea?noai inouanoaeyao eiaanoeoeee ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa
athaeaeaoia ii oeaeaaui i?ia?aiiai, eae i?aaeei, ii caueu?iiui noaoueyi.
E?iia oiai, ainoaea?noai iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoue aeioaoeee.

I?aaei?eyoey iiaoo eiaanoe?iaaoue a oi?ia aeeaaeia a onoaaiua oiiaeu
ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee, a aeaea i?eia?aoaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa; nicaeaiea iay
eee aeeaaea a aeaea oeiainiaie iiiiue, auaica eaieoaea; aeiaeaiey
/anoiuo eiaanoi?ia, eae oece/aneeo eeoe, ia?aie/aiu i?aaeeaie aceiaiey
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa e iainiiaaieai ( i?e aieueoeo aeiaeaieyo )
enoi/ieea aeioiaeia. Aeiaeaiey iiaoo auoue a ?acee/iie oi?ia ( oeaiiua
aoiaae, aeaaioai?eoaeueiua aciinu e o.i. ).

Eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u iiaoo aeeaaeuaaoue oieueei a ia?aie/aiiia
eiee/anoai i?iecaiaenoa. A ?acee/iuo noa?ao aeiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia
?acee/iu, aeiey ia?aie/eaaaony a caaeneiinoe io oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe eiaanoeoeeiiiie iieeoeee
yaeyaony iaeneiaeueiia i?eaea/aiea /anoiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.

Any eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaoee?oaony ainoaea?noaii ii
neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi:

aaeieieno?aoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea: auaea/a ?ac?aoaiee, eeoeaicee, eaio;

yeiiiie/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea: iaeiaiaia, e?aaeeoiia, aaethoiia e ae?oaea.

Aa?aioeae aeey eiaanoi?ia ii aeiaeaiiui eiaanoeoeeyi iiaoo aunooiaoue:
ainoaea?noai; /anoiia neiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey, aaiee?a e o.i.;
A?aaeaeaineee e Oaieiaiue Eiaeaenu.

Ii aeiaeaieyi a oeaiiua aoiaae, eae i?aaeei, a ?innee ia aeaiiue iiiaio
iao.

Eiaanoeoeee oae aea iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae eiaanoeoeee ?aaeueiua,
o.a. eiaanoeoeee a IO e iai?ioiua oiiaeu, a oae aea eiaanoeoeee
ii?ooaeueiua ( oeiainiaua ).

Iniiaiua iacia/aiey eiaanoeoeee – iieo/aiea i?eauee. Eiaanoeoeee e
iaeiieaiey oanii acaeiinaycaiu, o.e. eiaanoeoeee inouanoaeythony ca n/?o
iaeiieaiee. A oi aea a?aiy, eiaanoeoeee aaaeoo e ?inoo iaeiieaiee.
Iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue, /oi ?aaeueiua eiaanoeoeee iiieaeatho eeeaeaeiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey.

Eiaanoeoeee a IN. Oi?aaeaiea IN.

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey – yoi eaieoae, aeiaeaiiue a IO.

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa:

iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu:

aeoeaiua,

ianneaiua;

oiiaeu iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey.

Noieiinoue IO:

ia?aiia/aeueiay – noieiinoue IO a iiiaio iinoaiiaee ia aaeain;

inoaoi/iay = ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue – eciin;

ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay ( ii ia?aioeaiea ) – ?aaeueiay ioeaiea aeaenoaothueo
IO ia iiiaio ioeaiee. N 1992 aiaea ia?aioeaiea i?ienoiaeeo aaeaaiaeii.
Ia?aioeaiea inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa eiyooeoeeaioia, onoaiiaeaiiuo
IeiOeiii ?O. A oii neo/aa, anee noieiinoue IO ieacuaaaony cia/eoaeueii
auoa ?uii/iie oeaiu, i?aaei?eyoeyi ?ac?aoaaony inouanoaeyoue ia?aioeaieo
ia iniiaa ni?aaie oiaa?iie ae?aee, oi?aiaie iaeaou, ni?aaie ?icie/iuo
i?aaiecaoeee , eee aiciiaeia yenia?oiay ioeaiea eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey
ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a n niioaaonoaothuae i?aaiecaoeeae.

O.e. IN – yoi eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey, aeiaeaiiue a IO, ia?aeeaeueii
i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann eiaeaenaoeee IN.A i?ioeanna eiaeaenaoeee
i?ienoiaeeo nicaeaiea aeiaaai/iiai eaieoaea, eioi?ue io?aaeaaony a
/aoa??oii ?acaeaea ianneaa aaeaina, eae nianoaaiiue enoi/iee.

Iniiaiua oeaee ia?aioeaiee IO e eiaeaenaoeee IN:

iaania/aiea i?ioeanna ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa enoi/ieeaie (
aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey );

nio?aiaiea eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey io eioeyoeeiiiuo iioa?ue.

EA i?aaei?eyoey. Enoi/ieee eo oeiaine?iaaiey.

A i?ioeanna eniieueciaaiey IO iiaeaa?aathony eciino ( eae oece/aneiio,
oae e ii?aeueiiio ) e o?aaotho ainnoaiiaeaiey. ?acee/atho i?inoia e
?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai.

I?inoia aini?iecaiaenoai – eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio IO.

?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai – i?aaeiieaaaao no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo
i?aaei?eyoee, ?aeiino?oeoeeth, oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea aeaenoaothueo
e o.ae.

Enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey EA caaenyo io:

aeaea EA;

niiniaa inouanoaeaiey EA.

Ii aeaeai eiaanoe?iaaiey EA aeaeyony ia:

oeaio?aeeciaaiiua EA:

iaoeaio?aeeciaaiiua EA.

Oeaio?aeeciaaiiua EA – EA, ieaie?oaiua ainoaea?noaii, eiatho aieueoia
ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea, eciaiythuaa i?iii?oeee io?aneae. Eo
aaaeiaeoei enoi/ieeii yaeythony athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey.

Ana i?i/ea EA yaeythony iaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuie e ieaie?oaony i?aaei?eyoeai
naiinoiyoaeueii.

Enoi/ieee oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo EA:

nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey;

?ano?nu io?anee ( oeaio?aeeciaaiiua oiiaeu e ?aca?au ieienoa?noa e
aaaeiinoa );

aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou aaieia;

athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey.

Enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey iaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo EA:

1) Nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee:

/enoay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey. Aaee/eia *I, iai?aaeyaiay ia
oeiaine?iaaiea EA, ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaei?eyoeai a caaeneiinoe io iauae
noiiu i?eauee, a oae aea io iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a iaeanoe
noeioee?iaaiey e iiiu?aiey nianoaaiiuo ?aaioieeia;

aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey. ?an/?o aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee, eo
ieaie?iaaiea e o.ae.

2) ?ano?nu io?anee – oeaio?aeeciaaiiua oiiaeu e ?aca?au ieienoa?noa e
aaaeiinoa. Eiaao ianoi oieueei aeey i?aaei?eyoee, nio?aieaoeo
aa?oeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o iiae/eiaiey.

3) Aeieain?i/iua nnoaeu e caeiu. Iniaoth ?ieue ea?aao oeac I?aceaeaioa
io 17.09.94 ?1982 “ I /anoiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?O”. Ii yoiio oeaco
eiaanoi? iaycai aeiaeeoue ia iaiaa 80% nianoaaiiuo e ca?iiuo n?aaenoa.
I?e yoii NE eiaanoi?a aeieaeai ninoaaeyoue ia iaiaa 20%.Eiaanoeoeeiiiua
i?iaeou nii?iaiaeaeathony ninoaaeaieai aecian-ieaiia.

O/anoea ainoaea?noaa iiaeao eiaoue oi?io:

eueaioiua ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeou ia n?ie ia aieaa aeaoo eao;

i?aaeinoaaeaiea athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee.

I?aaeoniao?eaaaony cae?aieaiea a ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe /anoe
aeoeee, nicaeaaaaiuo AI.

4) Yienney oeaiiuo aoiaa – i?e auionea aeoeee oaaee/eaathony nianoaaiiua
enoi/ieee; iaeeaaoeee, aaenaey i?aaeiieaaatho i?eaea/aiea a iai?io
ca?iiuo enoi/ieeia.

5) Eiaanoeoeeiiiue e?aaeeo – ii ?yaeo iaeiaia aea?ony ion?i/ea ii
ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao i?e oneiaee, /oi noiia ion?i/aiiuo ieaoaaeae
aoaeao eniieueciaaia ia EA.

6) N?aaenoaa aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.

EA iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny: eae no?ieoaeuenoai iiae?yaeiui niiniaii e
no?ieoaeuenoai oicyenoaaiiui niiniaii.

I?e no?ieoaeuenoaa iiae?yaeiui niiniaii i?aaei?eyoea eniieuecoao ana
enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey, i?e oicyenoaaiiii niiniaa ia?a/aiue enoi/ieeia
?anoe?yaony ca n/ao:

/anoue i?eauee, eioi?ay i?e iiae?yaeiii niiniaa aoiaeeo a oeaio iauaeoa
( ia?aaeaaony iiae?yae/eeo ), i?e oicyenoaaiiii niiniaa oiaiueoaao
aaee/eio eiaanoeoeee, o.e. yoa i?eaueue ?ani?aaeaeyaony a oeaeii ii
i?aaei?eyoeth;

yeiiiiey iaoa?eaeia ( aei 5% niaoiie noieiinoe );

eniieueciaaiea aioo?aiieo ?ano?nia e ?aca?aia ( iiaeeecaoeey aioo?aiieo
?ano?nia ), o.a. o iiae?acaeaeaiey, caieiathuaainy no?ieoaeuenoaii,
i?eaiaeyony a niioaaonoaee n ioaeaeaie e?aaeeoi?neay e aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoe e iaee/ea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa:

I ( E ) = ( A – I ) +/- ( E – O ), aaea

I ( E ) – iiaeeecaoeey ( eiiiaeeecaoeey ),

A – oaeoe/aneia iaee/ea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a
i?aaeoanoaothuai aiaeo,

I – ieaiiaay iio?aaiinoue a nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao a ieaiiaii
aiaeo,

E – oaeoe/aneay e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue ia ia/aei ieaiiaiai
aiaea,

O – e?aaeeoi?neay ( – ) / aeaaeoi?neay ( +) caaeieaeaiiinoue.

Au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee eceeoiaai eiouanoaa e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Ecuyoea i?eauee io iiiooiie aeiau/e /aai-eeai.

Enoi/iee i?e iieoiea IN ii n?aaiaieth n EA – ?acieoea ii IAeN.

Eniieueciaaiea eueaio ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue ( aeey i?aaei?eyoee ii
ia?a/iyi io?aneae ) i?e inouanoaeaiee EA i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey (
aei 50% iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu ).

Oeiaine?iaaiea ?aiiioa IN.

Anee eiaanoeoeee a IO inouanoaeythony ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, oi
oeiaine?iaaiea anao aeaeia ?aiiioia ( iaeeee = oaeouaio, n?aaeiee,
eaieoaeueiue ) aeeth/aaony a naaanoieiinoue auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ii
niioaaonoaothuei noaoueyi, a oii ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iie i?iecaaaeaiu.
Ana aeaeu ?aiiioia inouanoaeythony a niioaaonoaee n oaoie/aneei
ninoiyieai IN e oaoiieiae/aneie iio?aaiinoueth.

A neo/aa cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao ia ?aiiiou, i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao
nicaeaaaoue ?aiiioiua oiiaeu a i?ioeaioao io aaeainiaie noieiinoe. Aeey
aai nicaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii eciaiaiea o/aoiie iieeoeee. Aeey nicaeaiey
oiiaea ca n/ao naaanoieiinoe – niaeaniaaiea n iaeiaiaie einiaeoeeae.

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
IN.

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey IN io?aaeaaony a eiyooeoeeaioao:
oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue, oiiaeiioaea/a, ?aioaaaeueiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey,
?aioaaaeueiinoue eiouanoaa, ?aioaaaeueiinoue nianoaaiiuo e caaiiuo
eiaanoeoeee, eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey eiaanoeoeee, eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey
nianoaaiiuo e caaiiuo n?aaenoa, eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey oeiainiauo
ecaea?aeae e yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa, eiyooeoeeaio ?aaeueiie noieiinoe
eiouanoaa, eiyooeoeeaio iaeiieaiey e aii?oecaoeee, n?aaeiee n?ie neoaeau
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Oeiainiaue eeceia.

Iaeiei ec iaoiaeia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey eiathueony oeiainiauo
?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony eeceia. Eeceia – aeieain?i/iay a?aiaea
iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, nii?oaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.

A ?innee nouanoaoao:

oeiainiaue, eaieoaeueiue ( i?yiie ) eeceia;

iia?aoeaiue ( na?aeniue ) eeceia;

aica?aoiue eeceia;

+ nouanoaoao iia?aoeaiue eeceia n iaiieiie ieoiaaiinoueth e oeiainiaue
eeceia n iieiie ieoiaaiinoueth.

I?e eeceiaa i?aaei?eyoea eniieuecoao i?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa.

1)Ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ianeoaeeaaiea eiouanoaa ni noi?iiu
a?aiaeiaeaoaey, ia aeiioneaaony aein?i/iia i?ae?auaiea a?aiaeu.

I?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?ia eeceiaa: a?aiaeaoi?, eae i?aaeei nai,
iaoiaeeo iinoaaueea iai?oaeiaaiey; caeeth/aaony aeiaiai? ia iinoaaeo, ii
aai iiaeienuaaao ia a?aiaeaoi?, a a?aiaeiaeaoaeue eee eeceiaiaay
eiiiaiey.

I?aaei?eyoea iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeienuaaao aeiaiai? i eeceiaa n
?anoeo?iaeie anao oneiaee ( ?anoiaeu, noiio e n?iee auieaou a?aiaeiie
ieaou e o.ae. ) iaaeaeo a?aiaeothuei e a?aiaeiaeaoaeai. Eae i?aaeei,
n?iee a?aiaeiuo ieaoaaeae i?eaeeaeaiu e n?ieai ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee e
eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee iicaieytho iie?uoue ana ?anoiaeu ( a oii /enea
iaeeaaeiua ).

2) I?aaeoniio?ai oe?ieee e?oa ioiioaiee iaaeaeo a?aiaeaoi?ii e
a?aiaeiaeaoaeai: ianeoaeeaaiea, iaeaaeea, ?aiiio a?aiaeoaiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey. Yoe ?anoiaeu aeeth/athony a ieaoaaee ii eeceiaiaiio
niaeaoaieth.

Yoi nenoaia acaeiiioiioaiey, eiaaea nianoaaiiee iai?oaeiaaiey, caeaiee e
o.i. i?iaeaao eo oeiainiaie ( eeceiaiaie ) eiiiaiee e iaeiia?aiaiii
ioi?ieyao niaeaoaiea i aeieain?i/iie a?aiaea auaoae naiae nianoaaiiinoe
ia oneiaeyo eeceiaa.

Eeceia n iaiieiie ieoiaaiinoueth naycai n i?eia?aoaieai eiouanoaa.
Iniaaiiinoe:

a?aiaeiaeaoaeue ia ?ann/eouaaao iie?uoue ana naie cao?aou, ca n/ao
iinooieaiee, oieueei io iaeiiai a?aiaeaoi?a;

n?iee a?aiaeu ioaaouaatho ia iieiue oeeee oece/aneiai eciina
iai?oaeiaaiey;

?ene iioa?ue io oie/oiaeaiey eiouanoaa eaaeeo ia a?aiaeiaeaoaea;

ii ieii/aiee a?aiaeu eiouanoai aica?auaaony a?aiaeiaeaoaeth.

A ninoaa oaeiai eeceiaa aoiaeyo: ?aioeia – e?aoein?i/iay a?aiaea
eiouanoaa ( io iaeiiai aeiy aei iaeiiai aiaea ); oae?eia –
n?aaeian?i/iay a?aiaea ( iaeei – o?e aiaea ).

Oeiainiaue eeceia n iieiie ieoiaaiinoueth – i?aaeoniao?eaatho auieaoo, a
oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea, anae noiiu a?aiaeiie ieaou, eioi?ay
iie?uaaao aii?oecaoeeth n o/aoii i?eauee.

?inneeneie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniao?eaaao neaaeothuea aeaeu
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae:

ieaoaaee n oeene?iaaiiie iauae noiiie;

ieaoaaee n aaainii;

ieieiaeueiua ieaoaaee;

iaii?aaeaeaiiua ieaoaaee:

iauay noiia ieaoaaeae auiea/eaaaony a oa/aiea anaai n?iea aeaenoaey
aeiaiai?a eeceiaa ii onoaiiaeaiiie ia?eiaee/iinoe e n?ieai;

eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue a iiiaio iiaeienaiey aeiaiai?a oiea/eaaao
a?aiaeiaeaoaeth aaain a niaeaniaaiiie noiia, inoaeueiay /anoue
oiea/eaaaony a oa/aiea n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a, eae i?e ia?aii
aa?eaioa;

anee a aeiaiai?a eeceiaa i?aaeoniio?ai aueoi eiouanoaa ii ca?aiaa
onoaiiaeaiiie oeaia, oi yoa noieiinoue niioaaonoaothueie aeieyie
i?eaaaeyaony e auieaoai, ?ann/eoaiiui, enoiaey ec oeene?iaaiiie iauae
noiiu eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae; .oa noiia iiaeao auoue auiea/aia e
ioaeaeueii, iinea caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a.

Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue a ioee/ea io a?aiaeaoi?a ia oieueei iieo/aao iauaeo a
aeeeoaeueiia iieueciaaiea, ii iaai aiceaaathony iaycaiiinoe, naycaiiua n
i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe: iieaoa eiouanoaa, aiciauaiea iioa?ue a neo/aa
aeaaee, no?aoiaaiea, oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio.

Eeceia i?aaeinoaaeyao neaaeothuea i?aeiouanoaa eeceiaiaeaoaeth:

?anoe?aiea iiiaieeaoo?u: eeceiaiaeaoaeue aunooiaao ia aioo?aiiee e
aiaoiee ?uiie;

iaania/aiea ?aaeecaoeee oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, i?iaeaaea eioi?uo ia
ae?oaeo oneiaeyo iaaiciiaeia eee iaauaiaeia;

iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe naeaaaaiuo a aeieain?i/ioth a?aiaeo iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey iooai ioai?a auaiaeiuo eiio?aeoia;

?anoe?aiea e?oaa ia?oia?ia ieioy iin?aaeieeia

Iethnu aeey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey:

iieo/aao iaiaoiaeeiia eiouanoai aac cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao;

/anoe/ii ono?aiyaony ?ene iioa?ue aeey i?aaei?eyoey a nayce n ii?aeueiui
eciinii iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey;

iieo/aiea iaeiaiauo eueaio, oae eae a?aiaeiay ieaoa aeeth/aaony a
iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu;

o/eouaaao iniaaiiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, oi?iuaiiia
caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia ii n?aaiaieth n aaieianeeie e?aaeeoaie.

Iethn aeey i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey:

nieaeaiea ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio, eco/aiea ?uiea iio?aaeoaeae;

iieaoa anae noieiinoe caeaca /a?ac iinoiyiiiai ia?oia?a – eeceiaiaoth
eiiiaieth.

Ana i?aoaicee ii ea/anoao e oiio iiaeiaiua i?aaeuyaeythony e eeceiaiaie
eiiiaiee, a ia i?iecaiaeeoaeth.

Eiaanoeoeee a iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau.

IIA ioee/aaony io IN oai, /oi iie ia yaeythony OIOe, io iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa – oai, /oi iie eniieuecothony aieaa iaeiiai aiaea.

E IIA ioiinyony:

i?aai iieueciaaiey caiaeueiuie o/anoeaie;

iaoaiou e eeoeaicee;

aaoi?neea i?aaa;

oi?aiaua ia?ee e ciaee;

i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou;

ecia?aoaiey.

Eae i?aaeei, ana iia?aoeee n IIA iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 3 a?oiiu:

iinooieaiea: a n/ao aciinia a onoaaiua oiiaeu, i?eia?aoaiea ca ieaoo,
aacaiciacaeiua iinooieaiey;

aeaeaeaiea, eniieueciaaiea;

eeeaeaeaoeey, nienaiea, ?aaeecaoeey, aacaiciacaeiay ia?aaea/a.

IIA , eae iauaeou aeieain?i/iiai eniieueciaaiey, aii?oece?othony.
Aii?oecaoeey ia/eneyaony enoiaey ec n?iea neoaeau. IAeN nienuaaaony a
iiiaio iieaou.

Enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey:

/enoay i?eaueue;

aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey;

nnoaeu e e?aaeeou aaieia;

n?aaenoaa io ?aaeecaoeee eiouanoaa, oeaiiuo aoiaa e o.i.;

Oeaia IIA a neo/aa iieoiee – aeiaiai?iay oeaia ( eee inoaoi/iay
noieiinoue, anee iie auee a oiio?aaeaiee).

Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey IIA: ?aioaaaeueiinoue, aeioiaeiinoue.

Aeioiaeiinoue = i?eaueue ca ia?eiae ( aaeiaay eee /enoay )

N?aaeiea inoaoee IIA ca ia?eiae

EIAANOEOeEE A IAI?IOIUA AEOEAU E OI?AAEAIEA I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUIE

CAIANAIE.

nouiinoue e ?ieue eiaanoeoeee a iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa;

enoi/ieee eiaanoeoeee a iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa;

oi?aaeaiea caianaie e caeoieaie;

oeiainiaua iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea eniieueciaaiea iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa.

Nouiinoue e ?ieue eiaanoeoeee a iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa.

Iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa – aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, aaaine?iaaiiua a iai?ioiua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu e oiiaeu ia?auaiey, aeey iaania/aiey
iai?a?uaiinoe aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Iniaaiiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa:

a ioee/ee io aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa ia ?anoiaeothony,
a aaaine?othony e , i?ieaey 3 oacu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e?oaiiai?ioa
oiiaeia, aiciauathony ec au?o/ee io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e aiiaue
aica?auathony a iai?io aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia;

aeey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa oa?aeoa?ia iai?a?uaiinoue aeaeaeaiey ii oacai e
niaia oi?i noieiinoe;

iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa – noieiinoiay eaoaai?ey ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

A ninoaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa aoiaeyo:

n?aaenoaa a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa: i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu ( a o./. IAI
), iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia;

n?aaenoaa a noa?a ia?auaiey: aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey, oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua,
n?aaenoaa a ?an/aoao ( ?an/aou n aeaaeoi?aie, aaainu io iinoaaueeia e
iiae?yae/eeia, e?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey e o.i. ), aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa ( eanna, ?an/aoiue n/ao, aaethoiue n/ao e o.ae.).

A ninoaaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania io?aaeaaony oaeoe/aneay noieiinoue
nu?uey, eiiieaeoothueo e o.i. Ii?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia, nienuaaaiuo ia i?iecaiaenoai, iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny ii o?ai
iaoiaeai:

OEOI

EEOI

N?aaeiae naaanoieiinoe.

Iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai – i?iaeoeoeey anao noaaeee, oac, ia?aaeaeia,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii, i?iaeoeoeey
iaaeioeiiieaeoiaaiiay.

Iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai io?aaeaaony a o/aoa ii:

ii?iaoeaiie n/n;

i?yiui noaoueyi ?anoiaeia;

noieiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia – ?anoiaeu, inouanoaeyaiua a io/aoiii
ia?eiaea, ii ioiinyueany ia naaanoieiinoue a neaaeothueo ia?eiaeao.

Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey – oaeoe/aneay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay n/n aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaeiacia/aiiie e ?aaeecaoeee.

Oiaa?u – ecaeaeey aeey eiiieaeoaoeee, eioi?ua io?aaeathony ii iieoiiie
noieiinoe, iacaaeneii io aa?eaioia o/aoa.

Oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua – aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey, ioa?oaeaiiay, ii ia
iiea/aiiay; i?iaeoeoeey, ia?aaeaiiay aeey ?aaeecaoeee. O/eouaaaony ii
oaeoe/aneie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie n/n, eee ii ii?iaoeaiie n/n.

Aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue – ?an/aou ca oiaa?u, ?aaiou, oneoae ii
aaenaeyi iieo/aiiui, ii ?an/aoai n athaeaeaoaie e aei/a?ieie
i?aaei?eyoeyie, ia?niiaeii, i?i/eie aeaaeoi?aie. Iia iiaeao auoue
ii?iaeueiie e iaii?iaeueiie, a niioaaonoaee n yoei i?ienoiaeeo aa
nienaiea.

No?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa caaeneo io ianeieueeeo oaeoi?ia:

i?iecaiaenoaaiiua;

iniaaiiinoe caeoiie iaoa?eaeia;

nenoaia ?an/aoia;

ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Enoi/ieee eiaanoeoeee.

Enoi/ieee eiaanoeoeee io?aaeathony a ianneaa aaeaina: nianoaaiiua,
i?eaea/aiiua, caaiiua n?aaenoaa.

Nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee:

/enoay i?eaueue io/aoiiai aiaea;

?aca?aiue eaieoae aeey iie?uoey oauoeia;

?aca?au ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai;

oeaeaaia oeiaine?iaaiea e iinooieaiey;

oiiaeu iaeiieaiey.

Enoi/iee oi?ie?iaaiey nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa – onoaaiue
eaieoae.

I?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa:

e?aoein?i/iua caeiu ( e?iia aaieianeeo );

e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue;

aaainu iieo/aiiua;

i?i/ea e?aoein?i/iua ianneau;

Caaiiua n?aaenoaa:

E?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou aaieia, o.e. ia aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoeyo
iniiaiie ninoaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa noi?ie?iaai, e a caaeneiinoe io
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu o?aaoaony aai eciaiaiea, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iniiaiay caaea/a i?aaei?eyoey – iainiiaaiea e iiene enoi/ieeia
iiiieiaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Iniiaiie enoi/iee iiiieiaiey iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa – /enoay i?eaueue. Iaee/ea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo e eo iio?aaiinoue ?aaia ?acieoea iaaeaeo aeoeaii e
ianneaii aaeaina ii ia?aiio ?acaeaeo. A ninoaa i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa
aeeth/aaony e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay aicieeaao, eae
i?aaeei, ec-ca iaaeinoaoeia nenoaiu ?an/aoia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie eee
ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii ?an/aoai.

Enoi/ieee iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa: nianoaaiiua, caaiiua.

Ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iie?uaaaony aeaenoaeoaeueiay
iio?aaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nao, iaania/eaathuay
iai?a?uaiinoue i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee
aiaea.

Ca n/ao caaiiuo n?aaenoa iie?uaaaony aeiiieieoaeueiay iio?aaiinoue aeey
ia?aciaaiey naciiiuo caiania iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e iie?uoey cao?ao
ia i?iecaiaenoai, aucuaaaiuo eieaaaieyie ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u.

Caaiiua n?aaenoaa, eae i?aaeei, oi?ie?othony ca n/ao e?aoein?i/iuo
aaieianeeo nnoae, a oaeaea ca n/ao n?aaenoa iiaeeeciaaiiuo ia oeiainiaii
?uiea. E?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou i?aaeinoaaeythony ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa,
ia iniiaa caieaie?iaaiiuo e?aaeeoiuo aeiaiai?ia, ia oneiaeyo eo
oeaeaaiai eniieueciaaiey, iaania/aiiinoe, n?i/iinoe, ieaoiinoe, a
i?aaeaeao e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia aaiea. A aeiiieiaiea e e?aaeeoiiio
aeiaiai?o ninoaaeyaony eaeaiaea?iue a?aoee ieaoaaeae ii iniiaiiio
aeieao e ii i?ioeaioai. I?aaeinoaaeaiea nnoae iiaeao auoue:

– iiae caeia eiouanoaa e oeaiiinoae eeeaioa;

– aa?aioee eee ii?o/eoaeuenoaa;

Aeaieiaua e?aaeeou ia?aieeanniui caaiueeai i?aaeinoaaeythony

aac aa?aioee e ii?o/eoaeuenoa.

– nnoaeu ia iiiieiaiea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;

Aaie iiaeao i?eieiaoue iiae aa?aioeth oieueei eiouanoai iaoiaeyuaany a
nianoaaiiinoe ia oneiaeyo i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, aeeth/ay eiouanoaaiiua
i?aaa. I?e /ai o/eouaaaony ia oieueei aaeainiaay noieiinoue, ii e
?aaeueiay noieiinoue caeiaa n o/aoii auno?ie aa ?aaeecaoeee. I?e
i?eiyoee a caeia eiouanoaa aaie iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue aai no?aoiaaiea ca
n/ao caaiueea. Caaiuee iaycai a oa/aiee iaiai?aiiiai n?iea iiaaneoue
noiio e?aaeeoa e i?ioeaiou ii iaio.

A neo/aa ia?ooaiey oneiaee noiia iaiiaaoaiiiai aeieaa ia?aiineony ia
n/ao i?in?i/aiiuo nnoae e aaie a i?aaa i?anooieoue e acuneaieth nnoaeu
a a?aeo?aaeiii ii?yaeea.

Anee caaeieaeaiiinoue aaieo aieueoa 30 aeiae, oi ii a i?aaa
i?ae?aoeoue auaea/o nnoae e i?aaeoi?aaeeoue i acuneaiee, ?aaeeciaaoue
i?eiyoia a caeia eiouanoai, aeeth/ay iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, e
i?aaeuyaeoue acuneaiea noiiu ia aa?aioa. A ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo
i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeiee iiaeao auoue i?eciaii aaie?ioii, oaeaea iiaoo
i?eiaiyoueny neaaeothuea ia?u: ?ai?aaiecaoeey, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey
aeieaa, ia?aaea/a a iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea, ?ai?aaiecaoeey i?aaei?eyoey,
eeeaeaeaoeey i?aaei?eyoey n iineaaeothuae ?aaeecaoeeae eiouanoaa.
?aioaaaeueiinoue caaiueea i?e iieo/aiee e?aaeeoia
ii?aaeaeyaony n oi/ee c?aiey oeiainiaiai ?acoeueoaoa aai aeayoaeueiinoe,
iiyoiio i?e iieo/aiee e?aaeeoia, eae i?aaeei, o?aaothony yeiiiie/aneea
?an/aou. Caeanue ?ann/eouaaaony ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee,
eiouanoaa, nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, ?aioaaaeueiinoue oaeoueo aeoeaia e
o.ae..

E?iia oiai ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaaiue ?enea n oi/ee c?aiey ?aaeueiinoe
auiieiaiey e?aaeeooaiiai ia?ii?eyoey, a oaeaea iaania/aiiinoe aa?aioee.
I?iaa?yaony eeeaeaeiinoue aaeaina n oi/ee c?aiey no?oeoo?u eaieoaea e
aai ?aciauaiee(eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe, ooi/iaiiue
eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiinoe, iauee eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiinoe,
eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe; eiyooeoeeaio ioiioaiey nianoaaiiuo
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iaoiaeyueony a iai?ioa ei anai; aeiey o?oaeii
?aaeecoaiuo aeoeaia ai anao aeoeaao; niioiioaiea o?oaeii
?aaeecoaiuo aeoeaia e eaaei?aaeecoaiui ). I?aaei?eyoea, iiyoiio,
i?e eniieueciaaiee nianoaaiiuo caaiiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue
i?eaea/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?ano?nia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea ii oiaa?ai e o.ae.).

?ann/eouaaaiua i?aaei?eyoeai ii?iaoeau iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth aioo?aiieo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, aeey en/eneaiey ieaiiaie iio?aaiinoe a iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoaao eniieuecothony iaoiae i?yiiai n/aoa, aiaeeoe/aneee e
niaoaiiue, i?e /ai iaycaoaeueiui aeiiieiaieai a yoeo ?an/aoao
aeieaeii auoue o/oaii eae aiaoieo (eioeyoeey, ianoaaeeueiinoue ?uiea
i?iaeoeoeee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e o.ae.) oae e aioo?aiieo
oaeoi?ia (?eoie/iinoue auionea i?iaeoeoeee, naeaeae a anni?oeiaioa e
o.ae.).

I?e iaoiaea i?yiiai n/aoa iio?aaiinoue a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao ii
nu?ueth e iaoa?eaeai ii?aaeaeyaony iooai oiiiaeaiey iaeiiaeiaaiiai
?anoiaea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia (ii niaoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai) ia
ii?io caiania a aeiyo.

Ii iacaaa?oaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao eae i?iecaaaeaiea iaeiiaeiaaiiai
auionea oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ii naaanoieiinoe ia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea a aeiyo ia eiyooeoeeaio ia?anoaiey cao?ao a
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea iooai oiiiaeaiey iaeiiaeiaaiiai
auionea i?iaeoeoeee ii naaanoieiinoe ia ii?io caiania a aeiyo, ii
oiaa?ai iooai oiiiaeaiey iaeiiaeiaaiiai oiaa?iiai?ioa ia ii?io a aeiyo.

I?e aiaeeoe/aneii iaoiaea oaeoe/anee n?aaeiea inoaoee iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia ca io/aoiue ia?eiae (ca eneeth/aieai iaeeeaeaeiuo) oiiiaeathony
ia oaiiu ?inoa iauaia ?aaeecaoeee a i?aaenoiyuai aiaeo. Aeey ?an/aoa
iio?aaiinoae e ii?iaoeaia neaaeoao ?acee/aoue iiiyoey ieaie?iaaiea e
ii?ie?iaaiea.

I?e ieaie?iaaiee ii?aaeaeyaony iauaa eiee/anoai nianoaaiiuo e caaiiuo
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iaiaoiaeeiuo a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae
aeayoaeueiinoe(a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee e iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee); i?e
ii?ie?iaaiee ii?aaeaeytho iioeiaeueioth iio?aaiinoue a aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoaao aeey nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo caiania oiaa?ii –
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae(aaeaaeiaai.,aaeaaeaeaae.).

Ii?ie?iaaiea oaeei ia?acii – ninoaaiay /anoue ieaie?iaaiey e

i?aaeiieaaaao neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe: o/ao io?aneaauo e aeiaiai?iuo
oneiaee iinoaaie nu?uey e ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee;

iaania/aiey iioeiecaoeee eee ieieiecaoeee caiania ia iniiaa
oaoiieiae/aneeo ii?i a aeiyo eee a i?ioeaioao e o.ae..

Ii?ie?iaaiea, eae i?aaeei, ia/eiaaony n ?ac?aaioee ii?i ii

anai noaoueyi iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, caoai ia iniiaa yoeo ii?i caiana a
aeiyo e iaeiiaeiaaiuo cao?ao ii eaaeaeie noaouea ii?aaeaeyaony ii?iaoea
ii yoie noaouea. Ana ii?ie?iaaiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa inouanoaeyaony ii
iaeiie iauae oi?ioea:

H=N*O , aaea

H – ii?iaoea;

N – ii?ia caiania;

O – iaeiiaeiaaiua caianu eee cao?aou ii noaouea eee a oeaeii ii

i?aaei?eyoeth;

Iaeiiaeiaaiua caianu e cao?aou, eae i?aaeei, ii?aaeaeythony ii niaoa
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai, a ii?iu a aeiyo ii?aaeaeythony ii eaaeaeiio
aeaeo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ii ?aciiio. A oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth
ii?aaeaeythony niaieoiiua ii?iaoeau, o.a. iauee athaeaeao iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia /anoiuo ii?iaoeaia.

Ii?ie?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeony ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeie noaouea yeaiaioia
caiania, cao?ao e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii noaoueyi caiania ?acee/atho
nu?uea e iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu, aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai,
yia?aey, oa?a, IAI e iaeioi?ua ae?..

Neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi aeiaeaiiua aeaiueae a aeaiiua noaouee
caiania aeaenoaeoaeueii ia yaeythony aeiaeaiiuie a yoe caianu, o.a.
nu?uea iiaeao ia aeieoe; iiaeao aeieoe, ii ia auoue ?aca?oaeaiiui;
iiaeao i?eaeoe, ii ia oiai ea/anoaa.

Ii?ia caiania ii nu?ueth e iaoa?eaeai ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec
neaaeothuaai, /oi i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii eiaoue aeey ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou
aaeaaeiaaii neaaeothuea aeaeu caiania:

o?ainii?oiua caianu, caian ia i?eaieo e ?aca?oceo iaoa?eaeia, caian
ia neeaaee?iaaiea, caian ia eaai?aoi?iue aiaeec, oaoiieiae/aneee
caian, oaeouee neeaaeneie caian, aa?aioe?iaaiiue eee no?aoiaie – a
aeiyo.

O?ainii?oiue caian nicaeaaony o i?aaei?eyoey iieoiaoaey e iaiaoiaeei
ia a?aiy ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo iieaoie n/aoa iieoiaoaey e a?aiaiai
iinooieaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo
a?aiaiai i?iaaaa a?oca e a?aiaiai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa. Anee yoi a?aiy
ni ciaeii “-“(ieion), oi a ?an/ao i?eieiaaony 0. Oae eae i?aaei?eyoea
iieo/aao nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu iaeiia?aiaiii io ?aciuo iinoaaueeia, oi i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee ii?iu caiana iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue n?aaeiaacaaoaiioth
aaee/eio caiania (acaaoeaaiea i?iecaiaeeony ia iauai iinoaaie).

A?aiy iaiaoiaeeiia ia i?eaieo a?ocia eaai?aoi?iue aiaeec neeaaee?iaaiey
ii?aaeaeyaony eeai ii onoaiiaeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai ii?iai, eeai ii
o?iiiiao?aaeo, a?aiy ia iiaeaioiaeo e i?iecaiaenoao ii?aaeaeyaony ii
oaoiieiae/aneei ea?oai.

Oaeouee neeaaeneie caian neeaaeuaaaony ec /anoiou iinoaaie nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ay caaeneo io ?yaea i?e/ei, a o./. oneiaey
aeiaiai?ia(eeai ea?oi/ee neeaaeneiai o/aoa ia neeaaeao), aiaeec i?aeoeee
i?aaeoanoaothueo ia?eiaeia. Aeey ?an/aoa, eae i?aaeei,
i?eiaiythony oneiaey aeiaiai?ia.

Anee iinoaaueeia iiiai, oi ?ann/eouaaaony n?aaeiaacaaoaiiue eioa?aae
iaaeaeo iinoaaeaie, i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, anee iinoaaie a aiae iaiueoa
20, oi i?eieiaaony eae oaeouee neeaaeneie caian eioa?aae iinoaaie.
Anee iaoa?eaeu e nu?uea iinooiatho io iaeiiai iinoaaueea, oi oiaea
eioa?aae; anee iiiai iinoaaueeia – 50% eioa?aaea i?eieiaaony a
?an/ao; anee iinoaauee iaoiaeeony ?yaeii, oi oaeouee neeaaeneie
caian iaiaa 50%.

No?aoiaie caian i?eieiaaony, eae i?aaeei, a ?acia?a 50% io oaeouaai
neeaaeneiai caiana. I?e aaeaaeiaaiii caaica oaeie caian, eae i?aaeei, ia
nicaeaaony. Neeaaeuaay ana ii?iu ii nu?ueth e iaoa?eaeai nicaeatho
iauoth ii?io e caoai ?ann/eouaatho n?aaeiaacaaoaiioth ii?io ii aeaiiie
noaouea. A caaeneiinoe io oneiaee iinoaaie iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoueny ii?ia
ii aniiiiaaoaeueiui iaoa?eaeai (yoa iaoiaeeea a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny e e iniiaiui iaoa?eaeai). Iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny
aeaa iaoiaea:

– aeey iaoa?eaeia i?eiaiyaiuo /anoi e a aieueoii eiee/anoaa
(oaeaea eae e ii iniiaiui iaoa?eaeai e nu?ueth)

– aeey aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia eniieuecoaiuo ?aaeei e a iaaieueoii
eiee/anoaa (ii iaoiaeo n?aaeieo oaeoe/aneeo inoaoeia). Yoio iaoiae
i?aaeiieaaaao neaaeothuea yoaiu:

1 oaeoe/aneea n?aaeiea inoaoee aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia ca
io/aoiue ia?eiae ei??aeoe?othony ia noiio eceeoieo e iaioaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia (aeaiiua aa?oony iiiany/ii, iiaeaeaaeii, iieaa?oaeueii ec
aeaiiuo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, neeaaeneiai o/aoa);

2 ia iniiaa ioei??aeoe?iaaiiuo noii inoaoeia e iaeiiaeiaaiuo cao?ao a
i?aaeoanoaothuai niiinoaaeiii ia?eiaea ii aeaiiie a?oiia iaoa?eaeia
ii?aaeaeytho oaeoe/aneoth ii?io caiania a aeiyo;

3 Yoo ii?aaeaeaiioth ii?io a aeiyo caiania i?ioeiai ia?eiaea
?ani?ino?aiytho ia ieaie?oaiue ia?eiae e aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ii?iaoeaa
oiiiaeatho ia ieaiiaua iaeiiaeiaaiua cao?aou ii aeaiiie a?oiia
iaoa?eaeia;

4 eeai ii?iu, eeai ii?iaoeau noiie?otho.

Oiieeai.

Ii?iaoea ii oiieeao onoaiaaeeaaaony a iniiaiii oaeaea eae e ii nu?ueth
e iaoa?eaeai, aeey ?an/aoa iaeiiaeiaaiuo cao?ao iaiaoiaeeii eneeth/eoue
cao?aou ia aac (ii o?oaii?iaiaeo, aac a aaeeiiao ii?ie?oaony). Neaaeoao
eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi a niaoao cao?ao aac o/eouaaaony eae oiieeai
iai?aaeyaiia ia oaoiieiae/aneea oeaee, iiyoiio e aeaiiui cao?aoai
i?eaaaeytho ?anoiaeu ia oiieeai ii iai?iiuoeaiiui oicyenoaai. Eae
i?aaeei, anee oiieeai iinooiaao io iaeiiai iinoaaueea, oi oaeouee
neeaaeneie caian i?eieiaaony

?aaiui eioa?aaeo iinoaaie, a no?aoiaie ia o?iaia oaeouaai caiana.

Oa?a.

– iieoiiay; caianu ii?aaeaeythony oaeaea, eae ii nu?ueth e iaoa?eaeai,
a eio. oiaeiauaaaony aeaiiue oiaa?; ii?iaoea ii?aaeaeyaony oaeaea eae e
ii iaoa?eaeai.

– Oa?a nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, noieiinoue eioi?ie aeeth/aaony a
oeaio oiaa?a. Iia ii?ie?oaony enoiaey ec a?aiaie iaoiaeaeaiey ia neeaaea
io iiiaioa ecaioiaeaiey aei iiiaioa oiaeiaee (a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii
neo/aa aoaeoo eiie?aoiua ?an/aou);

– Aica?aoiay oa?a. Ii iae ii?ia caiana a aeiyo caaeneo io n?aaeiae
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe iaeiiai iai?ioa n iiiaioa iieaou n/aoa ca oa?o,
iieo/aiiie n nu?ueai e iaoa?eaeaie aei iiiaioa naea/e ieaoaaeiuo
aeieoiaioia a aaie ia ioa?oceo oa?u iinoaaueeo. A?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey
oa?u a iai?ioa (aica?aoiie) aeeth/aao a naay a?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey ia
neeaaea iiae nu?ueai e iaoa?eaeaie, iaiaoiaeeiinoue a?aiaie ia /enoeo,
i?iiuaeo, ?aiiio, eiiieaeoiaaiea ia?oee, ioa?oceo e auienee
?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia.

IAI.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey caiania ii IAI ?an/ao i?iecaiaeeony iaoiaeii i?yiiai
n/aoa ?acaeaeueii ii eaaeaeie a?oiia IAI, enoiaey ec noieiinoe aaeeieoeu
onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i ?anoiaea e iauae iio?aaiinoe. Caeanue iaaei eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi ii?iu onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O.

Ii?iu ii IAI onoaiaaeeaathony a aeaoo ?ac?acao: ia neeaaea e a
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia neeaaea ii iieiie noieiinoe, a i?iecaiaenoaa 50%
noieiinoe. Anee eciin ia/eneyaony n?aco i?e iiiaioa ii?eoiaeiaaiey e
iieaou a ?acia?a 100%, oi ii?iu iiaoo ia ia/eneyoueny(caoi o/ao anaai
IAI iaoiaeyuaainy a i?iecaiaenoaa aeieaeai aanoenue). Ii?ie?othony
oaeaea caianu ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo IAI ioaeaeueii. Niaoeinianoea
o/eouaaaony e ii?ie?oaony ioaeaeueii a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa
iaania/aiiuo ethaeae yoie inianoeie, a?aiaie neoaeau e o.ae..

Iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai.

Anee ia i?aeoeea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu a ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe iiaoo
oi?ie?iaaoueny n o/anoeai caaiiiai eaieoaea, oi iacaaa?oaiii
i?iecaiaenoai, eae i?aaeei, oieueei ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa.
Caianu iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa caaenyo io aeeeoaeueiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea e oa?aeoa?a ia?anoaiey cao?ao.

Oa?aeoa? ia?anoaiey cao?ao a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo
?acee/ai(iai?eia?, noaeino?iaiea aei 1 aiaea e aieaa). Oa?aeoa?
ia?anoaiey cao?ao i?e eaaeaeii aeaea i?iecaiaenoa ii?aaeaeyaony ii
?aciiio. Anee cao?aou ia?anoatho ?aaiiia?ii, oi eiyooeoeeaio ia?anoaiey
cao?ao ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

A + 0.5A

E= ———– ,aaea

A + A

A – ia?aiia/aeueiua cao?aou ia?aiai aeiy;

A – ana iineaaeothuea cao?aou;

A+A – iieiay naaanoieiinoue;

Anee cao?aou ia?anoatho ia?aaiiia?ii, oi eiyooeoeeaio ia?anoaiey cao?ao
ii?aaeaeyaony n o/aoii aeeeoaeueiinoe i?aauaaiey yoeo cao?ao a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiyooeoeeaio ia?anoaiey cao?ao ii?aaeaeyaony,
eae ioiioaiea n?aaeiae noieiinoe iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iauae
noiia ieaiiauo cao?ao eee

?anoiaeu eaaeaeiai aeiy noiiu anao cao?ao ii ieaio

ia?anoathuei eoiaii

E=—————————————–

noiiu anao cao?ao ii ieaio

C1 +C2 +….

E= —————— , aaea

Ae * C

Ae – aeeeoaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea * ia noiio anao cao?ao

E?iia oiai, iiaoo auoue iniaaiiinoe a en/eneaiee enoiaey ec nenoai
ioa?ocee eeai ni neeaaea, eeai ec oeaoa ia iniiaa eiyooeoeeaioa
ia?anoaiey cao?ao, ii oi?ioeai e aeeeoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
oeeeea ii?aaeaeytho ii?io caiania a aeiyo ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:

N = K * D

Ioee/ea a ii?aaeaeaiee ii?iaoeaa iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa

io ii?iaoeaa “i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu “- ii nu?ueth ana ii?iaoeau

neeaaeuaathony, a ii iacaaa?oaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao n/eoatho
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii oi?ioea : ii?ia*iaeiiaeiaaiua caianu ia
i?iecaiaenoai

I=N*I

I?e /ai yoe cao?aou iiaoo n/eoaoueny ii aaeiaiio auioneo eee

ii iaeiiaeiaaiui cao?aoai.

?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia.

Iio?aaiinoue a oaeeo n?aaenoaao ii?aaeaeyaony niaoeeaeueiii ?an/aoii
iaoiaea i?yiiai n/aoa. Ii?iaoea ii?aaeaeyaony:

I= Ai + ?i – ?a, aaea

Ai – noiia n?aaenoa aeiaeaiiuo a aeaiioth noaoueth (inoaoie n?aaenoa)

ia ia/aei ia?eiaea;

?i – ?anoiaeu ieaie?oaiiai ia?eiaea ia aeaiioth noaoueth;

?a – ?anoiaeu aeeth/aaiua a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ieaie?oaiiai

ia?eiaea;

Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey ia neeaaea.

Ii?ia caiania ii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea ii?aaeaeyaony a?aiaiai
iaiaoiaeeiui aeey aeinai?ee, ni?oe?iaee ia?oee ii caeacai, a?aiaie
ia iaeiieaiea ia?oee, /anoiou a iiaea/a o?ainii?oa, io o?ainii?oiuo
e iiioaaeiuo ii?i, io a?aiaie ia auieneo n/aoia, a?aiaie ia iia?oceo
e o.ae.. O?ainii?oiua ii?iu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ii?io ioa?ocee aeaiiie
ia?oee oiaa?a.

Iiioaaeiua ii?iu – iaiueoa aeaiiie ii?iu ia i?eieiaao iieoiaoaeue.

Ii?ia a oeaeii ii?aaeaeyaony iaoiaeii iineaaeiaai on?aaeiaiey e oaeei
ia?acii ii?iaoea iiae aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth ia neeaaea aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny enoiaey ec n?aaeiaacaaoaiiie ii?iu caiana ia neeaaea e
iaeiiaeiaaiie ioa?ocee i?iaeoeoeee.

Noiia /anoiuo ii?iaoeaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiue ii?iaoea, a
ii?ia caiana a aeiyo ii i?aaei?eyoeth a oeaeii ii?aaeaeyaony oaeei
ia?acii aeaeaieai niaieoiiiai ii?iaoeaa ia iaeiiaeiaaiua cao?aou ii
niaoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai.

Ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua iaoiaeu ?an/aoa ii?iaoeaia eiatho naie
aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee, iiyoiio ia eiie?aoiii i?aaei?eyoee yoe
iniaaiiinoe aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu. I?ioeann oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie caianaie e caeoieaie, eae i?aaeei, oieueei ia
n?aaeieo e e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Aeey oi?aaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue eaeea iaoa?eaeu o?aaothony aeey
auionea i?iaeoeoeee, e eae ninoaaeoue nai ieai caeoiie. Noaia
ninoaaeaiey ieaia caeoiie iniiauaaaony ia enoi/ieea iinoaaie e
i?aaeoniao?eaaao neaaeothuea yoaiu:

1 nai? eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ue aeeth/aao a naay eaaeiaoiua enneaaeiaaiey,
eco/aiea eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e naiiai i?iaeoeoa
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee;

2 aiaeec iio?aaiinoae e aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ue ninoieo ec aiaeeca
aiciiaeiinoae iinoaaueeia, ?an/ao iauae iio?aaiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia, ioeaiea nianoaaiiie iaoa?eaeueiie e oeiainiaie aacu;

3 auai? no?aoaaee;

4 ii?aaeaeaiea iaoiaea caeoiie;

5 i?eiyoea iia?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee(eaeea iaoa?eaeu caeoiaoue, eiaaea

caeoiaoue, eaeea o?aaothony neeaaeneea iiiauaiey, o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu e
cao?aou ii caeoieai).

6 eiio?ieue ia neo/ae iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo o?oaeiinoae;

7 aiaeec auiieiaiey ieaia caeoiie (iia?aoeaiue, oaeouee)

8 ei??aeoe?iaea ieaia caeoiie;

E?aoeea iiyniaiey e yoaiai:1) eco/aiea niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u,
ni?aai/ieeia, onoiie eioi?iaoeee, eco/aiea ecaanoiuo oaea

iioaioeeaeueiuo iinoaaueeia n oi/ee c?aiey oii?yaei/aiey oeaiu,
ea/anoaa iinoaaeyaiiai nu?uey. N?aaiaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
iinoaaeyaiie ia ?uiie ii oaoiieiae/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai enoiaey ec
eeanneoeeaoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeae yoie i?iaeoeoeee.

2) ii?aaeaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe iinoaaueeia, o eioi?uo iiaoo auoue
i?eia?aoaiu iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai e o.ae., ii?aaeaeaiea iauae iio?aaiinoe
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, ii?aaeaeaiea i?aeiouanoa eee
iaaeinoaoeia i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa o iinoaaueeia;

4) A /anoe caeoiie yoi iiaoo auoue iioiaua caeoiee, ?aaoey?iua caeoiee,
iaeeeie ia?oeyie, caeoiee ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe e o.ae..

3) enoiaey ec aa?eaioia caeoiie (n?aaiaiey iaoiaeia) ii?aaeaeytho naie
aa?eaio;

5)iinea auai?a iaoiaea ii?aaeaeytho eaeea iaoa?eaeu o?aaothony e ii
ioieoai;

6) a oiaea ?aaeecaoeee ieaia caeoiie iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeyoue
eiio?ieue iooai auai?i/iuo i?iaa?ie ia?eiaee/anee eee ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe,
a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaia ei??aeoe?iaea ieaia n
oeaeueth nie?auaiey aei ieieioia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e onei?aiea
iai?a/eaaaiinoe (eiaaioa?ecaoeey).

7)/a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec
auiieiaiey ieaia n eiie?aoiuie auaiaeaie;

8 iieaoa iinoaaie – yoi caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
naa?youe n/aoa ia iieaoo n eiee/anoaii oaeoe/aneeo iinoaaie. Yoi
ioaeii aeey oiai /oiau – i?iaa?eoue yaeyeenue au iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ieaoaeueueeii;

– naa?eoue iiia? caeaca ia i?iaeoeoeeth n iiia?ii caeaca ii iaoa-

?eaeai ; naa?eoue ea/anoai, eiee/anoai, oeaio caeaca oeacaiiuo a

n/aoao e ae?. aeieoiaioao.

Oeiainiaua iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea eniieueciaaiea

iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Aeey ecia?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa

ia i?aaei?eyoee i?eiaiythony o?aaeeoeeiiiua iieacaoaee:

Ei=A?/Ni ; Iae = Ae/Ei;Ec=Ni/A?

Eioic=N?/OIC; Iaeoic=Ae/Eioic;Eiai=N?/AI

Iaeai=Ae/Eiai;

Eiaec=A?/Aec; Iaeaec=Ae/Eiaec;

Eiec=A?/Ec; Iaeec=Ae/Eiec;

Ei-eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe (eiee/anoai iai?ioia niaa?oaiiuie
iai?ioiuie aeoeaaie ca ia?eiae);

Iae- i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaeiiai iai?ioa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ca
ia?eiae a aeiyo;

A?-au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a ?uii/iuo oeaiao a ?oa..

Ci – n?aaeiee inoaoie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa(oaeoueo aeoeaia) ca ia?eiae a
?oaeyo.

Ae-eiee/anoai aeiae a ?an/aoiii ia?eiaea;

Ec – eiyooeoeeaio cae?aieaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa (iieacaoaeue ia?aoiue
eiyooeoeeaioo iai?a/eaaaiinoe);

Eioic – eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe oiaa?ii – iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania;

N? – naaanoieiinoue ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee ca ia?eiae a ?oaeyo;

OIC – n?aaeiea ca ia?eiae inoaoee oiaa?ii – iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania ii
aaeaino a ?oaeyo.

Iaeoic – i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaeiiai iai?ioa oiaa?ii –
iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania a aeiyo;

Eiai – eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea;

AI – n?aaeiea ca ia?eiae inoaoee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a ?oaeyo;

Eiaec – eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

AeC – n?aaeiea inoaoee aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ca ia?eiae a ?oaeyo;

Iaeaec – i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaeiiai iai?ioa aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe a aeiyo;

Eiec – eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

Ec – n?aaeiea inoaoee e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ca ia?eiae;

Iaeec – n?aaeiee ca ia?eiae n?ie iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe;

Aeey ioeaiee iai?a/eaaaiinoe iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny e ae?oaea
iieacaoaee,a oii /enea

– eiyooeoeeaio i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa a iai?io.

E= A io ?I/360 * (ia?eiae iaeiiai iai?ioa io/aoiiai aiaea –
ia?eiae

iaeiiai iai?ioa a i?aaeuaeouai ia?eiaea) ;

– aeiey aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe a iauai iauaia aeoeaia;

Ae=AeC(ia ia/aei eee eiiaoe ia?eiaea)/ana oaeouea aeoeau

– aeiey niiieoaeueiie aeaaeoi?ee a iauai iauaia aeoeaia;

Ae=Aec niiieo./any Aec

-eiyooeoeeaio eioeyoeee;

E=1/eiaeaen oeai ca ia?eiae

-iai?a/eaaaiinoue caiania;

Ia=naaanoieiinoue ?I/n?.aaee/eia caiania

-n?ie o?aiaiey caiania;

N=360/iai?a/eaaaiinoue caiania

Ia aaee/eio anao eiyooeoeeaioia iiaeao cia/eoaeueii iiaeeyoue
i?eiaiaiea oiai eee eiiai iaoiaea ioeaiee yoeo
caiania(OEOI,EEOI e o.ae.).

Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe iieacuaaao eaeay /anoue
caaeieaeaiiinoe iiaeao auoue iiaaoaia ia aeaoo ninoaaeaiey aaeaina e
n/eoaaony: (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa + auno?i?aaeecoaiua
aeoeau)/e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa ii aaeaino.

Ooi/iaiiue eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiinoe io?aaeaao eaeay /anoue oaeoueo
iaycaoaeuenoa iiaeao auoue iiaaoaia ia oieueei ca n/ao aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, ii e iinooieaiee io aeaaeoi?ia:

(aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa + aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue + auno?i
?aaeecoaiua aeoeau(oeaiiua aoiaae))/e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

Iauee eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey eee eeeaeaeiinoe iieacuaaao a eaeie noaiaie
oaeouea aeoeau iie?uaatho e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa:

oaeouea aeoeau/e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

Iieacaoaeue iai?ioiiai iai?ioiiai eaieoaea iaoiaeyuaainy a iai?ioa
iieacuaaao i?aauoaiea oaeoueo aeoeaia iaae e?aoein?i/iuie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie ii aaeaino e n/eoaaony, eae ?acieoea : aeoea aaeaina –
iannea .

Eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe iieacuaaao eaeay /anoue nianoaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa aeiaeaia a iaeaieaa iiaeeueiua aeoeau
i?aaei?eyoey:

iai?ioiua aeoeau / enoi/ieee nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa

Aeiey o?oaeii ?aaeecoaiuo aeoeaia a iauae aaee/eia oaeoueo aeoeaia –
oa?aeoa?ecoao ea/anoai aeoeaia:

(caeaaeaeua OIOe + o?oaeii?aaeecoaiay AI + i?in?i/aiiay aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue) / oaeouea aeoeau ii aaeaino

Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey o?oaeii?aaeecoaiuo aeoeaia e eaaei?aaeecoaiuo
:

O?oaeii?aaeecoaiua aeoeau / ( oaeouea aeoeau – o?oaeii?aaeecoaiua
aeoeau)

Aeieain?i/iua eiaanoeoeee a iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau.

Iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau ioee/athony io iniiaiuo oiiaeia oai, /oi iie
ia yaeythony oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie. Io oiaa?ia oai, /oi
iie ia i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey i?iaeaaee, a io oiaa?ii – iaoa?eaeueiuo
caiania(iaoa?eaeu, nu?uea e o.ae.) oai, /oi iie eniieuecothony aieueoa
1 aiaea. E iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ioiineony, iai?eia?, i?aai ia iaoaio, i?aai ia
eeoeaiceth, aaoi?neea i?aaa, i?aaa ia oiaa?iua ciaee e oi?aiaua
ia?ee, i?aaa ia i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou e o.ae..

O.i. e iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai ioiinyony i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea
/aai-eeai. IIA iiaoo iinooiaoue ia i?aaei?eyoea a ea/anoaa aciinia a
onoaaiie oiiae, i?eia?aoaoueny ca ieaoo e iieo/aoueny aacaiciacaeii.
Iie iiaoo auoue i?iaeaiu, nienaiu ii i?e/eia iaoeaeaniia?aciinoe
eniieueciaaiey, aacaiciacaeii ia?aaeaiu, aeiaeaiu a niaianoioth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Yoi io?aaeaaony ii n/aoai 48 e 80.

IIA ,eae iauaeou aeieain?i/iiai eniieueciaaiey, nienuaathony ia
cao?aou i?e iiiiue ia/eneaiey eciina (aii?oecaoeee) ?aaiuie aeieyie a
oa/aiee ,eae i?aaeei,10 eao eee a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie
i?eia?aoaiey. IAeN nienuaaaony oaeaea, eae ii iniiaiui oiiaeai, o.a.
i?aaeuyaeyaony a athaeaeao i?e oneiaee iieaou e ii?eoiaeiaaiey. Eueaio
oaeoe/anee iao. Enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?iaaiey IIA yaeyaony /enoay
i?eaueue inoathuayny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, aii?oecaoeeiiiua
io/eneaiey, n?aaenoaa iinooiathuea io

yiennee e ?aaeecaoeee oeaiiuo aoiaa (eae ii iniiaiui oiiaeai) e iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu a aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou. Ii?eoiaeiaaiea /a?ac 08
n/ao. Iiae oeaiie IIA iiieiaaony aeiaiai?iay oeaia, eeai inoaoi/iay
oeaia, anee IIA auee /anoe/ii eniieueciaaiu. O/ao enoi/ieeia
i?eia?aoaiey IIA aaaeaony ioaeaeueii io iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e o.ae.. E
iieacaoaeyi eniieueciaaiey IIA eniieuecothony oaeea iieacaoaee, eae
aeioiaeiinoue IIA e ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae, iiaeao auoue oaeaea
iai?a/eaaaiinoue IIA.

Ae=AI/IA

Aeiia=AI/A?*A?/IA

aaea A?/Iia*100%-iai?a/eaaaiinoue IIA.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae= A?/IIA

AI – aaeainiaay i?eaueue ca ?an/aoiue ia?eiae;

IIA – n?aaeiea inoaoee ca yoio aea ia?eiae;

A? – au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

Oeiainiaua eiaanoeoeee.

1 Yeiiiie/aneay nouiinoue e oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou oeiainiauo eiaanoeoeee.

2 Oaeoi?u ii?aaeaeythuea eo?niaoth noieiinoue oeaiiuo aoiaa.

3 Ii?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea ii oeaiiui aoiaaai.

4 Eniieueciaaiea i?aaei?eyoeai n?aaenoa iieo/aiiuo oiiaeiaiai

?uiea.

5 Oeiu ii?ooaeae ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

6 ?enee naycaiiua n oeiainiauie eiaanoeoeeyie.

Yeiiiie/aneay nouiinoue e oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou oeiainiauo eiaanoeoeee.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue ?uii/iuo einoeoooia,
iai?aaeythueo iioiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa io aeaaeaeueoeaa e
nianoaaiieeia caaiueeai a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa eoiee – i?iaeaaee ?uiea
aunooiatho aeaiueae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua a iieueciaaiea a ?acee/iuo oi?iao.
Yoio ?uiie aeeth/aao a naay aeaiaaeiue, e?aaeeoiue e oiiaeiaue ?uiee (
eiaiii iineaaeiee nianoaaiii iacuaaaony oeiainiaui ?uieii). Oeiainiaue
?uiie ?aniaaeaaony ii yeaiaioai ia 4 aieueoeo a?oiiu:

1 ii i?eioeeio aica?aoiinoe oeiainiaue ?uiie iiae?acaeaeyaony ia ?uiie
aeieaauo oeaiiuo aoiaa(aeoeee) eee ?uiie aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa
(iaeeaaoeee).

2 ii oa?aeoa?o aeaeaeaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa:

– ia?ae/iue

– aoi?e/iue

3 ii oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee:

-i?aaieciaaiiue(oiiaeiaua ae?aee)

– ?ani?aaeaeaiiue (oee/iue, /a?ac a?iea?neea e aeeea?neea oe?iu)

4 ii niiniao i?aaeinoaaeaiey n?aaenoa:

-?uiie aeaiaa (e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa aei 1 aiaea)

-?uiie eaieoaea(aeieain?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa nauoa 1 aiaea)

Ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea ooieoeeiie?otho oeiainiaua ii?ooaeueiua eiaanoeoeee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey i?eia?aoaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa.
Iauaeoeaiie i?aaeiinueeie oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiaiai ?uiea yaeyaony
ianiioaaonoaea iio?aaiinoe a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao o noauaeoia n
iaee/eai enoi/ieeia aa oaeiaeaoai?aiey. Iiyoiio aeaenoaotho ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo naa?aaaoaeyie, o.a. aeaaeaeueoeaie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
iieueciaaoaeyie (eiaanoi?aie).

Naa?aaaoaee (th?eaee/aneea eeoea eee a?aaeaeaia);
iieueciaaoaee-oicyenoaothuea noauaeou e ainoaea?noai, aeeaaeuaathuea
aeaiiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a iauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiaiii ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea /a?ac
aeaiueae, oeaiiua aoiaae i?ienoiaeeo iiaeeecaoeey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa. Oeaiiie aoiaaie i?eciaaony aeieoiaio oaeinoiaa?ythuee, n
niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu e iaycaoaeueiuo ?aeaeceoia
eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, inouanoaeaiea e ia?aaea/a eioi?uo aiciiaeii i?e aai
i?aaeuyaeaiee.

N ia?aaea/ae oeaiiie aoiaae ae?oaiio eeoeo ia?aoiaeyo ana
oaeinoiaa?yaiua ath i?aaa. E oeaiiui aoiaaai ioiinyony aeoeee ,
ainoaea?noaaiiua e ioieoeeiaeueiua iaeeaaoeee, ei?ii?aoeaiua
iaeeaaoeee, aaenaey i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, /aee, aeaiaaeiua e
naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou e ae?.aeieoiaiou, eioi?ua ioianaiu e
oiiaeiaui oeaiiinoyi. Oeaiiua aoiaae oa?aeoa?ecothony neaaeothueie
iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie:ninoiyo ec niaieoiiinoe eiouanoaaiiuo e ee/iuo
iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, iiaeeaaeaueo oaeinoiaa?aieth e aaconeiaiiio
inouanoaeaieth a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O.

– ?aciauathony auioneaie;

-oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aaiui iauaiii e n?ieaie inouanoaeaiey i?aa

aia caaeneiinoe io a?aiaie eo i?eia?aoaiey.

Oeaiiua aoiaae iiaoo:

1 auioneaoueny aeey ia?ae/iiai ?aciauaiey ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea;

2 ia?auaoueny ia iai;

3 iiaaoaoueny, o.a. ecuiaoueny ec ia?auaiey n auieaoie aeaaeaeueoeai
niioaaonoaothuaai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey;

4 aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa iauaeoa caeiaa, no?aoiaaiey;

5 auoue i?aaeiaoii n?i/iuo eiio?aeoia (oueth/a?nia e iioeeiiia);

Aeaeu i?aa, eioi?ua oaeinoiaa?ythony oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, a oaeaea
iaycaoaeueiua ?aeaeceou e ae?. o?aaiaaiey ii ioi?ieaieth oeaiiie
aoiaae. Ionoonoaea iaycaoaeueiuo ?aeaeceoia aea/ao
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue oeaiiie aoiaae. I?aaa oaeinoiaa?yaiua oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie i?eiaaeeaaeao:

-i?aaeuyaeoaeth oeaiiie aoiaae (oiiaeiaay oeaiiinoue ia i?aaeuyaeoaey)

-iacaaiiiio a oeaiiie aoiaaa eeoeo( eiaiiua)

-iacaaiiiio a oeaiiie aoiaaa eeoeo, eioi?ia naii a i?aaa ?aaeeciaaoue
i?aai eee iacia/eoue naiei ?anii?yaeaieai ae?oaia oiieiiii/aiiia eeoei.

Aeey ia?aaea/e ae?oaiio eeoeo i?aa ia oeaiiua aoiaae aeinoaoi/ii aa
ia?aaea/e aeaiiiio eeoeo, i?aaa ia?aaeathony a ii?yaeea oeannee.

I?aea?iua oeaiiua aoiaae – iooai ia?aaeaoi/iie caiene, eiaeinnaiaio
auaaao: aeaieiaui, i?aea?iui. Ana oeaiiua aoiaae eeanneoeoee?othony ii
aeaoi a?oiiai: aeaiaaeiua, eaieoaeueiua. Aeaiaaeiua aoiaae au?aaeatho
caeinoaiaaiea aeaiaa(aeieaiaua oeaiiua aoiaae) e iei ioiinyony
eiiia?/aneea aaenaey, aeaiaaeiua e naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou e
ae?oaea aeieoiaioaeueii ioi?ieaiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa ni n?ieii
eniieiaiey ieaoaaea aei 1 aiaea(/aee, aee?aaeeoeau, ieaoaaeiua
ii?o/aiey e o.ae..)

Aeioiae ii oeaiiui aoiaaai, eae i?aaeei, iineo e?aoein?i/iue oa?aeoa?.
Yoio aeioiae ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa iieoiee ieaea iiieiaeueiie
noieiinoe e iiaaoaiey a i?aaeaeao iiieiaea /a?ac aeeneiio ,eeai ca
n/ao iieo/aiey i?ioeaioa i?e iiaaoaiee. Eaieoaeueiua oeaiiua aoiaae,
eae i?aaeei, auioneathony n oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey eee oaaee/aiey
onoaaiiai eaieoaea eee aeoeaa i?aaei?eyoey e iiae?acaeaeythony ia
aeieaaua e aeieaiaua. E aeieaaui ioiinyony aeoeee e eiaanoeoeeiiiua
na?oeoeeaou(iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aeieth o/anoey aeaaeaeueoea a

eiaanoeoeeiiiii oiiaea e aeatho i?aai ia iieo/aiea aeioiaea yoiai
oiiaea). Aeoeee:

-iaueiiaaiiua

-i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua;

E aeieaiaui oeaiiui aoiaaai ioiinyony ana aeaeu iaeeaaoeee, o.e. iie
oaeinoiaa?ytho ioiioaiea caeia, iie iiaoo auoue e?aoein?i/iuie ni
n?ieii aei 1 aiaea e aeieain?i/iuie nauoa 1 aiaea. Ii enoa/aiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea caaiuee iaycai aa?iooue e?aaeeoi?o iaicia/aiioth
ia iaeeaaoeee noiio. N?iee auieaou iiaoo auoue ?aaoey?iuie eee ?aciauie.

Iaeeaaoeee:

-ainoaea?noaaiiua

– ioieoeeiaeueiua

-iaeeaaoeee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia, aaieianeea, ei?ii?aoeaiua.

Eae i?aaeei, ei?ii?aoeaiua iaeeaaoeee auioneathony iiae caeia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiouanoaa, /oi aeaao aeiiieieoaeueioth aa?aioeth io
iioa?e naieo n?aaenoa.

Ii?yaeie auieaou aeioiaeia ii ei?ii?aoeaiui oeaiiui aoiaaai
neaaeothuee: a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ec /enoie i?eauee auiea/eaaaony
i?ioeaio ii iaeeaaoeeyi, ai-aoi?oth – aeeaeaeaiaeu ii
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui aeoeeyi, a – o?aoueth aeeaeaeaiaeu ii iaueiiaaiiui
aeoeeyi.

Ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea ooieoeeiie?otho i?iecaiaeiua oeaiiua aoiaae
(iioeeiiu, oueth/a?nu, aa??aiou).I?iecaiaeiua oeaiiua aoiaae
oaeinoiaa?ytho i?aai aeaaeaeueoea ia iieoieo eee i?iaeaaeo oeaiiie
aoiaae a ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa e ii oeene?iaaiiie oeaia, o.a. iie
oaeinoiaa?ytho i?aai ia oeaiiua aoiaae, ii ia yaeythony oaeiauie.

Oiiaeiaue ?uiie aeaeeony ia ia?ae/iue e aoi?e/iue. Oaeie i?eioeei
iniiaai ia oii, /oi ia?aiia/aeueiue eiaanoi? naiaiaeai a naiai i?aaa
aeaaeaoue e ?anii?yaeaoueny oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

Yieoaiou no?aiyony iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu io
auionea e ?aciauaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa n oeaeueth aeiaeaiey yoeo n?aaenoa
a i?iecaiaenoai, aaethoo, aunieiaeioiaeiua oeaiiua aoiaae ae?oaeo
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa eee i?aaei?eyoee. Iin?aaeie/aneea ooieoeee
iaaeaeo yieoaioaie e eiaanoi?aie auiieiytho a?iea?neea e aeeea?neea
eiiiaiee.

Aoi?e/iue oiiaeiaue ?uiie i?aaeiacia/ai ia aeey i?eaea/aiey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, a aeey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oaea
eiathueony iaaeaeo oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie, iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii
iin?aaeie/aneea ooieoeee auiieiytho oiiaeiaua ae?aee.

Oiiaeiaay ae?aea – yoi iin?aaeiee ieacuaathuee i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oneoae
oieueei i?ioanneiiaeueiui o/anoieeai ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, /eaiai
aeaiiie ae?aee.

Iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie ae?aee yaeythony:

– aeoeaiua iia?aoeee ii i?iaeaaea e iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa ( oeaiiua
aoiaae aunooiatho, eae oiaa?; oeaia caaeneo io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey);

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea yieoaioai oeaiiuo aoiaa aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa ia
iaioeiaeiua ioaeaeu;

– ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia iaaeaeo noauaeoaie e
i?aaiecaoeey no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee a eiia/iii eoiaa;

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea naa?aaaoaeyi eniieueciaaoue iaeiieaiiua n?aaenoaa
iaeaieaa auaiaeii;

Ecaanoiu 5 iniiaiuo i?aaee ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee:

1 eneiiue ae?aeaaie eo?n oeaiiuo aoiaa anaaaea aoaeao oaeei ii eioi?iio
iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai naeaeie.

2 ana cayaee, a eioi?uo oeacaii ii iaeeo/oaio eo?no anaaaea ?aaeecothony
i?e ia?aii i?aaeeiaeaiee oeaiu.

3 ana cayaee, a eioi?uo oeacuaaaony iaeneiaeueiua oeaiu i?e iieoiea e
ieieiaeueiua i?e i?iaeaaea aeieaeiu eniieiyoueny.

4 ana cayaee, a eioi?uo i?eaiaeyony oeaiu i?eaeeaeathueany e
iaeneiaeueiui i?e i?iaeaaea iiaoo auiieiyoueny /anoe/ii.

5 ana cayaee, aaea i?eaaaeaiu oeaiu ieaea eneiiiai eo?na i?e iieoiea e
auoa i?e i?iaeaaea ia ?aaeecothony.

Ia?yaeo n oiiaeiaie ae?aeae ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa ?aaioatho oaeaea
oeiainiaua einoeooou, eioi?ua iacuaathony oeiainiaua iin?aaeieee – yoi
eiiia?/aneea e eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee e
oiiaeu, o?anoiaua e no?aoiaua eiiiaiee, ainoaea?noaaiiua e
iaainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e o.ae.

Eaaeaeue ec yoeo iin?aaeieeia eiaao naie i?aaa e iiaeao inouanoaeyoue
oieueei ioaeaeueiua aeaeu iia?aoeee. Cia/aiea oiiaeiaiai ?uiea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aieaa eee iaiaa oeeaeeeciaaiiuo oi?iao
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aeea eaieoaea iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie e io?aneyie,
i?ienoiaeeo oeiaine?iaaiea ?acee/iuo i?ia?aii, aeey naa?aaaoaeae
i?aaeinoaaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue o/anoaiaaoue a i?eauee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo no?oeoo?, aeey ainoaea?noaa aiciiaeiinoue
iie?uaaoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo , o.e. eiaiii ia yoii ?uiea
aeeoioee?oaony aieueoeinoai naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe.

A aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe oeiainiaua eiaanoeoeee io?aaeathony
ioaeaeueii a oi?ia aeieain?i/iuo e e?aoein?i/iuo oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee n
?acee/iui oeaeaaui iacia/aieai e n?ieaie iiaaoaiey.

Aeieain?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey (06 n/ao) io?aaeathony iae e aeoeee
,iaeeaaoeee, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua caeiu e ae?. oeiainiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa –
iie i?eoiaeothony ii iieoiiie oeaia. I?e yoii neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi
aeiaeaiey a i?ioeaioiua iaeeaaoeee e a eiiia?/aneea caeiu o/eouaathony
a aeieain?i/iuo aeiaeaieyo a oii neo/aa, anee onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie
iiaaoaiey i?aauoaao aiae.

Aeiaeaiey a oeaiiua aoiaae, ii eioi?ui n?ie iiaaoaiey ( eee aueoia) ia
ii?aaeaeai oaeaea o/eouaathony ia yoii n/aoa. Oa n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua
i?aaei?eyoea ia?a/eneeei ca oeaiiua aoiaae, ii anee a yoii ia?eiaea ia
iinooieee aeieoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea i?aaa i?aaei?eyoey,
iieacuaathony a ninoaaa aeieain?i/iuo oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee iainiaeaiii.
Ia n/aoa 58 e?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey (ia n?ie aei 1 aiaea).
Yoi oeaiiua aoiaae ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, i?ioeaioiua iaeeaaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo caeiia, aeaiiceou, a oaeaea auaeaiiua
ae?oaei i?aaei?eyoeyi caeiu. Aeiaeaiey a oeaiiua aoiaae ii eioi?ui
n?ie iiaaoaiey ia ii?aaeaeai ioiinyony e e?aoein?i/iui a oii neo/aa,
anee ca?aiaa ecaanoii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea oi/ao iieo/eoue aeioiaeu a
i?aaeaeao 1 aiaea.

Aeey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i/aiue aaaeii eiaoue iainiiaaiioth
ioeaieo oeaiiuo aoiaa, ?acee/atho neaaeothuea ioeaiee oeaiiuo aoiaa :

– iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue, eioi?ay oeacuaaaony ia aeaiea aeoeee, iia
ii?aaeaeyaony yieoaioii i?iecaieueii, o.e. yoe oeaiiua aoiaae aeaaea ia
ia?ae/iii ?uiea eniieuecothony ia ii yoie noieiinoe ;

I?iaeaaea auoa iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe ioiineony ia 87 n/ao
“Aeiaaai/iue eaieoae” e ia iaeaaaaony iaeiaii ia i?eaueue. O.e. n 1996
aiaea ioiaiai iaeia ia eoieth – i?iaeaaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aeaenoaoao caeii i iaeiaa ia yienneth oeaiiuo aoiaa. Iiae iaai
iiiaaeaao iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue yiennee oeaiiuo aoiaa iiaeeaaeaueo
?aaeno?aoeee. Iaeia oiea/eaaaony aei ?aaeno?aoeee a ?acia?a 0,8%.

Ia iaeaaaaony aeaiiui iaeiaii ia?ae/iay yienney a /anoe oieueei
oi?ie?iaaiey onoaaiiai eaieoaea (aoi?e/iay e ia?ae/iay yiennee a /anoe
oaaee/aiey e ?anoe?aiey onoaaiiai eaieoaea ia eueaioe?othony). A
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue o/eouaaaony e
eniieuecoaony, a /anoiinoe a ioeaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea.

– yienneiiiay – oeaia i?iaeaaee oeaiiie aoiaae i?e aa ia?ae/iii

?aciauaiee, iia iiaeao niaiaaeaoue n iiieiaeueiie noieiinoueth;

– eo?niaay eee ?uii/iay noieiinoue – oeaia, eioi?ay io?aaeaao
niioiioaiea eee ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai a
ii?aaeaeaiiii eioa?aaea a?aiaie;

– eeeaeaeaoeeiiiay noieiinoue – aaee/eia ?aaeecoaiiai eiouanoaa
eeeaeaee?oaiiai aeoeeiia?iiai i?aaei?eyoey auiea/eaaaiay ia iaeio
aeoeeth;

– aaeainiaay (eieaeiay noieiinoue) – noieiinoue eiouanoaa iauanoaa e
i?aaei?eyoey nicaeaiiiai ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia aeaeaiiia ia
eiee/anoai auiouaiiuo aeoeee;

– o/aoiay noieiinoue oeaiiuo aoiaa – noieiinoue, ii eioi?ie oeaiiua
aoiaae /eneyony ia aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie;

– aueoiiay noieiinoue – noieiinoue, eioi?ay oeacuaaaony ia iocuaiuo
aeoeeyo eee iaeeaaoeeyo, o.a. oa noiia, eioi?ay iiea/eaaaony iauanoaii
e i?aaei?eyoeai ca i?eia?aoaiea nianoaaiiuo aeoeee eee i?e aein?i/iii
iiaaoaiee iaeeaaoeee.

OE (85 n/ao) oi?ie?oaony ii iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe aeoeee i?eia?aoaiiuo
aeoeeiia?aie e ii?aaeaeyao, eae i?aaeei, ieieiaeueiue ?acia?
eiouanoaa aa?aioe?othuea eioa?anu aai e?aaeeoi?ia. Aiaeeoe/aneee
o/ao ii aeaiiiio n/aoo aaaeaony o.i., /oiau iaania/eoue eioi?iaoeeth
ia o/?aaeeoaeyo aeaeai aeoeee e noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey onoaaiiai
eaieoaea, iiyoiio iiaeao aanoenue ?yae noan/aoia:

/1 – iauyaeaiiue eaieoae (noiia, eioi?ay oeacaia a onoaaa aeoeeiia?iiai
iauanoaa);

/2 – iiaeieniie eaieoae ( noieiinoue aeoeee, ii eioi?ie i?iecioea
iiaeienea);

/3 – iiea/aiiue eaieoae ( a noiia oao n?aaenoa, eioi?ua aianaiu
aeoeeiia?aie a iiiaio iiaeienee eee iinea );

Oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea eo?niaoth noieiinoue oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Eo?n aeoeee (oeaia) ii?aaeaeyaony oeaiiinoueth aeaiiie aoiaae aeey
yieoaioa e aeey eiaanoi?a, oeaiiinoue aeey yieoaioa ii?aaeaeyaony
niiniaiinoueth oeaiiie aoiaae auno?i i?aa?auaoueny a ?aaeueiua aeaiueae
(o.a. eo eeeaeaeiinoue); oeaiiinoue aeey eiaanoi?a – aeioiae, eioi?ue
iiaeao i?eianoe aeaiiay oeaiiay aoiaaa. Aeioiae iiaeao auoue iieo/ai
, eae i?e auieaoa i?ioeaioia e aeeaeaeaiaeia, oae e a ?acoeueoaoa ?inoa
eo?na aeoeee.

Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi iauee o?iaaiue aeioiaea n?aaieaaaony n ?eneii,
eioi?ue eiaao aeaaeaeaoe aeaiiie oeaiiie aoiaae.

I?e aeiaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee a e?aoein?i/iua e
aeieain?i/iua oeaiiua aoiaae ae?oaeo yieoaioia e ainoaea?noaa iaeia ec
caaea/ oeiainenoia ia i?aaei?eyoee ninoieo a oii, /oiau nicaeaoue
yooaeoeaiue ii?ooaeue oiiaeiauo eiaanoeoeee, eio. Niioaaonoaoao o?ai
e?eoa?eyi : eeeaeaeiinoue, aeioiaeiinoue, ieieiecaoeey ?enea.

Iaeei ec iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey – aeeaa?neoeeaoeey. Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
aeioiaeiinoueth e ?eneii iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eae ii ?an/aoai
nianoaaiii i?aaei?eyoey, oae e aeueoa?iaoeaiui i?iaeoai, a o./. ii
aeiaeaieyi a aeaiiceoiua aeeaaeu, iieoieo aaethou, oiaa?ia e o.ae..

Eo?niaay noieiinoue oeaiiuo aoiaa – ?acoeueoao niioiioaiey iaaeaeo
iauaiaie ni?ina e iauaiaie i?aaeeiaeaiey. Anee ioeaiea eiaanoi?ia e
i?iaeaaoeia niaiaaeaao, oi iie caiieiytho aeo eoiee – i?iaeaaee.

Iaeioi?ay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue e eieaaaiea eo?na oeaiiuo aoiaa ia
oiiaeiaii ?uiea a nia?aiaiiie ?innee ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothueie
iioeaaie (ianoiyoaeuenoaaie):

1 iaaeinoaoi/iuie iauaiaie eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, /oi i?aeoe/anee anaaaea
iauyniyaony cia/eoaeueiui /eneii o/?aaeeoaeuenoaa e eneaaeaieai
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iai?aaeaiee;

2 oaniie acaeiinaycueth ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa n i?ioeannaie
aeoeeiie?iaaiey e oaiiaie i?eaaoecaoeee ;

3 iaeeeaeaeiui e ?eneiaui oa?aeoa?ii naiiai oeiainiaiai ?uiea;

4 eiieo?aioeeae ca iiaua naa?aaeaiey iaaeaeo oeiainiauie
iin?aaeieeaie;

Nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a aeaiiii i?ioeanna caieiaao OeA ?O /a?ac
i?iaiaeeioth aeaiaaeii – e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeo.

Eo?n oeaiiuo aoiaa ii?aaeaeyaony, eae i?aaeei, o?aiy a?oiiaie
oaeoi?ia:

-iauaeoeaiua

-niaeoeyoeaiua

– noauaeoeaiua

E iauaeoeaiui, aeaenoaothuei ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey, ioiineony
oeiainiaia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey yieoaioa; eiee/anoai aeoeee a ?oeao
o aeaaeaeueoea; oaeouay i?eaueue aeoeeiia?iiai i?aaei?eyoey;
ia?niaeoeaiinoue noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe, a eioi?ie aeaenoaoao i?aaei?eyoea
e o.ae..

Ia o?iaia ainoaea?noaa e iei ioiinyony : onoie/eainoue e ia?niaeoeaa
?acaeoey no?aiu a oeaeii; iaaeaaeiinoue oeiainiauo e aeaiaaeiuo
e?aaeeoia a oeaeii; eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea oiaa?ia, iaaeaeaeeiinoe, aaethou,
ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina ainoaea?noaa, iai?aaeaiea ia?aeeaia
eaieoaeia e o.ae..

2 Niaeoeyoeaiua – iauai i?ia?aiiiie oi?aiaee (a aa iniiaa eaaeeo
i?eioeei iieo/aiey i?eauee io ?acieoeu iaaeaeo eciaiaieai eo?nia aeoeee
e oeaiaie oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia ia ieo). Yoio oaeoi? iiaeao ia?ae?uoue
ana iauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u. Ninoiyiea ei?ioeie iiceoeee (oa?aeoa?ecoao
iauee iauai i?iaeaiiuo ia n?ie aeoeee). Anee aeaiiue iieacaoaeue i/aiue
aunie, oi neaaeiaaoaeueii eiaanoi?u ?aaioatho ia iiieaeaiea eo?na
aeoeee.

Neoiea aeoeeiia?iuie eiiiaieyie naieo aeoeee; oaeay neoiea aucuaaaony,
eae i?aaeei, no?aieaieai oeo/oeoue oeiainiaia ninoiyiea, eeai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue eiio?ieueiue iaeao eiiiaiee.

3 neeiiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo ae?aeaaeeia e eniieueciaaieth
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee. A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie ?enea
iniiaiay ianna iaeeeo aeeaae/eeia i?eaioe?iaaia ia aaciianiia aeiaeaiea
n?aaenoa, a e ?eneiaui iia?aoeeyi ioiineony eeoue iacia/eoaeueiay
/anoue. E aac?eneiaui iia?aoeeyi, eae i?aaeei, ioiinyony
ainoaea?noaaiiua e ioieoeeiaeueiua iaeeaaoeee.

Ii?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea ii oeaiiui aoiaaai.

Ii naiae yeiiiie/aneie i?e?iaea ei?ii?aoeaiua iaeeaaoeee iaeaieaa oanii
naycaiu n i?iecaiaenoaii, iie neoaeao ii?aaeaeaiiui eino?oiaioii
aeeoioee?iaaiey e eiaanoe?iaaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe. I?eia?aoay aeoeee aeoeeiia?iiai
iauanoaa aeaaeaeaoe aa aa?ao ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene, o.e. a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo o?iaaiue
aeeaeaeaiaeia iiaeao auoue ieaea aeioiaeia naiuo aac?eneiauo
iia?aoeee. Anoanoaaiii, /ai auoa aeeaeaeaiae, oai aei?iaea ?uii/iay
noieiinoue aeoeee, e oai auoa ?aeoeia aeoeeiia?iiai i?aaei?eyoey ia
oiiaeiaii ?uiea. Iaeiaei i?e iieo/aiee aaieaie ii?iu nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa eo?n aeoeee iiaeao ?acei iiieaeaoueny, iiyoiio yoa
caaeneiinoue i?iyaeyaony a oi?ioea:

Eo?n aeoeee = ( ii?ia i?ioeaioa(aeeaeaeaiaea) / noaaea nnoaeiiai

i?ioeaioa(aeeaeaeaiaea)) * iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue aeoeee

Aeey ?an/aoa naaiaeiyoiae noieiinoe aeoeee ii i?iaiiciui ioeaieai
aa?iyoiuo aeioiaeia a aoaeouai i?eiaiyaony oi?ioea (oi?iuaiiue
aa?eaio)

Eo?n aeoeee = i?eaueue ia iaeio aeoeeth/noaaea i?ioeaioa * iiieiae

Na = Ae/?

Na = Ae1/(1+?) + Ae2/(1+?)^2 + … + Aen/(1+?)^n

I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe o/aoa ?inoa aeeaeaeaiaeia a aoaeouai oi?ioea
?an/aoa naaiaeiyoiae aeaenoaeoaeueiie noieiinoe iiaeao i?eiyoue
neaaeothuee aeae :

Na = Aei*(1+E)/(?-E), aaea

Aei – noiia aeeaeaeaiaeia iieo/aiiuo ii aeoeeyi a i?ioeii aiaeo;

? – o?aaoaiue aeoeeiia?o o?iaaiue i?eaueueiinoe a aeieyo e aaeeieoea;

E – i?aaeiieaaaaiue aaeaaiaeiue ?ino aeeaeaeaiaea a aeieyo e aaeeieoea.

N?aaenoaa iieo/aiiua i?aaei?eyoeai n oiiaeiaiai ?uiea iiaoo
iai?aaeyoue ia neaaeothuea oeaee :

1 n?aaenoaa iieo/aiiua io ia?ae/iiai auionea oeaiiuo aeoeee
iai?aaeythony ia oi?ie?iaaiea OE, i?aaeoniio?aiiia a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioao;

2 n?aaenoaa iieo/aiiua io aeiiieieoaeueiuo yiennee aeoeee ia oaaee/aiea
OE aeey ?anoe?aiey naiae aeayoaeueiinoe a oeaeyo iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee;

3 n?aaenoaa io auionea ei?ii?aoeaiuo iaeeaaoeee ia oeiaine?iaaiea
?aaeueiuo aeoeaia, iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, i?eia?aoaiea
aunieiaeioiaeiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ae?oaeo yieoaioia, no?aoiaiai iiethna e
o.ae.;

4 AEI neoaeao ieaoaaeiui n?aaenoaii a aeiaiai?iuo acaeiiioiioaieyo;

5 Aeioiaeu ii aeaiiceoiui n/aoai e iaeeaaoeeyi, caeiai iiaoo auoue
iai?aaeaiu ia iiiieiaiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey;

6 Yienneiiiue aeioiae aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa neoaeeo enoi/ieeii
iiiieiaiey aeiaaai/iiai eaieoaea, oaeaea, eae ia?aioeaiea iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e o.ae.;

Anee iin/eoaoue ia iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeyo yooaeoeaiinoue i?eaea/aiey
n?aaenoa n oiiaeiaiai ?uiea, oi iie iiauoatho oeiainiaoth
onoie/eainoue i?aaei?eyoey, iiauoatho eeeaeaeiinoue i?aaei?eyoey e
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue, ii i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo.

Oeiu ii?ooaeae ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Oei ii?ooaey – yoi aai iaiauaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea n iiceoeee caaea/ e
aeaeia oeaiiuo aoiaa aoiaeyueo a yoio ii?ooaeue. No?oeoo?a aieueoeo
ii?ooaeae ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa io?aaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua
niioiioaiey eioa?ania eiaanoi?ia, a oaeaea iauaaeeiyao ?enee ii
ioaeaeueiui aeaeai ii oeaiiuo aoiaa. A nayce n yoei oiiaeiaue
ii?ooaeue aeoeeiia?iiai i?aaei?eyoey i?aeoe/anee anaaaea
?anniao?eaaaony, eae oeaeinoiue ii?ooaeue oi?aaeaiey, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao:

ii?aaeaeaiea caaea/ noiyueo ia?aae ii?ooaeai a oeaeii;

?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeey ?acee/iuo no?aoaaee ii ?aaeecaoeee yoeo caaea/;

Oeiu ii?ooaeae oeaiiuo aoiaa iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoueny neaaeothuei
ia?acii :

1 ii?ooaee ?inoa i?eaioe?iaaiu ia aeoeee ?anoouea ia ?uiea ii eo?niaie
noieiinoe. Oeaeueth oaeeo ii?ooaeae yaeyaony oaaee/aiea eaieoaea
eiaanoi?ia (aeeaeaeaiaeu aeaaeaeueoeai ii?ooaeae, eae i?aaeei,
auiea/eaathony a iaaieueoii ?acia?a);

2 ii?ooaee aeioiaea – iie i?eaioe?iaaiu ia iieo/aiea aunieeo oaeoueo
aeioiaeia ioiioaiea noaaeeueii auiea/eaaaiuo i?ioeaioia e eo?niaie
noieiinoe oeaiiuo aoiaa, aoiaeyueo a aeaiiue ii?ooaeue auoa
n?aaeiaio?aneaauo n?aaeiaai o?iaiy.

3 ii?ooaee ?eneiaiai eaieoaea ninoiyo, eae i?aaeei, ec oeaiiuo aoiaa
iieiaeuo eiiiaiee eee eiiiaiee aa?anneaiiai oeia, auae?athuea naiae
no?aoaaeae – inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee e
oaoieee.

4 naaeaine?iaaiiue ii?ooaeue, eioi?ue /anoe/ii ninoieo ec oeaiiuo
aoiaa auno?i?anooueo a eo?niaie noieiinoe, a /anoe/ii ec
aunieiaeioiaeiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa n aieueoie noaiaiueth ?enea. A yoii
ii?ooaea, o.i. aaeaine?oaony i?e?auaiea eaieoaea, aunieea aeioiaeu,
noaiaiue ?enea.

5 niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ii?ooaee a yoeo ii?ooaeyo oeaiiua aoiaae
iauaaeeiaiu ia ii iauei oeaeaaui i?eciaeai (e?eoa?eyi), a ii aieaa
/anoiui iieacaoaeyi (aeae oeaiiuo aoiaa, aeae ?enea, ?aaeiiaeueiay
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e o.ae.).

E niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui ii?ooaeyi ioiineony:

ii?ooaee noaaeeueiiai eaieoaea e aeioiaea;

Iai?eia?, e?aoein?i/iuo e n?aaeian?i/iuo aeaiiceoiuo na?oeoeeaoia
aaieia;

ii?ooaee e?aoein?i/iuo oiiaeiauo oeaiiinoae (aaenaey, /aee,
aee?aaeeoeau, eioi?ua, eae i?aaeei, ia?auathony ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea);

ii?ooaee aeieain?i/iuo oeaiiuo aoiaa n oeene?iaaiiui aeioiaeii – yoi
ainoaea?noaaiiua e ei?ii?aoeaiua iaeeaaoeee;

?aaeiiaeueiua ii?ooaee, a eioi?uo niae?athony ioieoeeiaeueiua oeaiiua
aoiaae e o.ae..

Eiie?aoii ii?ooaee ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa iiaoo eiaoueny
neaaeothuea oeaee eee ia eiaoueny oaeiauo :

1 iaeiinoi?iiiee oeaeaaie oa?aeoa?, anee i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony iaeiie
ec oeacaiiuo oeaeae;

2 naaeaine?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?, aaea a ii?ooaea niae?athony oeaiiua aoiaae
enoiaey ec ?aciuo oeaeae e caaea/;

3 aannenoaiiue oa?aeoa?: oeaiiua aoiaae i?eia?aoathony oaioe/ii,
ii?ooaeue ?ac?iciai, aunieea ?enee.

?enee oeiainiauo eiaanoeoeee.

A oeaeii ?enee iiaeii iiae?acaeaeyoue ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, naycaiiua n
i?ioeannii i?iecaiaenoaa; eiiia?/aneea ?enee; oeiainiaua ?enee;
e?eoe/aneea ?enee. Ethaay oeiainiaay iia?aoeey naycaia eeai n
aiciiaeiinoueth iieo/aiey e i?e?auaiey eaieoaea, eeai iieo/aiey
oauoeia, o.a. aeaenoaea oaeoi?a ?enea. Oeiainiaay iia?aoeey eee
naeaeea n/eoaaony ?eneiaaiiie, anee aa yooaeoeaiinoue (aeioiaeiinoue)
iaiieiinoueth ecaanoia eiaanoi?o a iiiaio caeeth/aiey naeaeee, o.i.
?eneiaaiiinoue – naienoai ethaie naeaeee, naycaiiie n eoieae –
i?iaeaaeae oeaiiuo aoiaa, ca eneeth/aieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa.

Yooaeoeaiinoue oiiaeiauo oeaiiinoae caaeneo io o?ao oaeoi?ia:

oeaiu iieoiee;

i?iiaaeooeia auieao;

oeaiu i?iaeaaee.

Ethaia i?eia?aoaiea oeaiiuo ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa naycaii n
?eneii:

ia?aue ?ene – ?ene ii?ooaey oeaiiuo aoiaa (ii?ooaeueiua ?enee),
o.a. iiaoo ianooieoue oaeea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?e eioi?uo eiaanoi? ianao
iioa?e naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai oiiaeiaiai ii?ooaey e ii iia?aoeeyi,
naycaiiui n i?eaea/aieai aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia aeey nicaeaiey aeaiiiai
ii?ooaey. Ii?ooaeueiua ?enee aeeth/aao a naay ?yae ?eneia:

eaieoaeueiue ?ene

naeaeoeaiue ?ene

a?aiaiiue ?ene

?ene caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee

eeeaeaeiue ?ene

?uii/iue ?ene

e?aaeeoiue ?ene

eioeyoeeiiiue ?ene

i?ioeaioiue ?ene

iocuaiie

no?aiiaie

io?aneaaie

aaethoiue

?ene naiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athony ?enee neaaeothuea:

1 eaieoaeueiue ?ene – iauee ?ene ia ana aeiaeaiey a oeaiiua aoiaae
(oaeea iioa?e iaecaaaeiu, a aiaeec oaeiai ?enea naiaeeony e ioeaiea
oiai, eoi eiaao aeaei n ii?ooaeyie oeaiiuo aoiaa, eee aeiaeeoue
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a oeaiiua aoiaae a iaaeaeaeeiinoue, oiaa?u, aaethoo
e o.ae.)

2 naeaeoeaiue ?ene – naycai n iai?aaeeueiui auai?ii oeaiiuo aoiaa aeey
eiaanoe?iaaiey ii n?aaiaieai n ae?. aeaeaie oeaiiuo aoiaa i?e nicaeaiee
ii?ooaey;

3 a?aiaiiue ?ene – naycai n iieoieie eee i?iaeaaeae oeaiiuo aoiaa a
iaiiaeoiaeyuaa a?aiy, /oi niioaaonoaaiii aea/ao ?ene iioa?e;

4 ?ene eeeaeaeiinoe – naycai n aiciiaeiinoyie iioa?e i?e ?aaeecaoeee
oeaiiue aoiaa, i?e eciaiaiee ioeaiee eo ea/anoaa;

5 ?uii/iue ?ene – naycai n iioa?yie io nieaeaiey noieiinoe oeaiiuo aoiaa
a nayce n iauei iaaeaieai eiiuthieoo?u ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea;

6 e?aaeeoiue (aeaeiaie) – aucuaaaony oai, /oi yieoaio auioneathuee
aeieaiaua eee i?ioeaioiua oeaiiua aoiaae ieaaeaony ia n ninoiyiee
auieaoeoue i?ioeaio eee iniiaiie noiiu aeieaa ;

7 i?ioeaioiue – naycai n iioa?yie, eioi?ua iiaeao iiianoe eiaanoi?u
ec-ca eciaiaiey i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ia ?uiea e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia (?ino
aaieianeie i?ioeaioiie noaaee i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth eo?niaie noieiinoe
oeaiiuo aoiaa (iniaaiii iaeeaaoeee n oeene?iaaiiui i?ioeaioii ), a i?e
?aceii oaaee/aiee i?ioeaioa, iiaeao auoue ia/aoueny ianniaay
?ani?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa eee aein?i/ii aica?auaiu yieoaioo);

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui iaoiaeii nieaeaiey ?eneia io oeiainiaiai
aeiaeaiey eee eiaanoeoeee yaeyaony aeeaa?neoeeaoeey oiiaeiaiai ii?ooaey
– ?aciiia?acey oeaiiuo aoiaa aoiaeyueo a ii?ooaeue. Iioa?e io iaeieo
oeaiiuo aoiaa eiiiaine?othony aeioiaeii ii ae?oaei oeaiiui aoiaaai;
iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny oaeea iaoiaeu, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony a aiaeeca –
iaoiae aeenia?nee; a noaoenoeea – ei??aeyoeee; naiino?aoiaaiea.

E?eoa?ee i?eiyoey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?aoaiee.

A ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia eiaanoeoeee iiaoo auoue n?aaenoaa OO, i?eaueue
aeoeeiia?iuo i?aaei?eyoee, aeaiaaeiua ?ano?nu aaieia, ?aca?au no?aoiauo
eiiiaiee e ae?. oeiainiauo iin?aaeieeia e o.ae.. Auai? iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiiai niiniaa eiaanoe?iaaiey ia/eiaaony n /aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey
aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia, o.a. aeueoa?iaoeaiua i?iaeou iii/a?aaeii
n?aaieaathony ae?oa n ae?oaii e auae?aaony iaeeo/oee ec ieo; n oi/ee
c?aiey niioiioaiey ecaea?aeae e i?eauee (oiaiueoaiea ecaea?aeae,
oaaee/aiea i?eauee). ?a/ue eaeao i ethauo eiaanoeoeeyo (eeai ?aaeueiuo a
i?aaei?eyoey, a oiaa?u, a oeaiiua aoiaae e o.ae.). Iinea yoiai
ii?aaeaeytho yooaeoeaiinoue eiaanoeoeee n oi/ee c?aiey n?iea
ieoiaaiinoe cao?ao, noaiaie ?enea, aunieeo oaiiia eioeyoeee, ia?niaeoea
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e ae?. oaeoi?ia.

Iiyoiio a ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?aoaiee o/eouaaaony:

1 ionoonoaee aieaa auaiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoea;

2 ieieiecaoeey ?enea iioa?ue io eioeyoeee;

3 e?aoein?i/iuo ?eneia ieoiaaiinoe cao?ao;

4 aeaoaaecia i?iaeoa;

5 iaania/aiea noaaeeueiinoe iinooieaiee au?o/ee (aeioiaeia);

6 aunieay ?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee eae oaeiauo;

7 aunieay ?aioaaaeueiinoue iinea aeeneiioe?iaaiey aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee eee
aeioiaeia;

8 aieueoay i?eaueue, /ai aaieianeee i?ioeaio;

I?e /ai aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee eniieuecothony eiiaeiaoeee e?eoa?eaa.

I?e auai?a eiaanoeoeeiiiie no?aoaaee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaiaoiaeeii aanoe
o/ao aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a, i?iaeoeoeee e o.ae.. (ii?ia
?aioaaaeueiinoe). Ia ia?aie noaaeee oeeeea inaiaiey au?o/ea ?anoao
i/aiue iaaeeaiii,

o.e. iauaiu i?iaeaae ia aaeeee;

2 noaaeey – auno?ue ?ino i?eauee, au?o/ee, o.a. iauaia i?iaeaae;

3 noaaeey – au?o/ea inoaaony ia iaeiii e oii aea o?iaia, i?eaueue
aeinoeaaao iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiey;

4 noaaeey – au?o/ea oiaiueoaaony, i?eaueue nie?auaaony.

Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea.

1 Nouiinoue, caaea/e.

2 Iauaeou.

3 Aeaeu oeiainiaiai ieaia.

Ieaie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ninoaaioth /anoue oi?aaeaiey
iai?aaeaiioth ia iioeiaeueiia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee i?e iiiaiaa?eaioiii
aiciiaeiii enoiaea. Ieaie?iaaiea – i?ioeann aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae
naycaiiue n i?eiyoeai ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?aoaiee, (i?iaiice?iaaiea – yoi
?an/ao iieacaoaeae i?e ca?aiaa iaoneiaeaiiuo ia?a iao?ao eee a?aieoeao).

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony:

1 iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
i?aaei?eyoey ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa eee ?ano?nia;

2 oaaee/aiea i?eauee ca n/ao ?inoa iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e iioeiecaoeee
nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, o.a. oaaee/aiea ?aaeueiie
i?eauee e ieieiecaoeey (iioeiecaoeey) iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

3 iaania/aiea oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. iaania/aiea
naiaa?aiaiiinoe ?an/aoia ii anai naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai, aeeth/ay ?an/aou
n athaeaeaoii, aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie, e?aaeeoi?aie e o.ae..

Aei ia?aoiaea e ia?ano?ieea ana i?aaei?eyoey a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
aeieaeiu auee ?ac?aaaouaaoue oeiainiaue ieai ii ?aeiiaiaeoaiui oi?iai e
a ?ac?aca ianyoe, eaa?oae, aiae, iyoeeaoea (ii oieoeoee?iaaiiui oi?iai).
N 1987 aiaea ana oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea ioaeaii ia naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoee, ioiaiaiu ana oi?iu ?an/aoia, inoaeanue oieueei nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ninoiyiey oeiainiauo ieaiia. Oaeoe/anee
aieueoeinoai i?aaei?eyoee ioeacaeinue io ninoaaeaiey oaeeo ieaiia
naiinoiyoaeueii. Oai?aoe/anee iaoiaeieiae/aneay aaca ia?aianaia ia
ninoaaeaiea aecian-ieaiia, a oeiainiaue ieai – ninoaaiay /anoue
aecian-ieaia. Iiuo ca?oaaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee e ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee
ia?aoaaeoeo ia aecian-ieai, iai?aaeeueiue ia?aaiae oa?ieiia,
iieacaoaeae e o.ae. i?eaaee e ia?ao iiio yooaeoo i?e ninoaaeaiee
aecian-ieaiia.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aecian-ieai ca ?oaaaeii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
now- how, e iiyoiio ie a iaeiie eieaeea ia ?ania/aouaaaony.

?inneeneea i?aaei?eyoey iniiauaaynue ia naiae iaoiaeieiae/aneie aaca e
i?eiaiyy aecian-ieai oaeoe/anee ieacaeenue a oie neooaoeee, eiaaea ieai
anoue, a ?ano?nia iao, o.e. ana ca?oaaaeiua ieaiu ?ann/eoaiu ia
noaaeeueiua oneiaey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Iauaeoaie oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeythony:

1 au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa i?e anao nenoaiao
?an/aoia (iaee/iue, aaciaee/iue, aa?oa?, aaethoa);

2 i?eaueue, aa oi?ie?iaaiea, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea;

3 Oiiaeu niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey: iio?aaeaiey, iaeiieaiey, ?aca?aiue,
no?aoiaie; eo oi?ie?iaaiea, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea;

4 iauaiu ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao, aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e ae?oaea
io/eneaiey.

I?eioeeiu ninoaaeaiey oeiainiauo ieaiia:

1 Ana aeaeu oeiainiauo ieaiia ia i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeiu auoue oanii
naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie e ninoaaeyoue aaeeioth nenoaio;

2 iai?a?uaiinoue ieaie?iaaiey;

3 aaeeiiia/aeea – i?e i?eiyoee eaeeo-eeai ?aoaiee nianoaaiiee – aeaaiia
eeoei;

4 aeaiiua oeiainiauo ieaiia yaeythony eiiia?/aneie oaeiie i?aaei?eyoey e
any eioi?iaoeey, naycaiiay n ?an/aoaie, oieueei aeey aioo?aiiaai
eniieueciaaiey. Ia?aiia/aeueiue yoai ?ac?aaioee aecian-ieaia – yoi
oeiainiaue ieai (ieai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey), caoai –
i?iecaiaenoai, niaaaeaiea, ?aaeecaoeey. O.i. oeiainiaue ieai –
caaa?oathuee yoai.

5 i?eioeei iao/iinoe;

6 iaania/aiea niioaaonoaey iio?aaiinoyi ?uiea, o.a. o/ao eiiuthieoo?u,
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina, ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, o.a. aiciiaeiinoe
ii?iaeueiuo ?an/aoia;

7 niioaaonoaea n?ieia iieo/aiey e eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa;

8 Iaania/aiea aiciiaeiinoe iaiaa?e?iaaiey i?e iaaeinoeaeaiee
caieaie?iaaiiie ?aaeecaoeee eee i?e i?aauoaiee ieaiiauo cao?ao;

9 iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe (?aoeeiiaeueiinoe) aeiaeaiee eaieoaea a
iiaua eiaanoeoeee aeieaeii aeaaaoue aieueoa, /ai a aeaenoaothueo
oneiaeyo;

10 eiaanoeoeee e cao?aou aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoueny naiui aeaoaaui
niiniaii oeiaine?iaaiey (nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa e athaeaeaoiua
anneaiiaaiey);

11 iiaeaea?aeaiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a ethaie ia?eiae, a
ethaia a?aiy. Iniiaie aeey oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony i?eioeei
naiioeiaine?iaaiey – eniieueciaaiea nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, o.a. iiaeao
?ann/eouaaoueny eiyooeoeeaio naiioeiaine?iaaiey:

E = nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee /i?eaea/aiiua enoi/ieee = (
i?eaueue+aii?oecaoeey )/i?eaea/aiiua enoi/ieee ?aaeueii eiyooeoeeaio
caaeneo io o?ao enoi/ieeia: nianoaaiiuo, ainoaea?noaaiiuo, i?e
aea/aiiuo. Aeey ii?iaeueiiai cia/aiey yoiai eiyooeoeeaioa (ii oai?ee)
aeiey nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa aeieaeia auoue ia iaiueoa 50% iaueo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Oeiu oeiainiauo ieaiia.

1 iia?aoeaiue – ninoaaeyaony a oi?ia eanniaie cayaee eee ieaiia
aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey (ninoaaeyaony ia iaeei
ianyoe n iiaeaeaaeiie eee aaeaaeiaaiie ?acaeaeie);

2 oaeouee – ana ?an/aou aaaeoony ia iaeei aiae n ?acaeaeie ii eaa?oaeai.
Oaeie ieai aeeth/aao a naay ieai aeioiaeia e cao?ao, ieai iieo/aiey
ieaoaaeae e oieaou iaeiaia a athaeaeao e aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu,
eiaanoeoeeiiiue ieai, ieai iaania/aiiinoe o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie e o.ae..

3 ia?niaeoeaiue (no?aoaae/aneee) ?ann/eouaaaony ia 5-10 eao eee ia
i?ia?aiio. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao oi?iaeueiia oeacaiea
ia ninoaaeaiea aeaiiue ieaiia, ii einaaiii ?aaoee?oao. Iai?eia?, ieai
aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe, caiieiaiea
eanniaie cayaee i?e ?an/aoa n aaieii, eiaanoeoeeiiiue ieai i?e
iieo/aiee athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee e o.ae.; /a?ac iaeiae e iieo/aiea
eueaio ii?aaeaeaiiui eaoaai?eyi i?aaei?eyoee. Eae i?aaeei, ia II
?ac?aaaouaathony oieueei iia?aoeaiua oeiainiaua ieaiu, o.e. iaaiciiaeii
?ann/eoaoue ia eaeoth-eeai ia?niaeoeao ninoiyiea ?ano?nia, i?iecaiaenoaa
au?o/ee (iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue oieueei ia noaaeeueiii II). Iia?aoeaiua e
oaeouea ieaiu ia/eiatho ?ac?aaaouaaoueny, eae i?aaeei, ni n?aaeieo
i?aaei?eyoee oeaeueth ?acaeoey yaeyaony ?anoe?aiea noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe
e cae?aieaiea ia ?uiea. Oeaeue ?ac?aaioee: iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia
eniieueciaaiea i?eauee e iaoiaeaeaiea aeaoaauo i?eaea/aiiuo eee caaiiuo
?ano?nia. Ia?niaeoeaiua ieaiu ?ac?aaaouaathony ia?aie/aiii, oieueei ia
eiie?aoiua i?ia?aiiu. Ia?niaeoeaiua, oaeouea e iia?aoeaiua
?ac?aaaouaathony ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, eiioea?iao e OIE. Oeaeue eo
ninoaaeaiey: inaiaiea ?uieia, eae aioo?aiieo, oae e ca ?oaaaeiuo; auione
iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea naiaiaeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa eee i?eauee; iioeiecaoeey nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Iniiaie aeey ninoaaeaiey oeiainiaiai ieaia yaeyaony:

1 aeiaiai?u n iinoaaueeaie OIOe e iieoiaoaeyie;

2 yeiiiie/aneea ii?iaoeau, ooaa?aeaeaiiua caeiiaie (?aeeaia,
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea), noaaee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (?an/ao iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie
aacu e i?eiaiaiea noaaie), ii?iu aii?oecaoeee, noaaee i?ioeaioia ca
aaieianeee e?aaeeo. O.i. ?ac?aaioaiiua oeiainiaua ieaiu yaeythony
oayceie iauaai iauaia oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, eo enoi/ieeia e iai?aaeaiee
eniieueciaaiey.

Iniiaiie aeieoiaio oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey – ieai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
eee ?an/ao aaeiaie i?eauee e aa ?ani?aaeaeaiey. A iauai aeaea yoio ieai
iiaeii ninoaaeoue a neaaeothuae oi?ia (eaaeaeue iieacaoaeue yoiai ieaia
?ann/eouaaaony ii niaoeeaeueiui oi?ioeai aeiiieieoaeueii: ?an/ao
iio?aaiinoe a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao, iino?iaiea a?aoeea aacoauoi/iinoe,
?an/ao aaeiaie i?eauee

e o.ae.).

Ieai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. ( ni. i?eeiaeaiea )

?an/ao iicaieyao i?iaa?eoue i?aaeeueiinoue iaeiaiauo e iaiaeiaiauo
ieaoaaeae, ii?aaeaeeoue

iaiaoiaeeioth iio?aaiinoue a aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nao aeey oieaou iaeiaia, a
o./. ii aaainai,

inouanoaeoue iia?aoeaiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue, ii?aaeaeeoue a oeaeii
iaeiaiaue i?ann ia i?aaei?eyoea

e ei??aeoe?iaaoue iaeiaiaoth iieeoeeo i?aaei?eyoey (ieieiecaoeey i?eauee
iiae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea

23 – 25%).

Ieai aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia n/aoao a aaieao e a eanna.

Ii io?aaeaao iioie aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia (iae. e aaciae.). Yoio ieai
iaiaycaoaeai, ii

aiaeiaie io/aoiinoe i?aaeoniao?eaaaony io/ao i aeaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa (oi?ia 4).Ninoaaeyaony ia aiae n ?acaeaeie ii eaa?oaeai e
ianyoeai, n aeaeaieai ia oaeouoth, eiaanoeoeeiiioth e oeiainiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

I?eia?iay noaia:

1 ana ?anoiaeu e iinooieaiey;

2 ana ?anoiaeu e io/eneaiey;

3 aaeaine?othuea noaouee.

A oaeaea iiaeao auoue ninoaaeai eanniaue ieai (eanniaay cayaea) – ieai
iai?ioa iaee/iuo aeaiaa (iinooieaiey eee auieaou /a?ac eanno
i?aaei?eyoey). Aeeth/ay iinooieaiey a eanno (e?iia iinooieaiee ec
aaiea), ?anoiaeu iaee/eie, ?an/ao ?anoiaeia ia iieaoo o?oaea.

Ieaiiaue aooaaeoa?neee aaeain ia eiiaoe ieaie?oaiiai aiaea (naiaeiue
aaeain aeoeaia e ianneaia). Ninoaaeyaony ii oi?ia aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea n o/aoii ieaiiauo eciaiaiee e ei??aeoe?iaie. Ii
iieacuaaao eaeia auei ninoiyiea aeoeaia e ianneaia iinea ieii/aiey
ia?eiaea aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoio aaeain iicaieyao eiaanoi?ai e aeoeeiia?ai
aeaeaoue ia?niaeoeao ?acaeoey. Eaaeaeue ?acaeae aaeaina (eee oeiainiaiai
ieaia) iiaeao eiaoue niioaaonoaothuea ?anoeo?iaee eee aeiiieiaiey.

Ia?a/aiue i?aaei?eyoee aeaaeoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia: iicaieyao auyaeoue
aeeiaieeo ninoiyiey aeaaeoi?neie e e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
?aaeueiinoue iieo/aiey aeaiaa, auyaeoue iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue
aeaaeoi?ia aeey iineaaeothuaai nienaiey cao?ao ia oeiainiaua
?acoeueoaou. Ieai aeaeaeaiey eaieoaea: ninoaaeyaony a ?ac?aca OE,
aeiaaai/iiai eaieoaea, ?aca?aiiai eaieoaea (oiiaea), oiiaeia oeaeaaiai
iacia/aiey (iio?aaeaiey, iaeiieaiey, no?aoiaie), ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay
i?eaueue. Inoaoie ia ia/aei, ieaie?oaiia iinooieaiea (ana enoi/ieee),
ieaie?oaiia eniieueciaaiea, inoaoie ia eiiaoe.

Aeaiaaeiua iioiee.

1 Oeaee caaea/e oi?aaeaiey aeaiaaeiuie iioieaie.

2 Aeaiaaeiua iioiee, aicieeoea a oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

3 Aeaiaaeiua iioiee, oi?ie?oaiua a eiaanoeoeeiiiie noa?a.

4 I?iaiice?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo iioieia ii i?aaei?eyoeth.

1. Any niaieoiiinoue oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ia i?aaei?eyoee iaoneaaeeaaao
eniieueciaaiea aeaiaa aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee. Aeey iaania/aiey
iai?a?uaiinoe i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee a niioaaonoaee n
oeaeyie ?acaeoey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey iie aoaeoo nenoaiaoe/anee
ainnoaiaaeeaaoue e iiiieiyoue, eniieuecoy aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, naie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu, auiea/eaaoue
ca?aaioioth ieaoo, i?iecaiaeeoue ?an/aou n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie,
athaeaeaoii e aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie, ?aaeeciauaaoue naith
i?iaeoeoeeth e o.ae.. O.a. i?e iaee/ee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa niaa?oaaony
e?oaiiai?io n?aaenoa ia i?aaei?eyoee.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaoao ianeieueei oieeiaaiee aeaiaaeiuo
iioieia:

1 Aeaeaeaiea oieueei iaee/iuo aeaiaa;

2 Aeaeaeaiea oieueei aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa;

3 Aeaiaaeiua iioiee naycaiiua n ianeoaeeaaieai oieueei iai?ioiiai
eaieoaea;

4 Aeaiaaeiua iioiee naycaiiua n iaania/aieai i?aaei?eyoey iniiaiui e
iai?ioiui eaieoaeii. Nenoaia aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, aeaiaaeiua iioiee ia
i?aaei?eyoee iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeaiaaeiua iioiee:

1 iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie ii iiaiaeo iieaou
iinoaaie, iai?oaeiaaiey,

iaoa?eaeia, nu?uey, ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee, n ?aaioieeaie ii auieaoa
ca?aaioiie ieaou;

2 iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e nianoaaiieeaie, o/?aaeeoaeyie eee
aeoeeiia?aie, ii auieaoa i?ioeaioia,

aeeaeaeaiaeia, aeeaaeia a OE, aeiiieieoaeueiuo aciinia e o.ae.;

3 iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e iiae?acaeaeaieyie (naiino. e caaen.
th?eaee/anee) ii ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie

i?eauee, iai?ioiiio eaieoaeo e o.ae.;

4 iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e athaeaeaoii, aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie ii
oieaoa iaeiaia e nai?ia,

iieo/aieth athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee e o.ae;

5 iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e aaieaie ii inouanoaeaieth ?an/aoia, iieo/aieth
e aica?aoo e?aaeeoa;

6 iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e eiaanoeoeeiiiuie oiiaeaie, no?aoiauie
eiiiaieyie e o.ae. ii iieo/aieth e aica?aoo eiaanoe?oaiuo n?aaenoa;

7 iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai a?aaeaeaiaie, eae th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, ii
iieo/aieth e aica?aoo nnoae,

aeaaioai?eoaeueiui aciinai e o.ae..

Iioiee:

1 iaee/iua;

2 aaciaee/iua: aeeth/athuea iaiin?aaenoaaiii aaciaee/iua ?an/aou; iieaoo
aaenaeyie ; oeaiiuie aoiaaaie; aa?oa?iua iia?aoeee e o.ae..

A caaeneiinoe io oneiaee aeiaiai?ia ii ?an/aoai aeaiaaeiua iioiee iiaoo
eiaoue ?acee/iua a?aiaiiua ia?eiaeu inouanoaeaiey :

1 i?aaeiieaoa;

2 iieaoa ii aee?aaeeoeaai;

3 iieaoa a e?aaeeo (e?aoein?i/iue e?aaeeo; n?aaeian?i/iue e?aaeeo;
aeieain?i/iue e?aaeeo e o.ae.).

Iniiaiay oeaeue oi?aaeaiey aeaiaaeiuie iioieaie – iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee;
eioi?ay a /anoe eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa (nianoaaiiuo;
i?eaea/aiiuo; caaiiuo) aeeth/aao a naay iaania/aiea i?aaei?eyoey
iaiaoiaeeiuie aeaiaaeiuie ?ano?naie aeey iai?a?uaiiai i?ioeanna
aini?iecaiaenoaa ; oaaee/aiey aeioiaeia nianoaaiieeia (o/?aaeeoaeae).

A niioaaonoaee n yoie oeaeueth ia i?aaei?eyoee ?aoathony neaaeothuea
caaea/e:

oi?ie?iaaiea enoi/ieeia aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia ( aeaiaaeiuo iioieia);

eniieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oiiaeia;

eiio?ieue ca oi?ie?iaaieai e eniieueciaaieai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
oiiaeia.

Ai a?aiaiiii ia?eiaea ( ia?niaeoeaiay, oaeouay, iia?aoeaiay
aeayoaeueiinoue ) caaea/e oi?aaeaiey aeaiaaeiuie iioieaie ?acee/iu e
eiiaaea i?ioeai?a/ao ae?oa ae?oao, /oi ia yaeyaony e?eoe/aneei. Caaea/ae
iia?aoeaiiai oi?ie?iaaiey aeaiaaeiuo iioieia yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iaania/aiey iai?a?uaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna e
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee i aeaiaaeiuo iioieao yaeythony aeaiiua
aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey, aeaiiua io/aoa ia eniieueciaaiee aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa e ae?oaea ?ac?aaioi/iua oaaeeoeu e noaiu. Ii aeaiiua yoie
oaaeeoeu iiaoo oieueei i?ineaaeeoue eciaiaiey a iauae no?oeoo?a
enoi/ieeia e ?anoiaeiaaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ca ia?eiae,
neaaeiaaoaeueii iniiaiie ?acaeae a oi?ie?iaaiee nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey –
aiaeec aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo iioieia.

Oeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey aeaiaaeiuo iioieia – iaania/aiiinoue aeaiaaeiuie
?ano?naie, eioi?ay caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia:

i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa;

no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa;

iaee/ea ?ano?nia;

a?aiioiinoue oi?aaeaiey;

nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

o?iaaiue ninoiyiey o/aoa ( iia?aoeaiue e aooaaeoa?neee ).

Oi?ie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo iioieia a oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe ia aeieaeii
i?ioeai?a/eoue iauae iai?aaeaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey no?aoaae/aneeo iioieia.

Iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia aeaiaaeiuo iioieia a oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe
yaeyaony au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa ( ia?aia
eneeth/aaony ), au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee eiouanoaa.

Yoio iauai au?o/ee caaeneo io i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai a?aoeea, o?iaiy
ecaea?aeae a i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiee, iauai i?iaeaae, a?aiaie e
oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee, cao?ao eaieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a e oeiaine?iaaiey
?anoiaeia ( eioi?ua ia aiciauathony ).

A ?inneeneie i?aeoeea ?an/aou cao?oaeiaiu aiciiaeiinoyie nie?uoey,
eneaaeaiey au?o/ee ec-ca ia/aoeinoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia aaee/eio enoi/ieeia aeaiaaeiuo iioieia iiaoo auoue
?acee/iu:

iacaaeneiuie io nenoaiu iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey:

*oiaiueoaiea iauaia au?o/ee i?e oneiaee eniieueciaaiey a aeaiiue ia?eiae
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia eaieoaeueiua cao?aou;

*oeiaine?iaaiea ?anoiaeia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a
(eio?ano?oeoo?u);

*o?iaaiue iaeiaiauo io/eneaiee e o.ae.

caaeneiua ( /anoe/ii eee iieiinoueth oi?aaeyaiua ):

*o?iaaiue cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee (
i?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu athaeaeaoe?iaaiey e oeaio?ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe );

*iioeiaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iaee/ey caiania;

*i?aaeeueiinoue ?an/aoia e ieieiecaoeey iaeiaiauo io/eneaiee a
athaeaeaou e aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu;

*i?aaiecaoeey ?an/aoia ca nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee e
o.ae.

A eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa ninoaa e iaai? oaeoi?ia ?acee/ai. Iai?eia?,
ia o?iaia iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey, niaoeeaeece?othuaainy ia auionea iaeiiai
– aeaoo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, aeeyiea anao oaeoi?ia iineo oi?iuaiiue e
i?yiieeiaeiue oa?aeoa?. Ia o?iaia e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, eiaaea ia
aaee/eio au?o/ee ieacuaatho aeeyiea no?oeoo?iua oaeoi?u e
acaeiiioiioaiey aioo?e iiae?acaeaeaiee, aeeyiea iaeieo oaeoi?ia
oneeeaaaony, a ae?oaeo – ieaaee?oaony. Aeey i?aaei?eyoee-iiiiiieenoia
iniaia cia/aiea eiaao onoaiiaeaiea iiiiiieueiuo oeai.

Ae?oaie enoi/iee – niaieoiiinoue n?aaenoa, a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeey
oeaeaaiai eniieueciaaiey: n?aaenoaa ii auieaoa ca?aaioiie ieaou,
n?aaenoaa i?aaenoiyueo ?anoiaeia, n?aaenoaa a athaeaeaou e
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, n?aaenoaa aeaaeoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia e o.ae.

Aaaeiue enoi/iee – caaiiua n?aaenoaa – e?aoein?i/iua nnoaeu aaieia e
e?aoein?i/iue eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo. Iniaaiiinoue eniieueciaaiey caaiiuo
n?aaenoa aeey ?acee/iuo i?aaei?eyoee – aiciiaeiinoue i?eaea/aiey yoeo
n?aaenoa ia ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo. Eae i?aaeei, e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey
eniieuecotho iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai caaiiuo n?aaenoa, a o.e. noiiu
aieueoea, oi i?ioeaiou ii iei iaaieueoea.

*anoue enoi/ieeia a oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe: n?aaenoaa ia/eneaiiie
aii?oecaoeee, aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou, eioi?ua ii naiae nooe eiatho
oeaeaaoth iai?aaeaiiinoue, ii eae a?aiaiiue enoi/iee iiaoo auoue
iai?aaeaiu ia ae?oaea oeaee ( e?iia athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa ).

Aeiiieieoaeueiua enoi/ieee – n?aaenoaa yienneiiiuo aeioiaeia, n?aaenoaa
io oaaee/aiey OE e o.ae. O.e. i?aaei?eyoey eiatho a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee
?yae ?aciuo enoi/ieeia, ?ac?aaaouaatho a?aoeee iinooieaiey iaee/iuo e
aaciaee/iuo n?aaenoa.

Ana aeaiaaeiua enoi/ieee eiatho naiinoiyoaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Ec
iniiaiiai aeaiaaeiiai enoi/ieea ( au?o/ea ) eaeao:

iiiieiaiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo ia i?iecaiaenoai e
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee ( iieoiea nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa,
eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu, iieaoa ca auiieiaiiua ?aaiou );

ecuyoea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a athaeaeaoiua e aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. Ia
iniiaaiee ieaiia ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, ieaiia auieao aeioiaeia
nianoaaiieeai e eniieueciaaiea ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia ninoaaeythony
?acee/iua aa?eaiou ieaiia. A caaeneiinoe io oeaeae aeayoaeueiinoe: II –
ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa, n?aaeiea e e?oiiua – ia ?anoe?aiea noa?
aeayoaeueiinoe, e?oiiua – ia caaiaaaiea ?uiea ( a iniiaiii – ie?iaiai ).

A caaeneiinoe io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia /anoiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo i?iecaiaeeony ii ieii/aiee aiaea ( ii ieii/aiee i?ia?aiiu
), ia /anoiuo aeoeeiia?iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo – aaeaeaa?oaeueii eee ii aiaeo;
ii i?aaei?eyoey n ainoaea?noaaiiuie eee niaoaiiuie oi?iaie nianoaaiiinoe
– aaeaeaa?oaeueii. A /anoe aini?iecaiaenoaa iai?aaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo
iioieia iineo oii?yaei/aiiue oa?aeoa?, a a /anoe oaaee/aiey eee
i?eeiaeaiey iiaiai eaieoaea – iai?aaeaiea caaeneo io aa?anneaiinoe
oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeea eciaiaiey aiaeece?othony aaeaiany/ii,
aaeaeaa?oaeueii e aaeaaiaeii ia iniiaaiee iauai?eciaiiuo iaoiaeee
n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca.

A ioee/ea io oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay o?aaoao ?aaoey?iiai
eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoii iauaia,
eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue o?aaoao aieueoeo iauaiia aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, noi?ie?iaaiiuo, aeaaiui ia?acai, ec nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, n
i?eaea/aieai a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo caaiiiai eaieoaea.

Iniiaiie enoi/iee, eioi?ue oi?ie?oao aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu e iioiee,
iai?aaeaiiua ia eiaanoe?iaaiea – i?eaueue aei e iinea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?eaueue – ninoaaiay /anoue au?o/ee, iia oi?ie?oao
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu i?aaei?eyoey, a ae?oaay ianna au?o/ee eaeao ia
aiciauaiea e iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu.

A niioaaonoaee n ieaiaie oaea a iia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaueue
ioaeaeyaony io iia?aoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia e eniieueciaaiea i?eauee ia
eiaanoe?iaaiea i?eauee naycaiiie n ii?yaeeii ?an/aoa aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee. Noiia ioaeaeaiiay ia eiaanoeoeee ?ann/eouaaaony a oaaeeoea,
aaea niae?athony e aeiiieieoaeueiua enoi/ieee. Oaeia o?aaiaaiea
caeiaeaii a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O, o.e. io iieiiou ?an/aoia caaeneo
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey eueaio ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth ia
i?aaei?eyoee. Aiaoiaa eniieueciaaiea oaeeo ?an/aoia e niiinoaaeaiea eo n
au?o/eie i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi a ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio any iinooiathuay
au?o/ea iiaeao auoue ?aaia i?eauee n o/aoii oiiaea aii?oecaoeee ( a
oaeeo neooaoeeyo i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii ecuneeaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua
enoi/ieee aeaiaaeiuo iioieia aeey iie?uoey iia?aoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaiaeeoue ). A yoii neo/aa i?eaeaeatho
aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa eiaanoi?ia eee e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou. Aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu oauoeia, naycaiiuo n i?eaea/aieai caaiiuo n?aaenoa
i?iaiaeyo n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec o/aoiiai i?ioeaioa e ?aioaaaeueiinoe
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ca i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae ( o.a. ia?eiae iaeiieaiey
n?aaenoa ia eiaanoe?iaaiea ).

Noiia aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia, noi?ie?iaaiiuo ec athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee
eae enoi/iee, eiathuee naith niaoeeoeeo ia i?aaei?eyoee:

iiaeii noi?ie?iaaoue aanue aeaiaaeiue iioie, iai?aaeaiiue ia
eiaanoe?iaaiea;

a?aiy iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa iiaeao ia niaiaaeaoue n a?aiaiai
eo eniieueciaaiey. Iieo/aiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa naycaii n aieueoeie
o?oaeiinoyie e ia?aie/aieyie ( aeey e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, ?aaioathuaai
ia no?aoaae/aneeo iai?aaeaieyo, a II e n?aaeiea iiaoo eniieueciaaoue eo
oieueei eae /anoue aeaiaaeiiai iioiea ni cia/eoaeueiui iiicaeaieai ii
n?ieai).

Athaeaeaoiue ( iaeiaiaue ) e?aaeeo – auaiaeai aeey i?aaei?eyoey
niaiaaeaieai n?ieia i?aaeinoaaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey, e ieceeie
i?ioeaioiuie noaaeaie, n ion?i/eie ieaoaaeae ii iei. O.e. oi?ie?iaaiea
oaeeo aeaiaaeiuo iioieia i?iecaiaeeony ec au?o/ee, io?eoeaoaeueiui
yaeyaony oi, /oi ia oaaoaao n?aaenoa ia iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu.

A i?aeoeea oi?ie?iaaiey aeaiaaeiuo iioieeia ia eiaanoe?iaaiea iniiaiie
i?iaeaiie yaeyaony oaycea iia?aoeaiiai, oaeouaai e ia?niaeoeaiiai ieaiia
e a?aoeeia, /oi naycaii n iaaiciiaeiinoueth iieiiai o/aoa ia?ooaiey
aeiaiai?ia, n?ieia iinooieaiey au?o/ee, i?aaeinoaaeaiey nnoae.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo enoi/ieeii aeaiaaeiuo iioieia iiaeao auoue
noiia n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiay io nianoaaiieea ( o/?aaeeoaey ) a ea/anoaa
aciinia n oeaeaaui iacia/aieai. Yoe n?aaenoaa iinooiatho ia n/ao ”
aeiaaai/iue eaieoae” e o/eouaathony oai aei iiiaioa ia?a?aaeno?aoeee.
I?eaea/aiea oaeiai enoi/ieea naycaii, iai?eia?, n ia?aaiaeii iaee/iiai
iai?ioa a aaciaee/iue iai?io, eioeyoeeiiiui aeeyieai. Oaeia i?eaea/aiea
n?aaenoa aeanoei ?aaeaiaioe?oaony ainoaea?noaii.

Aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou aaieia.

Eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee ( Caeii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?O, Caeii
i aaethoiii ?aaoee?iaaiee e aaethoiii eiio?iea ). Oaeie enoi/iee
aiciiaeai oieueei aeey e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ( yoi naycaii n aeaeaieai
eiaanoi?ia ).

Iai?aaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oiiaeia oa?aeoa?ecothony iaeioi?uie
iiiyoeyie: ?aaeueiua eiaanoeoeee, e?aoein?i/iua, n?aaeian?i/iua,
aeieain?i/iua eiaanoeoeee, eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey e caeoiea
iai?oaeiaaiey. Anee i?aaei?eyoea i?iaiaeeo iaeio eeieth eiaanoe?iaaiey –
ninoaaeyao iaeio iauoth noaio, anee ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee – ianeieueei
acaeiioaycaiiuo noai. Iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee ?aaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee –
eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey. Neiaeiinoue: a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie iieaoa
iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny a ?acee/iuo oi?iao ?an/aoia ( acaeiica/aoii,
aa?oa?ii, aaenaeyie e o.ae. ), iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny eeceiaiaua e
o?anoiaua iia?aoeee. I?e aeiaeaiee a IO eee IIA iieaoa iineo ?aciaue
oa?aeoa?.

I?aeoeea eniieueciaaiey athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee e athaeaeaoiuo
e?aaeeoia o?aaoao ioaeaeaiey aeaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo iioieia. I?e aeiaeaiee a
oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou eniieuecotho ia i?aaei?eyoee oieueei naiaiaeiua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa.

Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo iioieia ia II oaeea
noaiu i/aiue i?inou, a ia e?oiiuo – neiaeiinoue caeeth/aaony a
acaeii?an/aoao iaaeaeo oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoueth e eiaanoeoeeiiiie.

Ieaie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo iioieia i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
ieaie?oaiuo e io/aoiuo aeaiiuo i iaee/ee e aeaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, io?aaeaiiuo a aooaaeoa?neii aaeaina, io/aoa i aeaeaeaiee
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa n oi/ee c?aiey io/aoa e a oeiainiauo ieaiao. Yoio
aiaeec iicaieyao ioaeaeeoue nouanoaaiiua iia?aoeee io ianouanoaaiiuo,
ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue a eniieueciaaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
iiaeoaa?aeeoue iainiiaaiiinoue eciaiaiee a ninoaaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
caiania e cao?ao, aeoeaia e ianneaia e iainiiaaoue noiio au?o/ee i?e
anao oi?iao ?an/aoia.

PAGE 1

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020