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ANA?INNEENEAss AEAAeAIEss AIAOIAE OI?AIAEE IAYN ?O

?AOA?AO

IA OAIO:

“Niaoeeaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu ”

ICI IEO 1-e eo?n.

Neooaoaeue: Noaiaiia I.O.

a.Iineaa, 1996 a.

*OI NEAAeIAAEI AU IIIEIAOUe IIAe NIAOeEAEUeIUIE CIIAIE?

Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie, iio?aaiinoue aieaa
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey aaia?aoe/aneeo e eiuo i?aeiouanoa
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oa??eoi?ee i?eaaee e nicaeaieth ai iiiaeo no?aiao iniauo
yeiiiie/aneeo cii. A ?acee/iuo aa?eaioao iie nouanoaotho a EI?, NOA,
O?aioeee, Aueaoiaia, Aieaa?ee, Aaia?ee, Iaeneea, E?eaiaeee, THaeiie
Ei?aa e a ?yaea ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa.

A ie?a auei nicaeaii ieiei 600 cii, a iniiaiii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XX
aaea, oioy ia?aay ciia eeanne/aneiai oeia — oaiiaeaiiay nouanoaiaaea a
Aea?aeoa?a oaea a XIX aaea. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia
aeaenoaiaaei ieiei 100 naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii. Aieueoa anaai eo
auei nicaeaii a Oaaeoea?ee (26), Eniaiee (22), Eoaeee (II), ai O?aioeee
(10), a Oeieyiaeee (7), O?A (6).

Ecaanoii, /oi aei ?aaiethoeee a Iaeanna, Aaooia nouanoaiaaee “ii?ou
o?aiei” — naiaiaeiua oaiiaeaiiua ciiu. I?e anai ?aciiia?acee a iniiaiii
nicaeaiiua ciiu iiaeii naanoe e ianeieueeei iniiaiui oeiai: oaiiaeaiiie,
ciia yenii?oiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e eiiieaeniie (iaeaieaa oniaoiue i?eia?
iineaaeiae aeaao ciia aie?oa e?eaiaeneiai ay?iii?oa Oaiiiia, aiaeiae/iay
ciia auea nicaeaia a ssiiiee ia ino?iaa Ieeiaaa). A EI? e a iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo no?aiao auee nicaeaiu oaoiieiae/aneea ciiu. Ie?iaie iiuo
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae i oii, /oi aeey nicaeaiey ciiu o?aaoaony iaee/ea
?yaea oaeoi?ia. E eo /eneo iaoe yeiiiienou ioianee neaaeothuea:

naycue n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie ?uieaie (o?ainii?oiua e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua
aiciiaeiinoe);

noaiaiue ?acaeoey eio?ano?oeoo?u, a oii /enea aeaeiaie eio?ano?oeoo?u
(aaieianeia e no?aoiaia ianeoaeeaaiea, yeniaaeeoi?neea, eioi?iaoeeiiiua
e ae?oaea neoaeau, ae?aee e o.i.);

?acaeae 1. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey

ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ?aaeiia, iicaieythuee
onoaiaaeeaaoue noaiiae?yaeiua ioiioaiey, eniieueciaaoue
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue ia?niiae;

iaania/aiiinoue ?aai/ae neeie e iaee/ea ?acaeoie
nioeeaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u, aeeeiai oiiaea;

iaania/aiiinoue eaae?aie niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe i?aeoe/aneiai
inouanoaeaiey aiaoiaoi?aiauo naycae, eiaanoeoeeiiiiai e ae?oaeo oi?i
nio?oaeie/anoaa n ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie’.

Aeaaiui ana aea inoaaony auaiaeiia yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea e
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aeey eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a. A ethaii neo/aa ciiu,
eae i?aaeei, nicaeaaaeenue ia ia?aie/aiiuo i?ino?ainoaao. O ian aea
iioee ii ae?oaiio iooe. A ?innee auei aeaeea?e?iaaii nicaeaiea aieueoiai
/enea cii, /anoue ec eioi?uo ioaaouaaea oeaeua e?ay e iaeanoe,
cia/eoaeueiua ii naiei oa??eoi?eyi (Aeoaeneee e?ae, *eoeineay iaeanoue,
Eaia?ianeay iaeanoue e ae?.) (2) Enoiaeiui i?e nicaeaiee yoeo cii auei
aeaaia iiaeaeaiea oeo/oeoue iieiaeaiea e ?aoeoue ae?oaea caaea/e,
aeaaiui ia?acii, ca n/ao i?aaeinoaaeaiey eueaio ii nio?aiaieth a ianoiii
athaeaeaoa iaeiaiauo io/eneaiee, a yoi ieacaeinue ia?aaeueiui.

A ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie ie?iaiio iiuoo niioaaonoaoao i?aeoeea
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa NIA.

Neacaiiia ia icia/aao, /oi a ?innee iao cii ni anao oi/ae c?aiey,
ioaa/athueo i?eaaaeaiiui auoa e?eoa?eyi. ss?eei i?eia?ii oaea/iiai
auai?a i?aaenoaaeyaony iai ciia “ssioa?ue”, ?aniieiaeaiiay ia oa??eoi?ee
auaoae Ainoi/iie I?onnee. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea yoie ciiu ia aa?aao
Aaeoeeneiai ii?y aeaenoaeoaeueii oieeaeueii. Iia aoiaeeo a ninoaa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ia?acoy naiaai ?iaea aieeaa, ie?oaeaiiue
Iieueoae e Eeoaie. O?ainii?oiua aiciiaeiinoe: aaeeinoaaiiue
iacaia?cathuee ii?o ?innee ia Aaeoeea, eiia/iue ioieo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie
iaaeno?aee, i?e/ai n aa?iiaeneie eieaae, e aaoiiaaeno?aee
Eaeeieia?aae—Aa?eei, ieaiu iieiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey eioi?ie oaea
iiaeaioiaeaiu. Nai Eaeeieia?aae (auaoee Eaieanaa?a) — ai?iae, aaea
noiaeyony oi?aiaua iooe Ainoiea e Caiaaea, Naaa?a e THaa.

Ae?oaie oaea/iue i?eia? auai?a — ii?o Iaoiaeea ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea,
ninoaaeaoee aianoa n i?eeaaathuei e iaio ?aeiiii aaeeioth yeiiiie/aneoth
ciio.

Ia?niaeoeaiuie i?aaenoaaeythony ae?oaea ciiu ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea — ciia
ia Naoaeeia e iniaay yeiiiie/aneay ciia “Eo?eeu”. A niioaaonoaee n
Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 6 aeaeaa?y 1992 a. “I
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee Eo?eeueneeo ino?iaia” i?aaei?eyoeyi e
i?aaiecaoeeyi yoiai ?aeiia i?aaeinoaaeythony oe?ieea aeiiieieoaeueiua
eueaiou a noa?a yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii a iauai a ?innee i?e
nicaeaiee naiaiaeiuo cii iioee ii iniaiio iooe, e oiio aea iacaaa yoe
ciiu ciiaie niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, /oi io?aaeaii a ?yaea
aeoia.

Aieaa i?eau/iui e niioaaonoaothuei iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea
i?aaenoaaeyaony oa?iei “naiaiaeiay yeiiiie/aneay ciia”, eioi?ui iu e
iieuecoainy a aeaeueiaeoai eceiaeaiee.

Eoae, naiaiaeiay yeiiiie/aneay ciia — yoi oa??eoi?ey, ia eioi?ie
onoaiaaeeaathony iniaue ?aaeei e iniaua eueaioiua oneiaey oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia e i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie, a oaeaea ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e a?aaeaeai.

E naiaiaeiui yeiiiie/aneei ciiai neaaeoao ioiineoue e ciiu yenii?oiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, e naiaiaeiua oaiiaeaiiua ciiu.

I?aceaeaio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee Oeacaie io 10 aeaeaa?y 1992 a. “I
nicaeaiee ciiu naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee “Oa?aiaoueaai” e io 3 ethiy 1993 a.
“I naiaiaeiuo oaiiaeaiiuo ciiao “Iineianeee O?ai-ei-Ii?o” e “O?aiei-Ii?o
“Oa?ieiae” iiaeaea?aeae i?aaeeiaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa Iineau ii
nicaeaieth a Iineaa naiaiaeiie oaiiaeaiiie ciiu “Iineianeee O?aiei-Ii?o”
ia oa??eoi?ee, i?eeaaathuae e ay?iii?oo “Aioeiai”, e naiaiaeiie
oaiiaeaiiie ciiu “o?aiei-Ii?o “Oa?ieiae” ia oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiiai
?a/iiai ii?oa(3).

I?aaeoaeuenoai Iineau 10 iay 1994 a. i?eiyei iinoaiiaeaiea i iiyoaiiii
nicaeaiee naiaiaeiie oaiiaeaiiie ciiu “O?aiei-Ii?o “Oa?ieiae”.

Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 18 ethey 1994 a. auei
i?aaeoniio?aii nicaeaiea naiaiaeiie oaiiaeaiiie ciiu “Ay?iii?o
Noaa?iiieue” e naiaiaeiie oaiiaeaiiie ciiu ia oa??eoi?ee Aio?neie
iaeanoe.

E n yeiiiie/aneie, e n th?eaee/aneie oi/ae c?aiey neaaeoao ioee/aoue
?aaeiiaeueiua i?iaeou i?eaea/aiey ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoi?ia a ?inneth io
ieaiia nicaeaiey naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii(4).

Iauei yaeyaony no?aieaiea i?eaea/ue eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee. Iaeiaei a
ciiao ?aaeecaoeee yoie oeaee aeieaeai aeaenoaiaaoue eiiieaen
oaiiaeaiiuo, iaeiaiauo, aaethoiuo, e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo e
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo noeioeia aeey i?aaei?eyoee i?e oneiaee nicaeaiey
oaeie aaeieieno?aoeaiie no?oeoo?u, eioi?ay a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie
oi?inoeea au aeey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia inouanoaeaiea oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e nicaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee.

A Caeiia Ee?aecee “I naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao a ?anioaeeea
Eu?aucnoai” io 16 aeaeaa?y 1992 a. i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi naiaiaeiua
yeiiiie/aneea ciiu aeeth/atho a naay naiaiaeiua oaiiaeaiiua ciiu, ciiu
yenii?oiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e ciiu i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee
(no. 1). I?e/ai naiaiaeiua oaiiaeaiiua ciiu e ciiu yenii?oiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a ea/anoaa noacii iiaoo aoiaeeoue a ciiu i?eaea/aiey
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee (no. 4).

?ACAEOEA I?AAIAIAI ?AAOEE?IAAIEss

Eae inouanoaeyaony i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea a /anoe, eanathuaeny nicaeaiey
cii e ii?aaeaeaiey iniauo oneiaee aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey eiino?aiiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a oaeeo ciiao? Ai iiiaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou ia
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo auee aeeth/aiu niaoeeaeueiua iieiaeaiey ia
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao (no.no. 41, 42
Caeiia ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo ?innee, no. 48 Caeiia Oe?aeiu, no.no.
38, 39 Caeiia Oaaeaeeeenoaia, no. 23 Caeiia Ynoiiee).

A iaeioi?uo ?anioaeeeao auee i?eiyou niaoeeaeueiua caeiiu. 30 iiya?y
1990 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii “I naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie-/aneeo ciiao a Eacaoneie
NN?”. Caoai iineaaeiaae ?yae iinoaiiaeaiee Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?anioaeeee
Eacaonoai i nicaeaiee cii a ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiao e ai?iaeao. Iaeiaei
Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai io 5 ia?oa 1994 a. “I ia?ao ii
oii?yaei/aieth aeayoaeueiinoe naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii” ana ?aiaa
i?eiyoua iinoaiiaeaiey auee i?eciaiu oo?aoeaoeie neeo.

A Aaea?one auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa Ieieno?ia ?anioaeeee
Aaea?onue io 26 oaa?aey 1992 a. “I nicaeaiee NYC a ?aeiia a. A?anoa”,
iaeiaei caoai aeaenoaea aai auei i?einoaiiaeaii.

16 aeaeaa?y 1992 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii ?anioaeeee Eu?aucnoai “I naiaiaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao a ?anioaeeea Eu?aucnoai”.

Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii Oe?aeiu 13 ieoya?y 1992 a. aue i?eiyo Caeii “Ia iaueo
ia/aeao nicaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey niaoeeaeueiuo (naiaiaeiuo)
yeiiiie/aneeo cii”(5).

Aeae?ao Oe?aeiu i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi niaoeeoeea ?aaoee?iaaiey
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a niaoeeaeueiuo (naiaiaeiuo) yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao
onoaiaaeeaaaony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu i niaoeeaeueiuo (naiaiaeiuo)
yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao (no. 49).

A iaa 1993 a. a Oo?eiaienoaia aue i?eiyo Oeac I?aceaeaioa i noaoona naie
oaeeo cii.

Ec no?ai Aaeoee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i NYC eiaaony a Eeoaa. 12 ia?oa 1993
a. auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee “I
nicaeaiee naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii”. Aei yoiai 28 iay 1992 a. auei
i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee “I nicaeaiee a
a. Eeaeiaaea oa??eoi?ee naiaiaeiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”. Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa io 12 ia?oa 1993
a. a yoi iinoaiiaeaiea auee aianaiu eciaiaiey.

A ?innee Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii auee i?eiyou iinoaiiaeaiey io 14 ethey 1990
a. e io 13 naioya?y 1990 a. “I nicaeaiee cii naiaiaeiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”, a oaeaea iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa i ia?ao ii
?acaeoeth naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii. Ia?aie oaeie ciiie, i?aaiaie
noaoon eioi?ie aue ii?aaeaeai ia?eaiaioii ?innee, noaea iaoiaeyuayny ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea ciia a ai?iaea Iaoiaeea. Niaoeeaeueiia iinoaiiaeaiea i
iae auei i?eiyoi Aa?oiaiui Niaaoii ?NON? 24 ieoya?y 1990 a. Iicaeiaa
i?eieiaeenue aeieoiaiou i ae?oaeo ciiao, a /anoiinoe i ciiao naiaiaeiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a. Eaieia?aaea e a. Auai?aa e i
oicyenoaaiii-i?aaiaii noaoona naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu a a.
Caeaiia?aaea (?anii?yaeaiey I?aaenaaeaoaey Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?NON? io 12
e 21 iay 1991 a.), i nicaeaiee naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu “Naoaeei”
(iinoaiiaeaiea I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?NON? io 27 iay 1991 a.).
Iieiaeaiea i naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciia a Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe
(NYC “ssioa?ue”) auei ooaa?aeaeaii iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia ?NON?
io 25 naioya?y 1991 a. Oaeea iieiaeaiey, i?eiyoua e ii ae?oaei ciiai,
ii?aaeaeyee i?aaiaua iniiau oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ieo, oeaee eo
nicaeaiey e o.ae. Oae, oeaeue nicaeaiey NYC “ssioa?ue” auea
noi?ioee?iaaia neaaeothuei ia?acii. NYC “ssioa?ue” nicaeaaony a oeaeyo:

onei?aiey ?aoaiey caaea/ nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe;

iiauoaiey aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey iaeanoe ia iniiaa ?acaeoey
oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneiai e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa n
ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie;

iaania/aiey aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea, oaoiieiaee e oi?aaeai/aneiai iiuoa, iioaioeeaea ioa/anoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee aeey oaaee/aiey yenii?oiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeiia;

?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa yenii?oiie e eiii?oicaiaiythuae i?iaeoeoeee,
o?aineiioeiaioaeueiiai o?aiceoa;

io?aaioee iiauo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea.

?yae iaueo aii?inia i?eioeeieaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, eanathueony anao NYC,
aue ii?aaeaeai Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 4 ethiy 1992
a. “I iaeioi?uo ia?ao ii ?acaeoeth naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii (NYC) ia
oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”. Yoei aea Oeacii auea i?aaeoniio?aia
iiaeaioiaea Caeiia “I naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee”.

NOAOON NAIAIAeIIE YEIIIIE*ANEIE CIIU

Ethaay NYC iacaaeneii io ianoa aa ?aniieiaeaiey, oeaee nicaeaiey
inoaaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ainoaea?noaaiiie oa??eoi?ee ni anaie
auoaeathueie ionthaea iineaaenoaeyie. Noaa?aieoao ainoaea?noaa, ia
oa??eoi?ee eioi?iai nicaeaaony ciia, e inouanoaeaiea aai no-aa?aiiuo
i?aa i?e yoii ia cao?aaeaathony. Eiaaony a aeaeo, /oi NYC —
oicyenoaaiiua, a ia iieeoe/aneea ia?aciaaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue a
ieo aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny i?aaiaie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey. ?ani?ino?aiaii
ioeai/iia iiaiea, aoaeoi i?e nicaeaiee cii eaeay-oi /anoue
ainoaea?noaaiiie oa??eoi?ee aoaeao naeaaaoueny a a?aiaeo, aeaaea
i?iaeaaaoueny eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai eee oe?iai.

Ii aeaei a oii, /oi, eiaaea a yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a i?eiaieoaeueii e
ciiai aiai?eony ia aieeaaao, aeaiiue oa?iei eiaao ia oio niune, a
eioi?ii ii oiio?aaeyaony a ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie e
iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaie eeoa?aoo?a, aaea iiae aieeaaii iiieiaaony
oa??eoi?ey iaeiiai ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai ia?aciaaiey, ie?oaeaiiay
oa??eoi?eae ae?oaiai ainoaea?noaa. Caeanue ?a/ue eaeao eiaiii ia iniaie,
/enoi yeiiiie/aneie ciia, i?iaeieaeathuae inoaaaoueny a i?aaeaeao
ainoaea?noaa.

I?aeoeea nicaeaiey cii a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi
iooai i?eiyoey iieiaeaiey ii eaaeaeie ciia iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aa
oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaeaeu. Oae, niaeanii i. 3 Iieiaeaiey i NYC
“ssioa?ue”, yoa ciia “?aniieaaaaony a aaeieieno?aoeaiuo a?aieoeao
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe n i?eeaaathueie e iae ?aeiiaie
eiioeiaioaeueiiai oaeueoa e yeiiiie/aneie ciiu NNN? (e?iia ?aeiiia
oa??eoi?ee iaeanoe, naycaiiuo n iaania/aieai iai?iiu no?aiu)”. Iaiiiiei
/eoaoaeth, /oi Iieiaeaiea auei i?eiyoi aei ?aniaaea NNN?, iinea eioi?iai
?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe i oaeueoa e yeiiiie/aneie ciia a Aaeoeeneii ii?a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, nicaeaiea NYC ia i?aaeiieaaaao eaeeo-eeai
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo eciaiaiee, ia?aaeaeaeaiey a?aieoe eae a i?aaeaeao
eaeiai-eeai ainoaea?noaa, oae e aia aai.

Iiaoo auoue, eiia/ii, iniaua neo/ae. A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea
iaeaieaa ecaanoiui ec ieo auei onoaiiaeaiea iniaiai
iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai noaoona Aieueiiai ai?iaea Aeaioeeaa (iuia
Aaeaiuene). Ii Aa?naeueneiio ie?o oa??eoi?ey Aeaioeeaa ia aoiaeeea ie a
ninoaa Aa?iaiee, ie a ninoaa Iieueoe, aa?aioii aue Aa?oiaiue eiienna?
Eeae Iaoeee.

I?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an ?acee/iua i?iaeou nicaeaiey niaianoiuo NYC,
nicaeaaaaiuo aeaoiy eee ianeieueeeie i?ea?aie/iuie no?aiaie. E /eneo
oaeeo cii iiaoo auoue ioianaiu ?inneenei-eeoaeneea yeiiiie/aneea ciiu a
?aeiia Aeaaiaauaine-Oyeoa, ?acee/iua ciiu a I?e/a?iiii?uea.

A ?anioaeeea E?ui i?i?aaaouaaaony i?iaeo nicaeaiey a Ea?/e naiaiaeiie
yeiiiie/aneie ciiu, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey oaeie ciiu ai anae
?anioaeeea, eioi?ay aoaeao oanii naycaia ia oieueei a Oe?aeiie, ii e n
?inneae. Oae, ieaie?iaaeinue naiaiaeiia ia?auaiea a ciia ?inneeneie
aaethou. Ia?eaiaio ?anioaeeee E?ui i?iaicaeanee nicaeaiea a yoie ciia
iauaai ioe?uoiai ?aaeeia. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaii Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu
io 23 ethiy 1993 a.

Eiiaaea aicieeatho ae?oaea i?iaeaiu. Oae, i?eaianaiea iieeoe/aneeo
aniaeoia iiaeao cao?oaeieoue e ai anyeii neo/aa caiaaeeeoue ?acaeoea
ciiu “ssioa?ue”, anee ?anniao?eaaoue aa eae “Aa?i?aaeii Eaieanaa?a”.

Anoue i?iaeaiu e a nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iaania/eoue aeayoaeueiinoue
naiaiaeiie ciiu “ssioa?ue”. Eae ecaanoii, oa??eoi?ey aoiaeyuae a ninoaa
?innee Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe, ia eioi?ie ?aniieaaaaony ciia, ia eiaao
iauae a?aieoeu n ae?oaeie iaeanoyie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Aieaa oiai,
ia iooe iioiea ethaeae e oiaa?ia ec ciiu a ?inneth e ia?aoii onoaiiaeaiu
aeaa a?aieoeu. Iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaie ?innee e Eeoau 29 ethey 1991 a.
caeeth/aii niaeaoaiea i nio?oaeie/anoaa a yeiiiie/aneii e
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iii ?acaeoee Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe. I?eaaaeai
aaaeiaeoea iieiaeaiey yoiai niaeaoaiey, eioi?ua eiatho cia/aiea aeey
aeayoaeueiinoe naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu.

Noi?iiu iaia?aiu onoaiiaeoue eueaioiue oaiiaeaiiue ?aaeei iaaeaeo
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoueth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e Eeoianeie
?anioaeeeie (no. 1).

Eeoianeay ?anioaeeea iaycoaony aani?aiyonoaaiii iaania/eaaoue ia?aaea/o
i?e?iaeiiai aaca, iinoaaeyaiiai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeeae aeey ioaeae
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe, ii aacii?iaiaeo, i?ioiaeyuaio ii oa??eoi?ee
Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee (no. 3).

Noi?iiu iaycothony o?aaoee?iaaoue ioaeaeueiui niaeaoaieai oneiaey
o?aiceoa iannaaee?ia — eeoe, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathueo a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, /a?ac oa??eoi?eth Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee, a oaeaea o?aiceoa
eeoe, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathueo a Eeoianeie ?anioaeeea, /a?ac oa??eoi?eth
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe.

Oaeia niaeaoaiea aeieaeii iniiauaaoueny ia i?eioeeiao aeia?ininaaenoaa,
iauai?eciaiiuo ii?iao iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa e o/eouaaoue aeieoiaiou
Niaauaiey ii aaciianiinoe e nio?oaeie/anoao a Aa?iia (no. 7).

Noi?iiu caeeth/atho niaeaoaiey ia oneiaeyo o?aiceoa o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa e a?ocia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui e
oinnaeiui aei?iaai, aicaeooiui o?annai, aiaeiui iooyi, o?oaii?iaiaeai, a
oaeaea yeaeo?iyia?aee ii eeieyi yeaeo?iia?aaea/e /a?ac oa??eoi?eth
Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee, a oaeaea Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee — /a?ac oa??eoi?eth
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe.

Eeoianeay ?anioaeeea aa?aioe?oao o?aiceoiua ia?aaicee
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo a?ocia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee /a?ac oa??eoi?eth
Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee. ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey aa?aioe?oao o?aiceoiua
ia?aaicee ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo a?ocia Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee /a?ac
oa??eoi?eth Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe oae aea, eae e ae?oaeo ?aeiiia
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, aac iaeiaeaiey oaiiaeaiiuie iioeeiaie (no. 8).

Noi?iiu iiaeoaa?aeaeatho naia no?aieaiea nio?aiyoue e ?acaeaaoue
neiaeeaoeany oicyenoaaiiua nayce iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe e Eeoianeie ?anioaeeee (no.
9).

Noi?iiu niaeaneeenue a oii, /oi a oeaeyo ?acaeoey oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo
naycae iaaeaeo Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoueth e Eeoianeie ?anioaeeeie
oeaeaniia?acii nicaeaoue yeiiiie/aneea iennee niioaaonoaaiii a ai?iaea
Aeeueithna e a ai?iaea Eaeeieia?aaea (no. 12).

22 iay 1992 a. auei caeeth/aii Niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo I?aaeoaeuenoaii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e I?aaeoaeuenoaii Iieueoe i nio?oaeie/anoaa
Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e naaa?iainoi/iuo
aiaaiaenoa Iieueoe.

Inouanoaeaiea ieaiia nicaeaiey e yooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ciiu
“ssioa?ue” a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io ?aaeecaoeee niaeaoaiee
?innee n Eeoaie e Iieueoae.

A naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao aeaenoaoao caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
niioaaonoaothuaai ainoaea?noaa (a?aaeaeaineia, oicyenoaaiiia, o?oaeiaia
e o.ae.), ca eneeth/aieai oao ecuyoee, eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo, caeiiaie i NYC
(anee iie eiathony) e iieiaeaieyie i eiie?aoiuo ciiao. Iniaia cia/aiea
aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a NYC i?eia?aoaao,
anoanoaaiii, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, iieiaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao e iauanoaao n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth,
aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ae?oaeo aeoia, naycaiiuo n
ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. *oi aea eanaaony i?aaiia oicyenoaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, oi ia i?aeoeea ano?a/athony ?acee/iua aa?eaiou ?aoaiey yoie
iai?inoie i?iaeaiu. A iaeieo neo/ayo (iai?eia?, a ciia “ssioa?ue”) aue
nicaeai Eiieoao ii ?acaeoeth NYC. Auei i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi Iieiaeaiea i
Eiieoaoa ooaa?aeaeaao Niaao Ieieno?ia ?NON? ii niaeaniaaieth n
Eaeeieia?aaeneei iaeanoiui Niaaoii ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia.

A iaeaieaa /anouo neo/ayo, eiaaea oa??eoi?ey ciiu iieiinoueth niaiaaeaao
n oa??eoi?eae iaeanoe, ai?iaea, ?aeiia e o.ae., aii?inu
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai e oicyenoaaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa ciiu aeieaeiu
aiceaaaoueny ia niioaaonoaothuea ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey. A’
yoeo neo/ayo aaeieieno?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea NYC aeieaeii aiceaaaoueny ia
niioaaonoaothuea oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu ?aaeiia, a ?aieao eioi?iai
i?aaeeaaaeinue ia i?aaao naiinoiyoaeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey
nicaeaaaoue aaeieieno?aoeeth ciiu. Ooieoeee aaia?aeueiiai
aaeieieno?aoi?a NYC iiaeao auiieiyoue i?eaeaoaaiue ii eiio?aeoo
niaoeeaeeno. .

Aii?inu aea iauaoicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ciiu i?aaeeaaaeinue aiceiaeeoue
ia niaoeeaeueioth ei?ii?aoeeth, nicaeaaaaioth ca n/ao aeeaaeia
ciiaeueiuo e aiaciiaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ianoiuo, a oaeaea oeaio?aeueiuo
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey. Iie aeieaeiu aeaenoaiaaoue ia eiiia?/aneeo
i?eioeeiao.

Ei?ii?aoeey i?ecaaia caieiaoueny ia?niaeoeaiui ieaie?iaaieai ?acaeoey
NYC, i?aaenoaaeyoue oicyenoaaiiua eioa?anu ciiu aioo?e no?aiu e ca
?oaaaeii (aeeth/ay i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiu, ia?ii?eyoee ii i?eaea/aieth
eiaanoeoeee e o.i.), iauyaeyao e i?iaiaeeo oi?ae ia ?aciauaiea iiauo
i?iecaiaenoa, i?aaiecoao i?eaea/aiea e i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, inouanoaeyao no?ieoaeuenoai e yenieoaoaoeeth
iauaeoia eio?ano?oeoo?u, iaono?ienoai e naea/o a a?aiaeo caiaeueiuo
o/anoeia, iaania/eaaao, a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, niaaaeaiea e
oeiaine?iaaiea i?aaei?eyoee^

Aunoei i?aaiii ei?ii?aoeee yaeyaony i?aaeaiea, a ninoaaa eioi?iai
aeieaeiu auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu ?oeiaiaeeoaee ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie. A i?aaeaiea ii aeieaeiinoe
aoiaeeo Aaia?aeueiue aaeieieno?aoi? NYC.

Anee aea NYC ia niaiaaeaao n oa??eoi?eae, ii?aaeaeyaiie
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiui aeaeaieai, oiaaea iaecaaaeii aeieaeia
auoue nicaeaia aaeieieno?aoeey ciiu. AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau Aaia?aeueiue
aaeieieno?aoi? aoiaeee a ninoaa eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia oie oa??eoi?ee,
ia eioi?ie nicaeaia ciia. E i?e yoie nenoaia aii?inaie oicyenoaaiiiai
?acaeoey ciiu iiaeao caieiaoueny niaoeeaeueiay ei?ii?aoeey.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iiuo iiaeneacuaaao, /oi yooaeoeaiie a ethaii neo/aa
yaeyaony oaeay nenoaia aaeieieno?aoeee a ciia, i?e eioi?ie eiino?aiiui
eiaanoi?ai, aeaeathuei inouanoaeyoue a ciia oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue, ia iaaei auei au ia?auaoueny a eaeea-oi oeaio?aeueiua
i?aaiu. Ecaanoii, /oi ai iiiaeo no?aiao, aaea auee ia?aciaaiu
niaoeeaeueiua ciiu, oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea nenoaia
ianeoaeeaaiey “a iaeiii ianoa”, eiaaea ana aii?inu auaea/e iaiaoiaeeiuo
?ac?aoaiee e eeoeaicee, naycaiiuo n inouanoaeaieai eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee,
?aoaeenue ia ianoa a iia?aoeaiii ii?yaeea.

Iineieueeo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee nicaeaii ianeieueei cii e aiciiaeii
nicaeaiea iiauo, aiciee aii?in i eii?aeeiaoeee eo aeayoaeueiinoe
oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey. Yoe i?iaeaiu ?aoaeenue a Oeaca
I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 4 ethiy 1992 a., niaeanii eioi?iio
Eiieoao ii eiino?aiiui eiaanoeoeeyi (ni. auoa) iaycai eiio?iee?iaaoue e
eii?aeeie?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue ii nicaeaieth e ?acaeoeth naiaiaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo cii ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee.

Ia Oe?aeia i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey a NYC iacaaeneii io aa oeia yaeythony:
ianoiua Niaaou ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia e ianoiua aaeieieno?aoeee a
i?aaeaeao naieo iieiiii/ee; i?aai oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e oi?aaeaiey
NYC, nicaeaaaaiue i?e o/anoee noauaeoia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
Oe?aeiu e eiino?aiiuo noauaeoia oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy a
Eacaonoaia i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ia oa??eoi?ee ciiu yaeythony
Niaaou ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia, eioi?ua aeaeaae?otho iieiiii/ey
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe aaeieieno?aoeaiiio niaaoo ciiu.

Niaeanii Caeiio Oe?aeiu i ciiao 1992 a., eniieieoaeueiui aee?aeoi?ii
i?aaia oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e oi?aaeaiey ciiu iiaeao auoue eae
a?aaeaeaiei Oe?aeiu, oae e a?aaeaeaiei ae?oaie no?aiu, ?aaioathuee ii
n?i/iiio eiio?aeoo. Aeey n?aaiaiey neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a Eacaonoaia
aiaeiae/iay aeieaeiinoue iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaia oieueei
a?aaeaeaieio Eacaonoaia.

Niaeanii no. 14 Caeiia Eu?aucnoaia 1992 a., i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey NYC
yaeyaony aaia?aeueiay aee?aeoeey NYC, Aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? NYC
iacia/aaony I?aaeoaeuenoaii. I?aaenoaaeyaony eioa?aniie ii?ia, niaeanii
eioi?ie a neo/aa niaiaaeaiey a?aieoe NYC n a?aieoeaie oa??eoi?eaeueiie
aaeeieoeu ?anioaeeee (ai?iae, ?aeii) eniieiaiea ooieoeee Aaia?aeueiiai
aee?aeoi?a NYC aiceaaaaony ia aeaao niioaaonoaothuae ianoiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee.

ONEIAEss OICssENOAAIIIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE EIINO?AIIUO EIAANOI?IA

I?aaiaie ?aaeei e oneiaey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoi?ia e i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie ii?aaeaeythony
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo e iieiaeaieyie i
naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao. Inoaiiaeiny ia Iieiaeaiee i ciia
“ssioa?ue”. A iai aiai?eony i oii, /oi eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee
iieuecothony ia oa??eoi?ee naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu i?aaiaie
caueoie e /oi eo ?aaeei ia iiaeao auoue iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiui, /ai
niioaaonoaothuee ?aaeei aeey eiouanoaa ioa/anoaaiiuo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe
e a?aaeaeai. A Iieiaeaiee oaeaea i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi ia aeiioneaaony
eaeay-eeai aeene?eieiaoeey i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aeaenoaothueie a NYC i?aaei?eyoeyie (i. 6).
Aiai?eony e i oii, /oi in aeiioneaaony i?eioaeeoaeueiia ecuyoea
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee: “Ia aeiioneaaony oaeaea naeaano?
eiaanoe?iaaiiiai eiouanoaa, ca eneeth/aieai a?aiaiiiai i?einoaiiaeaiey
ii ?aoaieth noaea i?aaa eiaanoi?a ia auaic yoiai eiouanoaa aei iiaaoaiey
eiaanoi?ii naieo iaycaoaeuenoa” (i. 7). Ia ia?aue acaeyae, aeeth/aiea
yoeo iaueo iieiaeaiee, iiaoi?ythueo niioaaonoaothuea iieiaeaiey
?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (ca eneeth/aieai iineaaeiaai),
i?aaenoaaeyaony eceeoiei. Iaeiaei n i?aeoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey aeeth/aiea
oaeeo i?aaee a Iieiaeaiea aeaao eiino?aiiiio eiaanoi?o aieaa iieiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aaeeia eiaanoeoeee a aeaiiie ciia.

Niaeanii no. 42 CEE ?innee, a ciia “ssioa?ue” aue iaeneiaeueii oi?iuai
ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie. A
niioaaonoaee ni no. 42 CEE i?aaei?eyoea n o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea
n iauaiii aei 75 iei. ?oa., a oaeaea oeeeaeu, ioaeaeaiey e
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie iiaoo
?aaeno?e?iaaoueny iaiin?aaenoaaiii a naiaiaeiie ciia Eiieoaoii ii
?acaeoeth naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu (i.8).

Aii?inu nicaeaiey niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeiu ?aoaoueny ia ianoa
(i. 9). Ii aeaiiui ia iae 1994 a., a ciia “ssioa?ue” auei
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 771 i?aaei?eyoea n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie, ec ieo —
565 n aeieaaui o/anoeai e 206 — iieiinoueth i?eiaaeeaaeaueo eiino?aiiui
eiaanoi?ai. Iauee iauai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ca 1993 aiae ninoaaee 5
iei.aeiee. NOA. A eiioea 1994 a. a NYC ?aaioaei oaea 866 NI.

A ciia “ssioa?ue” aiciiaeiu ?acee/iua oi?iu oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eiino?aiiuo oe?i. Oae, iiiaea iieueneea e aano?eeneea oe?iu au?aceee
eioa?an e aiciiaeiinoyi nicaeaiey eiineaiaoeeiiiuo neeaaeia, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao ianiiiaiiue eioa?an aeey ainoaea?noa, ia eiathueo auoiaea
e ii?th, a oaeaea aeey oaeeo ninaaeneeo no?ai, eae Iieueoa. Eae e ei
anyeie NYC, eiathuae ia?niaeoeau oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, i?iyaeytho
eioa?an iiiai/eneaiiua aaiee, aeaeathuea o/anoaiaaoue a nicaeaiee
niaianoiuo aaieia. Oaeea i?aaeeiaeaiey auee naeaeaiu aaieaie Iieueoe,
Eoaeee e NOA.

Oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue a ciia inouanoaeyaony aac eaeeo-eeai
ia?aie/aiee. Eneeth/aiea naeaeaii Iieiaeaieai a ioiioaiee oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n eniieueciaaieai ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia oa??eoi?ee
ciiu ianoi?iaeaeaiee oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo e ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaauo
?ano?nia. A yoeo neo/ayo i?eiaiyaony aeaenoaothuaa a ?innee
niaoeeaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oaeie iniaue ?aaeei i?eiaiyaony a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee a yoeo neo/ayo ii ioiioaieth ei anai ciiai. A Oeaca
I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 4 ethiy 1992 a. “I iaeioi?uo ia?ao
ii ?acaeoeth naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii (NYC) ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
oaaea?aoeee” auei niaoeeaeueii i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi oneiaey oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a NYC aeey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia, aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?uo naycaia n iieneii, ?acaaaeeie, yenieoaoaoeeae e aeiau/ae
aiciaiiaeyaiuo e iaaiciaiiaeyaiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, aeeth/ay ?ano?nu
eiioeiaioaeueiiai oaeueoa e ii?neie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu, ii?aaeaeythony
niioaaonoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee.

Ana iaoiaeyueany a ciia “ssioa?ue” i?aaei?eyoey eiatho i?aai
inouanoaeyoue iin?aaeie/aneea e aa?oa?iua iia?aoeee, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyony a yoie ciia n oiaa?aie e oneoaaie (i. 10). Yenii?o
i?iecaaaeaiiuo a ciia oiaa?ia, a oaeaea eiii?o ia .iiaeeaaeao
eaioe?iaaieth e eeoeaice?iaaieth, e?iia oao oiaa?ia, eioi?ua
i?aaeoniio?aiu onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia?a/iai.

A ioiioaiee iiaeeaaeaueo eeoeaice?iaaieth oiaa?ia, i?iecaiaeeiuo a ciia,
aiciee aii?in i i?aaeinoaaeaiee i?aaa ia eo eeoeaice?iaaiea
aaeieieno?aoeeae ciiu. Eiieoao ii ?acaeoeth ciiu “ssioa?ue” iii?inee
i?aaeinoaaeoue aio oaeia i?aai a ioiioaiee yioa?y, ?uau e oaey,
aeiauaaaiiai ia oa??eoi?ee ciiu. Eiienney ii ?acaeoeth e eniieueciaaieth
yioa?y iieo/eea i?aai auaeaaaoue eeoeaicee ia ?ac?aaioeo e auaic yioa?y
ca i?aaeaeu ciiu. Oiaa? n/eoaaony i?iecaaaeaiiui a ciia, anee aaee/eia
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe aai ia?aaioee ia oa??eoi?ee naiaiaeiie
yeiiiie/aneie ciiu ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 30% (i. 19).

Yenii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony a ciia, e eiii?oe?oaiua
oiaa?u, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee eee
?aaeecaoeee ia ianoa, inaiaiaeaeathony io oieaou oaiiaeaiiie iioeeiu (i.
21). A ia?aua iyoue eao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ciiu iieo/aiiay i?aaei?eyoeai
n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie aaethoiay au?o/ea ia iaiaa 30% inoaaony a
aai ?anii?yaeaiee, ca eneeth/aieai 10% au?o/ee, iiaeeaaeauae i?iaeaaea a
oiiae ?acaeoey ciiu, e 10% — a oiiae nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey (i.
27).

Ioiaoei, /oi oaiiaeaiiua eueaiou ia ?ani?ino?aiythony ia yenii?o e
eiii?o oiaa?ia /a?ac oa??eoi?eth naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu.

Iniaaiii neaaeoao inoaiiaeoueny ia iaeiaiauo eueaioao. Niaeanii no. 41
CEE ?innee, ai anao NYC onoaiiaeai eueaioiue iaeiaiaue ?aaeei. Ii
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u e i?aaei?eyoey n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie iaeaaathony iaeiaaie ii nieaeaiiui noaaeai,
aeeth/ay iaeia ia ia?aaiaeeioth ca a?aieoeo i?eaueue. I?e yoii noaaee
iaeiaia ia iiaoo auoue iaiueoa 50% iaeiaiauo noaaie, aeaenoaothueo ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee aeey yoiai aeaea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. A Iieiaeaiee i
NYC “ssioa?ue” auee i?aaeoniio?aiu neaaeothuea iaeiaiaua eueaiou: 1) ana
i?aaei?eyoey a ciia inaiaiaeaeathony io oieaou iaeiaa ia yenii?o
i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiie a ciia, e ia eiii?o oiaa?ia, eniieuecoaiuo
i?e i?iecaiaenoaa yenii?oiie eee “eiii?oicaiauathuae” i?iaeoeoeee (i.
28); 2) a oa/aiea ia?auo iyoe eao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ciiu iaeia ia
i?eaueue iaoiaeyueony a iae i?aaei?eyoee ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 30%; 3)
aeey i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie a ?acia?a 30 e aieaa
i?ioeaioia e aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee n iauaiii yenii?oa ia iaiaa 30 %
aiaeiaiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa aaaaeaiu iaeiaiaua eaieeoeu n?ieii aei 5
eao a ioiioaiee oieaou iaeiaia e ia?aaiaea /anoe i?eauee ca a?aieoeo,
onoaiiaeaii aceiaiea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ia aieaa 16%, ca eneeth/aieai
/anoe i?eauee, ia?aaiaeeiie ca a?aieoeo (i. 25).

*anoue i?eauee, ?aeiaanoe?oaiay anaie i?aaei?eyoeyie NYC a ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa, nioeeaeueiie noa?u e eio?ano?oeoo?u ciiu, aiiaua
inaiaiaeaeaaony io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (i. 26).

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi niaeanii Oeaco io 4 ethiy 1992 a. aei
i?eiyoey caeiia i naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
nio?aiai oio ii?yaeie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, eioi?ue aue onoaiiaeai Caeiiii
?innee ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo e iieiaeaieyie i naiaiaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, onoaiiaeaiiue a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee iauee ii?yaeie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ia iniiaa eioi?iai
eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee e i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie auee
eeoaiu iaeioi?uo aeaenoaiaaaoeo ?aiaa eueaio, ia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea a
naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciia ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony. Eiuie neiaaie,
iniiaiua iaeiaiaua eueaiou nio?aiythony oieueei aeey naiaiaeiuo cii.

Iaeiaei iaeiaiaay neoaeaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ienueia io 29 ethiy
1993 a. ?acuynieea, /oi niaoeeaeueiua iaeiaiaua eueaiou a naiaiaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ciiao ia aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny.

Ec onoaiiaeaiiuo Caeiiii ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo ?innee eueaio
iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiu neaaeothuea: iiieaeaiiua noaaee aeey iieueciaaiey
caieae e eiuie i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, i?aai ia aeieain?i/ioth a?aiaeo
n?ieii ia 70 eao n i?aaii noaa?aiaeu, aiciiaeiinoue aaaaeaiey
oi?iuaiiiai ii?yaeea auacaea e auacaea eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai, a oii
/enea e aacaeciaiai. Aeey ciiu “ssioa?ue”, eae e aeey ?yaea ae?oaeo cii,
oi?iuaiiue ii?yaeie auacaea e auacaea aaaaeai Iieiaeaieai i ciia (i.
35).

Iiieii oeacaiiuo eueaio, a ciia “ssioa?ue” aaaaeaia nenoaia ia/eneaiey
ca?ieaou a eiino?aiiie aaethoa iooai ia?a/eneaiey aa ia niaoeeaeueiua
n/aoa a aaiea e auieaou a aeaea eiaiiuo /aeia, ?an/aoii-e?aaeeoiuo
ea?oi/ae e ae?oaeo aaciaee/iuo ieaoaaeae aeey eniieueciaaiey a
niaoeeaeueiuo iaaaceiao ciiu e ca ?oaaaeii.

Iu iiae?iaii eceiaeeee Iieiaeaiea i naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciia
“ssioa?ue”, ooaa?aeaeaiiia a naioya?a 1991 a. Ii, eae ioia/aeinue a
?yaea ioaeeeaoeee, iiiaea ioieou yoiai Iieiaeaiey ia oaeaeinue
?aaeeciaaoue ia i?aeoeea(7).

Iiyoiio aieueoia cia/aiea a yoie nayce eiaao Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee io 7 aeaeaa?y 1993 a. i Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe.

A Oeaca i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiui o/anoeai,
nicaeaiiua a 1992 aiaeo, iieo/atho iaeiaiaue e?aaeeo n?ieii ia 10 eao n
iiiaioa iieo/aiey iauyaeaiiie i?eauee, anee iie aeaenoaotho a noa?a
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ae?oaea i?aaei?eyoey, caiyoua
i?iecaiaenoaii i?iiuoeaiiie, naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?ia
ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, anee aeiey yoie i?iaeoeoeee o i?aaei?eyoey ia
ieaea 75%, iieo/atho iaeiaiaue e?aaeeo ia 5 eao, inoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey
— ia 4 aiaea. I?e yoii eciaiaiey a iaeiaiaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu
?ani?ino?aiyoueny a iineaaeothuai ia iaeanoue eeoue i?e niaeanee aa
eiiiaoaioiuo i?aaiia. Nieiathony ia?aie/aiey ia ?aaeno?aoeeth NI.
Oiaa?u, i?iecaaaeaiiua a Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe, inaiaiaeaeathony io
yenii?oiuo iioeei ia 10 eao. Eiii?oiua oiaa?u inaiaiaeaeathony io iioeei
e IAeN, ii aeoeecu n ieo aceiathony. Eaiou ia yenii?o iaooe, ?uau,
yioa?y, niaeanii Oeaco, ii-i?aaeiaio aeieaeiu onoaiaaeeaaoueny
oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie.

Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?innee io 4 ethiy 1^92 a. n?aaee ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
iiaeaea?aeaiea e ?acaeoea NYC, i?aaeoniio?aii inouanoaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiu i?eaaoecaoeee ia oa??eoi?ee NYC a
ia?aii/a?aaeiii ii?yaeea. *anoue n?aaenoa, eioi?ay iiaeeaaeeo
ia?a/eneaieth a oeaio?aeueiue athaeaeao, inoaaony a ciiao e iieaeao ia
oi?ie?iaaiea oiiaeia ?acaeoey, caeiaiauo e no?aoiauo oiiaeia. Ii iei
i?aaeinoaaeythony athaeaeaoiua e?aaeeou. N?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua a n/ao
oaeeo e?aaeeoia, aeieaeiu iai?aaeyoueny i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey naiaiaeiuo
cii ia oeiaine?iaaiea eeth/aauo iauaeoia eio?ano?oeoo?u ciiu. Caeanue
oniao?eaaaony no?aieaiea a ianooaaa ?innee iiaeaea?aeaoue oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii e naeaeaoue eiaanoe?iaaiea
a ieo aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey eiino?aiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Niaeanii Caeiio Oe?aeiu i ciiao, oicyenoaaiiui noauaeoai
i?aaeinoaaeyaony naiaiaea yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ciia (no. 15),
eaeeo-eeai ia?aie/aiee ia onoaiaaeeaaaony. Ia ana noauaeou yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?ani?ino?aiyaony nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee caueou
eiaanoeoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiay caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu ia
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo. Ainoaea?noai
aa?aioe?oao noauaeoai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe cii i?aai ia auaic
i?eaueae e eaieoaea, eiaanoe?oaiiai a ciio, ca i?aaeaeu ciiu e Oe?aeiu.

Ia oa??eoi?ee NYC, niaeanii Caeiio Eu?aucnoaia i NYC 1992 a., aeaenoaoao
oi?iuaiiue ?aaeei auacaea e auacaea eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai. Eiie?aoiua
i?aaeea auacaea e auacaea onoaiaaeeaathony aeey eaaeaeie ciiu
Ieienoa?noaii eiino?aiiuo aeae Eu?aucnoaia e io?aaeathony a Iieiaeaiee i
ciia (no. II).

A Iieiaeaiee i NYC “A?ano” auei i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue a ciia iiaoo inouanoaeyoue aaei?onneea e eiino?aiiua
th?eaee/aneea e oece/aneea eeoea, eioi?ua nicaeatho i?aaei?eyoey,
oeeeaeu e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ai anao aeiionoeiuo caeiiii oi?iao e
aaaeoo oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a ethauo noa?ao, ca eneeth/aieai
cai?auaiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Aue oaeaea i?aaeoniio?ai iniaue oaiiaeaiiue ?aaeei: inaiaiaeaeaiea io
iieaou oaiiaeaiiie iioeeiie oiaa?ia e eiiai eiouanoaa, eiii?oe?oaiuo ia
oa??eoi?eth NYC “A?ano” e yenii?oe?oaiuo n yoie oa??eoi?ee. O?aiceo
/a?ac oa??eoi?eth NYC eee ia?ai?iaeaaea oiaa?ia, ia iiaeaa?aoeony
ia?a?aaioea a ciia, a oaeaea iinoaaee /a?ac ciio ia yenii?o oiaa?ia ec
ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue aeieaeiu inouanoaeyoueny aac
eaeeo-eeai oa?eoii-oaiiaeaiiuo e iaeiaiauo eueaio.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ciiu aeaenoaoao oaeaea iniaue iaeiaiaue ?aaeei. Iaeia ia
i?eaueue anao i?aaei?eyoee, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a NYC “A?ano”, oiea/eaaaony a
?acia?a ia aieaa 25% n o/aoii iaeiaa ia ia?aaiceioth ca ?oaaae /anoue
i?eauee a aaethoa ia?aaiaea. A ciia ia i?eiaiythony iaeiae ia
yenii?o-eiii?o e ae?oaea yeiiiie/aneea ia?u ?aaoee?iaaiey n?aaenoa,
iai?aaeyaiuo ia iio?aaeaiea, a oaeaea ia?aie/aiey ii o?iaith
?aioaaaeueiinoe i?e oeaiiia?aciaaiee e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee.

Inaiaiaeaeathony io oieaou o?aiceoiiai iaeiaa th?eaee/aneea e oece/aneea
eeoea i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea eie a?ocia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey NYC “A?ano”,
/a?ac oa??eoi?eth Aaea?one.

Niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey n o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e
a?aaeaeai, anee aeiey eiino?aiiiai o/anoieea a onoaaiii oiiaea i?aauoaao
30%, e i?aaei?eyoey, iieiinoueth i?eiaaeeaaeauea eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ai
(eiino?aiiua i?aaei?eyoey), any au?o/ea eioi?uo ia?acoaony oieueei ca
n/ao ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
inaiaiaeaeathony io oieaou iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a oa/aiea ia?auo iyoe eao
n iiiaioa iieo/aiey eie aeioiaea, aeeth/ay ia?aue aiae iieo/aiey
aeioiaea a NYC.

Ni?aaea:

I?aaenoaaeaiea ia yoii aeatho neaaeothuea aeaiiua: Ciia “Aeoae” —
ieiuaaeue 261 oun.ea.ei, ianaeaiea 3,7 iei. aeeoaeae; Ciia “Auai?a” —
ianaeaiea 150 oun. /aeiaae; Ciia “Aaa” (Aa?aeneay aaoiiiiiay iaeanoue) —
ieiuaaeue 360 oun.ea.ei; Ciia “Oaoiiiieen-Caeaiia?aae” — ianaeaiea 170
oun. /aeiaae; Ciia “ssioa?ue” — ieiuaaeue 15500 ea.ei, ianaeaiea — 1,1
iei./aeiaae; Ciia “Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a” — ieiuaaeue 370 ea.ei, ianaeaiea —
4,5 iei./aeiaae; Ciia “Eocaann” — ieiuaaeue 95 500 ea.ei, ianaeaiea —
3,5 iei./aeiaae; Ciia “Naaeei” (Iiaai?iaeneay iaeanoue) — ieiuaaeue 55
300 ea.ei, ianaeaiea — 1 iei. /aeiaae; Ciia “Naoaeei” — ieiuaaeue 87 100
ea. ei, ianaeaiea — 800 oun. /aeiaae; “*eoa” (*eoeineay iaeanoue) —
ieiuaaeue 431 oun.ea.ei, ianaeaiea — 2 iei. /aeiaae; “Iaoiaeea” —
ieiuaaeue 1600 ea.ei, ianaeaiea — 200 oun./aeiaae.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Iauea i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey cii niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa//
I?eeiaeaiea e aacaoa “Yeiiiieea e aeeciue”. 1991. ? 34. N.5— 6; Ciiu
niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a NNN?. Eiioeaioeey nicaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey //Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. 1989. ? 6. N.2.

2. Nia?aiea aeoia I?aceaeaioa e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.
1993. ? 23. No. 2166.

3. Aueia A. Niaianoiua n ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea
ciiu: iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu// Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. 1994. ? 2—3. N. 39—40.

4. Aaaeiiinoe Aa?oiaiie ?aaeu Oe?aeiu. 1992. ? 50. No. 676.

5. Iauea i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey cii niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
N.6.

6. Ea?aaaaa A. ?aaeiiaeueiia ?acaeoea e nio?oaeie/anoai
(Eaeeieia?aaeneay iaeanoue, NYC “ssioa?ue”)//Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. 1994. N»
2—3. N. 22—25; Ea?yieia O. Iieaeao ee Aa?iia a ia?eniaaiioth aeaa?ue.
Eaeeieia?aae inaaeaaao noaoon naiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie ciiu//?inneeneay
aacaoa. 1994. 16 ethey.

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