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IAENeN

Eaoaae?a Iieeoyeiiiiee

?aoa?ao

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea – aeaaiaeoaa oneiaea ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaiu

Nooaeaio a?oiiu IA-94

Eo/a?yaa Aaneeee Aeaaeeie?iae/

Iineaa 1996

Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea. (no?. 3-4)

Aeaaa 1. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu e eo no?oeoo?a. (no?. 4-5)

Aeaaa 2. Aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. (no?. 6-7)

Aeaaa 3. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. (no?. 8-9)

Aeaaa 4. Iniiaiua nooiaie ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu eae neiaeiay nenoaia. (no?. 9-12)

Aeaaa 5. Iieiay caiyoinoue e iieiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. (no?. 12-13)

Caeeth/aiea. (no?. 13-14)

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. (no?. 15)

Aaaaeaiea.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, ieiaeioai?iinoue, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
ecia?yaony eiee/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie ?aaioieeii a noa?a
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ca aaeeieoeo ?aai/aai a?aiaie (/an, niaio,
ianyoe, aiae), eee eiee/anoaii a?aiaie, eioi?ia cao?a/aii ia
i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.

A i?iecaiaenoaa ethaiai i?iaeoeoa o/anoaotho aeaa aeaea o?oaea: aeeaie
o?oae, o. a. o?oae, cao?a/eaaaiue ?aai/eie a naiii i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa yoiai i?iaeoeoa, e i?ioeue (iaauanoaeaiiue) o?oae, eioi?ue
aue cao?a/ai ia i?aaeieo noaaeeyo iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
eniieuecoaony aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (/anoe/ii –
caeaiey, iaoeiu e iieiinoueth – nu?uea, oiieeai e yia?aey, iaoa?eaeu).
Iauanoaaiiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea
i?iecaaaeaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a ?an/aoa ia iaeiiai caiyoiai a
io?aneyo iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea – iaeei ec iauaeoeaiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia, i?enoueo eaaeaeie iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie
oi?iaoeee. Yoio caeii au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoai nie?auaao iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiua
cao?aou o?oaea ia ecaioiaeaiea ?acee/iuo i?iaeoeoia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo
aeey ee/iiai eee iauanoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey. Ii ia?a iaeiieaiey ethaeueie
iiuoa, ciaiee, ?ane?uoey caeiiia i?e?iaeu, iaeaaeaiey eie e eo
eniieueciaaiey i?ienoiaeeo iineaaeiaaoaeueiia iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Ia ?acee/iuo nooiaiyo ?acaeoey iauanoaa oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea iaiaeeiaeiau. A ia?eiae ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee i?ienoiaeeei iaaeeaiii. *aeiaa/anoai, eae
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iineaaeiea aeaiiua iaoee, nouanoaoao nauoa 2 iei.
eao. Aieueoay /anoue yoiai a?aiaie i?eoiaeeony ia eaiaiiue aae n aai
i?eieoeaiuie e iaeii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie eaiaiiuie i?oaeeyie o?oaea. Ieiei
7 – 6 oun. eao iacaae ia/aee iiyaeyoueny iaoaeee/aneea i?oaeey – nia/aea
iaaeiua, caoai a?iiciaua, aeeeoaeueii ninouanoaiaaaoea n eaiaiiuie, e,
iaeiiaoe, a ia/aea 1-ai ouny/aeaoey aei i. y. – aeaeaciua. Ia?aoiae io
eaiaiiuo i?oaeee e iaoaeee/aneei, iniaaiii aeaeaciui, nii?iaiaeaeaeny
onei?aieai oaiiia ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e aicieeiiaaieai
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. AEaeaci ieacaeinue aaaeiaeoei ec anao
aeaeia nu?uey, nua?aaoei ?aaiethoeeiiioth ?ieue a enoi?ee. Ii e iinea
yoiai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ?inea iaaeeaiii. Yoi iauyniyaony oai,
/oi iniiaiie aacie i?iecaiaenoaa aua aeieai inoaaaeny ?o/iie o?oae
?aaia, a iioii e?aiinoiuo. Onei?aiea ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
ia/aeinue n ia?aoiaeii io ?o/iuo i?oaeee o?oaea e iaoeiai. Iiyaeaiea
ia?iaiai aeaeaaoaey (2-y iieiaeia 18 aaea) aucaaei i?iiuoeaiiue
ia?aai?io, ?aaiethoeeth a i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue
nii?iaiaeaeaeanue iiauoaieai oaiiia ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

1. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu e eo no?oeoo?a.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu – yoi nenoaia noauaeoeaiuo e iauaeoeaiuo
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?aaeaiiay ia i?aia?aciaaiea aauanoaa e nee
i?e?iaeu aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu au?aaeatho ia?o ainiiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa iaae i?e?iaeie. Aeaaiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeie yaeyaony
?aaioiee, iaeaaeathuee iaueie e i?ioanneiiaeueiuie ciaieyie,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiuoii, o?oaeiauie iaaueaie, o?oaeiethaeai, /aeiaae ai
anai aiaaonoaa aai niiniaiinoae e oai?/aneeo nee.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu – caieiooay naii?acaeaathuayny nenoaia a ?aieao
eioi?ie aicaeaenoaea iai?aaeaii ia i?aaeiao o?oaea, /ai e iauyniyaony
aai ioiineoaeueiay “ianneaiinoue”. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai aicaeaenoaey
(eioi?ia iie?aaony ia naienoaa i?aaeiaoa, caeiiiia?iinoe aai ?acaeoey)
oaeaaony eciaieoue aai oi?io, i?aa?aoeoue a i?iaeoeo.

A i?ioeanna o?oaea i?aaeiao o?oaea, ia oa?yy naieo i?e?iaeiuo naienoa,
i?eia?aoaao iauanoaaiiua ooieoeee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi /aeiaae cao?aoee
o?oae ia: 1) aeiauaaiea yoiai i?aaeiaoa, 2) eco/aiea aai naienoa, 3)
iiciaiea caeiiiia?iinoae aai ia?aaioee. Iiyoiio i?aaeiao o?oaea ia
aac?acee/ai e inoaeueiui yeaiaioai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Eaeea i?oaeey
o?oaea aeieaeiu auoue eniieueciaaiu e eaeea ?aaioieee a ninoiyiee
inouanoaeoue yoi, caaeneo ia oieueei io ieo naieo, ii e io oa?aeoa?a
i?aaeiaoa o?oaea.

Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ioiineoaeueiinoue oa?aeoa?enoeee ioaeaeueiuo
i?iaeoeoia oieueei eae i?aaeiaoia eee eae n?aaenoa o?oaea. Oi, /oi a
iaeiii i?ioeanna o?oaea neoaeeo i?aaeiaoii o?oaea, a ae?oaii aunooiaao
eae n?aaenoai o?oaea. Caiey, neio iiaoo auoue e i?aaeiaoii e n?aaenoaii
o?oaea, aeaaea iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea ai a?aiy ?aiiioa noaiiayony
i?aaeiaoii o?oaea. I?aaeiaou e n?aaenoaa o?oaea aianoa ninoaaeytho
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii i?iecaiaenoaa yaeythony n?aaenoaa o?oaea. A
iineaaeiaa a?aiy, oa?aeoa?ecoy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu, a ea/anoaa eo
yeaiaioa iacuaatho oaoieeo. Eae aea niioiinyony iiiyoey “oaoieea” e
“n?aaenoaa o?oaea”? N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiiyoea “n?aaenoaa o?oaea” oe?a
iiiyoey “oaoieea”, oae eae n?aaenoaa o?oaea a oe?ieii niunea neiaa
aeeth/atho a naay niaieoiiinoue anao n?aaenoa, aac eioi?uo i?ioeann
o?oaea aue au iaaiciiaeai eee ianiaa?oaiai (caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey,
eaiaeu, aei?iae e o. ae.) e eioi?ua a iiiyoea “oaoieea” ia aoiaeyo. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiiyoea “n?aaenoaa o?oaea” oaea iiiyoey “oaoieea”,
eoaea aoiaeeo oaeaea aiaiiay oaoieea e o. ae. Aeey ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa
oa?aeoa?ii iinoaiaiiia ii?aaeia/eaaiea a oaoieea o?oaeiauo ooieoeee
/aeiaaea.

2. Aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.

Eciaiyy i?e?iaeo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, /aeiaae ana aeaeueoa ooiaeeo
io aeeaioiiai ie?a, ana aieueoa ooaa?aeaeaao naay eae nouanoai
nioeeaeueiia. Aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey ia oieueei n
aiaoiae i?e?iaeie, ii e n i/aeiaa/aiiie i?e?iaeie. Naia nouiinoue
/aeiaaea i?eia?aoaao eae au aeaa oi?iu nouanoaiaaiey: i?aaeiaoioth (a
?aieao eioi?ie aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa) e
ee/ioth. Ia?aay ioee/aaony ioiineoaeueiui iinoiyinoaii, aoi?ay – iao.
Eiia/ii, a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoaa o?oaea eciaiythony
(niaoeaathony, aeaoi?ie?othony, ?aeaaatho e o. ae.), iaeiaei yoe
eciaiaiey ia yaeythony enoi/ieeii eo ?acaeoey.

A ioee/ea io n?aaenoa o?oaea /aeiaae ?acaeaaaony a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa: iaiaauaaony aai iiuo, oaeoaeythony ciaiey,
niaa?oainoaothony iaauee e o. ae. A eiioea o?oaeiaiai aeoa ii ciaao e
oiaao ai?acaei aieueoa, /ai a aai ia/aea. A i?ioeanna o?oaea
?acaeaathony naienoaa /aeiaaea eae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu, iiauoaaony
o?iaaiue aai eaaeeoeeaoeee. Yoe iioaioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey,
iaeaieeaaynue, iaoiaeyo a eiia/iii eoiaa io?aaeaiea a niaa?oainoaiaaiea
n?aaenoa o?oaea, oaoiieiaee, i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.
Iaeiaei anee n?aaenoai o?oaea – yoi ia?a ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneie ?aai/ae
neeu, oi iia ecia?yao oi, /oi oaea eiaaony a iaee/ee, yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai ?aiaa i?iecioaaeoaai ?acaeoey ?aai/ae neeu. Ia?ae/iuie a
?acaeoee iauanoaa yaeythony ia iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiua iauaeou naie ii
naaa, a /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iaoa?eaeueiay i?aeoeea, i?ioeann
acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu.

A i?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo naiaia?aciia ?acaeaiaiea i?e?iaeu. A
ea/anoaa iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe /aeiaaeo i?ioeainoieo ia oieueei
i?aaeiao, ii e n?aaenoai o?oaea. ?ieue n?aaenoaa o?oaea aeaienoaaiia: ii
ioiioaieth e i?aaeiaoo o?oaea iii aunooiaao eae iauanoaaiiay neea
(ii?aaeia/aiiay nouiinoue /aeiaaea), ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo – eae neea
i?e?iaeu. I?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e i?e?iaeie ?aniaaeaaony eae au
ia aeaa i?ioeai?a/ey. Ia?aia ec ieo yaeyaony i?ioeai?a/eai iaaeaeo
ee/iui e aauanoaaiiui oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee: /aeiaae – ia
iaeiie noi?iia, n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa (i?aaeiao + n?aaenoai o?oaea) –
ia ae?oaie: /aeiaae e n?aaenoai o?oaea i?ioeainoiyo i?aaeiaoo o?oaea.
Yoe aeaa iniiaiuo aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
i?iyaeythony a oi?ia i?ioeai?a/ee: 1) /aeiaae – i?aaeiao o?oaea, 2)
/aeiaae – n?aaenoai o?oaea, 3) n?aaenoai o?oaea – i?aaeiao o?oaea.

Oeacaiiua i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe oeene?otho aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey,
neeaaeuaathueany iaaeaeo iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.
Iaeiaei nenoaia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ia en/a?iuaaaony i?inouie
iiiaioaie i?ioeanna o?oaea. Iia aeeth/aao a naay eiiia?aoeeth,
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, iaoeo e ae?oaea eiiiiiaiou.

Eiiia?aoeey i?aiaeieaaaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua a?aieoeu ?aai/ae neeu,
iiauoaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo o?oaea, ?acaeaaao ni?aaiiaaiea.
I?ioeann o?oaea a eiiia?aoeee i?eia?aoaao iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?.
Aicieeiiaaiea e oe?aieaiea ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea aioo?e eiiia?aoeee
niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth aieaa neiaeiuo oi?i eiiia?aoeee. iau/ii
auaeaeytho o?e aeaea ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea: iauaa – iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
?iaeaie i?iecaiaenoaa (i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e naeueneei oicyenoaii e o.
ae.), /anoiia – aioo?e yoeo ?iaeia i?iecaiaenoaa – ia aeaeu e iiaeaeaeu
(iaoaeeo?aey e iaoeiino?iaiea, iaoeaaiaenoai e oeiieiaiaenoai e o. ae.),
aaeeie/iia – aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey (iaaeaeo oeaoaie, o/anoeaie, a?eaaaeaie
e o. ae.).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoea i?aa?auaaony a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ia oieueei
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?ac?aaioee, ii e
i?eeeaaeiay e aeaaea ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iaoea ana aieueoa ii?aaeaeytho
eeoei nia?aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?acei nie?auaaony aanue oeeee io
iao/iie eaeae aei aa aiieiuaiey a iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

3. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

O?iaaiue ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee i?iyaeyaony a
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea – yoi
ieiaeioai?iinoue, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae, ecia?yaiay eiee/anoaii a?aiaie, cao?a/eaaaiui ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee, eee eiee/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiie a aaeeieoeo
?aai/aai a?aiaie (/an, aeaiue, ianyoe, aiae).

Iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea – iauaeoeaiue yeiiiie/aneee caeii
?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. A i?ioeanna o?oaea aeeaie o?oae
eniieuecoao ?acoeueoaou i?ioeiai, iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea (i?aaeiaou e
n?aaenoaa o?oaea) aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo i?iaeoeoia. ?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee icia/aao yeiiiieth ia oieueei aeeaiai, ii e
iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea.

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo o?oaea, ?aciiia?aciu.
Iiiaea ec ieo aeaenoaotho ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa, iaeiaei cia/aiea ioaeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo o?oaea, iaiyaony ia ?aciuo yoaiao.
Ia?aiia/aeueii aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?aee i?e?iaeiua oneiaey. Io ieo a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaenaee i?iaeoeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ae?oaeo
oaeoi?ia e iauay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a oeaeii. Iicaeiaa ana
aieueooth ?ieue i?eia?aoaao n?aaeiyy noaiaiue eneonnoaa ?aaioieea,
oiaiea yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua iaauee e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iiuo. I?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey iooaniyao i?e?iaeiua
oneiaey e ?aianeaiioth eaaeeoeeaoeeth ia caaeiee ieai. Iia ?acei
iiauneea ?ieue i?oaeee o?oaea, oaoiieiaee, iaueo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
ciaiee. Iinoaiaiii ana aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao ia oieueei oa?aeoa?
e ?acia?u n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e yooaeoeaiinoue eo i?eiaiaiey,
iao/iay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea. Oaia?ue oaea io yoeo oaeoi?ia a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue caaeneo ieiaeioai?iinoue o?oaea. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey iiauoaao ?ieue eioi?iaoeee e iaoee, eo oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?eiaiaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aiciiaeiinoue i?aa?auaiey iioaioeeaeueiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu o?oaea a ?aaeueioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a ainiiaenoaothueo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, a
oaeaea aicaeaenoaey th?eaee/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooia. ?aaiethoeee
a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ne (iaieeoe/aneay, i?iiuoeaiiay,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneay) ciaiaiotho ea/anoaaiiua yoaiu iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

4. Iniiaiua nooiaie ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu eae neiaeiay nenoaia.

Iaeei ec oi?aeia a aae?an iieeoyeiiiiee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia
eaii?e?oao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aiaeieaiey yoiai
iaaeinoaoea o?aaoao ioeacaoueny io oi?iuaiiiai iiieiaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee eae i?inoie niaieoiiinoe n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e
o?oaeyueony e aieaa oe?iei iiaeieoe e eaeayi ii aeaiiiio aii?ino,
iaiaaoea eo iiuoii iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey e oaiaeaioeeyie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee nia?aiaiiinoe.

A yoie nayce aiaeec i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee eae oi?iu
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee aeieaeiu iie?aoueny ia aiaeec eo eae neiaeiie
nenoaiu e aeeth/aoue a naay ii e?aeiae ia?a neaaeothuea yeaiaiou.

Ia?ae/iua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu – n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e
o?oaeyueany. Ninoaa yoeo nee ii?aaeaeai niaea?aeaieai i?ioeanna o?oaea e
aai iiiaioia. A yoii neo/aa a ninoaaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
ieacuaathony e i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, eioi?ua o/anoaotho a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa o?oaea eee i?aaeiaoia o?oaea.

Aoi?e/iua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu ?acaeaathony ia iniiaa ia?ae/iuo e
oa?aeoa?ecothony oi?iaie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acaeoeai aai iaiauanoaeaiey, aiaea/aieai a i?iecaiaenoai
?acoeueoaoia ?acaeoey iaoee, ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u e o. ae. A ecaanoiii
niunea e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui neeai oaeiai ?iaea iiaeii ioianoe
eiieo?aioeeth e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. Iniaaiiinoe aoi?e/iuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee a oii, /oi iie eee aeaenoaotho /a?ac
niaa?oainoaiaaiea ia?ae/iuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, iaoa?eaeecoy
?acoeueoaou ?acaeoey ia?aciaaiey, iaoee e o. ae., eee iaania/eaatho eo
iiaoth, aieaa yooaeoeaioth acaeiinaycue e eiiaeiaoeeth, /oi aaaeao e
?inoo yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. I?eia?ii iiaeiaiiai ?iaea iiaeao
neoaeeoue eiiia?aoeey.

Ae?oaie n?ac nenoaiu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee oa?aeoa?ecoao ia oieueei eo
ninoaa, ii e enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea. A yoii neo/aa auaeaeythony o?e
iniiaiua i?ia?anneaiua oi?iu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee: anoanoaaiiua,
iauanoaaiiua e anaiauea.

Anoanoaaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e aeaoi
aeaeai: 1) noauaeoeaiiio, o. a. i?e?iaea naiiai /aeiaaea, aai ?ana,
oi?ia anoanoaaiii aicieeoae iauiinoe e o. i., e 2) iauaeoeaiiio, o. a.
anoanoaaiiiio aiaaonoao n?aaenoaaie aeecie (ieiaei?iaeea ii/au, iaeeea
?uau a aiaeao e o. ae.) e o?oaea (aiaeiiaaeu, noaeioiaeiua ?aee,
iaoaeeu, ean, oaieue e o. ae.). Iauaeoeaiua anoanoaaiiua
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu oa?aeoa?ecotho aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua caeiaeaiu a
anoanoaaiiuo, i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo i?ioeanna o?oaea e caaenyo io eo
iaeeey, aeinooiiinoe e ea/anoaa. A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy i?ienoiaeeo niaia i?enaaeaathuaai oicyenoaa
i?iecaiaeyuei (iaieeoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey), iiaeaioiaeaoay noaiiaeaiea
iauanoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e aioaaiienoe/aneeo oi?iaoeee.

Iauanoaaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu – yoi nicaeaiiua e iaeiieaiiua a
oiaea ?acaeoey iauanoaa neeu. Iie aeeth/atho ia oieueei iinoiyiii
niaa?oainoaothueany oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e neeu niaianoiuo oi?i
aeayoaeueiinoe. A /anoiinoe, ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee ?acaeoey
iauanoaa oaeie neeie yaeyaony iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, ?acaeoea
e cae?aieaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa, nicaeaiiuo /aeiaa/anoaii,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, e o. ae. Noaiiaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee a aeieaieoaeenoe/aneoth yiioo naycaii n
oiaiueoaieai caaeneiinoe oicyenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae io
nee i?e?iaeu, ?acaeoeai i?oaeee o?oaea, ioaeaeaieai ?aianea io
caieaaeaeey, ai?iaea io aea?aaie, nie?auaieai noa?u aiayeiiiie/aneiai
i?eioaeaeaiey, iiauoaieai caeioa?aniaaiiinoe o?oaeyueony a ?acoeueoaoao
o?oaea. Iaeiaei ieii/aoaeueiia iiae/eiaiea anoanoaaiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaaiiui i?ienoiaeeo eeoue a oiaea
i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee. Eiiia?aoeey, iaiooaeoo?a e oaa?eea yaeythony
i?ia?anneaiuie nooiaiyie ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.
Iaoaiecaoeey ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia ia?a?anoaao a aeaeueiaeoai a
iioi/ii-ianniaia, a iicaeiaa – a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai.
Oneiaeai aai aicieeiiaaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey yaeyaony niaaeeiaiea iaoee
n i?iecaiaenoaii oaeei ia?acii, /oi ?acaeoea iaoee i?yii e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii?aaeaeyao ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa.

Neeyiea iao/iie e oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee iciaiaiiaaei ia/aei
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee, a oiaea eioi?ie anaiauea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu noaiiayony aaaeouei yeaiaioii nenoaiu
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Anaiauee o?oae – yoi o?oae o/aiuo, niaa?oathueo
iao/iia ioe?uoea. Iii noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui a ?acoeueoaoa naiaia?aciie
eiiia?aoeee, a oiaea eioi?ie nia?aiaiieee iieuecothony aeinoeaeaieyie
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Aeaaiay oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa anaiaueo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
nee – i?aa?auaiea iaoee a iaiin?aaenoaaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo
iauanoaa. A oneiaeyo iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee ana aieueoaa
cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa i?eia?aoaao anaiauee o?oae.
Nie?auathony n?iee aiaae?aiey iao/iuo e oaoie/aneeo ecia?aoaiee a
i?iecaiaenoai, iiauoaaony ?ieue iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea. Auno?uie
oaiiaie ?anoao /enei YAI, noaieia n i?ia?aiiiui oi?aaeaieai,
inouanoaeythony ?iaioecaoeey e eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Ana yoi
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao ea/anoaaiii iiaua o?aaiaaiey e ia?aciaaieth e
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/ae neeu.

Anee iinea iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee neiaeeeanue iinoi?enaaeaathuay
yeiiiieea, iniiaie eioi?ie auei naeueneia oicyenoai, oi ?acoeueoaoii
i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee noaei aicieeiiaaiea iinoaa?a?iie yeiiiieee,
iniiao eioi?ie ninoaaeyea ia?aiia/aeueii eaaeay, a iicaeiaa oyaeaeay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. A oiaea IO? aicieeaao iinoeiaeono?eaeueiay yeiiiieea,
eiaaea oeaio? oyaeanoe ia?aiineony a iai?iecaiaenoaaiioth noa?o. A
na?aaeeia 80-o aa. oaea nauoa 70% ianaeaiey NOA auei caiyoi a noa?a
oneoa. Anee a aa?a?iie yeiiiieea ia?aie/eaathuei oaeoi?ii auea caiey, a
a eiaeono?eaeueiie – eaieoae, oi a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea eeieoe?othuei
oaeoi?ii noaiiayony eioi?iaoeey, iaeiieaiiua ciaiey. Yoi i?eaiaeeo
i?aaeaea anaai e nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieyi a oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?aciauaiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. A aeieiaeono?eaeueioth yiioo ai?iaea aicieeaee
ia ia?ana/aieyo oi?aiauo iooae, a eiaeono?eaeueioth – aaeece enoi/ieeia
nu?uey e yia?aee; oaoiiiieenu iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie yiioe au?anoatho
aie?oa iao/iuo oeaio?ia e e?oiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eaai?aoi?ee.

Aiai?y i e?oiiuo aeinoeaeaieyo /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, ia neaaeoao
caauaaoue e i iiauo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeaiao, ii?iaeaeaiiuo
naiie IO?. I?oaeea ianniaiai oie/oiaeaiey iiaie yiioe iinoaaeei
/aeiaa/anoai ia a?aiue anaiauae eaoano?iou. ?acei iaino?eeenue a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu. Noaiiaeaiea anaiaueo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee a ?aciuo no?aiao i?ienoiaeeo a oneiaeyo
nio?aiaiey ionoaeuo iauanoaaiiuo e aeaaea anoanoaaiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ia ia?eoa?ee, oneeeaay i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
?aciuie eoeueoo?iuie nioeeoiaie e ?aaeiiaie.

Eiia/ii, IO? nicaeaao ia oieueei i?iaeaiu, ii e iaoa?eaeueiua
i?aaeiinueee aeey eo ?aoaiey, iaeiaei auai? ?aoaiey inoaaony iiea a
?oeao ia oaoieeia e aeaaea ia yeiiiienoia, a i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
iieeoeeia, eioi?ua, oau, aeaeaei ia anaaaea o/eouaatho iiaiea o/aiuo.

5. Iieiay caiyoinoue e iieiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iauanoai no?aieony eniieueciaaoue naie ?aaeeea ?ano?nu yooaeoeaii, oi
anoue iii aeaeaao iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai iieaciuo oiaa?ia e
oneoa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo ec aai ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia. *oiau yoiai
aeiaeoueny, iii aeieaeii iaania/eoue e iieioth caiyoinoue, e iieiue
iauai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiae iieiie caiyoinoueth iiieiaaony eniieueciaaiea anao i?eaiaeiuo aeey
yoiai ?ano?nia. ?aai/ea ia aeieaeiu auioaeaeaiii ieacuaaoueny aac
?aaiou; yeiiiieea aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue caiyoea aeey anao, eoi oi/ao e
niiniaai o?oaeeoueny. Ia aeieaeiu oaeaea i?inoaeaaoue iaoioiua caiee eee
eaieoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Eaaeaeiio iauanoao i?enoue ecaanoiua iau/ae
e onoaiiaeaoayny i?aeoeea, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho, eaeea eiaiii ?ano?nu
i?eaiaeiu aeey i?eiaiaiey. Iai?eia?, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e iau/aai
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi o?oae aeaoae e i?anoa?aeuo ia neaaeoao
eniieueciaaoue. ?aaiui ia?acii e iaoioiua caiee a oeaeyo iaania/aiey eo
ieiaei?iaeey iaiaoiaeeii ia?eiaee/anee inoaaeyoue “iiae ia?ii”.

Iieiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?inoi icia/aao, /oi ?ano?nu iaaei
?ani?aaeaeyoue yooaeoeaii, oi anoue /oi i?eiaiyaiua ?ano?nu neaaeoao
eniieueciaaoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iie aiineee iaeaieaa oeaiiue aeeaae
a iauee iauai i?iaeoeoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii ecaaaaoue iai?aaeaiey
ano?ioeceeia a naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, a iiuoiuo oa?ia?ia a
iaoe oeaio?u einie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee! Iieiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?aaeiieaaaao oaeaea i?eiaiaiea iaeeo/oeo ec eiathueony oaoiieiaee.

Caeeth/aiea.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu – yoi nenoaia noauaeoeaiuo e iauaeoeaiuo
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?aaeaiiay ia i?aia?aciaaiea aauanoaa e nee
i?e?iaeu aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu au?aaeatho ia?o ainiiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa iaae i?e?iaeie. Aeaaiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeie yaeyaony
?aaioiee, iaeaaeathuee iaueie e i?ioanneiiaeueiuie ciaieyie,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiuoii, o?oaeiauie iaaueaie, o?oaeiethaeai, /aeiaae ai
anai aiaaonoaa aai niiniaiinoae e oai?/aneeo nee.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea – yoi ieiaeioai?iinoue, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, ecia?yaiay eiee/anoaii
a?aiaie, cao?a/eaaaiui ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, eee eiee/anoaii
i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiie a aaeeieoeo ?aai/aai a?aiaie (/an, aeaiue,
ianyoe, aiae).

A eieaa I.A. Iaieueth “Iae?iyeiiiieea” i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
ii?aaeaeaia eae “n?aaeiee i?iaeoeo”. N?aaeiee i?iaeoeo ethaiai aeaea
cao?ao – yoi ioiioaiea iauaia i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e
eniieueciaaiiiio iauaio aeaiiiai aeaea cao?ao.

Nooue caeiia iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea caeeth/aaony a
nicaeaiee iaeneioia i?iaeoeoa i?e ieieioia o?oaea, e iiyoiio iiauoaiea
iauanoaaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea iauaeoeaii niinianoaoao
i?ia?anno /aeiaa/anoaa, /oi au?aaeaaony a ?inoa iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, a ?acaeoee iaoee, eoeueoo?u, eneonnoaa, anao noi?ii
oeeaeeecaoeee. Eaaeaeue iineaaeothuee niinia i?iecaiaenoaa iiaaaeaeaao
i?aaeoanoaothuee a eiia/iii n/aoa aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ii iaania/eaaao
aieueoee i?inoi? aeey ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa, aeey
?inoa iauanoaaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey / Iiae ?aae. A.A. ?aaeaaaa – I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai
IAO, 1992 . – 414n.

Iaeeiiiaee E.?., A?th N.E. Yeiiiieen: I?eioeeiu, i?iaeaiu e iieeoeea.
A 2 o.: Ia?aaiae n aiaeeeneiai 11-ai ecae. Oii I.- I.: ?anioaeeea,
1992. – 399n.: oaae., a?ao.

Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey.: O/aaii-iaoiaee/aneia iiniaea aeey
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae / Iiae ?aae. A.A. Neaei?iae/a, O.I. Aieeiaa. I.:
Ecaeaoaeuenoai IAO, 1993. – 407n.

Yeiiiie/aneay Yioeeeeiiaaeey. Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey. Ae. ?aae. A.I.
?oiyioeaa. – I.: “Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey”, o. 3. – 624n., ee.

I.A. Iaieueth. Iae?iyeiiiieea. I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai IAO, 1994.

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