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Экономика науки в России в сравнении с Индией и другими странами

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Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615862 PAGEREF
_Toc422615862 2

Neooaoeey a ?inneeneie iaoea GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615863 PAGEREF
_Toc422615863 3

Iaoea eae iauaeo aiaeeca GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615864 PAGEREF
_Toc422615864 8

No?oeoo?iue aiaeec athaeaeaoia IEIE? GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615865
PAGEREF _Toc422615865 12

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615866 PAGEREF
_Toc422615866 17

IOI: ainoaea?noai – ?uiie GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615867 PAGEREF
_Toc422615867 19

Iniiaiua /a?ou nia?aiaiiiai yoaia GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615868 PAGEREF
_Toc422615868 20

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615869 PAGEREF _Toc422615869 25

Aeaeeia?aoey GOTOBUTTON _Toc422615870 PAGEREF _Toc422615870 26

Aaaaeaiea.

A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa iaoea ea?aao aeaeaei ia iineaaeithth ?ieue.
Ii?iaeueiia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee ethaiai ainoaea?noaa iaaiciiaeii aac
aaeaeaaoiiai iao/iiai ?acaeoey. Iaeiicia/ia e ia?aoiay naycue – a no?aia
n aieueiie e neaaie yeiiiieeie iaoea ?anoao iaaeeaiii, a aeaa?aaee?oao
auno?i.

Eae iieacae iiuo iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee, nioeeaeenoe/aneay nenoaia
oicyenoaiaaiey n aa iaoiaeaie aee?aeoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey e
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ieacaeanue a ooieea. Yeiiiieea
aioea a ninoiyiea e?ecena, e, eae neaaenoaea, a iaoea oiaea i?iecioae
iaaae. A o?eaeoeaoua aiaeu yeiiiie/aneee eo?n noae ia/aeii eiioea
niaaoneie yeiiiieee. ?aoi?iu oanoeaeanyouo ia niiaee inoaiiaeoue
iaaeaiea, e aei ia/aea ia?ano?ieee niaaoneay yeiiiieea aeeea a iniiaiii
ca n/ao aeaiieiaa iaooe e aaca. A iaoea neooaoeey auea noiaeiie.
Ooieeiaue iooue aue eca?ai a eiioea 40-o aiaeia, oi/iaa, a ia/aea aiiee
aii?oaeaiee n NOA. N oiai iiiaioa nouanoaiaaei aeaa oeia iaoee –
iai?iiiay e inoaeueiay. Neiioiiu e?ecena a iai?iiiie iaoea i?iyaeeenue
ai a?aiaia canoiy, a a inoaeueiie – a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia.

A Eiaeee iinea caaiaaaiey iacaaeneiinoe iaoea oaeaea ?acaeaaeanue a
niioaaonoaee n ieaiaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Oai ia iaiaa, iineieueeo
eiaeeeneay iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia auea iaiiiai aieaa
aeaiie?aoe/iie, /ai niaaoneay, a iaoea aiaeiae/iiai e?ecena ia auei.
Iaeiaei yoaiu ?acaeoey auee noiaeiuie: a na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia Eiaeee
i?eoeinue ia?aeoe io iieeoeee eiii?oicaiauathuae eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e
ioe?uoie iiaeaee yeiiiieee. Iaoea oiaea iiaeaa?aeanue na?ueaciie
o?ainoi?iaoeee: iia auea ia?ai?eaioe?iaaia ia oa enneaaeiaaiey e
?ac?aaioee, ia eioi?ua nouanoaiaae ni?in. Aiai?y i?iua, iaoea noaea
ioaa/aoue eioa?anai e iio?aaiinoyi iauanoaa, a ia ieaiai e aiaeoeeyi
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A caiaaeiuo no?aiao a iniiaiii oae iii e anoue.

A ?innee oaeay o?ainoi?iaoeey i?ienoiaeeo n 1987 aiaea, eiaaea aia?aua
caaiai?eee i eiiaa?nee iai?iiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iineieueeo niaaoneay
iaoea auea i?eaioe?iaaia ecia/aeueii ia iai?iio (nianeai oiaa?euai
Eaieio-*a?iaiei), i?ioeann ia?ano?ieee nenoaiu iaoee eaeao aei neo ii? e
nii?yaeai n iaiaeuie o?oaeiinoyie.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa aoaeao ?anniio?aii iieiaeaiea iaoee a ?innee,
ianoaeaeaia oaia iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, cao?iiooa i?iaeaia
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe iaoee e i?eaaaeaii iaaieueoia yeiiiie/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea i oii, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii eee iayooaeoeaii nie?auaiea
iao/iie noa?u ?O.

Neooaoeey a ?inneeneie iaoea.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo eao a ?innee i?iaeieaeaaony e?ecen iaoee. Ana
aieueoaa /enei eaai?aoi?ee aacaeaenoaoao, iineieueeo iao/iua ?aaioieee
auioaeaeaiu ca?aaaouaaoue ia aeeciue ia noi?iia. Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai
onoa?aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey i?inoaeaaao, a iiiaea iiiauaiey
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee naeaiu a a?aiaeo aaieai,
eiiia?/aneei iaaaceiai eee eiino?aiiui eiiiaieyi. Aee?aeoi?a einoeoooia
i?aaei?eieiaee iiiuoee iieo/eoue oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo ca ?oaaaeii.
Iaeioi?ua ec ieo oae caiooaeenue a naieo iaycaoaeuenoaao ia?aae
eiino?aiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, /oi o?oaeii neacaoue, eoi aea ii?aaeaeyao
enneaaeiaaoaeueneee i?ioeeue eo einoeoooia. Iiiaea IEE i?ethoeee iaeua
i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeeaaathuea ?aciiia?aciue auai? eiiia?/aneeo oiaa?ia e
oneoa; yoe i?aaei?eyoey nicaeaaaeenue a ea/anoaa «aeieiuo ei?ia»,
iiiiaay iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia ieaao oiiouea einoeooou e iaeiia?aiaiii
iaania/eaaoue naieo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae n?aaieoaeueii aunieeie aeioiaeaie.
Iineieueeo ca?aaioiay ieaoa aieaa /ai 60% iao/iuo ?aaioieeia oiaea ieaea
/a?ou aaaeiinoe, aeaiiino?aoeee e oa?icu caaanoiaie ni noi?iiu o/aiuo
iieo/aee oe?ieoth iaeaneo. Iaeiaei oaeiai ?iaea «aniuoee» oo?aoeee
eaeia-eeai iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea: i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo i?ioannee
oaeaea ia?aaeeaatho oyaeaeua a?aiaia, a iauanoai ia?anoaei aini?eieiaoue
iaoeo eae eeth/ e aoaeouaio i?ioeaaoaieth.

Ca ia?eiae n 1991 ii eiiaoe 1994 a. «ooa/eo iicaia» ec ?innee iiaeii
ioeaieoue a 2000 /aeiaae aeoeaiuo o/aiuo ec iauaai /enea 5000 «iao/iuo»
yiea?aioia, i eioi?uo auei niiauaii a aeieeaaea Ieienoa?noaa iaoee e
oaoie/aneie iieeoeee ?O ia eiioa?aioeee IYN? a N.-Iaoa?ao?aa a iiya?a
1994 a. Aeaiiay oeeo?a cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa i?aaeneacaiiie caiaaeiuie
yenia?oaie a 1992 a., eiaaea aeieaeiinoiua ieeaaeu o/aiuo oiaee aei
yeaeaaeaioa 25 aeiee. a ianyoe; oai ia iaiaa, yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
nouanoaaiiie y?icee ?inneeneiai iao/iiai iioaioeeaea, a /anoiinoe, a
iaeanoe iaoaiaoeee e oeceee. A oi aea a?aiy i?iaeieaeaeanue eioaineaiay
aioo?aiiyy «ooa/ea iicaia»: aeanyoee ouny/ enneaaeiaaoaeae, iniaaiii
iieiaeuo o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia a aic?anoa aei 35 eao, eneaee aieaa
aeioiaeiua caiyoey a nicaeaaaaoeony ii anae no?aia eiiia?/aneeo
no?oeoo?ao. N 1991 a. i?eaeeceoaeueii 30% anao enneaaeiaaoaeae ia?aoee
ia ?aaioo a eiiia?/aneee naeoi?, auoee ia iaineth e o.ae.; aua 25%
nio?aieee ca niaie ianoa a naieo einoeoooao oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ia
oa?youe iaaeeoeeineeo, iaineiiiuo e nioeeaeueiuo eueaio, i?e yoii
caieiaynue nianai ae?oaie aeayoaeueiinoueth aia ?aiie naieo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Iaeaieueooth o?aaiao, aeaeeii, aucuaaao ?aceee niaae
eioa?ana oaeaioeeaie iieiaeaaee e ea?uea?a o/aiiai eee eiaeaia?a.
Eiieo?n a eo/oea iao/ii-oaoie/aneea AOCu no?aiu oiaiueoeeny ca
ianeieueei eao a 3 ?aca, a oi a?aiy eae iauee niaae /enea aaeoo?eaioia
ninoaaeye ieiei 10% a aiae. Aieaa 80% auioneieeia oaoie/aneeo AOCia 1994
a. iuoaeenue iaeoe ?aaioo a eiiia?/aneii naeoi?a eee ca a?aieoeae.

Ino?aeoea i?iaeaiu aicieeee a oae iacuaaaiuo «aeaaeaiai?iaeeao». Ana iie
a oie eee eiie noaiaie caaenaee io iai?iiiuo caeacia. Iinea eo ?aceiai
nie?auaiey e ii/oe aac?acoeueoaoiie eiiaa?nee aeey yoeo ai?iaeia
ianooieee aeaenoaeoaeueii oyaeaeua a?aiaia. Iieiaeaiea onoaoaee ?acaae
nenoaiu niaaaeaiey, eioi?ay i?aaeaea iaania/eaaea eo oiaa?aie e oneoaaie
ii eueaioiui oeaiai.

Nouanoaotho, eiia/ii, e iieiaeeoaeueiua i?eia?u ?acaeoey iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee a ?innee. Ii ii/oe ai anao iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo oniao
aeinoeaaeny aeaaiaea?y i?aaei?eei/eainoe iao/iuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae,
noiaaoeo oaaaeeoue eiino?aiiua i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeaniia?aciinoe
eniieueciaaiey ?onneeo oaeaioia aeey ?aoaiey aaaeiuo aeey Caiaaea
caaea/. E eiioeo 1994 a., ii-aeaeeiiio, aieaa iieiaeiu a?aaeaeaineeo
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee oeiaine?iaaeinue ec ca?oaaaeiuo enoi/ieeia. Oioy
aieueoeinoai o/aiuo e oineotho ii «aeia?ui noa?ui a?aiaiai», eiaaea
oeiainiaay iiaeaea?aeea iaoee i?aaeoaeuenoaii auea iaania/aia iacaaeneii
io aaaeiinoe i?iaiaeeiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iie, iaeiiaoe, ia/eiatho
iniciaaaoue, /oi n enoiuaieai athaeaeaoiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey
ianooiaao iiaay y?a.

A noa?a iaoee a ?innee caiyoi nauoa 800 oun. /aeiaae, ian/eouaaaony
aieaa 4500 einoeoooia, ioiinyueony e /aou?ai i?aaiecaoeeiiiui
no?oeoo?ai: Aeaaeaiee iaoe (16% einoeoooia e 14% iao/iuo ?aaioieeia);
o/aaiui caaaaeaieyi (niioaaonoaaiii 10 e 7%); io?aneaaui IEE (67 e 73%);
eaai?aoi?eyi i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (7 e 6%)’. A niaaoneoth
yiioo i?eia?ii iieiaeia iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie auea naycaia n ?aoaieai
iai?iiiuo caaea/, aua 10-12% i?eoiaeeeinue ia oai?aoe/aneea ecuneaiey
ii/oe ai anao iaeanoyo ooiaeaiaioaeueiie iaoee, a aieueoay /anoue
inoaeueiuo ioiineeanue e i?eeeaaeiui i?iiuoeaiiui enneaaeiaaieyi,
ia?aaeei ia?anaeaaoeiny n IEIE? iai?iiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Oeaeue i?eeeaaeiuo
iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie caeeth/aeanue a ieacaiee i?aaei?eyoeyi oaoie/aneie
iiiiue, ai aiaae?aiee ioaeaeueiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee, iiauoathueo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, e aaeaioaoeee caiaaeiuo oaoie/aneeo
?aoaiee (caeinoaiaaiiuo ec ioe?uouo ioaeeeaoeee eee oe?aaeaiiuo) e
niaaoneei oneiaeyi. ?acoeueoaou aeaaea iaeaieaa oniaoiuo i?eeeaaeiuo
enneaaeiaaiee ?aaeei aiaae?yeenue aieaa /ai ia iaeiii eee aeaoo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ec-ca aaaeiinoaaiiie ?aciauaiiinoe, i?aiyonoaothuae
aeeooocee iiaiaaaaeaiee.

Iiieii i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n /?acia?iuie ianooaaaie iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee
a NNN?, iaeaieueoae e?eoeea caiaaeiuo yenia?oia iiaeaa?aaeinue
?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo iao/iie e i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.
Oioy ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai n/eoaei, /oi aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee ia aeieaeiii o?iaia i?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeiu aeaiueae,
iii a oa/aiea aieaa /ai o?ao eao iuoaeinue iaeoe niiniau, eae i?e
ieieiaeueiuo cao?aoao nio?aieoue ii aiciiaeiinoe iaeneiaeueiia /enei
iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee. A oi aea a?aiy ethaia ?aoaiea, naycaiiia n
auaeaeaieai n?aaenoa, aeaaaeinue aio n oaeei o?oaeii, /oi aai iiaeoiaeu
e i?iaaaeaieth eiiiaaoeeiiiie iieeoeee i?aaenoaaeyee, nei?aa,
aeaaeaie/aneee eioa?an aeey eiino?aioeaa, iaaeaee ?aaeueiue aeey
?inneyi. ?inneeneea aea o/aiua naycuaatho n aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeeeoaeueiua ioionea aac nio?aiaiey niaea?aeaiey e ?aceia
nie?auaiea iaauaiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey caieaie?iaaiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
i?ia?aii. Oai ia iaiaa, iaeioi?ua eieoeeaoeau i?aaeoaeuenoaa
caneoaeeaatho aieiaiey. Iie iiaee au ieacaoue i?yiia eee einaaiiia
aicaeaenoaea ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea
?ano?nia; a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa iie iineoaeao ?aoathueie oaeoi?aie
auai?a iai?aaeaiee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee a no?aia.

Ieienoa?noai iaoee e oaoie/aneie iieeoeee ?O e aai Oeaio? enneaaeiaaiee
e noaoenoeee iaoee a 1993-1997 aa. i?aaenoaaeee ?yae aeieeaaeia,
niaea?aeaueo aeaoaeueiue aiaeec neooaoeee a noa?a iaoee a ?innee. A ieo
eiinoaoe?iaaeenue: iaoeeiiiue niaae niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo,
ninoaaeythueo iuia iaiaa 0,5% AAI, a oi a?aiy eae a aieueoeinoaa
eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai yoa aeiey ?aaia 1,5-2,5%, a oaeaea nie?auaiea
(i?eia?ii ia 8% a aiae) /eneaiiinoe caiyouo a iaoea i?e oii, /oi ii/oe
ie iaeei ec aieaa /ai 4500 einoeoooia ia aue cae?uo.

Iinea oiai eae i?iaeaiu ?inneeneie iaoee auee ioe?uoi i?eciaiu,
Ieienoa?noai iaoee e oaoie/aneie iieeoeee ?O aunooieei n eaeaae
nicaeaiey aieueoiai /enea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/iuo oeaio?ia.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi yoe oeaio?u iieo/ao i?ei?eoaoioth oeiainiaoth
iiaeaea?aeeo a niunea eae auaeaeaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa, oae e
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ei iaeiaiauo eueaio. Iie ?anniao?eaaeenue a ea/anoaa
iii?iuo no?oeoo? ?inneeneie iaoee e aeieaeiu auee auaeeoue iacaaeneii io
oeiainiauo e?ecenia, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaeanue no?aia a oeaeii. A
i?eioeeia eaeay iaieioa. I?iaeaia, iaeiaei, caeeth/aaony a aieueoeo
?acia?ao iacaaiiuo oeaio?ia: ooao iaeioi?uo i?aainoiaeeo 5000 /aeiaae,
i?e/ai aeaeaei ia ana ?aaioieee o?oaeyony yooaeoeaii. Oaeei ia?acii,
?aaeecaoeey aeaiiie eaeae ia i?aeoeea aoaeao oaeoe/anee icia/aoue
oaaeiaa/aiea oie naiie i?iaeaiu, ?aoaieth eioi?ie iia i?ecaaia
niinianoaiaaoue. Neaaeiaaei au nio?aieoue eeoue iaeaieaa i?iaeoeoeaiua
eaai?aoi?ee; e?oiiua einoeooou aeieaeiu cae?uaaoue eaai?aoi?ee, anee
ioaea/a io ieo iaaaeeea.

Ieienoa?noao ioaeii ieacuaaoue oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo ia aieaa /ai 20%
eaai?aoi?ee eaaeaeiai ec oeaio?ia, cai?aoea ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia
ec yoeo eaai?aoi?ee a ae?oaea iiae?acaeaeaiey oeaio?a. Ioaeaeueiua
aua?aiiua eaai?aoi?ee iiaee au i?aaiecaoeeiiii auaeaeeoueny ec ninoaaa
naieo einoeoooia. Ieienoa?noai i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i iiaeaea?aeea oao
eee eiuo enneaaeiaaiee aanueia aeoeaii eniieuecoao caiaaeiua iaoiaeeee
yenia?oiuo ioeaiie. I?eia?ii oaeiai «iiaiai» iiaeoiaea, i?e eioi?ii
aeaeaaony oii? ia aeaoaeueiue aiaeec i?aaeeiaeaiiuo iao/iuo oai
yenia?oaie, n/eoathueieny iauaeoeaiuie, yaeyaony i?ia?aiia ?inneeneiai
oiiaea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Oioy athaeaeao Oiiaea aeieaeai
ninoaaeyoue 4% iaueo ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo, a 1994 a. ii aue iaiueoa 1,2%.
Oai ia iaiaa, Oiiae ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a oeiaine?iaaiee iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee, auaeaeyy a?aiou ?acia?ii aei 10 oun. aeiee. a ?oaeaaii
yeaeaaeaioa ioaeaeueiui o/aiui eee iaaieueoei iao/iui eieeaeoeaai.
Yooaeoeaiinoue e iauaeoeaiinoue yenia?oecu Oiiaea caneoaeeaatho aunieie
ioeaiee: ei aac eieaaaiee ioaa?aathony ieioi iainiiaaiiua cayaee ia
iieo/aiea a?aioa, i?aaenoaaeaiiua ?inneeneeie aeaaeaieeaie.

I?ei?eoaoiie aeey iiiaeo ieienoa?noa iaeanoueth auea ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii
eiiaa?nee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee a ?yaea einoeoooia, ia i?ioyaeaiee
aeanyoeeaoee caaenaaoeo io iai?iiiuo caeacia. E niaeaeaieth, neeoeii
iacia/eoaeueiia /enei IEE iiaeao iioaanoaoueny oniaoaie a yoie iaeanoe.
E?iia oiai, einoeooou ec?anoiaeiaaee aieueooth /anoue oiiaeia,
auaeaeaiiuo ec ioa/anoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ia i?iaaaeaiea eiiaa?nee IEIE?.
Iaauaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa nicaeaoue e?oiiua eiiaa?neiiiua oiiaeu eae ia
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii o?iaia, oae e a ?aieao ioaeaeueiuo ieienoa?noa
inoaeenue iaauiieiaiiuie. Iiyoiio einoeooou noaee eiioeaio?e?iaaoue naie
oneeey ia iiiuoeao i?iaeaoue nianoaaiiua ?ac?aaioee ca a?aieoeo.

N ia/aeii «aeaniinoe» e «ia?ano?ieee» a 1985 a. caiaaeiua i?aaeoaeuenoaa
e /anoiua i?aaiecaoeee cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eee nio?oaeie/anoai n
?inneeneeie iao/iuie o/?aaeaeaieyie. Aic?inoee eioa?an aue iaoneiaeai
oaaaeaeaiiinoueth a oii, /oi iiaeii ecaea/ue nouanoaaiiua auaiaeu iooai
caeinoaiaaiey niaaoneeo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee. Eiino?aiiua
eiiia?/aneea oe?iu eneaee oaoiieiaee, eioi?ua iiaee au iineoaeeoue
iniiaie nicaeaiey iiauo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia eeai
niinianoaiaaoue oiaiueoaieth ecaea?aeae noa?uo eae ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii,
oae e ia niaaoneii ?uieao. E?iia oiai, aia?eeaineia, yiiineia e
aa?iiaeneea i?aaeoaeuenoaa no?aieeenue i?eaea/ue niaaoneea einoeooou e
o/anoeth a i?iaeoao, iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeey anaai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
niiauanoaa e eanathueony io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, auyaeaiey e
i?ioeeaeoeee caaieaaaiee, oeo/oaiey nenoaiu o?ainii?oa e nayce,
?ac?aaioee yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia. Eiaaea ?inney ia?aea noaoon
iacaaeneiiai ainoaea?noaa, ia Caiaaea iiauneeanue caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a
iao/iii nio?oaeie/anoaa n iae. Iiiaea iieeoeee n/eoaee, /oi caiaaeiua
yenia?ou niiaoo iiii/ue ?inneeneei o/aiui e eiaeaia?ai ioeacaoueny io
i?eau/ae, neiaeeaoeony i?e noa?ie eiiaiaeiie nenoaia. Caiaae aue oaeaea
i/aiue icaai/ai aiciiaeiinoueth iaeiio?iee?oaiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey
?inneeneeo aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee, a oii /enea i?iecaiaenoaa i?oaeey
ianniaiai oie/oiaeaiey e n?aaenoa aai aeinoaaee.

?yae aia?eeaineeo, aa?iiaeneeo e yiiineeo oe?i i?iaeieaeaao iienee ia
caaiaeao e a einoeoooao ?innee oaeeo oaoiieiaee, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au
aaeaioe?iaaoue e ca?oaaaeiui o?aaiaaieyi. A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia i?eaaaeai
aia?eeaineea oe?iu «I?ieoi? yiae Ayiae» e «Aieia», a oaeaea «Nai
Iaee?inenoain», eniieuecothuoth ?inneeneeo i?ia?aiienoia aeey ?ac?aaioee
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Iiiai/eneaiiua, oioy e ia anaaaea aoeoe?oaiua
eiiia?/aneea i?iaeou a iaeanoe aunieeo oaoiieiaee inouanoaeythony
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuie ei?ii?aoeeyie ni ooaa-eaa?oe?aie ca i?aaeaeaie NOA.
A iaeaieueoae noaiaie yoi ioiineony e iaiaoeeei oe?iai, a ianeieueei
iaiueoae e o?aioeocneei, aiaeeeneei, eoaeueyineei, oaaaeneei e oeineei.

Iaiaei iin?aaeieeia eae a ?innee, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie iuoathony
«niaaeeieoue» i?aaeeiaeaiey ?inneeneeo oaoiieiaee n eiiia?/aneeie
aiciiaeiinoyie, eiathueieny a ae?oaeo no?aiao. A 1994 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai
NOA aeaei noa?o iaeaieaa aiaeoeeiciie i?ia?aiia a yoie noa?a
noieiinoueth 35 iei. aeiee., a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie Ieienoa?noai
yia?aaoeee NOA e aai eaai?aoi?ee aeieaeiu niaeaenoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth
naycae iaaeaeo ?inneeneeie iao/iuie einoeoooaie e aia?eeaineeie oe?iaie.
Iiiaea aia?eeaineea oe?iu oaea onoaiiaeee i?yiua eiioaeou n
iioaioeeaeueiuie iinoaaueeaie oaoiieiaee a ?innee e a iin?aaeieeao ia
ioaeaeathony. E oiio aea ?yae aia?eeaineeo eiinoeueoaoeaiuo oe?i n
ia?aiaiiui oniaoii iuoaaony aunooieoue a ?iee «oaoiieiae/aneeo
a?iea?ia».

Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ooa/ee ?inneeneeo aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee ca i?aaeaeu
no?aiu a 1994 a. NOA, Aa?iiaeneee nithc, ssiiiey e ?inney nicaeaee a
Iineaa iiaoth i?aaiecaoeeth n oeaeueth iaania/aiey oeiainiaie
iiaeaea?aeee o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia, ?aaioathueo a iai?iiiie noa?a e
aeaeathueo ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoueny ia a?aaeaeaineea IEIE?. E eiioeo 1994 a.
yoio Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee oeaio? (IIOOe) auaeaeee aieaa
48 iei. aeiee. ia eiie?aoiua i?iaeou, a ?aieao eioi?uo ieiei 5000
?inneeneeo o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia aoaeoo caiyou a i?ia?aiiao eiiaa?nee ai
iiiaeo aaaeiaeoeo aiaiiuo eaai?aoi?eyo no?aiu. Aieueoay /anoue oiiaeia
i?aaeiacia/aia aeey auieaou iaaeaaaie e ieca?iie ca?ieaoa niaoeeaeenoia
a iaeanoe aii?oaeaiee, /oiau ineaaeoue noeioeu e ia?aaea/a eo ciaiee e
iiuoa cae?uoui no?aiai. A oi aea a?aiy iiaeiaiay oeiainiaay i?eaioaoeey
IIOOe ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe einoeoooia eniieueciaaoue n?aaenoaa aeey
caiaiu auno?i onoa?aaathuaai iai?oaeiaaiey.

Oaeay iieeoeea i?aaenoaaeyaony i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiie, iineieueeo nicaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua aa?aioee, /oi n?aaenoaa IIOOe ia aoaeoo i?inoi
eniieueciaaiu aeey ia?ainiauaiey eaai?aoi?ee, eioi?ua iinea caaa?oaiey
i?iaeoia oeaio?a iiaoo niiaa caiyoueny ?ac?aaioeie aii?oaeaiee.
Aiaeiae/iua i?ia?aiiu ?aaeecothony oaeaea NOA e Aa?iiaeneei nithcii ia
aeaoonoi?iiiae iniiaa. Iniai iaaei ioiaoeoue i?ia?aiio IANA,
iai?aaeaiioth ia iiaeaea?aeeo einie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a ?innee (20
iei. aeiee.), e i?ia?aiio Aa?iiaeneiai nithca, i?ecaaiioth ieacuaaoue
niaeaenoaea a i?iaaaeaiee ?aaio ii iiauoaieth aaciianiinoe ?inneeneeo
yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia (45 iei. aeiee.). Iiiaea i?ia?aiiu nio?oaeie/anoaa a
oaeeo iaeanoyo, eae aeiiaaeeoeeia, ?aaeeaoeeiiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
caei?iauea /aeiaaea, aaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, io?aia ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, yia?ainaa?aaeaiea, ia?a?aaioea yaea?iuo iooiaeia, oeceea aunieeo
yia?aee, inouanoaeythony a ?aieao eiiennee Ai?a-*a?iiiu?aeeia.

A oi aea a?aiy neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?ia?aiiu
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai ii iao/ii-oaoie/aneiio nio?oaeie/anoao n ?inneae aieaa
ianooaaiu, /ai aia?eeaineea. Iai?eia?, ii i?ia?aiia Aa?iiaeneiai nithca
TACIS a ?inneth iai?aaeythony nioie eiinoeueoaioia ?aciiai i?ioeey, a a
niioaaonoaee ni naycaiiie n iae i?ia?aiiie INTAS auei auaeaeaii 25 iei.
aeiee. aeey onoaiiaeaiey naycae iaaeaeo aa?iiaeneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
?inneeneeie IEE. I?aaeoaeuenoai Aaeeeia?eoaiee i?aaeinoaaeei
cia/eoaeueiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu Ei?ieaaneiio iao/iiio iauanoao aeey
?anoe?aiey i?ia?aii nio?oaeie/anoaa n ?inneeneeie enneaaeiaaoaeueneeie
einoeoooaie, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeaaeaie/aneeie.

Iiiaea aaaionoaa III oaeaea inouanoaeytho naie i?ia?aiiu aeey ?innee
(iai?eia?, i?aaiecotho naieia?u, oaoie/aneea eiinoeueoaoeee, eo?nu
iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee, auaeaeytho a?aiou aeey i?eia?aoaiey
iai?oaeiaaiey). IAOI aunooiaao niiini?ii oaoie/aneeo naieia?ia a Neae?e
e a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao no?aiu. Iaeiiaoe, iiiaea iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee iinoiyiii iai?aaeytho naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a Iineao e
N.-Iaoa?ao?a aeey iienea ?inneeneeo o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia,
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a nio?oaeie/anoaa a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo i?iaeoao.

Iniai neaaeoao inoaiiaeoueny ia aeayoaeueiinoe Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iao/iiai oiiaea, nicaeaiiiai Aeae. Ni?inii a 1992 a. N naiiai ia/aea
Oiiae cayaee i naaa eae ia aeueoa?iaoeaiii eino?oiaioa a?aiaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee ooiaeaiaioaeueiie iaoee a ?innee e ae?oaeo auaoeo niaaoneeo
?anioaeeeao aei ieii/aiey yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena. E?ecen, e niaeaeaieth,
i?iaeieaeaaony. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iauanoaaiiinoue ?innee i?eaaonoaiaaea
auaeaeaiea Oiiaeii Ni?ina a ia?eiae ino?ie iaoaaoee n?aaenoa 100 iei.
aeiee. Iaeiaei yoe aeaiueae auee ?acaeaeaiu iaeeeie aeieyie iaaeaeo
iiiai/eneaiiuie iieo/aoaeyie a?aioia e iai?aaeaiu ia oeiaine?iaaiea
e?aoein?i/iuo i?iaeoia.

Iaeiiaoe, aanueia aeoeaii aeaenoaoao Aaaionoai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
?acaeoey (AI?) NOA, inouanoaeythuaa aieueoia eiee/anoai i?ia?aii
nio?oaeie/anoaa n iao/iuie e?oaaie ?innee. A iaeioi?uo i?ia?aiiao oii?
aeaeaeny ia i?aaiecaoeeth aeceoia ?inneeneeo enneaaeiaaoaeae a NOA a
ii?yaeea iaiaia; e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoia a iaeanoe eiiaa?nee, yia?aaoeee,
yeieiaee, cae?aaiio?aiaiey a ?innee auei i?eaea/aii iiiai ?inneeneeo
o/aiuo. N?aaenoaa aaaionoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ieacaiey iiiiue
eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai, eniieueciaaeenue e aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?yaea
eieoeeaoea a ?aieao eiiennee Ai?a-*a?iiiu?aeeia. AEecianiiniaiinoue yoeo
i?ia?aii nio?oaeie/anoaa ieaaeaony iiae oa?icie, eiaaea i?ia?aiia
eiino?aiiie iiiiue AI? aoaeao caaa?oaia (i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii a 1998 a.).

I?aaeoaeuenoai e iao/iia niiauanoai ?innee aeieaeiu naie ii?aaeaeeoue
aoaeouaa iaoee a no?aia. Eiino?aiiua i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo niaaoiaaoue ei
neaaeiaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee e iiaee?aieyoue naie
?aeiiaiaeaoeee oeiainiaie e eiie iiaeaea?aeeie. Ii aeeyiea ae?oaeo
ainoaea?noa ia aeieaeii auoue e ia aoaeao ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii ?acaeoey
iaoee a ?innee. *oi aea iiaeao naeaeaoue i?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee a naiii
aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai aeey oiai, /oiau nio?aieoue eo/oea iao/iua eaae?u e
einoeooou, enoa?caiiua iuia yeiiiie/aneeie iao?yaeeoeaie? Eae aeieaeii
aeaenoaiaaoue ie?iaia niiauanoai, /oiau yooaeo io yoeo oneeee ieacaeny
aieaa aeieain?i/iui ii n?aaiaieth n ?acoeueoaoaie nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa? ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaei au i?aaei?eiyoue
neaaeothuea oaae.

Ia neaaeoao aaciaiai?i/ii aeiaa?youe caiaaeiui eiinoeueoaioai, i?eaueoei
?aaioaoue a no?aiao «o?aoueaai ie?a», – nianoaaiiue iiuo iiaeao
ieacaoueny aieaa i?eaieaiui aeey ?innee. Aa aaaeiaeoay caaea/a –
ainnoaiiaeoue naie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?anoeae a iaeanoe iaoee e oaoieee,
iaania/eaay auaiaeo io niaianoiuo i?iaeoia aeey anao eo o/anoieeia. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa iaeuecy n/eoaoue, /oi i?iaeou iniiaaiu ia i?eioeeiao
?aaiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa e iiaeaea?aeee iie ia caneoaeeaatho.

?inneeneiio i?aaeoaeuenoao ioaeii oaeaeyoue aieueoa aieiaiey eiiaa?nee
iai?iiiuo einoeoooia. Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ieiaeioai?iuo iao/iuo
eaeae n o/aoii ioiineoaeueii oi?ioae iniauaiiinoe yoeo iauaeoia iiaoo
ieacaoueny aeinoaoi/iuie n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoea iauaiu ia/aeueiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee. A oi aea a?aiy i?aaeoaeuenoai aeieaeii
o/eouaaoue iioaioeeaeueioth iianiinoue ooa/ee oaoiieiaee, a oaeaea
neaaoth caueuaiiinoue eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a noa?a aunieeo
oaoiieiaee.

Aic?iaeaeaiea iaoee a ?innee iaaiciiaeii aac iiauoaiey ?iee iieiaeuo
o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia; aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii aeieaeia noaoue ?aoi?ia nenoaiu
aunoaai ia?aciaaiey. Anee aei neo ii? aunieia ea/anoai ia?aciaaiey auei
o?aaeeoeeiiiui aeey ?innee, oi oaia?ue oi?ioea ciaiey oaoie/aneeo
aeenoeeieei iaiaoiaeeii ni/aoaoue n iaaueaie oi?aaeaiey e yeiiiie/aneiai
aiaeeca. Ieienoa?noai iaoee e oaoie/aneie iieeoeee ?O aeieaeii aieaa
aeoeaii nio?oaeie/aoue n ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie ?inneeneie noa?u ia?aciaaiey,
?aaae?oy ia e?eoeeo niaoeeaeenoia Anaie?iiai aaiea ii iiaiaeo
ianiioaaonoaey iuiaoiae nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey o?aaiaaieyi ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee, a oaeaea iaee/ey ecauoi/iiai /enea eiaeaia?ia.

I?e oii, /oi nae/an a ?innee ca?aaeno?e?iaaii aieaa 6000 niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay aieaa 1100 ec NOA,
i?eoie eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a no?aio ioiineoaeueii iaaaeee. Iiiaea
ca?oaaaeiua eiiiaiee, aa?iyoii, ?aoeeenue au ia e?oiiua aeiaeaiey
eaieoaea, anee au a ?innee nouanoaiaaea aaeaeaaoiay eio?ano?oeoo?a
aeciana, aa?aioe?othuay, /oi eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee ia aoaeoo iioa?yiu
aneaaenoaea ai?ianoaa, eiioeneaoeee, auiiaaoaeuenoaa eee /?acia?iiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeieaeii oaeaeyoue aieueoa
aieiaiey ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee ia i?aeoeea th?eaee/aneeo e
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?, noeioee?othueo aeaeiaoth aeoeaiinoue.
Oaoiieiae/aneia aoaeouaa no?aiu caaeneo io eioaa?aoeee ?inneeneiai e
caiaaeiiai ianoa?noaa e iiuoa, /oi aiciiaeii eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea
caiaaeiua oe?iu, caieiaynue aecianii a ?innee, aoaeoo /oanoaiaaoue naay
eiioi?oii.

Iaoea eae iauaeo aiaeeca

Iaoea eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony neiaeiie e aanueia
i?ioeai?a/eaie nenoaiie. A nenoaia oeeinioneeo eaoaai?ee iaoea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue iaeiieaiiiai ciaiey, io?aaeathuaai
caeiiu ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, e niiniau aai iieo/aiey. Iaeiieaiea
ciaiee yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii oaeiaeaoai?aiey anoanoaaiiie iio?aaiinoe
/aeiaaea a iauyniaiee e iiciaiee ie?a, e iaeiia?aiaiii caianciaiee
neoaeeo enoi/ieeii, eioi?iaoeeiiiie iniiaie iiciaaaoaeueiie e
niceaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Yoa aeaienoaaiiinoue
i?iyaeyaony a caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey i?ioeanna iao/iiai iiciaiey, a
ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?a e iniaaiiinoyo, ii?aaeaeaiiuo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei oeeaaeii e eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneei ianeaaeeai
ioaeaeueiuo no?ai. Oaeei ia?acii, e i?e/eiu, e neaaenoaey ?acaeoey iaoee
ei?aiyony a ?acee/iuo iio?aaiinoyo /aeiaaea e iauanoaa a oeaeii, a
iiauoaiea o?iaiy iiciaiey ie?a, ia?aie/aiiia noaiaiueth ?acaeoey iaoee,
yaeyaony e oeaeueth, e n?aaenoaii iaania/aiey iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna.
Caian ciaiee, iaeiieaiiue iauanoaii e ia/aeo eaaeaeiai io?acea a?aiaie,
a i?eioeeia eioa?iaoeeiiaeai, /oi yaeyaony iaeiei ec aai aeaaiuo
naienoa.

Ea?aeeiaeueiay i?iaeaia ?acaeoey iaoee ninoieo a oii, a eaeie ia?a
ciaiea eae iauaie?iaia aeinoiyiea iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue oaaee/aieth
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa a aai yeiiiie/aneii cia/aiee, o.a. ?inoo
aeaaininoiyiey iauanoaa a ioaeaeueiie no?aia. Aini?iecaiaenoai iao/iuo
ciaiee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao inouanoaeyaony ii caeiiai, noiaeiui n
oaie, ii eioi?ui ooieoeeiie?oao iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. A iauai
neo/aa iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iao/iua ciaiey iaeaaeatho naienoaii
iiiaie?aoiiai e aeueoa?iaoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey: a ea/anoaa ciaiey eae
oaeiaiai e iaeiia?aiaiii a ea/anoaa «eino?oiaioa» iiauoaiey o?iaiy
aeaaininoiyiey iauanoaa. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay iniaaiiinoue ciaiey eae
?acoeueoaoa iao/iiai i?ioeanna ninoieo a ?acee/ee aiciiaeiinoae aai
eniieueciaaiey.

Iniiaiie ?acoeueoao ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey ioeaieaaaony ii
aaee/eia aeeaaea a i?e?ino nouanoaothuaai caiana ciaiee. ?acoeueoao
i?eeeaaeiiai enneaaeiaaiey – ii i?e?inoo yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
iieo/aiiiio ia eiia/iie noaaeee aiaae?aiey iiaiaaaaeaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia
iao/iii ioe?uoee. A i?ioeanna eioaa?aoeee iaoee e i?iecaiaenoaa yoe
?acoeueoaou ana a aieueoae noaiaie «nii?iaiaeaeatho» ae?oa ae?oaa.
ssnii, /oi iaa yoeo oeia ?acoeueoaoia o?oaeii ecia?eoue e oai aieaa
niecia?eoue iaaeaeo niaie; iie iiaoo auoue ioeaiaiu ia noauaeoeaiie
iniiaa e ia eiatho iauai?eiyouo eiee/anoaaiiuo ecia?eoaeae. N/eoay, /oi
nenoaia o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo iao/iui niiauanoaii e eiia/iie
(iao/iie) i?iaeoeoeee, a ?acaeouo no?aiao anaai ie?a i?eia?ii
iaeeiaeiaa, a iaoeiiao?ee i?aaeeaaaaony n/eoaoue, /oi iao/iue ?acoeueoao
iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii iaoa?eaeeciaai a ioaeeeaoeee e ca?aaeno?e?iaai
eae iao/iia ioe?uoea eee ecia?aoaiea. Yoa oi/ea c?aiey iniiaaia ia
i?aaeiinueea iaeii?iaeiinoe ea/anoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey ioaeeeaoeee,
eioi?ay ia eiaao aeinoaoi/iuo iainiiaaiee.

Aua iaeiei aeaeii «i?iaeoeoeaiiai auoiaea» a iaoea iiaeao n/eoaoueny
iiaeaioiaea iao/iuo eaae?ia. A nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo eaoaai?ee yoio
o?oae iiaeao ?anoeaieaaoueny eae aeeaae a iioaioeeae ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa eaae?ia iaoee. Neaaeothuee aniaeo ?anniio?aiey iaoee –
aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eae nenoaiu, iaania/eaathuae iieo/aiea eiia/iiai
?acoeueoaoa, o.a. nai i?ioeann iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. Caian ciaiee
iiiieiyaony a i?ioeanna iao/iiai oai?/anoaa, eioi?ue, eiay ii?aaeaeaiiua
aiaeiaee n ethaui aini?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?ioeannii, iiaeao auoue iienai
eae iaeia i?aia?aciaaiea yeaiaioia cao?ao («aeeaiai e iaauanoaeaiiiai
o?oaea») a eiia/iue ?acoeueoao, ia eiathuee iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iaoa?eaeueiie i?e?iaeu, oi/iaa – iaeaaeathuee iieaciinoueth, ia
oiaeaeanoaaiiie aa iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeyi. I?ioeann oaeiai ?iaea iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae iauaeo oi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee e ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Nouanoaotho iao/ii iainiiaaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe a no?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea
yeaiaioia nenoaiu, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia aeinoeaeaiea iaeneiaeueiie
yooaeoeaiinoe. Iaoea, ?anniao?eaaaiay eae i?ioeann iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a ea/anoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu, neoaeauae iauaeoii nenoaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee. I?e
yoii aeieaeiu auoue noi?ie?iaaiu ia?niaeoeaiua caaea/e e eiia/iua oeaee
?acaeoey iaoee (ia iniiaa iaoiaeia i?iaiice?iaaiey), ii?aaeaeaiu niiniau
e n?aaenoaa aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae (/oi aoiaeeo a ooieoeeth
ieaie?iaaiey), iaai? n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey, iaania/eaathueo ia?yaeo n
oi?aaeythueie iiaeaea?aeeaathuea eee ?aaoee?othuea aicaeaenoaey, a
oaeaea o/ao e eiio?ieue n?aaenoa, ?anoiaeoaiuo ia ?acaeoea iaoee. Iaoea
eae noa?a /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeia iaania/eaaoueny ?ano?naie
e eio?ano?oeoo?ie; /a?ac ieo iia oaniui ia?acii acaeiinaycaia n
yeiiiie/aneei iioaioeeaeii e iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae i?iaeoeey
nenoaiu yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Iineieueeo ciaiey, iieo/aiiua a
i?ioeanna iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?yii eee einaaiii eniieuecothony a
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea a iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a (ia?aciaaiea,
cae?aaiio?aiaiea), oi iie iinooiatho eae au a iaaeio?aneaaie iaiai.
Oiaaea iaoa?eaeueiay eiiiiiaioa iao/iiai iioaioeeaea yaeyaony /anoueth
i?iaeoeoa oiiaeinicaeathoeo io?aneae, ia?acothuae iaaeio?aneaaoth
iinoaaeo.

Iao/iua eaae?u – oaeaea /anoue iaaeio?aneaauo iioieia (a oii /enea
iaaeaeo ia?aciaaoaeueiie e iao/iie noa?aie e aioo?e naiie noa?u IEIE?).
Aicaeaenoaea enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie ia ae?oaea io?anee i?iyaeyaony a
oa?aeoa?enoeeao yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, a /anoiinoe, a eciaiaiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe, oiiaeiaieinoe,
iaoa?eaei- e yia?aiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee io?aneae.

Nouanoaaiiui oaeaea yaeythony yooaeou «niei-ioo», o.a. aeiiieieoaeueiua
auaiaeu, eioi?ua iieo/atho iaeie i?iecaiaeeoaee (io?anee) io
enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaiaeeiuo ae?oaeie. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie e
iiiaiiaauathueie n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey i?aaenoaaeythony
yooaeou «niei-ioo» ec aiaiiiai a a?aaeaeaineee naeoi? yeiiiieee. Iaeiaei
ia iaiaa nouanoaaiiui yaeyaony e oio oaeo, /oi ai anao io?aneyo
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee iaoea iicaieyao ?anoe?youe a?aieoeu, a eioi?uo
inouanoaeythony eiie?aoiua enneaaeiaaiey, i?aaiecoy iiaua oeaii/ee
iaaeio?aneaauo naycae a yeiiiieea.

Ia?yaeo n yeiiiie/aneeie yooaeoaie iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue (/a?ac
aiaae?aiea eee ae?oaea oi?iu ?aaeecaoeee aa ?acoeueoaoia) ieacuaaao
aicaeaenoaea e ia nioeeaeueioth noa?o. Ioeaiee nioeeaeueiuo e eieaeueiuo
(i?yiuo yeiiiie/aneeo) yooaeoia iaoee, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iaeioi?ua
ca?oaaaeiua enneaaeiaaoaee, niioiinyony ae?oa n ae?oaii eae 2:1.
«Iaaeio?aneaaay iinoaaea» iaoee a i?iecaiaenoai ?aaeecoaony einaaiii,
iooai eiaeoeoeee iiaiaaaaeaiee, ninoiyueo eeai a iiaie, aieaa
i?iaeoeoeaiie oaoieee eee oaoiieiaee, eeai a nicaeaiee i?iaeoeoa,
eiathuaai i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua iio?aaeoaeueneea ea/anoaa, eeai a
oeo/oaiee oneiaee aeecie, oneiaee e i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea. A aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa a ea/anoaa i?iiaaeooi/iiai caaia iaaeaeo iaoeie e i?iecaiaenoaii
aunooiaao iiaay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey. Aeayoaeueiinoue, ioaaouaathuay ana
noaaeee i?ioeanna iiaiaaaaeaiey io enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie aei
nicaeaiey e oe?aaee?iaaiey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, yaeyaony oneiaeai ?acaeoey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

Ainoaea?noai iiaeao ?aaoee?iaaoue eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann /a?ac
iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa a ?acaeoee iaoee e oaoieee, /a?ac i?aaeeiaeaiea
iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oaoieee e oaoiieiaee ni noi?iiu iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee
e i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e, iaeiiaoe, /a?ac oi?ie?iaaiea
aeaaii?eyoiie «iiaiaaaaeai/aneie» n?aaeu.

A ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao ainoaea?noai aeoeaii eniieuecoao
ana o?e eaiaea noeioee?iaaiey iiaiaaaaeaiee: athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea
eiie?aoiuo i?iaeoia, oaoie/aneay iiiiuue oe?iai, aiaae?ythuei ?acee/iua
oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea iiaoanoaa; i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiio?aeoia;
iaeiaiaua eueaiou, nicaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eio?ano?oeoo?u, a oii
/enea eiaeaia?iuo oeaio?ia, e ae?oaea ia?u einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
eiiiaaoeee.

A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu ainoaea?noai ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei
iaoiaeaie aeanoeiai eiio?iey iaae i?iaaaeaieai aiaae?ai/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Yoi iauyniyao, ii/aio ia?iiiue i?aeoe/aneee yooaeo aeey
?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, eioi?ue aeatho enneaaeiaaiey,
?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiea iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee e i?iaeoeoeee a NOA e
ae?oaeo, yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao, ia i?iyaeyeny noieue aea yaii a
NNN?. Ia inoaiaaeeaaynue iiae?iaii ia yoii aii?ina, ioiaoei ii e?aeiae
ia?a, aeaa aniaeoa, auoaeathuea ec i?aaeuaeouaai eceiaeaiey. Ai-ia?auo,
aeaaea a neo/aa oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee ia?aiai yoaia iiaiaaaaeai/aneiai
i?ioeanna a ?innee i?aeoe/anee iaiiaeaioiaeaiiie aeey i?iaaaeaiey
iineaaeothueo yoaiia ieacuaaaony iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneay aaca
aieueoeinoaa i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ai-aoi?uo, iineieueeo
eiiia?/aneee oniao e caaiaaaiea aioo?aiiaai, a oai aieaa ie?iaiai ?uiea
a oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu ia yaeyeinue aaaeouei
yeaiaioii no?aoaaee ?acaeoey eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey e aeaaea io?anee a
oeaeii (iayniui inoaaony aii?in i naiii nouanoaiaaiee yoie no?aoaaee ia
i?aaei?eyoee, iauaaeeiaiee e io?anee a oneiaeyo aeanoeiai aee?aeoeaiiai
ieaie?iaaiey), oi eneaaeaaony e naia no?oeoo?a iiaiaaaaeai/aneiai
i?ioeanna. I?eaaaeai eeoue iaeei i?eia?. A 1988 a., eiaaea i?aeoe/anee
ana i?aaei?eyoey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai eiiieaena NNN? oaea ?aaioaee a
iiauo oicyenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo, oieueei 7% iiauo iaoei e aiia?aoia
i?aainoiaeeee ii oaoie/aneiio o?iaith eo/oea ie?iaua noaiaea?ou.

A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, nouanoaiaaaoae a NNN? ia
i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeia eao, nai eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann ai iiiaeo naieo
aniaeoao i?ioeai?a/ee o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaia nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo
e iieeoe/aneeo no?oeoo?, ea?a?oee aeanoiuo ioiioaiee e niioaaonoaothuei
oeiai oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee ioaeaeueiuo ee/iinoae, eieeaeoeaia e
aeaaea iauanoaa a oeaeii). Oae, ainoaea?noai iiaeao ?aaoee?iaaoue
eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann /a?ac iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa a ?acaeoee iaoee e
oaoieee, /a?ac i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oaoieee e oaoiieiaee ni
noi?iiu iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee e i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e, iaeiiaoe,
/a?ac oi?ie?iaaiea aeaaii?eyoiie «iiaiaaaaeai/aneie» n?aaeu. A ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao ainoaea?noai aeoeaii eniieuecoao ana o?e
eaiaea noeioee?iaaiey iiaiaaaaeaiee: athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea
eiie?aoiuo i?iaeoia, oaoie/aneay iiiiuue oe?iai, aiaae?ythuei ?acee/iua
oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea iiaoanoaa; i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiio?aeoia;
iaeiaiaua eueaiou, nicaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eio?ano?oeoo?u, a oii
/enea eiaeaia?iuo oeaio?ia, e ae?oaea ia?u einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
eiiiaaoeee. A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu ainoaea?noai
ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei iaoiaeaie aeanoeiai eiio?iey ca i?iaaaeaieai
aiaae?ai/aneiai i?ioeanna. Yoi iauyniyao, ii/aio ia?iiiue i?aeoe/aneee
yooaeo aeey ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, eioi?ue aeatho
enneaaeiaaiey, ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiea iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee e i?iaeoeoeee
a NOA e ae?oaeo yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao, ia i?iyaeyeny noieue aea
yaii a NNN? e ia i?iyaeyaony nae/an a ?innee. Ia inoaiaaeeaaynue
iiae?iaii ia yoii aii?ina, ioiaoei ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaa aniaeoa,
auoaeathuea ec i?aaeuaeouaai eceiaeaiey. Ai-ia?auo, aeaaea a neo/aa
oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee ia?aiai yoaia iiaiaaaaeai/aneiai i?ioeanna a ?innee
i?aeoe/anee iaiiaeaioiaeaiiie aeey i?iaaaeaiey iineaaeothueo yoaiia
ieacuaaaony iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneay aaca aieueoeinoaa i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Ai-aoi?uo, iineieueeo eiiia?/aneee oniao e caaiaaaiea
aioo?aiiaai, a oai aieaa ie?iaiai ?uiea a oneiaeyo
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu ia yaeyeinue aaaeouei yeaiaioii
no?aoaaee ?acaeoey eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey e aeaaea io?anee a oeaeii
(iayniui inoaaony aii?in i naiii nouanoaiaaiee yoie no?aoaaee ia
i?aaei?eyoee, iauaaeeiaiee e io?anee a oneiaeyo aeanoeiai aee?aeoeaiiai
ieaie?iaaiey), oi eneaaeaaony e naia no?oeoo?a iiaiaaaaeai/aneiai
i?ioeanna.

I?e yoii iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi oe?iu a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao
n/eoatho ionoonoaea eiieo?aioeee iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oi?iicia (ia?yaeo
n iaaieei ?uieii e iaii?aaeaeaiiui ni?inii) aeey yooaeoeaiiai
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. I?ei?eoaou yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai
?acaeoey ieacuaatho oaeaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia no?oeoo?o e
ianooaau oeiaine?iaaiey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee (a oeaeii e ii
ioaeaeueiui iai?aaeaieyi).

Niaianoiue aiaeec iieacaoaeae no?oeoo?u anneaiiaaiee ii io?aneyi ciaiee
(«i?iecaiaeeoaeae» iao/iiai i?iaeoeoa) e cao?ao ia i?eeeaaeiua
enneaaeiaaiey ii io?aneyi iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u («iio?aaeoaeae» yoeo ciaiee) ii no?aiai
iaiaoiaeei aeey auyaeaiey iauaeoeaiuo «ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae» a iao/iie i?iaeoeoeee. Oioy ainoaea?noai e ia yaeyaony
aeaaiui «i?iecaiaeeoaeai» ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo e i?eeeaaeiuo ?aaio, aai
aeiey a eo oeiaine?iaaiee aaeeea ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao. A NOA ieiei
45% i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo oiiaeia ia IEIE? iinooiaao a i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a
aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao – ieiei 30 %, a ssiiiee – 4 %, a Eiaeee – 38% Aeiey
aocia a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo oiiaeao ninoaaeyao, niioaaonoaaiii 26, 33, 52
e 14%. A na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia a NOA ainoaea?noai oeiaine?iaaei ieiei
70%, a O?A e Aaeeeia?eoaiee – 80, ai O?aioeee – 90, a ssiiiee – 50%
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Aeiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa a
oeiaine?iaaiee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee a ?AI a 1996 a. ninoaaeea
ieiei 76%.

A oi aea a?aiy a ?innee e Eiaeee n?aaee eniieieoaeae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee a n?aaiaiee n ?acaeouie eaieoaeenoe/aneeie no?aiaie
ioiineoaeueii iecea aeiey aunoae oeieu – 10-15% (a na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia
a NOA – 57%, ssiiiee – 59, O?A – 58, O?aioeee – 67, Aaeeeia?eoaiee – 55,
Oaaoeee – 84% ). A ?innee e Eiaeee auniea aeiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena (AIE) – ieiei 39% a Eiaeee, ieiei 45% a
?innee (a NOA – 21%, ssiiiee – 29, O?A – 17, O?aioeee – 9,
Aaeeeia?eoaiee – 17, Oaaoeee – 7%).

Aeeyiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu ia aa iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
iiceoeee, oneeaiea oaeoi?a ciaiee a ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycyo nae/an
iaeaieaa /aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony a iieeoeea anao yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo
no?ai. Ia oiia iiauoaiey n?aaeiaai o?iaiy oaeaeueiie io?aneaaie
iaoeiaieinoe a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai iaaethaeaaony iiaue oei
yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee, aeeth/athuae e ?acee/iua iiaeaee yenii?oiiai
iiaaaeaiey, iie?athuaeny ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth iieeoeeo,
i?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea aunieioaoiieiae/iuo io?aneae. I?ienoiaeeo
naa?ouaaiea iaoa?eaeiaieeo e yia?aiaieeo io?aneae, ioeac io
«oieaa?naeueiiai iaai?a io?aneae» a iieueco oceiai iaai?a iiaaeoeo
oaoiieiaee, ?aaeecoaiuo ia iaeeina?eeiii e auno?iniaiyaiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. A oicyenoaa eaaeaeie no?aiu nicaeaaony, oaeei ia?acii,
nianoaaiiay iiaeaeaeiay nenoaia aunieioaoiieiae/iuo io?aneae,
iicaieythueo caoaaoeoue naie eonie ie?iaiai ?uiea.

A na?aaeeia 80-x aiaeia a aaaeoueo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao (O?A,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, ssiiiey, NOA, O?aioeey) cia/aiea oaeaeueiie iaoeiaieinoe
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe eieaaaeinue io 14% (O?aioeee) aei 19
(NOA), yeaeo?iieee io 20 % (O?aioeey) aei 53 (ssiiiey), aaeano?iaiey io
5% (ssiiiey) aei 43 (O?A), iaoeiino?iaiey io 4% (ssiiiey) aei 13 (NOA),
o?ainii?oa io 5% (O?aioeey) aei 12 (NOA), oeiee io 6% (O?aioeey) aei 16
(ssiiiey). O?aioeey, O?A, ssiiiey ieacaeenue /enouie yenii?oa?aie a
/aou?ao ec oanoe iacaaiiuo io?aneae, Aieeaiaeey, Oaaeoea?ey, NOA,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey – a o?ao, Oaaoeey, Aaeueaey e Aeaiey – a aeaoo. I?e yoii
aeaoe?aoiia i?aainoiaenoai yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii iaaethaeaeinue a o?ao
no?aiao: Aeaiee (oa?iaoeaaoeea), NOA (naiieaoino?iaiea), Oaaeoea?ee
(yeaeo?iiiua eiiiiiaiou, iao/iua i?eai?u); o?aoe?aoiia – a Oaaoeee
(oa?iaoeaaoeea); /aou?aoe?aoiia – a ssiiiee (YAI, iai?oaeiaaiea nayce,
iao/iua i?eai?u). Ii i?iecaiaenoao iai?oaeiaaiey nayce a ssiiiee
iaaethaeaaony aeaayoee?aoiia i?aauoaiea yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii. Iaeiaei
ianiio?y ia iiaeaeaeiinoue anae nenoaiu, ?acaeoea iaoee a yoeo no?aiao
ana a aieueoae noaiaie iiae/eiyaony aicaeaenoaeth iauaai oiaea ie?iaiai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, i?e yoii oe?aieaiea yenii?oiuo iiceoeee ca n/ao
iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneae – n aunieie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoueth e
cao?aoaie a noa?a IEIE? – noaiiaeony iniiaie no?aoaaee aioo?aiiaai
?acaeoey.

Oaea a na?aaeeia 7()-o aiaeia aeiey iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee a
iaoeiino?iaiee ?acaeouo no?ai au?inea nouanoaaiii e ninoaaeea a NOA 55%,
ssiiiee – 48, O?A – 27 (a yenii?oa niioaaonoaaiii 33%, 38%, e 28%). A oi
aea a?aiy a NNN? ia iaoeiino?iaiea a oeaeii a 1986 a. i?eoiaeeeinue
ieiei 15% noiia?iiai iauaia yenii?oa, ia aeieth oeiee – 3,5%.

I?eaioaoeey ia io?anee, iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiua n oi/ee c?aiey
oe?aieaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iiceoeee no?aiu, i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth
ii?aaeaeaiiiai noiaenoaa a iai?aaeaieyo ?acaeoey, iaeiaei aiciiaeiinoe
?aaeecaoeee yoeo i?eaioe?ia aa?uee?othony nouanoaaiii, eiieo?aioeey a
yoie iaeanoe i/aiue auniea e iiceoeee ioaeaeueiuo no?ai iaiythony
iinoiyiii. *oi eanaaony no?ai n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie, eo niaieoiiue
yeiiiie/aneee e iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae (ianiio?y ia nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a yoeo no?aiao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy) ?aaeeciaai ia
iieiinoueth, iiyoiio ianoi yoeo no?ai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee
o?oaea iaauniei.

No?oeoo?iue aiaeec athaeaeaoia IEIE?.

Iauee acaeyae ia iaoeo, iai?aaeaiey e iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee aeieaeiu auoue aeiiieiaiu ?anniio?aieai
iaoaiecia oeiaine?iaaiey, iineieueeo eiaiii /a?ac iaai ?aaeecoaony
yeiiiie/aneee aacen i?ei?eoaoiinoe. Iineieueeo ?ano?nu iauanoaa,
ia?aie/aiu, ii?aaeaeaiea noiia?iuo cao?ao a noa?a IEIE? ia yaeyaony
caaea/ae iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee. N oi/ee c?aiey oeaeae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey i?ei?eoaou ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee
oi?ie?othony a o?ao iaeanoyo: ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia, «oi/ee ?inoa»,
io?aaeathuea iiaua iauanoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe e niioaaonoaothuea
no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a ie?iaie iaoea, e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea
ia?aie/aiey.

O?ainoi?iaoeey oeaeae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a oeaee
?acaeoey noa?u IEIE? e aeaeaa a eiie?aoiua iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaeiaaiey
n?aaenoa iauanoaa yaeyaony neiaeiui iaiaeiicia/iui i?ioeannii,
o?aaothuei inouanoaeaiey oeaeiai eiiieaena aeieain?i/iuo ia?ii?eyoee.
O/eouaay i?eioeeieaeueiia aaeeinoai yeiiiie/aneeo e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo
caaea/, acaeiinaycue e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, neaaeoao
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeey eaaeaeie no?aiu yooaeoeaiia inouanoaeaiea yoeo
ia?ii?eyoee iaoneiaeaii iauanoaaiiuie iio?aaiinoyie a iaoea,
aiciiaeiinoyie iauanoaa a eaaeaeue aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie auaeaeyoue
n?aaenoaa ia oeaee ?acaeoey iaoee e aiciiaeiinoyie ?acaeoey naiie iaoee.

Enneaaeiaaiea naaeaine?iaaiiinoe no?oeoo?u ?anoiaeia ia IEIE?
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ii ?acee/iui iai?aaeaieyi aeieaeii auoue
nii?yaeaii n iauei iauaiii ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia ?acaeoea
yeiiiieee, iai?iiu, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae e o.ae., a oaeaea n
ioeaieie aaee/eiu oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?acaeoey iaoee
a oeaeii e iniiaiuo io?aneae yeiiiieee. Nenoaia oeaeaiieaaaiey ethaiai
ainoaea?noaa ia oieueei eciaiyaony n oa/aieai a?aiaie, ii e aeeth/aao a
naay ?acee/iua i?ino?ainoaaiiua e a?aiaiiua, eiiaaea e ianiaianoeiua
ae?oa n ae?oaii, ?ac?acu. A oi aea a?aiy i?e iaaeno?aiiauo
niiinoaaeaieyo eioi?iaoeey, niaea?aeauayny a athaeaeaoao, iicaieyao
(ianiio?y ia ?acee/ioth noaiaiue aeaoaeecaoeee athaeaeaoiuo noaoae)
niiinoaaeoue i?ei?eoaoiinoue cao?ao ia ?acaeoea iao/iiai iioaioeeaea n
i?ei?eoaoiinoueth ?anoiaeia ii oeiaine?iaaieth nioeeaeueiuo,
iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae. A ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey niaeaniaaiey
yoeo oeaeae iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue niioaaonoaea oeaeaauo iai?aaeaiee
?anoiaeia ii iniiaiui noaoueyi athaeaeaoa.

A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue, a
eaeie ia?a aeinoeaeaiea ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae
niinianoaoao eee i?ioeai?a/eo oeaeyi ?acaeoey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
iioaioeeaea. A ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee eiaeeeaoi?aie «ianoiyoaeueiinoe»
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae (eee i?ei?eoaoaie) iiaoo neoaeeoue oaiiu ?inoa
?anoiaeia ii niioaaonoaothuei noaoueyi athaeaeaoa. Aaaeiie caaea/ae
aiaeeca yaeyaony e aieaa iiae?iaiia eco/aiea athaeaeaoia IEIE?.
Oeiaine?iaaiea IEIE? yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii iaoaiecia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey iaoeie a yeiiiie/anee
?acaeouo no?aiao, iineieueeo iicaieyao iaeiia?aiaiii eiio?iee?iaaoue e
eii?aeeie?iaaoue enoi/ieee iiaeeecaoeee, eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
iai?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia IEIE?. Iniaay ?ieue oeiaine?iaaiey a
?acaeoee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ethaie no?aiu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
ooieoeey oeiainia aeaienoaaiia, a eo ?ieue a i?ioeannao
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee oie eee eiie noa?u /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?ioeai?a/eaa.

I?eiaieoaeueii e noa?a IEIE?, oeiainu – yoi aaaeiaeoee eino?oiaio
oi?aaeaiey e ?aaoee?iaaiey enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie a oneiaeyo
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, iaiouaieaiue yeaiaio oicyenoaaiiiai
iaoaiecia, iicaieythuee ianuoeoue noa?o IEIE? ?ano?naie. A oi aea a?aiy
oeiainu iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iniaue ?ano?n iaoee, i?aaenoaaeythuee
niaie aeaiaaeiue yeaeaaeaio cao?a/eaaaiuo o?oaeiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia e ?anniao?eaaaiue oieueei ai acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaee n
ae?oaeie (eaae?iauie, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeie, eioi?iaoeeiiiuie)
?ano?naie. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oeiainiaay nenoaia i?eiaieoaeueii
e noa?a IEIE? iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aia oieueei niaianoii n
acaeiinaycaiiie n iae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie, ?aaoee?othueie
eino?oiaioaie e yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie
enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai i?ioeanna. A oii neo/aa, eiaaea iaaeaeo oeiainiauie
e ae?oaeie ?ano?naie nouanoaoao naaeaine?iaaiiinoue, o.a. ana aeaiaaeiua
oiiaeu eiatho iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiia iie?uoea, oeiainu iaania/eaatho
aini?iecaiaenoai anao inoaeueiuo ?ano?nia. ?aaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
yoiai iaoaiecia a ?acee/iuo no?aiao i?ienoiaeeo a eiie?aoiuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?iao e iiae/eiyaony iauei caeiiiia?iinoyi
oicyenoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa no?aiu; a oi aea a?aiy iiiaea i?eioeeiu
oi?ie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia, a oaeaea iaoiaeeea
noaoenoe/aneie io/aoiinoe a ?acee/iuo no?aiao iioiaea, iineieueeo
yooaeoeaiinoue aicaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa a noa?a IEIE? ii?aaeaeyaony
ianooaaaie eiioeaio?aoeee, oeaio?aeecaoeee e iai?aaeaieyie
?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

Aiaeec i?ioeannia oeiaine?iaaiey noa?u IEIE? a yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo
no?aiao iicaieyao ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ?acia? oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
?anoiaeoaiuo ia ia?aueaaiea iao/iiai iioaioeeaea, ii?aaeaeyaony,
ai-ia?auo, ninoiyieai yeiiiieee, aeeiaie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, iiceoeeyie no?aiu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea e aeiaaeueiii iao/ii-oaoie/aneii iioaioeeaea;
ai-aoi?uo, no?aoaaeae iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa e
yooaeoeaiinoueth ia?ii?eyoee ?aaoee?iaaiey; a-o?aoueeo, no?oeoo?ie
?anoiaeiaaiey n?aaenoa, iai?aaeaiiuo ia aeinoeaeaiea ?acee/iuo
iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaeae yeiiiie/aneiai, iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. E caeanue, ia iao acaeyae, i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui ioiaoeoue ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaa eeth/aauo iiiaioa:
iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey iauae ainoaea?noaaiiie iao/iie e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee e io?aaeaiea yoeo iniaaiiinoae a eiie?aoiuo
ia?ii?eyoeyo i?aaeoaeuenoaa /a?ac iaoaieci athaeaeaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey;
acaeiinaycue oeaeae iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee e anaai eiiieaena
iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaeae ainoaea?noaa.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iieeoeea no?aiu (a oie oi?ia, a eioi?ie iia
ii?aaeaeaia a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aeieoiaioao) io?aaeaao naiua iauea
oeaee ?acaeoey, a niaieoiiinoe ia?acothuea nenoaio eino?oiaioaeueiuo e
eiee/anoaaiiuo oeaeae, aeinoeaaaioth a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee
athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee. «Iiaeaioiaea e ooaa?aeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiue ?u/aa, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai
iaania/eaaaony ?acaeoea iai?aaeaiee IEIE? ia?aii/a?aaeiie aaaeiinoe.
Iinoaiaiiia eciaiaiea a no?oeoo?a ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ei?eoaoia i?eaiaeeo
e ii?aaeaeaiiie i?eaioaoeee, eeai ia?ai?eaioe?iaaieth oneeee a noa?a
IEIE?».

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a athaeaeaoa IEIE? yaeyaony io?aaeaieai oeaeae
ainoaea?noaaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee (a iaueo athaeaeaoia –
oeaeae iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee). ?anniio?ei athaeaeaou iyoe
yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai e i?iaiaeece?oai eo
ooieoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o. A i?eaaaeaiiie no?oeoo?a iiaoo auoue
auaeaeaiu o?e e?oiiua ooieoeeiiaeueiua a?oiiu oeaeae, ia aeinoeaeaiea
eioi?uo iai?aaeaiu aeeoioee?oaiua a athaeaeaoa n?aaenoaa:
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneea oeaee, iiaeaea?aeaiea io?aneae oicyenoaa,
iaaeinoaoi/ii i?eaueueiuo aeey /anoiiai naeoi?a, e nioeeaeueiua oeaee.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a athaeaeaoia IEIE? a 1980 a. (a %)*

No?aia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

NOA 47,3 14,5 1,9 3,0 11,4 0,9 2,0 12,0 3,0 3,0

ssiiiey 4,2 12,0 0,0 37,6 26,2 2,9 4,2 6,1 3,1 4,0

O?A 15,3 6,6 2,4 15,3 20,9 3,2 10,0 4,4 9,1 14,2

O?aioeey 40,0 6,8 2,4 12,2 8,3 3,0 4,8 4,9 9,1 14,2

Aaeeeia?eoaiey 59,4 2,3 3,1 8,3 7,3 0,7 2,1 1,8 2,1 12,9

1 – aiaiiua ?anoiaeu, 2 – aiaiiua einie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, 3 –
a?aaeaeaineea einie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, 4 – yeiiiieea, 5 – yia?aaoeea,
6 – o?ainii?o, 7 – eio?ano?oeoo?a, 8 – cae?aaiio?aiaiea, 9 –
nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea e 10 – ia?aciaaiea.

Iineieueeo ?anniao?eaaeenue oaeaeueiua iieacaoaee, yoa i?ioeaaeo?a
iicaieeea n?aaieoue ioiineoaeueioth aaaeiinoue oao eee eiuo iai?aaeaiee
?anoiaeiaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?acaeoey
noa?u IEIE? a aeeiaieea e no?aiiaii ?ac?aca. I?e anae oneiaiinoe oaeiai
?an/aoa, ii iaaeyaeii iicaieee i?ineaaeeoue no?oeoo?o ?aaeueiuo
i?aaeii/oaiee i?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee athaeaeaoia IEIE? a 80-a aiaeu: ia?aua
aeanyoue iano a ?aiaiaie no?oeoo?a onoie/eai caieiatho aiaiiua ?anoiaeu
anao no?ai ca eneeth/aieai ssiiiee, aiaiiua e einie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey
NOA e ?anoiaeu a iaeanoe yeiiiieee e yia?aaoeee ssiiiee e O?A.

Aieaa iiae?iaiay no?oeoo?a athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia ia IEIE? i?eaiaeeony
aeey no?ai AYN. A?aaeaeaineea enneaaeiaaiey iiaeiuatho a aieueoeinoaa
yoeo no?ai 80-100% anaai iauaia anneaiiaaiee. ?anoiaeu ia aiaiiue IEIE?
ninoaaeyee a 1989 a. a oeaeii ii AYN aieaa 25% anneaiiaaiee (a 1975 a.
22%), iaeiaei oieueei o?e no?aiu ec ?anniio?aiiuo aeaayoe eiatho aunieee
?aia aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia (Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?aioeey e O?A); i?e yoii a O?A
aeiey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia a 1989 a. ii n?aaiaieth n 1975 a. nieceeanue ia
2 i?ioeaioiuo ioieoa. Ana inoaeueiua no?aiu ?acaeaathony ii
o?aaeeoeeiiiiio yeiiiie/aneiio iooe. N?aaee ieo iaeaieaa aeecee e
«ie?iie» iiaeaee Ieaea?eaiaeu, Aaeueaey e Aeaiey. Aeey anao no?ai
niiauanoaa aunieee ?aia eiatho enneaaeiaaiey, oeiaine?oaiua ec iaueo
oieaa?neoaoneeo oiiaeia. Oioy iauai n?aaenoa, eaeoueo ia yoe oeaee, a
1989 a. ii n?aaiaieth n 1975 a. nieceeny ia 20%, a n?aaeiai ii no?aiai
10 noaouey caieiaao aoi?ia ianoi iinea ?anoiaeia ia aiaiiua IEIE?. Anee
?anniao?eaaoue eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u athaeaeaoa a oeaeii ii AYN (1975-1989
aa.), oi ?anoiaeu ia oaoie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey nieaeathony, a
aoiaieoa?iua ?anooo. Oae, iaoe ?an/aou iieacuaatho, /oi a oeaeii ii AYN
nouanoaaiii nieceeenue aeiee ?anoiaeia ii neaaeothuei noaoueyi:
eio?ano?oeoo?a (a /anoiinoe, ii O?aioeee, O?A, Aaeeeia?eoaiee),
nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea (O?A, Ieaea?eaiaeu, Aaeueaey), iauea
oieaa?neoaoneea oiiaeu (O?A, Eoaeey, Aaeueaey). Oaaee/eeenue aeiee
?anoiaeia ii noaoueyi: yeieiaey (O?A, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aaeueaey),
naeueneia oicyenoai (O?A, Eoaeey, Aaeueaey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, E?eaiaeey),
i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e oaoiieiaey (O?A, Eoaeey, Ieaea?eaiaeu,
Aeaiey), iai?iia (O?aioeey, Eoaeey, Ieaea?eaiaeu, Aaeeeia?eoaiey).

………………

Aeey oiai /oiau n?aaieoue i?ei?eoaou iao/iie iieeoeee NNN? e ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, iaie aue eniieueciaai ae?oaie ?ac?ac
athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia. A oaaeeoea i?eaaaeaiu no?oeoo?iua ioeaiee
?anoiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa IEIE? i?aaeoaeuenoaa NOA e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa NNN? ii io?aneyi ciaiee (on?aaeiaiiua
aeaiiua ca 1986-1988 aa.). Niiinoaaea niioaaonoaothuea eieiiee yoie
oaaeeoeu, iu iiaeai ioeaieoue i?aaeii/oaiey a ?anoiaeiaaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa. A iaaeo no?aiao ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao
caieiaao aieueoia ianoi a oeiaine?iaaiee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee; i?e yoii a NNN? ?anoiaeaeaiey a i?ioeaioiuo aeieyo
?anoiaeiaaiey n?aaenoa ia ?acaeoea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo e i?eeeaaeiuo
enneaaeiaaiee iaiaa cia/eoaeueiu aeey anao iaeanoae ciaiee (ii
aaniethoiie aaee/eia a NNN? a 1,2 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai a NOA). Yoi
iauyniyaony, ai-ia?auo, oe?ieei ?ani?ino?aiaieai i?eioeeia
«?aciacuaaiey» n?aaenoa, auoaeathuei ec eiaeii o?aeooaiie eaeae
nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe a ioiioaiee e iaoea, e ionoonoaeai /aoei
au?aaeaiiie eiioeaioeee acaeiiioiioaiee ainoaea?noaa e iaoee. Ai-aoi?uo,
a NOA aieaa yooaeoeaii aeaenoaoao iaoaieci noeioee?iaaiey IEIE? a
io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ca n/ao /anoiiai aeciana, /oi iaania/eaaao
ioiineoaeueioth yeiiiieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa ia i?eeeaaeiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo a io?aneyo. E?iia oiai, a NOA ainoaea?noai naeaeoeaii
ioiineony e oeiaine?iaaieth IEIE?: oai, aaea yoi aiciiaeii,
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaeii/eoaao nicaeaaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua noeioeu aeey
oiai, /oiau oe?iu i?iaiaeeee enneaaeiaaiey ia iniiaa nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa.

………………………………………

A iaaeo no?aiao ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay iaeaieueooth aeieth noiia?iuo
?anoiaeia a iaoeao i aeecie, oece/aneeo iaoeao, ii a NOA ioiineoaeueii
aieueoee i?ioeaio yoeo n?aaenoa iai?aaeyaony ia ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey. A NNN? ainoaea?noai oeiaine?oao io 10 aei 20%
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee a iaoeao ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaea,
iaoaiaoeea e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea. Iiaeii oaeaea ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
ca eneeth/aieai iauanoaaiiuo iaoe e iaoe i aeecie ai anao aeenoeeieeiao
i?aaeoaeuenoai NOA aa?ao ia naay aieueooth aeieth ?anoiaeia, /ai a NNN?.
Aua iaeei ?ac?ac aiaeeca i?ei?eoaoia: no?oeoo?a noa?u IEIE? ii io?aneyi
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e io?aneaaui eiiieaenai. A NOA aeaoaeece?iaaiiay
io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a IEIE? ioaeeeoaony oieueei aeey io?aneae
ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe; ec iauae noiiu IEIE? 1/3 auiieiyaony a
oieaa?neoaoao, eieeaaeaeao e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo, 2/3 – a
io?aneaaii naeoi?a, aaea iaeaieaa aaaeiia ianoi caieiatho
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiue eiiieaen – 28,8%, o?ainii?oiue eiiieaen – 59%, aieaa
ne?iiiuie iieacaoaeyie i?ei?eoaoiinoe iaeaaeatho IEIE? a oeie/aneii
eiiieaena – 2,2%, e iaoaeeo?aee – 1,5%.

A ?aieao ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey io?aneae iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea
a NOA i?eaeaaony oaeaea oeiaine?iaaieth ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee:
i?aaeoaeuenoai oeiaine?oao ieiei 50% ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee a
i?eai?ino?iaiee, 36% – a naiieaoino?iaiee e yeaeo?iiaoeiino?iaiee, 18% –
a oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A oi aea a?aiy eaaeaeay io?aneue ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa eiaao naie
i?ei?eoaou a noa?a IEIE? ii iaeanoyi ciaiee. I?ei?eoaou io?aneaauo
eiiieaenia a auai?a aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee
a NOA e NNN? ?acee/iu. Ec i?iaaaeaiiuo ?an/aoia aeaeii, /oi, iai?eia?,
oeieei-eaniie eiiieaen i?aeiouanoaaiii i?eaioe?iaai ia i?iaaaeaiea
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe oece/aneeo iaoe, aeeth/athueo
ii eeanneoeeaoeee e oeie/aneea iaoee (?anoiaeu ia yoe enneaaeiaaiey
ninoaaeytho ieiei 70% io iauae noiiu cao?ao ia ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey a yoii eiiieaena). Anaai 1% ?anoiaeia ioiineony e
enneaaeiaaieyi a iaeanoe iaoe ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, aieaa 6% – e
eiaeaia?iui iaoeai, 20% – e iaoeai i aeecie. Iaoe ioeaiee aeey NNN?,
i?eaeeaeaiii niiinoaaeiua n yoeie ?an/aoaie, iieacuaatho, /oi a
niaaoneie iaoea eiiieaenu oeiee, o?ainii?oa e iaoaeeo?aee aiiaua ia
i?iaiaeyo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, eniieuecoy iaaeno?aiiaua n?aaiaiey aeey aiaeeca
no?aoaaee e e?eoa?eaa iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee, iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae i oii, /oi a NOA aieaa aunieei i?ei?eoaoii iaeaaeatho
aeieain?i/iua oeaee, iaeiei ec n?aaenoa aeey aeinoeaeaiey eioi?uo
yaeyaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iaoea. Ia yoi oeacuaaao e aieaa cia/eoaeueiay
aaee/eia aaniethoiiai noiia?iiai ?ac?uaa a no?oeoo?ao ooiaeaiaioaeueiie
e i?eeeaaeiie iaoee e aieueoay aeeaa?neoeeaoeey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee ii io?aneaaui eiiieaenai. Yoa i?eaioaoeey iaania/eaaao
iauaa iiauoaiea o?iaiy enneaaeiaaiee, a a eiia/iii n/aoa, e oaoie/aneiai
o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa iooai inaiaiey ia?aaeiauo aeinoeaeaiee ie?iaie
iaoee ia oieueei a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oeaio?ao aeaaeaie/aneie iaoee, ii
e ai anai ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.

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Eoiae ii noieaoeai ia ninoaaeytho 100%, iineieueeo iacaiieiaiiua eeaoee
ia yaeythony ioeaauie, iaeiaei eioi?iaoeey aeey eo caiieiaiey
ionoonoaoao. A NNN? enneaaeiaaiey, auaeaeyaiua a iniai i?ei?eoaoiua
iaeanoe, ioi?ieythony oaeaea a aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo
i?ia?aii e i?ia?aii ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee. E?eoa?ee
i?ei?eoaoiinoe yoeo iai?aaeaiee a aieueoie noaiaie eiaao aiaoiee ii
ioiioaieth e iaoea eae noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe oa?aeoa?. A nienie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii aeeth/aiu iai?aaeaiey
enneaaeiaaiee, io eioi?uo iaeeaeaaony iaeneioi yeiiiie/aneie,
nioeeaeueiue e yeieiae/aneie ioaea/e.

Eae i?aaeei, yoe iai?aaeaiey niioaaonoaotho iaeaieaa aeeiaie/ii
?acaeaathueiny iai?aaeaieyi enneaaeiaaiee ia Caiaaea, oioy a ioee/ea io
iineaaeieo iie oeene?othony ia aanueia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ia?eiae e oai
naiui aini?iecaiaeyo yoe iai?aaeaiey n aieueoei eaaii. E?iia oiai,
aieueoeinoai ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo e ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
i?ia?aii i?eaioe?iaaii ia ii?aaeaeaiiua aaaeiinoaa; oioy auai?
eniieieoaeae oi?iaeueii i?aaeoniio?ai ia eiieo?niie iniiaa, ?aaeueii ii
ieacuaaaony aeinoaoi/ii /anoi i?aae?aoaiiui. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aieaa 20%
anneaiiaaiee ia ?acaeoea oece/aneeo, eiaeaia?iuo, aeieiae/aneeo e
oeie/aneeo iaoe i?eoiaeeony ia i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi any noiia cao?ao athaeaeaoa ii iiiaei
eiiieaenai (oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee, iaoaeeo?ae/aneee, o?ainii?oa e
nayce) ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?ei?eoaoiia iai?aaeaiea, i?e ionoonoaee a
yoeo io?aneyo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee e i?e ionoonoaee
naiinoiyoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae oicyenoaa a eo ?acoeueoaoao, aeaao
iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi auai? eniieieoaeae ?aaio, aeeth/aiiuo a ninoaa
i?ei?eoaoiuo, inouanoaeyaony iiae neeueiui aeaaeaieai aaaeiinoa,
eiathueo oi?iaeueiua nayce a i?aaiao, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca i?eiyoea
iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aaeiaie o?aiae iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna eiaao
iauea caeiiiia?iinoe ai anao no?aiao, ii nouanoaaiii aeaoi?ie?oaony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai /enoi no?aiiauo oaeoi?ia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey. O?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oiau niaieoiiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii e i?ia?aii
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, noi?ie?iaaiiay a iniiaiii a 70-a aiaeu,
ia i?aoa?iaea nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a oneiaeyo ia?ano?ieee. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ioeaieaie oaeaeueiuo aania i?ei?eoaoiuo enneaaeiaaiee
a eiiieaenao ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa: anee a io?aneyo a?oiiu A aeiey
i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee a iauae noiia ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa ninoaaeyao,
io 30 aei 100%, oi a eiiieaenao, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia iiauoaiea
aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey – eeoue aei 20%.

Ec anaai, /oi auei neacaii auoa, iiaeii naeaeaoue i?inoie e e?aoeee
auaiae. Yooaeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey iaoeie
e ?aaeecaoeey oeaeae, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo oeaio?ii, a iao/iuo eieeaeoeaao
aiciiaeiu oieueei a oii neo/aa, eiaaea i?ei?eoaou ?aciuo o?iaiae
niaeanothony iaaeaeo niaie.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann.

A niaaoneeo e eiaeeeneeo enneaaeiaaieyo iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann aue
aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie (e yaeyaony nae/an) i/aiue iiioey?iie oaiie.
Iaeiaei IOI ?anniao?eaaeny n oi/ee c?aiey ieaiiaie yeiiiieee, /oi auei
ia naiui eo/oei iaoiaeii aeey oaeie ?aaiou. ?anniao?eaaeenue oaeea
aniaeou, eae aaeeiay ainoaea?noaaiiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iieeoeea,
iaoaieci aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee IO?, eiiieaeniua i?ia?aiiu IOI. Yoio
iiaeoiae aue ooieeiaui e iayooaeoeaiui, iineieueeo a NNN? e Eiaeee
(/anoe/ii) ?ac?aaioee io?aneaaiai einoeoooa auee iaycaiu aiaae?youe ana
i?aaei?eyoey io?anee. A i?aaiecaoeee yoeo no?oeoo? ainiiaenoaiaae
i?eioeei «i?eaioaoeee ia aeanoue» (Power-oriented organization), a ia
i?eciaiiue anaie eaieoaeenoe/aneeie aea?aeaaaie e n oi/ee c?aiey
yeiiiieee iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue i?eioeei «i?eaioaoeee ia caaea/e»
(Task-oriented organization). Oaeie iiaeoiae io?uaae iaoeo io
i?iecaiaenoaa, io iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina e ?uiea, iiaeaaeye
eiieo?aioeeth. N oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiieee «aaeeiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
iieeoeea» ieacaeanue iieiui iiinainii.

Oai ia iaiaa, yoa iieeoeea i?iaiaeeeanue a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ia?eiaea a?aiaie a iaaeo no?aiao, noaiiaynue aaaeiui ioieoii
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ia?aeiiiua iiiaiou. Oae, iai?eia?, a
NNN? iia auoiaeeea ia ia?aue ieai iinea II ie?iaie aieiu, a ia?eiae
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e iineaaiaiiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa,
ai a?aiy aanniuneaiiiai e iianiiai aeey yeiiiieee ni?aaiiaaiey n NOA
(ethaee noa?oaai iieieaiey ia naaa iuooeee, /oi oaeia «aeiaiiyoue e
ia?aaiiyoue Aia?eeo»), e, iaeiiaoe, a n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaiaa a?aiy, i?e
iiiuoea nianoe nioeeaeenoe/aneoth yeiiiieeo niaaoneiai oeia n iiiiuueth
eo?na ia «onei?aiea ia aaca iaoeiino?iaiey». I?iaae iineaaeiae i?ia?aiiu
ieii/aoaeueii iieacae aanieiaeiinoue iiiuoie ecia?anoe /oi-oi aieaa
yooaeoeaiia, /ai oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea, ia ia?aoiaey i?e yoii e
?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

A Eiaeee i?ienoiaeeee aiaeiae/iua i?ioeannu. N?aco iinea caaiaaaiey
iacaaeneiinoe a 1947 aiaeo ia?aae Eiaeeae anoaea aeeeaiia i iooyo
?acaeoey yeiiiieee a oeaeii e iaoee a /anoiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa
iaeanoi/aiiie iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau a Eiaeee aue inouanoaeai ia?aoiae e
ieaiiaie yeiiiieea, e iaoea auea auioaeaeaia iiae/eieoueny oeacaieyi
«naa?oo».

Oaeei ia?acii, ianiio?y ia ana oneeey, ionoaaaiea iaaeo no?ai io
aaaeoueo caiaaeiuo aea?aeaa ii ?yaeo aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee IO?
(iniaaiii a a?aaeaeaineie noa?a yeiiiieee) iaoeeiiii oaaee/eaaeinue.
Iaeia ec i?e/ei auea oaea iacaaia – iayooaeoeaiinoue nenoaiu
ieaie?iaaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Ii ia neaaeoao eneaoue
ei?aiue anao cie oieueei a yoii. Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue nua?aee
neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

Neaaia ?acaeoea io?aneae, ?aaioathueo ia ee/iia iio?aaeaiea, a oii /enea
e noa?u oneoa. Ia Caiaaea, aaea yeiiiieea auea a ai?acaei aieueoae
noaiaie i?eaioe?iaaia ia iio?aaeoaey, yoe io?anee noaee iiuiaeoei
enoi/ieeii ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiey. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeoieeioei
IOI.

Ioe?iaaiii i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e iiaui iao/iui aeenoeeieeiai
(oeia aaiaoeee, eeaa?iaoeee e ae?.) (NNN?)

?aceay a?aieoea iaaeaeo iai?iiiuie io?aneyie i?iiuoeaiiinoe n
aeinoaoi/ii aunieei oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e a?aaeaeaineeie io?aneyie.
(NNN? e /anoe/ii Eiaeey)

Na?ueaciaeoea aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu (Eiaeey)

Cao?oaeiaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee (NNN? e Eiaeey, ii ii ?aciui
i?e/eiai. A NNN? i?inoi aiyeenue eioi?iaoeeiiiie naiaiaeu, a a Eiaeee
aieueooth /anoue ianaeaiey ninoaaeyee aaniethoii iaa?aiioiua ethaee)

Oaoiieiae/aneee ?ac?ua n eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouie no?aiaie ?in
eaoano?ioe/aneeie oaiiaie, e yoi iiaeoieeioei iaa no?aiu e iiiuoea
ia?aiyoue caiaaeiue iiuo. Ia caiaaea aea aieaa eee iaiaa caeii/aiiie
oai?ee IOI ia nouanoaoao. Eco/aiea i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n ?acaeoeai iaoee,
aai acaeiinaycueth n yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii, iieneaie niiniaia
aeinoeaeaiey iioeiaeueiiai e yooaeoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoa a iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe auei e inoaaony iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo i?iaeai
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca. Ii iiaieth i?ioanni?a Eieoiaeeneiai oieaa?neoaoa
?.Iaeueniia, nicaeaiea no?ieiie iai?ioeai?a/eaie oai?ee IOI iiaeao
noaoue ?aaiethoeeae a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee a oeaeii, iineieueeo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeaiu IOI ioaaouaatho aac eneeth/aiey ana noi?iiu
nia?aiaiiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Nae/an iniiaiie eiioeaioeeae i?e aiaeeca ?uiea eae n?aaeu, a eioi?ie
i?ienoiaeeo iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, iiaeii n/eoaoue oai?eth Eicaoa
Ooiiaoa?a. A ioee/ea io iaieeanneeia e eaeineaioeaa ii n/eoaao, /oi
iniiaiia naienoai yeiiiieee eaieoaeecia – ia no?aieaiea e aeinoeaeaieth
?aaiiaaney i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina, a aeeiaie/iue ?ino ia iniiaa
iiaiaaaaeaiee. Iiaiaaaaeaiey iiaoo auoue ?aciuie – iiaua
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u, iiaua ?uiee, iiaay oaoiieiaey, iiaua oi?iu
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey. Oaeea iiaiaaaaeaiey naycaiu a
iniiaiii n i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay auea
cai?auaia (Sic!) a NNN? e neeueii ia?aie/aia a Eiaeee.

A eieaa «Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy» («Eaieoaeeci, nioeeaeeci e
aeaiie?aoey») Ooiiaoa? ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi eaieoaeenoe/aneee ?uiie
caeiiiia?ii no?aieony e iiiiiieecaoeee. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei yaeyaony
iainii?eiia i?aeiouanoai e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea
iiaiaaaaeaiee e n?aaeu aeey eo aiaae?aiey.

Iiaeiaiua eaeae n?aco noaee i?aaeiaoii nii?a, ii eo aei neo ii? iaeuecy
n/eoaoue ie aeieacaiiuie, ie ii?iaa?aioouie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iaeioi?ua
enneaaeiaaoaee neeiiythony e iunee, /oi Ooiiaoa? ia?aioeaiee
i?aeiouanoaa e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee a ea/anoaa aeaeaaoaeae IOI. Ii n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, no?aoaaey IO? ssiiiee, iniiaaiiay ia i?eioeeiao
Ooiiaoa?a, aeaea aeanoyuea ?acoeueoaou. A 50-a, 60-a aa., eiaaea ssiiiey
auoiaeeea ia ia?aaeiaua ?oaaaee IOI, aa eiiiaiee auee n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoeie. Caoai, a ?acoeueoaoa oniaoiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa
yiiineea eiiiaiee oe?oiieeenue, a oaiiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey
onei?eeenue.

Aia?eea a na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia ieacaeanue ia?aae aeeeaiiie:
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann eee aioeo?anoianeia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.
Iieo/eea i?eciaiea oi/ea c?aiey i oii, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiua eiiiaiee a
?yaea io?aneae neeoeii iaeu aeey oiai, /oiau oaea?aeaoue oaoiieiae/aneia
i?aainoiaenoai iaae eiino?aiiuie eiieo?aioaie, e /oi aioeiiiiiieueiay
iieeoeea ia noeioee?oao iiaiaaaaeaiee. A 1984 aiaeo aioeo?anoianeia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai auei niya/aii. Eiieo?e?othuei iaaeaeo niaie eiiiaieyi
auei ?ac?aoaii nicaeaaaoue niaianoiua enneaaeiaaoaeueneea eiini?oeeoiu.

Aiaeiae/iua i?iaeaiu noiyo e ia?aae aa?iiaeneeie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie.
?aoathony iie, eae ecaanoii, iooai ?acaeoey ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i
eioaa?aoeee e eiiia?e?iaaiey (a /anoiinoe, oi?ie?iaaieai «no?aoaae/aneeo
ia?oia?noa») ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaiyo. Ni/aoaiea
iiiiiieee e eiieo?aioeee, neeaaeuaathuaany a ?acoeueoaoa yaiethoeee
?uii/iie no?oeoo?u, a eaaeaeie no?aia ianao ia naaa /a?ou iaoeeiiaeueiie
niaoeeoeee, i?yiua caeinoaiaaiey caeanue iaaiciiaeiu. Nia?aiaiiay
oicyenoaaiiay i?aeoeea ?acaeouo no?ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi iiiaea
aai/o?iua oi?iu nicaeaiey iiaiaaaaeaiee yaeythony yooaeoeaiui
eino?oiaioii ii ioai?o eiiia?/anee ?aoeeiiaeueiuo eiiiaaoeee. E?oiiua
oe?iu noaee aeoeaii eniieueciaaoue oaeea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneea
iiaeoiaeu. Aii?in i ?iee e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a IOI o?aaoao aeaeueiaeoeo
enneaaeiaaiee. I?aaenoieo auynieoue, a eaeeo aeaeao eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe oaeea i?aaiecaoeee eiatho ?aaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa. Aaaeii
oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue caaeneiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea e?oiiie
i?aaiecaoeee io iniaaiiinoae io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u, oa?aeoa?a e aeeiaieee
iaaeoe?iaiiie eiiia?aoeee.

Iaeiiaoe, i?aaeiaoii niaoeeaeueiiai eco/aiey aeieaeii noaoue aeeyiea
?acee/ee a ianooaaao, i?aaiecaoeee e ioe?uoinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?uieia,
oi anoue oa?aeoa?enoee ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?, ia o?iaaiue e aeeiaieeo IOI.
Aeey i?iaa?ee aeiioac Ooiiaoa?a iaiaoiaeeii ooi/ieoue e ?acoeueoaou
ia/aaoaainy a 80-a aiaeu aeoeaiiai i?ioeanna eiiia?aoeee ia
aeieiieo?aioiie noaaeee IEIE?, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaainy ia?aciaaieai
oaoiieiae/aneeo aeueyinia, ?anoouae iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiie eioaa?aoeee
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

IOI: ainoaea?noai – ?uiie

Yaiethoeey eaieoaeecia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO aaea i?eaaea e oneeaieth
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, e eniieueciaaieth yeaiaioia
ieaie?iaaiey e ae?oaeo iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeecie,
naienoaaiiuo nei?aa nioeeaeecio, /ai eaieoaeecio yiioe naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee. Aieueoeinoai no?ai i?iaeaeaei iooue io
/anoiii?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie iiaeaee IOI, i?aaeiieaaathuae i?iaaaeaiea
anaai eiiiaaoeeiiiiai oeeeea neeaie eiiiaiee, e niaoaiiie,
?uii/ii-ainoaea?noaaiiie, a eioi?ie cia/eoaeueioth /anoue
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie e aaeieieno?aoeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca IOI ianao
i?aaeoaeuenoai. ?innee nae/an i?aaenoieo i?iaeaeaoue ia?aoiue iooue – io
i?aeiouanoaaiii ainoaea?noaaiiie e i?aeiouanoaaiii ?uii/iie iiaeaee.
Aiaoaoaeuenoai nia?aiaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa a
eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?iyaeyaony a ?acee/iuo oi?iao (i?yiia
oeiaine?iaaiea IEIE?, nicaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo e noaneaee?iaaiea
/anoiuo eaai?aoi?ee e oeaio?ia, ?aaeecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii,
ia?u einaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey). Neeueiaa anaai oaiaeaioeee
oeaio?aeecaoeee IOI i?iyaeeenue a ssiiiee, aaea IAOI aa?ao ia naay
ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey a oi?iao e ianooaaao iaecaanoiuo ie a NOA, ie a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Yoi au?aaioea aeieain?i/iuo no?aoaae/aneeo i?ia?aii
?acaeoey a?aaeaeaineeo oaoiieiaee e eo oeiaine?iaaiea, eii?aeeiaoeey
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie e /anoiii?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oaeoeee ?acaeoey. Oai
ia iaiaa, ynii, /oi eiieo?aioeey, aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey, aunieay noaiaiue
naiaiaeu auai?a e nii?yaeaiiiai n iae ?enea inoathony iniiaiuie /a?oaie
iaoaiecia IOI a ?acaeoie ?uii/iie, a oi/iaa, niaoaiiie yeiiiieea. Oae,
ii naiei i?eioeeieaeueiui iniiaai ?uii/iue iaoaieci IOI a ssiiiee iaei
ioee/aaony io aia?eeaineie nenoaiu, oioy ?acoeueoaou aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiaeii n/eoaoue aieaa yooaeoeaiuie, /ai a NOA.
Aiciiaeii, i?e/eio neaaeoao eneaoue a oii, /oi a ssiiiee ii-i?aaeiaio
iniiaiay (cia/eoaeueii aieueoay, /ai a NOA) /anoue iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee
oeiaine?oaony /anoiuie eiiiaieyie, aeanoei eiieo?e?othueie iaaeaeo
niaie. Ia?u, i?eieiaaiua IAOI a iaeanoe eii?aeeiaoeee, oi?aaeaiey e
niaeaniaaiey ioaeaeueiuo i?ia?aii IEIE?, /anoi ioaa?aathony eiiiaieyie,
anee iie n/eoatho yoe ia?u i?ioeai?a/aueie eo eioa?anai. A ssiiiee
aiai?yo, /oi iiiaea iai?aaeaiey IOI ?acaeaathony ia aeaaiaea?y, a
aii?aee IAOI. Oaoie/aneiio i?ia?anno i?enoua iaeii ea/anoai, eioi?ia
aeaeaao eneeth/eoaeueii o?oaeiui, a ca/anooth e iaaiciiaeiui
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea e ieaie?iaaiea a yoie noa?a (oioy a eaeaaea
iii iiaei au iioeiece?iaaoue eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia, eneeth/eoue
aeoaee?iaaiea, oeo/oeoue eii?aeeiaoeeth aeaenoaee). Yoi ea/anoai –
aunieay noaiaiue iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iai?aaeaiee IEIE?, eioi?ua iaeaieaa
ia?niaeoeaiu n oi/ee c?aiey i?eeiaeaiey nee e iineaaeothuae
eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee ?acoeueoaoia. Anaaaea aaeeea iianiinoue, /oi auai?,
inouanoaeaiiue aeaaea naiuie eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie yenia?oaie, aoaeao
iaaa?iui. A nayce n yoei iiiuoea aeiaeoueny oniaoa ia ca?aiaa ioia?aiiuo
iai?aaeaieyo /aua anaai ii?iaeaeatho eiaeiua i?ei?eoaou, e aaeeinoaaiiue
auoiae – ?aaioa eiieo?aioia ii ianeieueeei iai?aaeaieyi. Iiiai/eneaiiua
i?eia?u iayooaeoeaiinoe, ceioiio?aaeaiee, ia?a?anoiaea n?aaenoa e
oeiaine?iaaiey ooieeiauo i?iaeoia i?e ?aaeecaoeee aiaeoeeiciuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii – yoi ia oieueei ec iaoae e eiaeeeneie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie i?aeoeee, ii e ec iiaaeoae enoi?ee NOA e Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu. Ia aaeieieno?aoeaiua iaoiaeu oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey, a
eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaoaieci ?uiea noeioee?oao iiene ai iiiaeo iai?aaeaieyo,
/anoue eioi?uo ieacuaaaony aanueia ia?niaeoeaiuie, iaania/eaaao
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia ia iniiaa oaeoi?ia ?enea, nii?yaeaiiuo n
iioa?ae i?eaueae e aeaaea aaie?ionoaii. Auno?ay ia?aoiay naycue
yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia a ?uii/iie n?aaea iicaieyao naiaa?aiaiii
auyaeyoue iayooaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey e i?ae?auaoue eo ?ac?aaioeo.
Noi?iiieee oeaio?aeeciaaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee n/eoatho, /oi
oaeie iaoaieci ii?aaeaeaiey iiaaaeeoaeae e iiaaaeaeaiiuo ia iioeiaeai n
iauanoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey. Iaeiaei n?aaiaiea iiuoa ?aciuo no?ai ca
enoi?e/anee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua ia?eiaeu iieacuaaao, /oi eiaiii ?uii/iue
iaoaieci iienea aeaao iaeaieaa aia/aoeythuea ?acoeueoaou. Oiaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?ecaaii ineaaeoue aeanoeinoue ?uii/iiai
ioai?a, iiauneoue iauoth yooaeoeaiinoue iaoaiecia. Ia nieaeay eeth/aaie
?iee ieth?aeecia, ni/aoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey n ?uieii
nio?aiyao aaaeiaeoaa i?aeiouanoai ?uiea – ioai? iiaaaeeoaeae iinea
eiiia?/aneie ?aaeecaoeee iiauo eaeae, a ia aei oiai, eae auea
i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue yoe eaeae noi?ioee?iaaoue, ai?iae?iaaoue e
aiieioeoue.

I?e ionoonoaee ii?iaeueiie ?uii/iie n?aaeu IOI oa?yao naycue n
yeiiiieeie /a?ac nenoaio oeai e ae?oaea aaoiiaoe/aneea ?aaoeyoi?u. A
?acoeueoaoa en/acaao e nai IOI. A yoii oaaaeaeaao, oau, any iaoa
i?aaeiyy i?aeoeea, aea e nia?aiaiiay neooaoeey, eiaaea noaaeeueiua
?uii/iua ioiioaiey aua ia neiaeeeenue, a aunieay eioeyoeey iaanoeaieaaao
iau/iua enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey IEIE? e nicaeaao aeey IOI ninoiyiea
iianii caoyioaoaeny iaocu. Ionthaea auoaeaao, /oi iuia aeaaiie caaea/ae
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa a noa?a oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey noaiiaeony
oi?i/aiea caei?iauo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee e i?ae?auaiea eioeyoeee. Iiiuoee
aeoeaece?iaaoue IEIE?, i?aaiecoy ?ac?aaioeo e auiieiaiea i/a?aaeiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii i?ei?eoaoiiai ?acaeoey, a nia?aiaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee ia?a/aiu ia i?iaae.

Iniiaiua /a?ou nia?aiaiiiai yoaia

Enneaaeiaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiiai yoaia IOI iicaieyao
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue ?yae aai iniiaiuo /a?o. N?aaee ieo – ?uii/iue iaoaieci
IOI. Iiiuoee iainiiaaoue, nicaeaoue, oniaa?oainoaiaaoue naiinoiyoaeueiue
iaoaieci, aaoiiiiiue ii ioiioaieth e iauaio ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiio
iaoaiecio, eioi?uie oae aiaaou iaoa yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey e i?aeoeea, ia
iiaee auoue oniaoiuie. Yooaeoeaiinoue caiaaeiiai iaoaiecia IOI
ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi ii yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia, aeathuaai noeioeu i?iecaiaeeoaeyi e iio?aaeoaeyi, noaayuaai
caneii inaaaeiyooaeoeaiie oaoieea. Aieeaaiia ?acaeoea i?ei?eoaoiuo
io?aneae aiaiii-einie/aneie oaoieee a iaoae no?aia, ianiio?y ia aanue
naie aeaiiino?aoeeiiiue yooaeo, ia eiaei ie/aai iauaai n ?aaeueiuie
yeiiiie/aneeie iio?aaiinoyie.

I?ei?eoao iio?aaeaiey. ?anniio?aiea IOI eae /anoe aaeeiie ?uii/iie
n?aaeu iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e auaiaeo i i?ei?eoaoiinoe iio?aaeoaeueneiai
?uiea. A ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaea ana ninoaaeythuea IOI i?eaioe?iaaiu ia
eiia/iia iio?aaeaiea e iaoiaeyo a iai iaeaieaa iieiia aiieiuaiea.
Eiioeuenu io noa?u iio?aaeaiey aieaa iaoe?iu e auno?iaeaenoaaiiu, /ai io
noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa, a oii /enea e io aiaiii-einie/aneeo io?aneae,
aeieaea aiaeu ieoaaoeo iaoe eeethcee i oaoie/aneii i?aainoiaenoaa.
Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia ssiiiee, a oaia?ue e a?oiiu iiauo
eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai oaaaeeoaeueii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?yiie nayce
?acoeueoaoia IOI n iio?aaeoaeueneei ?uieii.

Aoiaiecaoeey e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea – iniiaiua i?ei?eoaou
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee ia ia?niaeoeao.
?ano?ninaa?aaathuee oa?aeoa? IOI iaania/eaaao aieaa iieiia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae a iiauoaiee ea/anoaa aeecie. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, nioeeaeueii yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia,
aunaiaiaeaeaaiuo aeaaiaea?y IOI a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
o?aaoao aieueoeo cao?ao ia iaoee i aeecie, aoiaieoa?iua enneaaeiaaiey,
cae?aaiio?aiaiea, ia?aciaaiea, nio?aiaiea e oeo/oaiea ie?oaeathuae
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. A Eiaeee aua Ae. Ia?o a 1948 aiaeo iauyaee
naa?aaeaiea ?ano?nia iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey IOI.

Nioeeaeueiay i?eaioaoeey IOI, aeeeoothuay iiaoth eiioeaioeeth aai
aiaeeca ia iae?io?iaia. A nioeeaeueiie iiaeaee IOI, ia?yaeo n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ia?aiao?aie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ooieoeee, oeaeaniia?acii
eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieoue oaeea oaeoi?u, eae iiauoaiea o?iaiy
eiieo?aioiiai aeaaeaiey, noeioee?othuaai oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, eciaiaiea
eioaineaiinoe o?oaea, aeeiaieee ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia o?oaeyueony e eo
oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe oneiaeyie ?aaiou, aeaenoaaiiinoue iaoiaeia
i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii. Aieueoay ?ieue oai?/aneeo
yeaiaioia o?oaea i?eaeaao iniaia cia/aiea iiaaaeai/aneei iiaeoiaeai e
eco/aieth IOI.

Ia ia?aue ieai a ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoaai oaoiieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a
nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, iaoee, ia?aciaaiey a iaoeeiiaeueiii e
aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa auaeaeaaaony eioi?iaoeeiiiay eio?ano?oeoo?a,
iauaaeeiythuay aiciiaeiinoe au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e n?aaenoa nayce.
?inney e Eiaeey iiea iaoiaeeony ia ia?eoa?ee yoiai iai?aaeaiey IOI, iie
eciee?iaaiu io ie?iauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia, /oi i?aiyonoaoao
eioaa?aoeee a ie?iaia oicyenoai.

Iaiaoeeinue /aoeia ?acaeaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna ia aeaa
aaoae: a) o?aaeeoeeiiioth, iaania/eaathooth oaeiaeaoai?aiea iaoeeiiii
?anooueo (ii ianooaaai e ?aciiia?aceth) iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea e iauanoaa
a iiaie oaoiieiaee, oiaa?ao e oneoaao; e a) aeecianaa?aaathuoth,
i?aaeioa?auathuoth eee eiiiaine?othuoth io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey
naiiai IOI, naycaiiua n ?ac?ooaieai yeinenoai, ineoioece/aneeie
iaa?oceaie e oooaeoaieai caei?iauey ethaeae, oaoiiaaiiuie eaoano?ioaie.
Aoi?ay aaoaue i?eaeaeaao e naaa ana aieueoaa aieiaiea e iiaeiuaao ana
aieueooth /anoue ?ano?nia, eniieuecoaiuo a noa?a IEIE?.

O?iaaiue iao/iiai e oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey, aini?eei/eainoue yeiiiieee e
oaoie/aneiio i?ia?anno auee e inoathony aeaaiuie oaeoi?aie,
ii?aaeaeythueie ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aiaaouie e aaaeiuie no?aiaie.
Iaeiieaiiue a ?innee iioaioeeae iao/iuo e oaoie/aneeo ciaiee aaeee ii
ethaui ia?eai, iaeiaei aai aiciiaeiue aeeaae a iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai
ieeiaaea ia aue iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaai. Enoi?e/aneee iiuo
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi iaee/ea yoiai iioaioeeaea yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui,
ii ia aeinoaoi/iui oneiaeai aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e i?ioeaaoaiey.

Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann caaeneo io iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia – yeiiiie/aneeo e
nioeeaeueiuo, iieeoe/aneeo oeaeae e i?ei?eoaoia, eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee
e oeaiiinoae, io ineoieiae/aneie neeiiiinoe ethaeae e ?eneo eee,
iaiai?io, e noaaeeueiinoe, eo «ioe?uoinoe» eee nii?ioeaeaiey eciaiaieyi.
N?aaiaiea Eiaeee e ?innee n ?acaeouie no?aiaie Caiaaea iieacuaaao, /oi
iaoe iauea i?iaeaiu naycaiu a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiaiii n yoeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a ia n o?iaiai ia?aciaaiey eee i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee o/aiuo e eiaeaia?ia, e oai aieaa ia n eo ianiiniaiinoueth
niaa?oaoue iao/iua ioe?uoey eee nicaeaaaoue oieeaeueiua oaoie/aneea
ono?ienoaa. Iiiaea ec yoeo oa?aeoa?enoee ?inney oianeaaeiaaea io
Niaaoneiai Nithca. Iaciaai n?aaee ieo aunieoth noaiaiue ieeeoa?ecaoeee
yeiiiie/aneiai e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey, ionoonoaea eiieo?aioeee,
yeiiiie/aneeo noeioeia oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, i?aiaeaaeaiea a IEIE?
i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee a oua?a ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio iieneo e
aeiaaaeaieth iao/iuo ?acoeueoaoia aei noaaeee iiaiaaaaeaiee. E yoiio
aeiaaaeeenue yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua eaoaeeeciu ia?aoiaeiiai
ia?eiaea, eioi?ua, ianiiiaiii, io?aceeenue ia ninoiyiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?u. Aunieay eioeyoeey, oa?iaeathuay ia?aeoe a
aeia?eioeyoeeth, a ni/aoaiee n iaaeaieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina i?aaei?eyoee e ianaeaiey aeaeatho yeiiiie/anee
iai?eaieaiuie aeaaea naiua iacia/eoaeueiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou.
Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa canoaaee iieoe ia ?aceia
nie?auaiea aaniethoiuo e ioiineoaeueiuo (a % e AII) ianooaaia
oeiaine?iaaiey IEIE?. Iauay /eneaiiinoue iao/iuo ?aaioieeia ?innee
oiaiueoeeanue. Yoe i?ioeannu iiaeii auei au n/eoaoue i?aaeaeaeeiie, oioy
e e?aeia iaaeaeaoaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie ?aaeoeeae ia i?ienoiaeyuaa
eciaiaiea iiaeaee ?acaeoey.

Aianoa n oai ?anoouaa ionoaaaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeia iaoee io
n?aaeiae ii i?iiuoeaiiinoe (ia aiai?y oaea ia iieaoa o?oaea a
eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?ao), iinoiyiiay oa?ica aac?aaioeoeu ec-ca
nie?auaiey /eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea a i?aaiecaoeeyo IEIE?, iooie iieiaeuo e
iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo iao/iuo ?aaioieeia a ae?oaea noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe
e ca ?oaaae i?eaiaeyo e ?acaaeo oai?/aneiai yae?a iiiaeo einoeoooia e
eaai?aoi?ee, nicaeatho oa?ico iioa?e iai?a?uaiinoe enneaaeiaaiee ia
?yaea iai?aaeaiee, a oii /enea e aanueia ia?niaeoeaiuo. Ii ioeaieai
EIYII, a 1992 a, ?inney ii iauei aaniethoiui ?acia?ai AAI caiueaao
ia?aoth aeanyoeo no?ai, ii a ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey aoiaeeo a 7-e
aeanyoie. I/aaeaeii, /oi a yoeo oneiaeyo iaaiciiaeii nio?aieoue
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae a i?aaeiai iauaia. I?ienoiaeeo iaecaaaeiia
na?anuaaiea «ecauoi/iiai iaeiieaiey» a noa?a IEIE?. Yoiio i?ioeanno
ioaeii i?eaeaoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue no?oeoo?iue oa?aeoa?, caueoeoue e
nio?aieoue eo/oaa, nicaeaoue i?aaeiinueee aeey aoaeouaai yooaeoeaiiai
?inoa.

Iauaeoeaii i/aiue neeueiu ia?aie/eaathuea e i?ioeaiaeaenoaothuea
oaeoi?u: nieaeaiea iauaia AAI e aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa;
ionoonoaea aioo?aiiaai ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiey, iaee/ea neeueiuo a?oii
aeaaeaiey, eioi?ua a oneiaeyo aaeooia iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeoeaii o/anoaotho a ?ani?aaeaeaiee e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee ana
oiaiueoathuaainy athaeaeaoa. Iiyaeeinue 27 iiauo «aeaaeaiee iaoe», a
nenoaia Ieinaeueoica a 1990 a. nouanoaiaaei 4 IEE, a 1996 a. eo auei
oaea 21. Aei neo ii? ia cae?uo ie iaeei ec ii/oe 5 oun. ioa/anoaaiiuo
IEE. A yoeo oneiaeyo aaaeiaeoay oeaeue ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee – aac
eceeoiaai aea?iecia naeaeiooue o?aaeoi?eth i?ioeanna io oaioe/aneiai
?acaeoey e oiio, /oi E. Ooiiaoa? iacuaae «?ac?ooaieai ?aaee niceaeaiey».
A 1992 a. eia-/oi auei naeaeaii a yoii iai?aaeaiee: nicaeaia
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca, ioaeathuay ?aoathuea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia
iao/iua ?acoeueoaou eo aaoi?ai; o/?aaeaeai Oiiae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee e i?eaea/aiu eiino?aiiua eaieoaeu aeey iiaeaea?aeee
enneaaeiaaiee, i?eia?ii 30 iao/iui oeaio?ai aue i?eaeai noaoon
iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaai?aoi?ee, /oi caueuaao eo io i?aa?aoiinoae ia?aoiaea e
?uieo.

Aianoa n oai i?iecioei nie?auaiea ?aaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey IEIE?, ?acei
oiaiueoeeinue eiee/anoai enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey. Anee ?aiueoa
ainathaeaeao iie?uaae 50% ?anoiaeia ia iaoeo, e noieueei aea iinooiaei
ec n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee e io?aneae, oi naaiaeiy ia ainathaeaeao
i?eoiaeeony 90% oeiaine?iaaiey iaoee. A yoeo oneiaeyo aeayoaeueiinoue
Ieienoa?noaa iaoee e oaoiieiae/aneie iieeoeee iineo i?aeiouanoaaiii
«iiaea?iue» oa?aeoa?, iai?aaeaia ia nianaiea iao/iiai iioaioeeaea,
ia?aieeanniuo iao/iuo eieeaeoeaia e i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee IEIE?.
Iaeiaei onoaiiaeaiea e ioai? i?ei?eoaoia ainoaea?noaaiiie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee yaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii o?oaeiie caaea/ae,
oai aieaa /oi iu ia aeiaeeenue iiea eiinainona ii aii?ino oeaeae
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia – aiaiiay eiiiiiaioa
iaoaai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea, nio?aiaiea e oe?aieaiea eioi?ie
ii-i?aaeiaio ?anniao?eaaaony iiiaeie iieeoeeaie eae aaconeiaiue oaeoi?
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ?innee. Ii i?e oaeie i?eaioaoeee iaeuecy
?ann/eouaaoue ia aicieeiiaaiea a no?aia n?aaeu, aeaaii?eyoiie aeey
yooaeoeaiie iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu iiaiaaaaeaiee, niinianoaothuae
nicaeaieth iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, ?inoo aeaaininoiyiey.

E niaeaeaieth, ec caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii/aio-oi auei eneeth/aii aaoi?noai
ia naeaeoeeiiiua ?aaiou a naeueneii oicyenoaa, nicaeaiea eneonnoaaiiuo
iee?ii?aaieciia a aaiiie eiaeaia?ee e iee?iaeieiaee ianaeaiey,
iiauoaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ioa/anoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia
aioo?aiiai e aiaoieo ?uieao, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaieth, io?aia caei?iauey e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Iiuo ?acaeouo no?ai Caiaaea iieacuaaao, /oi eiaiii
ia oaeii iooe aeinoeaaaony iiaeeeiiue aeeiaieci IOI, e oe?aieythony ana
aniaeou iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe. Yoio aea iiuo aiai?eo i oii, /oi
ia?aoiae e oaeie iiaeaee ia iiaeao auoue noeoeeiui, ii o?aaoao
i?iaeoiaiiie ?ac?aaioee e iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee.

Eeth/aaui aii?inii aeey ?innee e Eiaeee yaeyaony ia?aoiae io
«eiaeono?eaeueiie» oeeaeeecaoeee, iooi?aathuae IOI eee onaaeaathuae aai
eeoue a eieaeueiuo noa?ao – e oeeaeeecaoeee «iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie»,
ia?anoi?aeeii naycaiiie n IOI, eioi?ue ii-ianoiyuaio aunooiaao caeanue
eae iinoiyiiue oaeoi? e anoanoaaiiue eiioeuen naii?acaeoey. Oneiaeai
aicieeiiaaiey a ?innee yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu iiaiaaaaeaiee iiaeao auoue
oieueei oniao ?uii/iie ia?ano?ieee, aaeaeaaoiia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u
yeiiiieee. E niaeaeaieth, iao e ia iiaeao auoue ?aoeaioia auno?ie
no?oeoo?iie o?ainoi?iaoeee. Aacaea yoi aeeeoaeueiue e io/eoaeueiue
i?ioeann. A Eiaeee ii eaeao n 1984 aiaea e i?iaeieaeaaony aei neo ii?.
I/aaeaeii, /oi aio aeieaeia i?aaeoanoaiaaoue oeiainiaay noaaeeecaoeey,
yaeythuayny aeaaiui oneiaeai ?inoa ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiey e
eiaanoeoeee.

Nouanoaoao e ii?aaeaeaiiay ineoieiae/aneay i?iaeaia. Eiaeey e ?inney
aeieai aeeee a iauanoaa, iano?iaiiii ia noaaeeueiinoue e iaeciaiiinoue
naycae e ioiioaiee. Iaaeaeo oai yeiiiie/aneee ?ino ia eiiiaaoeeiiiie
iniiaa o?aaoao iai?a?uaiuo eciaiaiee, aaeaioaoeee e iei, ia?aaeei
nii?yaeai n ia?aeiiaie, e?eceniuie ia?eiaeaie. Eiiiaaoeee iiae?uaatho
onoiyaoeany i?iecaiaenoaaiiua no?oeoo?u, aucuaatho oeaiioth ?aaeoeeth
ianoaaeeueiinoe ai anao nii?yaeaiiuo noa?ao.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth ?onneie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony ioiioaiea e iaoea
eae e aunoae aeooiaiie oeaiiinoe. Ca iineaaeiea 70 eao yoa
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneay aeiieiaioa nouanoaaiii aeaoi?ie?iaaeanue, auea
iiaeiaiaia oaoiie?aoe/aneeie no??iaaoaie, ooeeeoa?iui iiieiaieai
iieaciinoe iaoee e iao/iiai iiciaiey ie?a. A oneiaeyo ia?anoathuae
aeanoeinoe athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee ana /aua cao/ao aieina i
«aoi?inoaiaiiinoe» aoiaieoa?iiai ciaiey ii ioiioaieth e anoanoaaiiui
iaoeai. Eiaeaia?u, eiino?oeoi?u oaaaeaeaiu a naiai oiaiee iaoaienoe/anee
?aoeoue neiaeiaeoea aii?inu iauanoaaiiiai auoey. A eiaiii iie
ninoaaeytho aieueooth /anoue iuiaoieo aeaaeaieeia. Iiyoiio, aeaeeii,
aic?iaeaeaiea aoiaieoa?iuo enneaaeiaaiee, iauanoaaiiuo iaoe,
yeieiae/aneeo ciaiee – nouanoaaiiay /anoue e aaaeiay oeaeue
i?aia?aciaaiee a iaoea e i?inaauaiee. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aieueoay
/anoue caiyouo eiaao nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ia?aciaaiea (oeiainu,
th?eni?oaeaioeey, aooaaeoa?ey, aoaeeo, nioeeaeueiua oneoae e o.ae.). O
ian ii-i?aaeiaio aieaa 80% cao?ao ia aunoaa ia?aciaaiea naycaii n
oaoie/aneeie aeenoeeieeiaie.

A ?innee iiea ia neiaeeeanue yniay e /aoeay eiioeaioeey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee. Aeoiaaony, /oi a iaoe aeie iaeuecy oiiaaoue
ia aiciiaeiinoue auai?a «naa?oo» iioeiaeueiuo i?ei?eoaoia ?inneeneeo
IEIE?, iineieueeo iao ie einoeoooeeiiaeueiie n?aaeu, ie eino?oiaioia
aeey oaeiai auai?a. A i?ioeii iieeoe/aneay nenoaia neeoeii /anoi
ioeaaeanue a auai?a i?ei?eoaoia eee auae?aea eo ii i?eioeeio iiaoi?aiey
caiaaeiuo («Oaooe» – «Ao?ai», SST-OO 144, aeaaea eaeay ia?aa?inee
neae?neeo ?ae eiaea naie aia?eeaineee aiaeia – NAWAPA). A Eiaeee auea
aiaeiae/iay neooaoeey, ii ooaea ii eaiaeai ae?oaeau e nio?oaeie/anoaa
iinooiaea aoi?ini?oiay niaaoneay oaoiieiaey, iaeiicia/ii i?eaioe?iaaiiay
ia yenoaineaiue iooue ?acaeoey.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aaaeii aeiaeoueny
iauanoaaiiiai eiinainona ii iiaiaeo iauae oeaee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
?acaeoey ?innee. Yoa oeaeue iiaeao auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:
i?aia?aciaaiea ia ?uii/iuo i?eioeeiao iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu
iiaiaaaaeaiee, niiniaiie iaania/eoue nicaeaiea oaoiieiaee e oneoa,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, iniiaaiiiai ia iiauoaiee o?iaiy
e ea/anoaa aeecie, ia eiieo?aioiniiniaeinoe ioa/anoaaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiee e io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ia
iuoaynue ?acaeaaoue «ana» iai?aaeaiey iaoee e oaoiieiaee (/anoi iooai
iiaoi?aiey caiaaeiuo i?ei?eoaoia), iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue ie?iaua
aeinoeaeaiey eae enoi/iee yeiiiiee nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia. I?e yoii
e?eoe/anee aaaeiu eioi?iaoeeiiiay eio?ano?oeoo?a e naeeaeaiea
ioa/anoaaiiuo e ie?iauo noaiaea?oia ia?aciaaiey.

Aeey iaaeo no?ai aanueia aieaciaiiu i?iaeaiu io?aneaaie iaoee e i?aaeaea
anaai eiiaa?nee aiaiiuo IEIE?. Caeanue iiaeii auei au ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue:

aeey nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina auaeaeyoue ?ano?nu ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi, a iioaioeeaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi i?iaeoeoeee
eiiaa?ne?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee

noaneaee?iaaoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue a ea/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiiai
iiaeeecaoeeiiiiai ?aca?aa eo/oea aiaiiua IEE, a ia ionoothuea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe;

?acaeaeyoue a?aiy oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee IEIE? n ianoiuie athaeaeaoaie
(ii i?eia?o O?A);

i?e i?eaaoecaoeee e aeoeeiie?iaaiey ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee iaycaoaeueiui
oneiaeai aeieaeii auoue nio?aiaiea a eo ninoaaa iao/iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey
(oi aea e i?e i?eaea/aiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia a Eiaeee);

i?aaei?eyoeyi, ?aciauathuei enneaaeiaaoaeueneea caeacu ai «aiaoiae
n?aaea», eiiiaine?iaaoue ec ainathaeaeaoa aei 50% eo noieiinoe;

iiea/eaaoue iaeui e n?aaeiei i?aaei?eyoeyi, nicaeathuei iiaua
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aai/ea ianoa, nouanoaaiioth /anoue (neaaeai, 75%)
oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou iao/iiai ia?niiaea,

anaie aeinooiiuie n?aaenoaaie iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaeua iaoeiaieea
i?aaei?eyoey.

Neaaeoao oaeaea e?eoe/anee ioiineoueny e aiciiaeiinoyi io?aneae.
Iai?eia?, ioeaieaay ia?niaeoeau ioa/anoaaiiiai iaoeiino?iaiey, neaaeoao
aua?aoue i/aiue ia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai caueuaaiuo ainoaea?noaii
iai?aaeaiee (iai?eia?, a?aaeaeaineia e aiaiiia naiieaoino?iaiea,
nicaeaiea yooaeoeaiuo eiiia?/aneeo nenoai i?aeoaeueiie aeinoaaee). A
ioiioaiee aea inoaeueiuo io?aneae neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi a
n?aaeian?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa a ea/anoaa aiaoieo ?uieia nauoa eo
i?iaeoeoeee ?aaeenoe/iaa ?anniao?eaaoue aeeaeiaa ca?oaaaeuea, Ainoi/ioth
Aa?iio, Aeeaeiee Ainoie, Eeoae, Eiaeeth e no?aiu THAA, a ia NOA, AN e
ssiiieth.

Caeeth/aiea.

?aaioa ii iienaieth yeiiiieee, iieeoeee eee iaoee ae?oaiai ainoaea?noaa
– caiyoea eneeth/eoaeueii i?eyoiia e eioa?aniia. Iiaeii neieue oaiaeii
aeieai caieiaoueny ia?ae?anoiui aiaeecii eee i?iaiaeeoue ia?aeeaee
iaaeaeo, neaaeai, oaaee/aieai iio?aaeaiey aeaeiaa?a e aaaeae?u ia aeooo
ianaeaiey n?aaee nieni/iuo eano ooaoia Iaaeouey-I?aaeao e Aeoa? e
nieaeaieai eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe a ciia yenii?oiie ia?a?aaioee
Iaiueoecu ia Oaeaaia. Aiieia iiaeii i?eeoe e eioa?aniui eee aeaaea
nainaoeeiiiui auaiaeai. E aeaaea iaienaoue iao/ioth ?aaioo.

Aieueoeinoai ?aaio oaeiai oeia iau/ii caeai/eaathony neiaaie: «Iiuo
no?aiu *** iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai e a ?innee, iineieueeo no?aia *** n
iiiiuueth oaeeo-oi ia? aeinoeaea oiai-oi e oiai-oi ca ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoie ia?eiae a?aiaie e n iaaieueoeie cao?aoaie».

Ii ia i?aeoeea iiiuoee aiaae?aiey a ?innee iiuoa no?aiu *** iau/ii n
o?aneii i?iaaeeaathony. I?e/eiu i?iaaea iacuaatho ?aciua, ii ia iie
acaeyae, iia aaeeinoaaiiay: iaaeinoaoi/ii oi?ioaa eco/aiea iiaaoi?aie
iniaaiiinoae ?innee e aa aeeoaeae. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaeuecy i?eiaiyoue a
?innee ca?oaaaeiue iiuo, cae?uaay aeaca ia ianoiua ?aaeee. A ?innee,
anee nouanoaoao i?iaeaia, oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue niinia aa ?aoaiey –
iiene nianoaaiiiai ?aoeaioa n o/aoii ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa.

Iiia/aeo yoa ?aaioa auea caaeoiaia eae n?aaieoaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee
aiaeec iaoee ?innee e Eiaeee. Ii, e niaeaeaieth, ?inneeneay iaoea
ianoieueei niaoeeoe/ia, /oi ii iiiaei ia?aiao?ai n?aaiaiea i?inoi
iaaiciiaeii. Iiyoiio caeanue ?anniao?eaaaony ?inneeneay iaoea e
i?iaiaeyony ia?aeeaee n ?acaeouie no?aiaie e ethaeiie aaoi?ii Eiaeeae.

Aeaeeia?aoey

Aeueiaaa A.ss. Iniiau yeiiiieee iaoee. E, 1977.

Eenaeaaa A.A. e ae?. Aiaeec iao/iiai iioaioeeaea. Iaaeno?aiiaie aniaeo.
I, 1995.

Oaeooi N.Ae. Iaoeiiao?ey: ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau. I, Iaoea, 1983.

National Economic Survey of India, 1993-1997.

Rahman A. «Trimurti: Science, Technology and Society.» Bombay, 1977

International Comparisons on Scientific Performance Revised.
Scientometrics, 1989-1993

National Planning Series: Education – General & Technical. New Delhi,
1948

Bharagava R. etc. Science in India. New Delhi, 1982

The World Development Report, 1988-1994

«Aii?inu yeiiiieee» ? 5/1997

Ie?iaay yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey» ?? 1-12 1997, ? 8/1993.

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