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Экономика: наука об ограниченности и выборе. Проблема выбора и альтернативная стоимость

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Ae I E E A Ae

IA OAIO:

YEIIIIEEA: iaoea ia ia?aie/aiiinoe e auai?a.

I?iaeaia auai?a e aeueoa?iaoeaiay noieiinoue.

NAIAIAeA AUAI?A

Naiaiaea auai? icia/aao, /oi aeaaeaeueoeu iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e
aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoue eee ?aaeeciaaoue yoe ?ano?nu
ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Iia icia/aao oaeaea, /oi ?aaioieee ai?aaa
caiyoueny ethaui o?oaeii, ia eioi?ue iie niiniaiu. Iaeiiaoe, iia
icia/aao, /oi iio?aaeoaee naiaiaeiu a i?aaeaeao naieo aeaiaaeiuo
aeioiaeia iieoiaoue oiaa?u e oneoae a oaeii iaai?a, eioi?ue iie n/eoatho
iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo iio?aaiinoae. Naiaiaea
iio?aaeoaeueneiai auai?a ieacuaaaony naiie oe?ieie ec yoeo naiaiae.
Iio?aaeoaeue caieiaao a yeiiiieea iniaia no?aoaae/aneia iieiaeaiea: a
ii?aaeae?iiii niunea iio?aaeoaeue iaeaaeaao noaa?aieoaoii. I?eaeaeu
naiaiaeu auai?a iinoaaueeia ethaeneeo e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
ianeoaeeaathony iio?aaeoaeueneei auai?ii. A eiia/iii n/aoa, iio?aaeoaee
?aoatho, /oi aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoue yeiiiieea, a a onoaiiaeaiiuo oai
naiui ?aieao iinoaaueee ?ano?nia iiaoo aeaeaoue naie nianoaaiiue auai?.
Oaeei ia?acii, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iinoaaueee ?ano?nia e i?aaei?eyoey
aiana ia “naiaiaeiu” i?iecaiaeeoue oiaa?u e oneoae, eioi?ua iio?aaeoaee
ia aeaeatho.

AeEAIICII IIO?AAEOAEUeNEIAI AUAI?A

Yeiiiieea a oneiaeyo /anoe/iie eiieo?aioeee iiaeao e ia iaania/eoue
aeinoaoi/iiai aeeaiaciia iio?aaeoaeueneiai auai?a eee ?ac?aaioee iiauo
i?iaeoeoia. Yoi e?eoe/aneia caia/aiea eiaao e noaoenoe/aneee e
aeeiaie/aneee aniaeo. *enoay eiieo?aioeey i?eaiaeeo e noaiaea?oecaoeee
i?iaeoeoia, oiaaea eae ae?oaea ?uii/iua no?oeoo?u, – iai?eia?,
ieeaiiieey e iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey – ii?iaeaeatho oe?ieee
aeeaiacii oeiia, noeeae e iooaieia ea/anoaa ethaiai i?iaeoeoa. Oaeay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey i?iaeoeoeee ?anoe?yao aeeaiacii naiaiaeu auai?a
iio?aaeoaey e iaeiia?aiaiii iaeaieaa iieii oaeiaeaoai?eoue i?aaeii/oaiea
iieoiaoaey. E?eoeee /enoie eiieo?aioeee oaeaea oeacuaatho, /oi,
iineieueeo eiieo?aioeey ia yaeyaony i?ia?anneaiie a ioiioaiee ?acaeoey
iiaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoieee, iineieueeo yoa ?uii/iay no?oeoo?a ia
aeaaii?eyonoaoao a niaa?oaiee eiathueony i?iaeoeoia e nicaeaieth iiauo.

I/aaeaeii, oaeaea oi, /oi iio?aaeoaeue iaeaaeaao ia?aie/aiiui
eiee/anoaii aeieea?ia, a i?iaeoeou, eioi?ua iu iiaeai eoieoue, eiatho
ii?aaeae?iioth oeaiiinoue, oi iio?aaeoaeue niiaeao i?eia?anoe eeoue
ia?aie/aiiia eiee/anoai oiaa?ia. Iio?aaeoaeue ia iiaeao eoieoue an?, /oi
aio oi/aony, anee eaaeaeay iieoiea i?eaiaeeo e enoiuaieth aai
ia?aie/aiiiai aeioiaea. Yoi eae ?ac oio naiue neo/ae, eiaaea ioaeaeueiue
iio?aaeoaeue iaiin?aaenoaaiii noaeeeaaaony n yeiiiie/aneei oaeoi?ii
?aaeeinoe.

IIOEIAEUeIUE AUAI?

Anee au ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia auea aaniethoiie, oi auai? aue au ia
aiciiaeai. Anee au ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia ionoonoaiaaea, oi auai? aue
au ia ioaeai. Auai? noaiiaeoueny iaiaoiaeeiui a oneiaeyo ioiineoaeueiie
ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia

E?eaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae.

Aeaiiue a?aoee iioiio-oi iieacuaaao IAO (yooaeoeaiia) eniieueciaaiea
?ano?nia, /oi oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a A iaaiciiaeii aac
oiaiueoaiey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a A (e iaiai?io). Eia/a aiai?y, iieiia
eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia – neooaoeey, eiaaea ?ino iaeiiai ?acoeueoaoa
iiaeao eaeoe oieueei ca n/?o oiaiueoaiey ae?oaiai ?acoeueoaoa. A yoi
i?aauoaao oa?yaioth aaee/eio “ae?oaiai ?acoeueoaoa” a naiaai ?iaea
iaecaaaeioth ieaoo ca i?e?ino ia?aiai ?acoeueoaoa. E?eaay eioa?ania oai,
/oi iia iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao yoo iaycaoaeueioth ieaoo a eaaeaeie oi/ea.
Oaeay ieaoa, iioa?y iieo/eea iacaaiea “aeueoa?iaoeaiay oeaia”
(“aeueoa?iaoeaiay noieiinoue”).

Aeueoa?iaoeaiay noieiinoue i?e?inoa eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony
nie?auaieai auionea ae?oaiai oiaa?a. Oaeei ia?acii, aeueoa?iaoeaiay
noieiinoue oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii ae?oaiai oiaa?a, io eioi?iai
i?eoiaeeoueny ioeacaoueny, /oiau i?eia?anoe, iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueioth
aaeeieoeo aeaiiiai. Yoa oeaia ioa?ioaiiie, oiouaiiie aeueoa?iaoeau,
eioi?oth i?eoeinue iaiaiyoue ia aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueioth, oeaio iioa?e.

Iiyoiio eiaaea yeiiiieea iaoiaeeoueny ia a?aie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae, oi auai? anyeee ?ac i?ienoiaeeo iaaeaeo iaeneioi iau?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a A e A.

Iaeiaei /aua i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?aauaaao a oi/ea “A”, oiaaea eiaaony
?aca?a ?ano?nia aeey iaeiia?aiaiiiai oaaee/aiey nii?yaeaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia (e oiaa?a A e A). A iiaeiaiie neooaoeee /enei aeueoa?iaoea
iaiaic?eii aic?anoaao, i?e/ai caeanue aeueoa?iaoeau ia naycaiu, eae ia
a?aieoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, n ?inoii iaeiiai i?iaeoeoa ca
n/?o aaniethoiie iioa?e ae?oaiai.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia a?aieoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae auai?
?aaoee?oaony oieueei aeiionoeiie aaee/eiie “aeueoa?iaoeaiie oeaiu”.
Aioo?e aea noa?u i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae (oi/ea “A”) aicieeaao
neooaoeey:

A.) eiaaony ?aca?a ?ano?nia aeey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa;

A.) iaee/ea ?aca?aa nieiaao ia?aie/aiea, iaeeaaeuaaaiia
aeueoa?iaoeaiie oeaiie, iicaieyao iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aueaaoue
i?iecaiaenoai e A e A.

Yoi ineiaeiyao auai? iioeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey, iaeiaei, eaaeaeue eca?aiiue
aa?eaio ii-i?aaeiaio aeaeaao iaaiciiaeiui ae?oaea aa?eaiou. ?acee/ea
eeoue a oii, /oi anee ia a?aieoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?a/ue
oea – i iioa?a, eioi?ie iiaei ia auoue! Eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia
i?eoiaeeoueny oa?youe i?e iaeneiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa a oneiaeyo
iaiieiiai (iayooaeoeaiiai) eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia, a yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee iieo/eei iacaaiea “aeueoa?iaoeaiay cao?aoa”.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oneiaeyo iaiieiiai i?eiaiaiey ?ano?nia iaeneiecaoeey
aiciiaeia a ethaii iai?aaeaiee, a oii /enea e iaeiia?aiaiiiai oaaee/aiey
iaieo ?acoeueoaoia. E oai ia iaiaa oaea aua?aiu: iai?aaeaiea aeaeaao
anaaiciiaeiuie ae?oaea aa?eaiou, eioi?ua, iaeiaei, auee aiciiaeiu. Aio
yoa ianinoiyaoayny aiciiaeiinoue, a n iae – e oiouaiiay auaiaea, –
iinoiyiii “e?iaioi/eo” a na?aeoea i?iecaiaeeoaey, canoaaeyao aai
aaneiia/ii acaaoeaaoue auaiaeu anao aiciiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo cao?ao.

Ii, ianiio?y ia yoi, aac nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee naiaiaea
iaeieo noaiao caneeueai aeey ae?oaeo. Ii a oi aea a?aiy iaee/ea
ia?aie/aiee ia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi a oneiaeyo eo aeaenoaey naiaiaea
caeeth/aia a ca?aiaa caaeaiiua ?aiee. Aanue aii?in a oii, eaeia o?iaaiue
ia?aie/aiee. Oaaee/eaay aai, iiaeii naanoe ciio yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu e
ioeth, a ?anoe?yy naiaiaeiia yeiiiie/aneia i?ino?ainoai, iiaeii
naeaeaoue aai e i?e iaee/ee ia?aie/aiee ia neiauaathueo oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue, eieoeeaoeao e i?aaei?eei/eainoue.

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