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Oaia : Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino

I E A I

1. Iiiyoea e oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

2. Oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

3. I?iaeaiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea.

1. Iiiyoea e oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

A naiii iauai aeaea yeiiiie/aneee ?ino icia/aao eiee/anoaaiiia e
ea/anoaaiiia eciaiaiea ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa e aai oaeoi?ia (eo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe). Naia au?aaeaiea yeiiiie/aneee ?ino iaoiaeeo a
oaaee/aiee iioaioeeaeueiiai e ?aaeueiiai aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa (AII), a aic?anoaiee yeiiiie/aneie iiue iaoeee, no?aiu,
?aaeiia. Yoi oaaee/aiea iiaeii ecia?eoue aeaoiy acaeiinaycaiiuie
iieacaoaeyie: ?inoii ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie ?aaeueiiai AII eee
?inoii AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey. A nayce n yoei noaoenoe/aneei
iieacaoaeai, io?aaeathuei yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, yaeyaony aiaeiaie oaii
?inoa AII a i?ioeaioao.

I?iaeaiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa caieiatho a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeaio?aeueiia
ianoi a yeiiiie/aneeo aeeneonneyo e ianoaeaeaieyo, aaaeoueony
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?aciuo iaoeee, ia?iaeia e eo i?aaeoaeuenoa. Aeaei a
oii, /oi ?anoouee iauai ?aaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iicaieyao a eaeie-oi
noaiaie ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaio, n eioi?ie noaeeeaaaony ethaay oicyenoaaiiay
nenoaia: ia?aie/aiiinoueth ?ano?nia i?e aaca?aie/iinoe /aeiaa/aneeo
iio?aaiinoae. ?acaeaeaay a?aieoeu iaee/iuo ?ano?nia, yeiiiie/aneee ?ino
niinianoaoao iaeiia?aiaiiiio ?aoaieth caaea/, naycaiiuo eae n ?inoii
oaeouaai iio?aaeaiey, oae e inouanoaeaieai iiauo eiaanoeoeee.

Enoi?ey iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee ciaao aeaa iniiaiuo oeia yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa — yenoaineaiue e eioaineaiue.

I?e yenoaineaiii oeia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey aieueoaai eiee/anoaa oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa: o?oaea,
eaieoaea e caiee i?e nio?aiaiee aai i?aaeiae oaoie/aneie iniiau. I?e
yoii oeia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa i?e?ino i?iaeoeoeee aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao
eiee/anoaaiiiai ?inoa /eneaiiinoe e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai ninoaaa
?aaioieeia e ca n/ao oaaee/aiey iiuiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. oaaee/aiey
onoaiiaeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa auione i?iaeoeoeee a ?an/aoa
ia iaeiiai ?aaioieea inoaaony i?aaeiei.

Eioaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaaee/aieai
ianooaaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue iniiauaaaony ia oe?ieii
eniieueciaaiee aieaa yooaeoeaiuo e ea/anoaaiii niaa?oaiiuo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?ino ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa, eae i?aaeei, iaania/eaaaony
ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey aieaa niaa?oaiiie oaoieee, ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee,
aeinoeaeaiee iaoee, aieaa yeiiiie/iuo ?ano?nia, iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee
?aaioieeia. Ca n/ao yoeo oaeoi?ia aeinoeaaaony iiauoaiea ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey e o.i.

Iiae eioaineaiui oeiii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iiieiaaony oaeia ?acaeoea,
eiaaea cia/eoaeueiay eee aeaaea i?aiaeaaeathuay /anoue i?e?inoa
i?iaeoeoeee aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

2. Oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino iiaeii ioeaieoue n iiiiuueth nenoaiu acaeiinaycaiiuo
iieacaoaeae, io?aaeathueo eciaiaiea ?acoeueoaoa i?iecaiaenoaa e aai
oaeoi?ia.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aeey iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e
oneoa iaiaoiaeeiu o?e oaeoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa: o?oae, eaieoae e caiey
(i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, niaieoiiue i?iaeoeo Y anoue
ooieoeey io cao?ao o?oaea (L), eaieoaea (E) e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia (N):

Y=f(L, E, N)

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa eniieuecoaony ?yae iieacaoaeae,
n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ecia?yaony ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey ioaeaeueiuo
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ai-ia?auo, aaaeiui iieacaoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeyaony ioiioaiea
Y/L — i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, o.a. ioiioaiea iauaia auionea
i?iaeoeoeee e cao?aoai aeeaiai o?oaea, inouanoaeaiiui a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ia?aoiia ioiioaiea — L/Y iacuaaaony
o?oaeiaieinoueth i?iaeoeoeee.

Ai-aoi?uo, ioiioaiea iauaia i?iaeoeoeee e aaee/eia eniieueciaaiiiai a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa eaieoaea Y/K — yoi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
eaieoaea, eee eaieoaeiioaea/a. Ia?aoiue iieacaoaeue — K/Y — yoi
eaieoaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

A-o?aoueeo, aaaeiui iieacaoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeyaony e
ioiioaiea iauaia i?iaeoeoeee e cao?aoai i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia — caiee,
yia?aee e o.i. Y/N — i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. Ia?aoiia
ioiioaiea — N/Y iieacuaaao ?ano?niaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeaiiua iieacaoaee Y/L, Y/K e Y/N oa?aeoa?ecotho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
niioaaonoaothueo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. E?iia oeacaiiuo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo auioneii i?iaeoeoeee e ioaeaeueiuie oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa
eniieuecothony e ioiioaiey iaaeaeo naieie oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee nayce iaaeaeo ieie. Oaeei iieacaoaeai yaeyaony i?aaeaea
anaai ioiioaiea iaaeaeo cao?aoaie eaieoaea e cao?aoaie o?oaea (K/L),
o.a. eaieoaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue o?oaea.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo eino?oiaioia aiaeeca yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeyaony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey. I?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey au?aaeaao
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo iaeneiaeueiui auioneii i?iaeoeoeee e cao?aoaie,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey aa i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
naieie cao?aoaie.

A no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie, ianiio?y ia ia?eiaeu
oeeeee/iie ianoaaeeueiinoe, yeiiiie/aneee ?ino ca ia?eiae n 1870 aiaea
ii 1990 aiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae oaaee/aieai aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai
i?iaeoeoa (AAI), oae e oaaee/aieai AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey. Iai?eia?, a
ssiiiee ?aaeueiue AAI a 1989 aiaeo aue aieaa /ai a 60 ?ac auoa aai
o?iaiy a 1870 aiaeo e niioaaonoaaiii a Eaiaaea — aieaa /ai a 61 ?ac, a
NOA — aieaa /ai a 50 ?ac, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee — aieaa /ai a 45 ?ac, ai
O?aioeee — aieaa /ai a 48 ?ac, a Eoaeee — aieaa /ai a 52 ?aca e a
Aa?iaiee — ii/oe a 40 ?ac. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iauai ?aaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a yoeo no?aiao ca oeacaiiue ia?eiae aic?in a 40-61 ?ac.

Iaeiaei, iianaianoii iaaethaeaaony iaee/ea iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiuo
n?aaeiaaiaeiauo oaiiia ?inoa AII e oaiiia ?inoa AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey.
Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi aic?inee ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu ia iai?iio
no?aiu, ia iieeoeeth e iaoeeiiaeueioth aaciianiinoue, ia ia?u ii io?aia
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ae?oaea oeaee, a aeiey AII, eaeouay ia
iio?aaeaiea, oiaea. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?ino iio?aaeaiey ia aeooo
ianaeaiey no?ai ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a i?ioeaioiii au?aaeaiee ionoaaae io
?inoa AII ca yoio ia?eiae.

Eaeiau aea iniiaiua oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa? A yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee
i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue oaeoi?u, eaaeauea eae ia noi?iia niaieoiiiai ni?ina,
oae e ia noi?iia niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. E iineaaeiei ioiinyony: a)
eiee/anoai e ea/anoai i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, a) eiee/anoai e ea/anoai
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a) iauai iniiaiiai eaieoaea, a) o?iaaiue
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna (oaoiieiaey). Io oaeoi?ia niaieoiiiai
ni?ina caaeneo ?aaeecaoeey au?inoaai “iaoeeiiaeueiiai ie?iaa”, o.a. ana
yeaiaiou niaieoiiiai ni?ina aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue iieioth caiyoinoue
anao oaaee/eaaaoeony ?ano?nia. E?iia oiai, e oaeoi?ai, naycaiiui n
niaieoiiui ni?inii, ioiineony e yooaeoeaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia.

I?e enneaaeiaaiee i?iaeai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e aai oaeoi?ia iaeuecy ia
oiiiyiooue noaaooth oaea eeanne/aneie ?aaioo aia?eeaineiai yeiiiienoa
Yaeaa?aea Aeaieniia ec A?oeeineiai einoeoooa “Enneaaeiaaiea ?acee/ee a
oaiiao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa” (1967 a.), ia?aaaaeaiioth ia ?onneee ycue a
1971 a., a oaeaea aieaa iicaeiea aai o?oaeu ii yoie aea oaia. Aia?aua a
yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a Y. Aeaienii iiiuoaeny eiee/anoaaiii
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeay /anoue aaeaaiaeiiai i?e?inoa ii?aaeaeyaony eaaeaeui
oaeoi?ii i?iecaiaenoaa ca ia?eiae 1929-1982 aa. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, Y.
Aeaienii aeacaa?aae?iaae oaeoi?u o?oaea, eaieoaea e oaeoi? oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna. Ii naeaeae caeeth/aiea, /oi iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, iaania/eaathuei ?ino
?aaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa e aeioiaea. Oaaee/aiea o?oaeicao?ao ii?aaeaeyao 1/3
i?e?inoa ?aaeueiiai aeioiaea ca yoio ia?eiae e 2/3 i?e?inoa
iaania/eaaaony iiauoaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Iineaaeiaa
iauyniyaony iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, o.a. eioaineaiuie oaeoi?aie.
A ae?oaeo no?aiao ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee auee iieo/aiu i?eia?ii
oaeea aea ?acoeueoaou.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua oaeoi?u aieaa iiae?iaii. Aaaeiaeoei ec ieo
yaeythony cao?aou o?oaea. Yoio oaeoi? ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai
/eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey no?aiu. Iaeiaei /anoue ianaeaiey ia aeeth/aaony
a /enei o?oaeiniiniaiuo e ia auoiaeeo ia ?uiie o?oaea, e iae ioiinyony
o/aueany, iaineiia?u, aiaiiineoaeauea e o.ae. AEaeathuea ?aaioaoue
ia?acotho oae iacuaaaioth ?aai/oth neeo. E?iia oiai, a ninoaaa ?aai/ae
neeu auaeaeythony aac?aaioiua, o.a. oa, eoi eiaao aeaeaiea ?aaioaoue, ii
ia iiaeao iaeoe ?aaioo.

Iaeiaei ecia?aiea cao?ao o?oaea /eneii caiyouo ia a iieiie ia?a
io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea aauae. Iaeaieaa oi/iui ecia?eoaeai
cao?ao o?oaea yaeyaony iieacaoaeue eiee/anoaa io?aaioaiiuo
/aeiaaei-/ania, iicaieythuee o/anoue noiia?iua cao?aou ?aai/aai a?aiaie.
Oaaee/aiea cao?ao ?aai/aai a?aiaie caaeneo io ?yaea oaeoi?ia: io oaiiia
i?e?inoa ianaeaiey, io aeaeaiey ?aaioaoue, io o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu,
o?iaiy iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey e o.i. Ana oaeoi?u iaiythony ai a?aiaie e
ii no?aiai, nicaeaaay enoiaeiua ?acee/ey a oaiiao e o?iaiyo
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Ia?yaeo n eiee/anoaaiiuie oaeoi?aie aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao ea/anoai
?aai/ae neeu e niioaaonoaaiii cao?ao o?oaea a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ii ia?a aic?anoathuaai ia?aciaaiey e eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia
i?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, /oi niinianoaoao
iiauoaieth o?iaiy e oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Eia/a aiai?y, cao?aou
o?oaea iiaoo ?anoe?youeny aac eaeiai-eeai oaaee/aiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie e
/eneaiiinoe caiyouo, a eeoue ca n/ao iiauoaiey ea/anoaa ?aai/ae neeu.

Ae?oaei aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeyaony eaieoae — yoi
iai?oaeiaaiea, caeaiey e oiaa?iua caianu. Iniiaiie eaieoae aeeth/aao e
aeeeie oiiae, iioiio /oi ethaee, aeeaouea a aeiiao, ecaeaeatho auaiaeo
ec oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo aeiiaie. Iineaaeiaa ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaeao
iieacaoueny ia nianai iau/iui, iaeiaei caeanue iaiaoiaeeii enoiaeeoue ec
oiai , /oi nia?aiaiiay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey o?aeooao ana oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa eae ieacuaathuea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua oneoae

Oaa?e/iua caeaiey e eiioi?u n eo iai?oaeiaaieai yaeythony oaeoi?aie
i?iecaiaenoaa, iioiio /oi ?aaioieee, aii?oaeaiiua aieueoei eiee/anoaii
iaoei, aoaeoo i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoa oiaa?ia. Oiaa?iua caianu oaeaea
aiinyo naie aeeaae a i?iecaiaenoai.

Cao?aou eaieoaea caaenyo io aaee/eiu iaeiieaiiiai eaieoaea. A naith
i/a?aaeue, iaeiieaiea eaieoaea caaeneo io ii?iu iaeiieaiey: /ai auoa
ii?ia iaeiieaiey, oai aieueoa (i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo) ?acia?u
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. I?e?ino eaieoaea oaeaea caaeneo e io ?acia?a oaea
iaeiieaiiuo aeoeaia — /ai iie aieueoa, oai iaiueoa, i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo
oneiaeyo, nei?inoue oaaee/aiey eaieoaea, oaii aai ?inoa. Oae, iai?eia?,
?acia?u iaeiieaiiiai eaieoaea a NOA e no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu aaeeee e
oaiiu aai ?inoa a 3-5 ?ac ieaea, /ai a oaeeo no?aiao, eae THaeiay Ei?ay,
Oaeaaiue, A?aceeey e ae?., aaea i?ioeann iaeiieaiey ia/aeny
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii.

I?e yoii iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iauai iniiaiiai eaieoaea,
i?eoiaeyuaainy ia iaeiiai ?aaioieea, o.a. eaieoaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue,
yaeyaony ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei aeeiaieeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Anee ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae aic?anoae
iauai eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, a /eneaiiinoue ?aai/ae neeu oaaee/eeanue a
aieueoae noaiaie, oi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea aoaeao iaaeaoue, oae
eae nie?auaaony eaieoaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea.

Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeyaony e caiey, a oi/iaa,
eiee/anoai e ea/anoai i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. I/aaeaeii, /oi aieueoea
caianu ?aciiia?aciuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, iaee/ea ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue,
aeaaii?eyoiua eeeiaoe/aneea e iiaiaeiua oneiaey, cia/eoaeueiua caianu
ieia?aeueiuo e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia aiinyo aaniiue aeeaae a
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino no?aiu.

Iaeiaei iaee/ea iaeeueiuo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia ia anaaaea yaeyaony
naiiaeinoaoi/iui oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Iai?eia?, iaeioi?ua
no?aiu Ao?eee e THaeiie Aia?eee iaeaaeatho nouanoaaiiuie caianaie
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, ii aei neo ii? ninoiyo a nieneao ionoaeuo no?ai.
Yoi icia/aao, /oi oieueei yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia aaaeao e
yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann yaeyaony aaaeiui aeaeaaoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa. Ii ioaaouaaao oeaeue ?yae yaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann
(IOI) aeeth/aao a naay niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee, iiaua iaoiaeu e
oi?iu oi?aaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. IOI iicaieyao ii-iiaiio
eiiaeie?iaaoue aeaiiua ?ano?nu n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey eiia/iiai auionea
i?iaeoeoeee. I?e yoii, eae i?aaeei, aicieeatho iiaua, aieaa yooaeoeaiua
io?anee. Oaaee/aiea yooaeoeaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa noaiiaeony iniiaiui
oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

3. I?iaeaiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea.

Ia?yaeo n oai, /oi a ie?iaie yeiiiieea i?ineaaeeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iinoiyiiiai oaaee/aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, iai iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue e
o/eouaaoue oa i?aiyonoaey eioi?ua noiyo ia yoii iooe.

Ia?aay i?iaeaia naycaia n ana aieaa oneeeaathueiny caa?yciaieai
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. Ainoaea?noao ii?ie i?eoiaeeony aaiaeeoue
aeanoieea naieoeee i?ioea i?aaei?eyoee. Iiiaea yeiiiienou
iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi oaeea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey, eae aaaaeaiea
oo?aoia e iaeiaia ia caa?yciythuea i?e?iaeo i?aaei?eyoey i?eaaee e
nieaeaieth auionea niioaaonoaothuae i?iaeoeoeee e naea?aeeaaee
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino.

A nayce n yoie i?iaeaiie anoaao aii?in i ea/anoaa yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.
Ii au?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ia
iniiaa aeinoeaeaiee IOI, a i?eiaiaiee ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee, a
ea/anoaaiiii i?aia?aciaaiee no?oeoo?u e a ninoaaa niaieoiiiai ?aaioieea
e i?iecaiaenoaa. A iauai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa iiauoaaony aan iaoeiaieeo
io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeeo, eae i?eai?ino?iaiea, auione YAI,
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneia i?iecaiaenoai, aoiiiay yia?aaoeea, i?iecaiaenoai
neioaoe/aneeo niie, ieanoe/aneeo iann, i?ia?anneaiuo eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia, ae?oaea i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieuecothuea aeinoeaeaiey IOI.

Ea/anoai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa i?iyaeyaony e a oii, /oi aauanoaaiiia
iaeiieaiea i?e?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiui ia?acii ca n/ao
i?iaeoeoeee oao io?aneae, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e
ianeoaeeaatho iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea. Aunieea oaiiu ?inoa i?iiaaeooi/iie
i?iaeoeoeee ia iiaoo a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo neoaeeoue aaeaeaaoiui
iieacaoaeai iiaiai ea/anoaa yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Ia oaieue, noaeue,
oeaiaio e o. i. oaeiaeaoai?ytho iaiin?aaenoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea,
oioy, ?acoiaaony, aac i?iecaiaenoaa yoie i?iaeoeoeee iaaiciiaeai auione
aaoiiiaeeae, no?ieoaeuenoai aeeeuo aeiiia e ae?. ?a/ue eaeao i oaeie
iai?aaeaiiinoe ?acaeoey, eiaaea iiuue no?aiu ii?aaeaeyaony ia ianooaaaie
aeiauoiai ec iaae? caiee nu?uey e ecaioiaeaiiuo iieooaa?eeaoia, a
ianooaaaie ?acaeoey iaoeiaieeo aeaeia i?iecaiaenoaa, nenoai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey, oe?i/aeoei niaeo?ii oiaa?ia
iio?aaeoaeueneiai iacia/aiey, oeo/oaieai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
oaaee/aieai a?aiaie aeey iieiioeaiiiai aeinoaa e o. i.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ea/anoaaiiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino a aeaeueiaeoai
aiciiaeai oieueei i?e oneiaee, eiaaea aoaeao i?ineaaeeaaoueny /aoeee
aeeiaie/aneee i?ioeann, au?aaeathueeny a eciaiaiee ea/anoaaiiuo
iieacaoaeae yeiiiieee ,a eniieueciaaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee,
iicaieythueo iinoaaeoue i?e?iaeiua neeu e ?ano?nu ia neoaeao /aeiaaeo.

Auno?ue eee, iaiai?io, ioeaaie e aeaaea io?eoeaoaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee
?ino ia anaaaea aiai?yo i auno?ii yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee, oiioaiee ia
ianoa eee yeiiiie/aneie aeaa?aaeaoeee.

No?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea no?aiu iiaoo i?eaanoe e oaeie
neooaoeee, eiaaea noaaiaoeey eee nie?auaiea auionea iaeieo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee ec-ca iaaeathuaai eee iaeciaiiiai ni?ina ia ieo
nii?iaiaeaeaaony auno?ui ?inoii ae?oaeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. Oae, a NOA a
80-o a. a. ia ?inei iio?aaeaiea noaee, naeueoici?iaeoeoeee, eaaeiauo
aaoiiiaeeae, ii iaeiia?aiaiii oaaee/eaaeny auione neiaeiuo ecaeaeee,
iai?eia? ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia. Ii e a auionea eiiiuethoa?ia
eiee/anoaaiiue ?ino iaaeinoaoi/ii io?aaeaao ae?oaea aniaeou eo
i?iecaiaenoaa: i?iaeaaee ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia a NOA ca 1981—1988
aa. au?inee n 1,1 aei 9,5 iei. oo. , ii noieiinoe —n 3,1 aei 27,7 ie?ae.
aeiee., a aeieea? ca yoi a?aiy iaanoeaieeny ia 25 % Oaeei ia?acii,
ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u aeaoaaaee, oioy eo oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee
e ea/anoai ?inee. I?e iiaen/aoa eiiieaeniiai iieacaoaey yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa — AAI — auoaoeacaiiua iiiaiou i?eaaee e oiio, /oi ii ia aei eiioea
io?aaeae aeeiaieeo yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey NOA ca 80-a aa.

Oai ia iaiaa, i?e anao aai iaaeinoaoeao, yeiiiie/aneee ?ino inoaaony
iaeaieaa oiio?aaeiui e?eoa?eai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Yeiiiie/aneee
?ino iiaeao ecia?youeny a oece/aneii au?aaeaiee (oece/aneee ?ino) e
noieiinoiii (noieiinoiie ?ino). Ia?aue niinia aieaa iaaeaaeai (oae eae
iicaieyao eneeth/eoue aicaeaenoaea eioeyoeee), ii ia oieaa?naeai: i?e
?an/aoa oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa o?oaeii auaanoe iauee iieacaoaeue
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciuo ecaeaeee. Aoi?ie niinia oiio?aaeyaony /aua,
iaeiaei ia anaaaea aiciiaeii aei eiioea “i/enoeoue” aai io eioeyoeee.
I?aaaea, a noaoenoeea ?yaea no?ai ecia?ytho iae?iyeiiiie/aneee ?ino ia
aaca ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aeey yoeo yeiiiiee oiaa?ia,
eniieuecoy i?e yoii eo oaeaeueiua aana a iauai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

A NNN? a oa/aiea iiiaeo aeanyoeeaoee yeiiiie/aneee ?ino ecia?yeny
i?iecaaaeaiiui IAe, e eeoue n 1987 a. ia/aee i?eiaiyoue iieacaoaeue AII.
A 90-o aa. a ?innee AAI noae iniiaiui iieacaoaeai aeeiaieee ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa.

E E O A ? A O O ? A

Eaiaaa A. Ae. E ae?. O/aaiee ii iniiaai yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee
(yeiiiieea). I., 1994 a.

Eo?n yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. O/aaiia iiniaea. Iiae ?aae. I. I. *aio?eia,
A. A. Eenaeaaie. Ee?ia., 1994 a.

Yeiiiieea : O/aaiee. Iiae ?aae. A. N. Aoeaoiaa. I., 1994 a.

Ao?iaa E., Eaaiia I. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino : oai?ey e ie?iaay
i?aeoeea. // Yeiiiieno., ? 6, 1996 aiae.

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