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Экономические системы: виды, понятие, структура

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?O

IO OAIOO

?aoa?ao

ia oaio: Yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu: aeaeu, iiiyoea, no?oeoo?a.

?aaioo auiieiee: no. a?. A?C-01-11

Oaaeiia E.E.

I?iaa?ee: aeioe. Ceiiaooeeeia I.Ae.

2003a.

Aaaaeaiea

1. Iiiyoea e no?oeoo?a yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai

2. Iniiaiua oeiu yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai:

2.1. O?aaeeoeeiiiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia

2.2. ?uii/iay nenoaia

2.3. Niaoaiiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia

3. I?iaeaia eii?aeeiaoeee a ?acee/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea.

Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia anoue niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo e
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii oii?yaei/aiiuo yeaiaioia yeiiiieee, ia?acothueo
yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o iauanoaa.

Aia nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?a yeiiiieee ia iiaee au aini?iecaiaeeoueny
(iinoiyiii aiciaiiaeyoueny) yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey e einoeooou, ia
iiaee au nouanoaiaaoue yeiiiie/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe, ia iiaei au
neiaeeoueny oai?aoe/aneiai iniuneaiey yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee e
i?ioeannia, ia iiaei au auoue neii?aeeie?iaaiiie e yooaeoeaiie
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

Ei??aeoiia e iao/ii iainiiaaiiia iaia?oaeaiea caeiiiia?iinoae
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu anaaaea eiaei noaeueaiiiniia
cia/aiea.

Iauaeoeaii nouanoaothuea yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu iaoiaeyo nai? io?aaeaiey
a oai?aoe/aneeo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao. A niaaoneie yeiiiie/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie enneaaeiaaoaeyie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu
iauanoaa auee E. Ia?en, Aa?aneiia I.A., *a?iye A.E., ss. Ei?iae.

A nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneie iaoee aeaeaaony oii? ia nenoaiiua
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yeiiiieea a o/aaieeao “Yeiiiieea” (“Yeiiiie/aneay
oai?ey”) iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Ieioieoeeiai, Aoeaoiaa, A?yciiaie, Aacueaaa,
Eaiaoaaneie, Aaeeeiaaa.

Aeaaiie i?iaeaiie nia?aiaiiiai ia?eiaea oi?ie?iaaiea iao/iuo
yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea iiaeii n/eoaoue
i?iaeaio niaiauaiey oieaa?naeueiuo, au?aaioaiiuo ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie
iuneueth, n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth io?aaeaiey neiaeiie ea?oeiu nia?aiaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

1. Iiiyoea e no?oeoo?a yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai iauanoaa.

Oiio?aaeaiea iiiyoey nenoaiu eiaao aeieaoth enoi?eth, ooiaeyuoth a
aioe/ioth yiioo. A ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai “nenoaia” icia/aao iaeia
oeaeia, ninoiyuaa ec /anoae, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie e ia?acothueo
oeaeinoiinoue.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ethaie nenoaiu iau/ii auaeaeytho aa yeaiaiou, o?iaie
i?aaiecaoeee, no?oeoo?o e ooieoeee.

Iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu yaeythony
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, aace?othueany ia neiaeeaoeony a
eaaeaeie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia oi?iao nianoaaiiinoe ia yeiiiie/aneea
?ano?nu e ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; i?aaiecaoeeiiiua
oi?iu oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci.

Onoaiiaeaiea naycae iaaeaeo ninoaaeythueie nenoaio yeaiaioaie icia/aao
ii?aaeaeaiea aa no?oeoo?u. Aeey nenoaiu oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea ooieoeee,
eioi?ua ia a ninoiyiee auiieieoue ie iaeei ec yeaiaioia a ioaeaeueiinoe,
a oieueei iauaeo a oeaeii.

Aaaeiui naienoaii yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu yaeyaony iaee/ea no?oeoo?u.

Yeiiiieea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeioth iiiaio?iaiaaoth, ?acaeaathuothny
nenoaio. Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iauanoaa ninoieo ec iaeuo yeiiiie/aneeo
nenoai – aeiiioicyenoa e i?aaei?eyoee. Aeiiioicyenoai – yoi iaeay
nenoaia, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao aeaaeaeueoeaa ?ano?nia e iio?aaeoaeae a
?aieao naiuee. Iniiaiay ooieoeey aeiiioicyenoaa – iio?aaeaiea eiia/iuo
i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, i?iecaiaeeiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie. I?aaei?eyoea – iaeay
nenoaia, a ?aieao eioi?ie nicaeathony yeiiiie/aneea aeaaa e oneoae n
iiiiuueth niaieoiiinoe iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia. A?oiiu acaeiinaycaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee iauaaeeiaiu a io?anee. Io?aneue – yoi aieaa e?oiiay
nenoaia, iauaaeeiythuay ana i?aaei?eyoey, auioneathuea ii?aaeae?iiua
i?iaeoeou. Io?anee iauaaeeiythony a aieaa e?oiiua nenoaiu –
iaaeio?aneaaua.

E?iia oiai yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iauanoaa iiaeao aeeth/aoue e ae?oaea
yeaiaiou: nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu (yeiiiieei-iieeoe/aneea,
yeiiiieei-aeaiia?aoe/aneea, i?e?iaei-yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu);
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia io?aneaaua, iaaeio?aneaaua, ?aaeiiieueiua
nenoaiu).

Ana nenoaiu ianeoaeeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa, iauaaeeiaiu aaeeiie no?oeoo?u
iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey, naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie
iin?aaenoaii i?iaeoeoiiaiaia, iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii acaeiiaeaenoaee.

?anniao?eaay n oi/ee c?aiey oi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea no?oeoo?a
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu aunooiaao eae aioo?aiiyy i?aaiecaoeey
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyoiio iia ia ?aciii o?iaia anaaaea
i?iyaeyaony /a?ac ethaeae, eo i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, no?oeoo?o yeiiiie/a-neie nenoaiu ia?acotho ioiioaiey
acaeiiaeaenoaey ethaeae a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo e
aeooiaiuo aeaa e oneoa, o.a. niaieoiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia – neiaeiay, oii?yaei/aiiay niaieoiiinoue anao
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e aeaeia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa,
inouanoaey-thuayny a oi?iao ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e
nioeeaeueiuo ioiioa-iee e nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia, oeaeueth eioi?ie
yaeyaony oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa a iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaaao e
oneoaao.

Iaeiei ec i?eciaeia aeaeaiey yeiiiieee ia oeiu iiaeao neoaeeoue aa
ioe?uoinoue eee cae?uoinoue. Anee iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea e aa caaiuey
aeoeaii aeeth/athony a nenoaio iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae,
oaeay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia n/eoaaony ioe?uoie. Anee nenoaia caieiooa ia
aioo?aiieo ?ano?nao i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?aie/eaaaony aioo?aiiei
iio?aaeaieai, anee iia ia aeinooiia aeey iiauo oe?i, oi iia yaeyaony
cae?uoie nenoaiie.

Ae?oaei i?eciaeii aeaeaiey nenoaiu ia oeiu yaeythony oi?iu ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie. Eie iiaoo auoue o?aaeeoeee, eiiaiaea
(ieaie?iaaiea) e ?uiie. Niioaaonoaaiii yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia iiaeao
auoue o?aaeeoeeiiiie, ?uii/iie e eiiaiaeiie. A yeiiiieea iiaoo
ni/aoaoueny ?acee/iua yeaiaiou nenoai, oiaaea iiaeii aiai?eoue i
niaoaiiie yeiiiieea.

Aua iaeiei i?eciaeii aeaeaiey yeinenoaiu ia oeiu yaeyaony oi?ia
nianoaaiiinoe. Iia iiaeao auoue /anoiie eee ainoaea?noaaiiie, a a
o?aaeeoeeiiiii iauanoaa – iaueiiie. Ainiiaenoaothuay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe
ii?aaeaeyao oi?iu i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

2. Iniiaiua oeiu yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai:

?aciua yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu ie?a ?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie ii naiei
eaeaieiaeyi, a oaeaea ii naiaio iiaeoiaeo e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu yeiiiieee.
Ei?aiiua ?acee/ey neaaeothuea: a) iaaeaeo /anoiie e iauanoaaiie
nianoaaiiinoueth ia ?ano?nu e a) iaaeaeo eniieueciaaieai a ea/anoaa
eii?aeeiaoeeiiiiai iaoaiecia ?uii/iie nenoaiu e oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
ieaie?iaaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu:
/enoue eaieoaeeci, eiiaiaeioth yeiiiieeo, aaoi?eoa?iue eaieoaeeci,
?uii/iue nioeeaeeci, o?aaeeoeeiiioth yeiiiieeo.

Oeaeue yeiiiienoia ethaie no?aiu ninoieo a oii, /oiau aeiaeoueny oaeiai
ni/aoaiey eaieoaeecia e nioeeaeecia, eioi?ia iaania/eo
aeecianiiniaiinoue e iaaeeaaeauoth yooaeoeaiinoue yeiiiieea aeaiiie
no?aiu a ?aieao aa enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee.

A ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu ?aniieaaathony
aaea-oi iaaeaeo ?uii/iie e eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieeie.

*oiau eo/oa iiiyoue, eae neiaeeeanue nia?aiaiiay yeiiiieea, eae
/aeiaa/anoai iao/eeinue iaoiaeeoue ioaaou ia aa aeaaiua aii?inu, iieacii
iaeyiooueny iacaae e i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ouny/aeaoithth enoi?eth ?acaeoey
yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai oeeaeeecaoeee.

A caaeneiinoe io niiniaa ?aoaiey aeaaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai e oeia
nianoaaiiinoe ia yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu iu iiaeai auaeaeeoue /aou?a
iniiaiuo oeia yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai:

1) o?aaeeoeeiiiay;

2) ?uii/iay (eaieoaeeci);

3) eiiaiaeiay (nioeeaeeci);

4) niaoaiiay.

2.1. O?aaeeoeeiiiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia – naiay ae?aaiyy nenoaia.

Iai?eia?, anee ieaiy ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo iieieaiee au?aueaaei,
neaaeai, y/iaiue, oi iii e aeaeueoa aoaeao neeiiii aeaeaoue oi aea
naiia. Aii?inu oeia:

Auaiaeii ee yoi?

*oi eiia noieo au?aueaaoue?

Eaeie niinia i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa aieaa ?aoeeiiaeai? – caeanue
i?inoi ia i?eoiaeyo ieeiio a aieiao.

Eiia/ii, o?aaeeoeee ni a?aiaiai oiaea iaiythony, ii i/aiue iaaeeaiii e
eeoue a neeo nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee aiaoieo oneiaee aeecie ieaiaie eee
ia?iaeiinoe. I?e noaaeeueiinoe yoeo oneiaee o?aaeeoeee oicyenoaaiiie
aeecie iiaoo nio?aiyoueny i/aiue aeieai. A ?innee, iai?eia?, ii nae
aeaiue iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue yeaiaiou o?aaeeoeeiiiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu
a i?aaiecaoeee aeecie ia?iaeia Naaa?a. *oi eanaaony nianoaaiiinoe ia
yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu, oi a o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaia iia /aua anaai auea
eieeaeoeaiie, oi anoue ioioie/uee oaiaeuey, iaoie e eoaa i?eiaaeeaaeaee
ieaiaie eee iaueia.

Ni a?aiaiai iniiaiua yeaiaiou o?aaeeoeeiiiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu
ia?anoaee ono?aeaaoue /aeiaa/anoai. AEeciue iieacaea, /oi oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa eniieuecothony aieaa yooaeoeaii, anee iie iaoiaeyony a
nianoaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae eee naiae, a ia a eieeaeoeaiie
niaioaaiiinoe. Ie a iaeiie ec aiaaoaeoeo no?ai ie?a iniiaie aeecie
iauanoaa ia yaeyaony eieeaeoeaiay nianoaaiiinoue. Ii ai iiiaeo
aaaeiaeoeo no?aiao ie?a inoaoee oaeie nianoaaiiinoe nio?aieeenue. E yoi
ia neo/aeii.

Iai?eia?, ao?iia ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?innee i?eoeinue eeoue ia
ia/aei XX a., eiaaea ?aoi?iu I. A. Noieuieia ?ac?ooeee eieeaeoeaiia
(iaueiiia) aeaaeaiea caieae, niaieaoaany ia aeaaeaiea caieae
ioaeaeueiuie naiueyie. Caoai i?eoaaeoea e aeanoe a 1917a. eiiioienou
oaeoe/anee ainnoaiiaeee iaueiiia caieaaeaaeaiea, iauyaea caieth
“iauaia?iaeiie nianoaaiiinoueth”.

Iino?iea naia naeueneia oicyenoai ia eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoe, NNN?
oae e ia niia ia i?ioyaeaiee 70 eao XX a. aeiaeoueny
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai eciaeeey. Aieaa oiai, e ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia
iieiaeaiea n i?iaeiaieuenoaeai noaei ianoieueei ieioei, /oi EINN auea
auioaeaeaia i?eiyoue niaoeeaeueioth “I?iaeiaieuenoaaiioth i?ia?aiio”,
eioi?ay, ai?i/ai, oiaea ia auea auiieiaia, oioy aeaiueae ia ?acaeoea
aa?a?iiai naeoi?a auee iio?a/aiu ia?iiiua.

Iai?ioea, naeueneiio oicyenoao aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, NOA e Eaiaaeu,
iniiaaiiiio ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e eaieoae, ?aoeoue
caaea/o nicaeaiey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai eciaeeey oaeaeinue. E ianoieueei
oniaoii, /oi oa?ia?u yoeo no?ai niiaee iaiaeoth aeieth naiae i?iaeoeoeee
auaiceoue a ae?oaea ?aaeiiu ie?a.

I?aeoeea iieacaea, /oi ?uiee e oe?iu eo/oa ?aoatho caaea/o
?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia e oaaee/aiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa
aeeciaiiuo aeaa, /ai niaaou noa?aeoei – i?aaiu, i?eieiaaoea
i?eioeeieaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aoaiey a o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaia.

Aio ii/aio o?aaeeoeeiiiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia ni a?aiaiai ia?anoaea
auoue iniiaie i?aaiecaoeee aeecie ethaeae a aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a. Aa
yeaiaiou ooee ia caaeiee ieai e nio?aieeenue eeoue ineieeaie a oi?ia
?aciuo iau/aaa e o?aaeeoeee, eiathueo aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea. A
aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a aaaeouoth ?ieue ea?atho eiua niiniau
i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaaiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa ethaeae.

2.2. ?uii/iay nenoaia

Ia niaio o?aaeeoeeiiiie i?eoea ?uii/iay nenoaia (eaieoaeeci).

Iniiao yoie nenoaiu ninoaaeytho:

1) i?aai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe;

2) /anoiay oicyenoaaiiay eieoeeaoeaa;

3) ?uii/iay i?aaiecaoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia iauanoaa.

I?aai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe – anoue i?eciaaaaiia e caueuaaiia caeiiii
i?aai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea aeaaeaoue, iieueciaaoueny e ?anii?yaeaoueny
ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeii e iauaiii ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia (iai?eia?, o/anoeii
caiee, ianoi?iaeaeaieai oaey eee oaa?eeie), a cia/eo, e iieo/aoue io
yoiai aeioiaeu. Eiaiii aiciiaeiinoue aeaaeaoue oaeei aeaeii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, eae eaieoae, e iieo/aoue ia yoie iniiaa
aeioiaeu iaoneiaeea aoi?ia, /anoi oiio?aaeyaiia, iacaaiea yoie
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu – eaieoaeeci.

Iiia/aeo i?aai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe caueuaeinue eeoue neeie i?oaeey, a
nianoaaiieeaie auee oieueei ei?iee e oaiaeaeu. Ii caoai, i?ieaey aeieaee
iooue aiei e ?aaiethoeee, /aeiaa/anoai nicaeaei oeeaeeecaoeeth, a
eioi?ie noaoue /anoiui nianoaaiieeii niia eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei, anee aai
aeioiaeu iicaieyee i?eia?anoe nianoaaiiinoue.

*anoiay oicyenoaaiiay eieoeeaoeaa – anoue i?aai eaaeaeiai aeaaeaeueoea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia naiinoiyoaeueii ?aoaoue, eaeei ia?acii e a
eaeie ia?a eo eniieueciaaoue aeey iieo/aiey aeioiaea. I?e yoii
aeaaininoiyiea eaaeaeiai ii?aaeaeyaony oai, ianeieueei oniaoii ii iiaeao
i?iaeaoue ia ?uiea ?ano?n, eioi?ui aeaaeaao: naith ?aai/oth neeo,
iaauee, ecaeaeey ?oe naieo, nianoaaiiue caiaeueiue o/anoie, i?iaeoeoeeth
naiae oaa?eee eee oiaiea i?aaieciauaaoue eiiia?/aneea iia?aoeee. Oio,
eoi i?aaeeiaeeo iieoiaoaeyi iaeeo/oee oiaa? e ia aieaa auaiaeiuo
oneiaeyo, ieacuaaaony iiaaaeeoaeai a ai?ueaa ca aeaiueae iieoiaoaeae e
ioe?uaaao naaa aei?iao e ?inoo aeaaininoiyiey.

E, iaeiiaoe, nianoaaiii ?uiee, oi anoue ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
i?aaieciaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ii iaiaio oiaa?aie.

Eiaiii ?uiee:

1) ii?aaeaeytho noaiaiue oaea/eeainoe oie eee eiie oicyenoaaiiie
eieoeeaoeau;

2) oi?ie?otho aaee/eio aeioiaeia, eioi?ua nianoaaiiinoue i?eiineo naiei
aeaaeaeueoeai;

3) aeeeootho i?iii?oeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia iaaeaeo
aeueoa?iaoeaiuie noa?aie eo eniieueciaaiey.

?uiee, iniiaaiiua ia eiieo?aioeee, noaee naiui oaea/iui ec ecaanoiuo
/aeiaa/anoao niiniaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?aie/aiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
?ano?nia e nicaeaiiuo n eo iiiiuueth aeaa.

Eiieo?aioeey ea?aao naaiaeiy ia?iiioth ?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaeeaaeuaay cia/eoaeueiue ioia/aoie ia
ono?ienoai yeiiiieee.

Aeinoieinoai eiieo?aioeee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia noaaeo ?ani?aaeaeaiea
ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia a caaeneiinoue io aaniiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo
a?aoiaioia ni?aaiothueony.

Eiia/ii, e ?uii/iay nenoaia eiaao naie iaaeinoaoee. A /anoiinoe, iia
ii?iaeaeaao ia?iiiua ?acee/ey a o?iaiyo aeioiaeia e aiaaonoaa, eiaaea
iaeie eoiathony a ?ineioe, a ae?oaea i?icyaatho a ieuaoa. Iaaethaeaoue
yoi iu iiaeai naaiaeiy e a ?innee.

Oaeea ?acee/ey a aeioiaeao ecaeaaia iiaoaeaeaee ethaeae o?aeoiaaoue
eaieoaeeci eae “iani?aaaaeeeaoth” yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio e ia/oaoue i
aieaa niaa?oaiiii ono?ienoaa naiae aeecie. Yoe ia/ou i?eaaee e
iiyaeaieth a XIX a. iauanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey, iacaaiiiai “ia?eneciii” a
/anoue aai aeaaiiai eaeaieiaa – iaiaoeeiai aeo?iaeenoa e yeiiiienoa
Ea?ea Ia?ena. Ii e aai iineaaeiaaoaee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi ?uii/iay nenoaia
en/a?iaea aiciiaeiinoe naiaai ?acaeoey e noaea oi?iicii aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai ?inoa aeaaininoiyiey /aeiaa/anoaa. A iioiio aa
i?aaeeaaaeinue caiaieoue iiaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiie – eiiaiaeiie eee
nioeeaeeciii (io eaoeineiai “nioeeoi” – iauanoai).

?iaeaeaiea eiiaiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu yaeeinue neaaenoaeai ?yaea
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ?aaiethoeee, eaeaieiae/aneei ciaiaiai eioi?uo aue
ia?eneci. Eiie?aoiay aea iiaeaeue eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu auea ?ac?aaioaia
aiaeaeyie ?inneeneie eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee A.E.Eaieiui e E.A.Noaeeiui.

A niioaaonoaee n ia?enenoneie oai?eae /aeiaa/anoai iiaei au ?acei
onei?eoue naie iooue e iiauoaieth aeaaininoiyiey e ono?aieoue ?acee/ey a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii aeaaiiieo/ee a?aaeaeai iooai eeeaeaeaoeee /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe e aaaeaiey anae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe no?aiu ia
iniiaa aaeeiiai iauaiaycaoaeueiiai (aee?aeoeaiiai) ieaia, eioi?ue
?ac?aaaouaaaony ?oeiaiaenoaii ainoaea?noaa ia iao/iie iniiaa. Ei?ie yoie
oai?ee ooiaeyo a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey, a oae iacuaaaiua nioeeaeueiua
ooiiee, ii aa i?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey i?eoeanue eiaiii ia XX a., eiaaea
aiciee oae iacuaaaiue nioeeaeenoe/aneee eaaa?ue.

A ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa nioeeaeenoe/aneiai eaaa?y (50-80-a aiaeu) a aai
no?aiao aeeei aieaa o?aoe ianaeaiey Caiee. Oae /oi yoi, iiaeaeoe,
e?oiiaeoee yeiiiie/aneee yenia?eiaio a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa.
Yenia?eiaio, eioi?ue ia/aeny n iiaeaaeaiey yeaiaioa?iuo naiaiae
a?aaeaeai e nii?iaiaeaeaeny ia?iiiuie aea?oaaie.

Iaeiaei a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia ?aaeueiua eoiae aeanyoeeaoee “ieaiiaiai
?acaeoey” NNN? e no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu ieacaeenue aieaa /ai a?onoiuie.
Auynieeinue, /oi:

1) iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai i?iecaiaeeiie a yoeo no?aiao i?iaeoeoeee –
ieceiai ea/anoaa e onoa?aaoae eiino?oeoeee, a iiyoiio ia iieuecoaony
ni?inii ie ia aioo?aiiai, ie ia ie?iaii ?uiea;

2) o?iaaiue aeaaininoiyiey e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie a?aaeaeai
ieaea, a aeaoneay nia?oiinoue auoa, /ai a no?aiao, i?iaeeaoeo XX aae a
?uii/iie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia;

3) oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai naeoi?a iaiiiai ieaea, /ai a
no?aiao, aaea aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee ia “aiaae?yeenue ii ieaio
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna”;

4) i?e?iaea caa?yciaia cia/eoaeueii neeueiaa, /ai a no?aiao ?uii/iie e
niaoaiiie yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai, ianiio?y ia ana “?aoaiey ia?oee e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”.

E ?ani?aaeaeaieai aeaa nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aeey ee/iiai iieueciaaiey “a
ii?yaeea i/a?aaee” eee ia iniiaa oaeiiia, eioi?ua ?aaioieeai auaeaaaei
ia/aeuenoai “ca aeieaee e aacoi?a/iue o?oae”.

Ieaie?iaaiea auaaao ii?ie iieaciui e a ianooaaao no?aiu, iai?eia? a
oneiaeyo aiaiiiai a?aiaie, eiaaea eioa?anu ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e oe?i
ionooiatho ia caaeiee ieai ii n?aaiaieth n caaea/ae caueou no?aiu io
aa?anni?a. Eoaea ooaea iieo/aaony n eniieueciaaieai aaeeiuo ieaiia aeey
anae no?aiu a ie?iia a?aiy.

Aeaei a oii, /oi eiiaiaeiay nenoaia aiana ia neo/aeii ia/eiaaony n
oie/oiaeaiey /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ainoaea?noai iiaeao eiiaiaeiaaoue
eniieueciaaieai yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee caeii
ia caueuaao i?aai /anoiiai nianoaaiieea ia naiinoiyoaeueiia
?anii?yaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeaueie aio ?ano?naie.

Anee ana ?ano?nu (oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa) iauyaeythony iauaia?iaeiie
nianoaaiiinoueth, a ?aaeueii eie iieiiaeanoii ?anii?yaeathony
ainoaea?noaaiiua e ia?oeeiua /eiiaieee, oi yoi aea/ao i/aiue iianiua
yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey. Aeioiaeu ethaeae e oe?i ia?anoatho caaenaoue
io oiai, ianeieueei oaea/ii iie eniieuecotho ia?aie/aiiua ?ano?nu,
ianeieueei ?acoeueoao eo o?oaea aeaenoaeoaeueii ioaeai iauanoao. Aaaeiaa
noaiiayony ae?oaea e?eoa?ee:

a) aeey i?aaei?eyoee – noaiaiue auiieiaiey e ia?aauiieiaiey ieaiiauo
caaeaiee ii i?iecaiaenoao oiaa?ia. Iaaaaeii, /oi yoe oiaa?u iiaee auoue
nianai iaeioa?aniu iieoiaoaeyi, eioi?ua – aoaeue o ieo naiaiaea auai?a –
i?aaeii/ee au eiua aeaaa. ?aaiui ia?acii, ieeiai ia aieiiaaei, /oi ia
ecaioiaeaiea yoeo oiaa?ia iau/ii o?aoeeinue iaiiia?ii iiiai ?ano?nia, a
nai oiaa? ieacuaaeny neeoeii aei?iaei;

a) aeey ethaeae – oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee n ia/aeuenoaii, eioi?ia
?ani?aaeaeyei iaeaieaa aeaoeoeeoiua oiaa?u (iaoeiu, eaa?oe?u, iaaaeue,
iooaaee ca a?aieoeo e o.ae.), eee caiyoea aeieaeiinoe, ioe?uaathuae
aeinooi a “cae?uoua ?ani?aaeaeeoaee”, aaea oaeea aeaoeoeeoiua aeaaa
iiaeii eoieoue naiaiaeii. A ?acoeueoaoa a no?aiao eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu:

1) aeaaea naiua i?inoua ec iaiaoiaeeiuo ethaeyi aeaa ieacaeenue
“aeaoeoeeoii”;

2) ianna i?aaei?eyoee iinoiyiii ianee oauoee, e aeaaea nouanoaiaaea
oaeay ii?aceoaeueiay eo eaoaai?ey, eae “ieaiiai-oauoi/iua i?aaei?eyoey”.
I?e yoii ?aaioieee oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee ana ?aaii ?aaoey?ii iieo/aee
ca?aaioioth ieaoo e i?aiee;

3) naiie aieueoie oaea/ae aeey a?aaeaeai e i?aaei?eyoee auei “aeinoaoue”
eaeie-oi eiii?oiue oiaa? eee iai?oaeiaaiea.

A eoiaa eiiaoe XX a. noae yiioie aeoaieiai ?aci/a?iaaiey a aiciiaeiinoyo
ieaiiai-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu, a auaoea nioeeaeenoe/aneea no?aiu caiyeenue
iaeaaeei aeaeii aic?iaeaeaiey /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e nenoaiu ?uieia.

Oioy i?aaiecaoeeiiiui iaoaieciii /enoiai eaieoaeecia neoaeeo ?uii/iay
nenoaia, iaiaoiaeeii i?eciaoue aaaeioth ?ieue eiieo?aioeee a ea/anoaa
iaoaiecia eiio?iey a oaeie yeiiiieea. ?uii/iue iaoaieci i?aaeeiaeaiey e
ni?ina niiauaao aeaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae (iauanoaa) i?aaei?eyoeyi, a /a?ac
ieo – e iinoaaueeai ?ano?nia. Iaeiaei eiaiii eiieo?aioeey canoaaeyao
i?aaei?eyoey e iinoaaueeia ?ano?nia iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii oaeiaeaoai?youe
yoe aeaeaiey.

Iaaeaeo oai eiieo?aioeey ia ia?aie/eaaao naith ?ieue aa?aioe?iaaieai
iaaeeaaeauae ?aaeoeee ia iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa. Eiaiii eiieo?aioeey
canoaaeyao oe?iu ia?aoiaeeoue ia naiua yooaeoeaiua oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea ianiiniaiinoue iaeioi?uo oe?i
eniieueciaaoue naioth yeiiiie/ioth oaoiieiaeth i?iecaiaenoaa a eiia/iii
n/aoa icia/aao eo ono?aiaiea ae?oaeie eiieo?e?othueie oe?iaie, eioi?ua
i?eiaiytho iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aanueia i?eia/aoaeueiui aniaeoii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ei??aeoe?iai/iuo
iia?aoeee eiieo?aioiie ?uii/iie nenoaiu yaeyaony oi, /oi iia nicaeaao
iaiau/aeiia e aaaeiia oiaeaeanoai – oiaeaeanoai /anoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo
eioa?ania. Oe?iu e iinoaaueee ?ano?nia, aeiaeaathueany oaaee/aiey
nianoaaiiie auaiaeu e aeaenoaothuea a ?aieao ino?i eiieo?aioiie ?uii/iie
nenoaiu, iaeiia?aiaiii – eae au iai?aaeyaiua “iaaeaeeiie ?oeie” –
niinianoaotho iaania/aieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo, eee iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania.
Ecaanoii, iai?eia?, /oi i?e nouanoaothuae eiieo?aioiie eiiuthieoo?a
oe?iu i?eiaiytho naioth yeiiiie/ioth eiiaeiaoeeth ?ano?nia aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee, iineieueeo yoi ioaa/aao eo
/anoiie auaiaea. Iinooiaoue ii-ae?oaiio icia/aei au aeey ieo ioeacaoueny
io i?eaueae eee aeaaea ?eneiaaoue ni a?aiaiai iioa?iaoue aaie?ionoai. Ii
aianoa n oai i/aaeaeii, /oi eioa?anai iauanoaa ioaa/aao eniieueciaaiea
?aaeeeo ?ano?nia n iaeiaiueoeie ecaea?aeeaie, o.a. iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie
iaoiaeaie. Iinooiaoue eia/a icia/aei au i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai iauaia
i?iaeoeoeee n aieueoeie ecaea?aeeaie eee i?eianaiea a aea?oao
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua aeaenoaeoaeueii iaiaoiaeeiu iauanoao.

Eoae, neea eiieo?aioeee eiio?iee?oao eee iai?aaeyao iioea ee/iie
auaiaeu oaeei ia?acii, /oi ii aaoiiaoe/anee e iai?iecaieueii
niinianoaoao iaeeo/oaio iaania/aieth eioa?ania iauanoaa.

2.3. Niaoaiiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia

Aiai?y i ieaiiai-eiiaiaeiie eee ?uii/iie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia, a /enoii
aeaea eo iiaeii iaeoe oieueei ia no?aieoeao iao/iuo o?oaeia. ?aaeueiay
oicyenoaaiiay aeeciue, iai?ioea, anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianue
yeaiaioia ?acee/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai.

Nia?aiaiiay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a iineo
eiaiii niaoaiiue oa?aeoa?. Eae i?aaeei, naaiaeiy ainoaea?noai o/anoaoao
a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa ii aeaoi i?e/eiai:

1) iaeioi?ua iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa a neeo eo niaoeeoeee (niaea?aeaiea
a?iee, au?aaioea caeiiia, i?aaiecaoeey oee/iiai aeaeaeaiey, ai?ueaa n
yieaeaieyie e o.ae.) iii iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue eo/oa, /ai aiciiaeii ia
iniiaa oieueei ?uii/iuo iaoaieciia;

2) iii iiaeao niya/eoue iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey aeayoaeueiinoe ?uii/iuo
iaoaieciia (neeoeii aieueoea ?acee/ey a aiaaonoaa a?aaeaeai, oua?a aeey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io aeayoaeueiinoe eiiia?/aneeo oe?i e o.ae.).

Iiyoiio aeey oeeaeeecaoeee eiioea XX a. i?aiaeaaeathuae noaea niaoaiiay
yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia.

A oaeie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia iniiaie yaeyaony /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia
yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu, oioy a iaeioi?uo no?aiao (O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey e ae?.) nouanoaoao aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiue ainoaea?noaaiiue
naeoi?. A iaai aoiaeyo i?aaei?eyoey, eaieoae eioi?uo iieiinoueth eee
/anoe/ii i?eiaaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noao (iai?eia?, iaiaoeeay aaeaeiiiaiey
«Ethooaaica»), ii eioi?ua:

a) ia iieo/atho io ainoaea?noaa ieaiia;

a) ?aaioatho ii ?uii/iui caeiiai;

a) auioaeaeaiu ia ?aaiuo eiieo?e?iaaoue n /anoiuie oe?iaie.

A yoeo no?aiao aeaaiua yeiiiie/aneea aii?inu a iniiaiii ?aoathony
?uieaie. Iie aea e ?ani?aaeaeytho i?aiaeaaeathuoth /anoue yeiiiie/aneeo
?ano?nia. Aianoa n oai /anoue yoeo ?ano?nia oeaio?aeecoaony e
?ani?aaeaeyaony ainoaea?noaii n iiiiuueth eiiaiaeiuo iaoaieciia a oeaeyo
eiiiainaoeee iaeioi?uo neaainoae ?uii/iuo iaoaieciia.

E eaeie aea yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia eaaeeo aeaeueiaeoee iooue ?innee?

Aa?iooueny e eiiaiaeiie nenoaia auei au aeaaeueth: oaea ia?aoth iiiuoeo
nicaeaiey oaeie nenoaiu ia i?ioyaeaiee 1917-1991 aa. no?aia ia?aaeeea n
o?oaeii.

Cia/eo, ?innee a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iaecaaaeii i?eaeaony ainnicaeaaaoue
?uii/iua iaoaieciu e no?ieoue ia eo iniiaa niaoaiioth yeiiiie/aneoth
nenoaio. Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi iaoae no?aia iaaei aua?aoue aeey naay
eiie?aoioth iaoeeiiaeueioth iiaeaeue oaeie nenoaiu – i?e eioi?ie
iaiaoiaeeii ecaaaaoue aicieeiiaaiey eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu e aeiioneaoue
aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue no?aiu eeoue aeey
?aoaiey oao yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/, eioi?ua ?uiee ?aoeoue ia iiaoo eee
?aoatho iaoaea/ii.

3. I?iaeaia eii?aeeiaoeee a ?acee/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao

Aiaeec i?iaeaiu ?aciauaiey aeaa auaiaeeo ian ia i?iaeaio acaeiiaeaenoaey
yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia. Iinea oiai, eae eaaeaeue yeiiiie/aneee noauaeo
ioeaiee naie auaiaeu e cao?aou e naeaeae auai?, iauanoai noaeeeaaaony n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eii?aeeiaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
noauaeoia, eioi?ay aeeth/aao a naay iaiaoiaeeiinoue:

1) niaeaniaaoue iaaeaeo niaie ?aoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeae;

2) niaeaniaaoue ?aoaiey iio?aaeoaeae;

3) niaeaniaaoue ?aoaiey i i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiee a oeaeii. Yoa
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii?iaeaeaaony iiiaeie i?e/eiaie, a oii /enea
niaoeeaeecaoeeae yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeao
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A caaeneiinoe io oiai, eae ?aoaaony i?iaeaia ?aciauaiey aeaa, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e eii?aeeiaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
?acee/atho ii?aaeaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu. I/aaeaeii, /oi
oa?aeoa?ecothuea iniaaiiinoe aeaiiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu ?acee/ey a
niiniaao ?aciauaiey aeaa e eii?aeeiaoeee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ii?aaeaeythony ?acee/eyie a ?aaoee?othueo yeiiiie/aneia iiaaaeaiea
einoeoooao e einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo?ao.

A aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaia einiinoue iao?ea?oaeueiiai iauanoaa io/anoe
i?aiaeieaaaaony ?ac?uaii iaeiicia/iie nayce yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa e
ii?i aai iiaaaeaiey, oioy ?ieue aeaaeaiey eaeaieiaee aua aanueia aaeeea.
I?aaeea e ia?aiao?u yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey, e niioaaonoaothuaa
?aciauaiea aeaa ii?aaeaeythony aicaeaenoaeai eiiaiaeothuae iiaenenoaiu,
eioi?ie yaeyaony, i?aaeaea anaai, ainoaea?noai, eaeea au ?acee/iua oi?iu
iii ie i?eieiaei. Niioaaonoaea iiaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai noauaeoa
oi?aaeythuei aicaeaenoaeyi iaania/eaaaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aiayeiiiie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie, iiieii eaeaieiaee aeeth/athueie aiia?ao
i?eioaeaeaiey. Oaeay eii?aeeiaoeey yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe cia/eoaeueiiai ?acaeoey ca n/ao
niioaaonoaothuaai eciaiaiey ii?i yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey, a oaeaea
eiioeaio?aoeee ?ano?nia iiae eiio?ieai oi?aaeythuae iiaenenoaiu. Aa
neaaui ianoii yaeyaony ionoonoaea aioo?aiieo noeioeia yeiiiie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe o iiae/eiythueony aiaoiei eiiaiaeai e ia?aie/aiiui eie a
naieo aeaenoaeyo yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia. Iiyoiio ia?eiaeu ao?iiai, ii
iaaeieaiai ?acaeoey /a?aaeothony a oaeeo nenoaiao n ninoiyieyie canoiy e
oiaaeea.

A ?uii/iie nenoaia ii?iu yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey oi?ie?othony ia
iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae. Yoi niaaeeiyao a naaa,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, aiciiaeiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iooai eciaiaiey
ia?aiao?ia e i?aaee yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a oiaea nio?oaeie/anoaa
e eiieo?aioeee, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aiciiaeiinoe iaania/eoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth caeioa?aniaaiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia a oaeii
?acaeoee i?e eniieueciaaiee einoeoooa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. I?e yoii
ana yeiiiie/aneea noauaeou iiae/eiythony aaeeiui anaiauei i?aaeeai,
ia?aie/eaathuei naiaiaeo aeaenoaee eaaeaeiai iaycaoaeue-iuie aeey anao
ii?iaie i?aaa e a?aieoeaie aai aeaaeaiey, ii iaania/eaathueie
cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe.
I?e yoii n ?anoe?aieai eiaee-aeaeoaeueiie naiaiaeu aeaenoaee iauay
oii?yaei/aiiinoue e ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiinoue yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
nouanoaaiii aic?anoaao. Iiyoiio iineaaenoaey iaoaea/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo
?aoaiee iiaoo ieacaoueny aanueia no?iauie. ?ieue eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee
yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia e ?aciauaiey aeaa a yeiiiieea auiieiyao ?uii/iue
iaoaieci, e i?aaeaea anaai nenoaia oeai.

A eaaeaeue aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie ana nenoaiu eii?aeeiaoeee
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ninouanoaotho a eiie?aoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
nenoaiao, niaaeeiyynue a ?acee/iuo niioiioaieyo. Eae auei iieacaii,
eaaeaeay nenoaia eiaao naie auaiaeu e neaaua noi?iiu. A oneiaeyo
?uii/iie nenoaiu cao?aou yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiua a
aeaiiii neo/aa n inouanoaeaieai ?uii/iuo naeaeie, i?eia?aoatho oi?io
o?ainaeoeeiiiuo ecaea?aeae. A eo ninoaa aoiaeyo ecaea?aeee nai?a e
ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, nay-caiiua n ii?aaeaeaieai i?aaeiaoa naeaeee,
iieo/aieai oeaiiaie e eiie eioi?iaoeee, ii?aaeaeaieai naiae iiceoeee,
iienea ia?oia?a, ?ani?ino?aiaieai eioi?iaoeee i aeaeaiee anooieoue a
naeaeeo; ecaea?aeee i?iaaaeaiey ia?aaiai?ia e i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, a oii
/enea au?aaioee oneiaee ?uii/iiai niaeaoaiey e aai ioi?ieaiey a
niioaaonoaothuai th?eaee/aneei ii?iai aeaea; ecaea?aeee eiio?iey e
th?eaee/aneie caueou auiieiaiey eiio?aeoa, oaeea eae eiio?iey ca
ea/anoaii e eiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?aaeiaoa naeaeee, ii?aaeaeaiey e
caueou i?aa nianoaaiiinoe (a oii /enea a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea), i?iaa?ee e
iaania/aiey niaethaeaiey onei-aee niaeaoaiey.

Cao?aou yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiua n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai
aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu, i?eieiatho aeae aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ecaea?aeae.
E iei ioiinyony ecaea?aeee ei-oi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey (iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee oi?aaeyaiuo iauaeoia e aa ia?a?aaioee);
ecaea?aeee iiaeaioiaee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee (au?aaioee i?iaeoia
?aoaiee, eo niaeaniaaiey a ?acee/iuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
aiia?aoa, ooaa?aeaeaiey eiathueie i?aai i?eiyoey ?aoaiey); ecaea?aeee
eniieiaiey (aeiaaaeaiey i?eiyouo ?aoaiee aei iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
eniieieoaeae, iaania/aiey i?aaiauo oneiaee auiieiaiey, aeeth/ay
?ani?aaeaeaiea iieiiii/ee, eiio?iey auoanoiyueo i?aaiecaoeee,
ooieoeeiie?iaa-iey nenoaiu noeioeia e naieoeee).

Niiinoaaeaiea o?iaiae o?ainaeoeeiiiuo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ecaea?aeae
ii?aaeaeyao niioiioaiea e a?aieoeu aeaenoaey ?uii/iiai e
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai iaoaieciia a aeaiiie eiie?aoiie yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaia. ?uiie iaania/eaaao iaeaieaa yeiiiiiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
i?ioeanna eii?aeeiaoeee, naiaey iaeio ec /anoae o?ainaeoeeiiiuo
ecaea?aeae (ia nai? eioi?iaoeee) aei ieieioia.

I?iaeaia eii?aeeiaoeee a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo aiaeece?oaony n iiiiuueth
iiaeaee e?oaiiai?ioa e iiaeaee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iiaeaeue e?oaiiai?ioa ?acaeaeyao yeiiiieeo ia aeaa naeoi?a: aeiiaoiea
oicyenoaa e oe?iu. Aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa eniieuecotho aeioiaeu, eioi?ua
iie iieo/atho io i?iaeaaee naieo ?ano?nia – o?oaea, eaieoaea e caiee,
aeey iieoiee oiaa?ia e oneoa io oe?i. Oe?iu eniieuecotho aeaiueae,
eioi?ua iie iieo/atho io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e oneoa, aeey iieoiee
?ano?nia o aeiiaoieo oicyenoa.

Eiaiii aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa ?aoatho, /oi iio?aaeyoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii –
/oi i?iecaiaeeoue. Yoe ?aoaiey aeieaeiu iineoaeeoue iniiaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ieaiia oe?i. Oe?iu aeieaeiu neii?aeeie?iaaoue naie
?aoaiey ii eniieueciaaieth ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia.

A ?uii/iie nenoaia caaea/o eii?aeeiaoeee ?aoatho aeaa oeia ?uieia: ?uiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia e ?uiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo aeaa. Iiaeaeue
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaao iauyniaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai naeoi?a e naeoi?a aeiiaoieo oicyenoa. Eiaaea aeaa
naeoi?a acaeiiaeaenoaotho ii iiaiaeo eoiee-i?iaeaaee ia oiaa?iii ?uiea,
iiaeaeue ii?aaeaeyao oeaio e eiee/anoai i?iaeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia. Eiaaea iie
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ii iiaiaeo eoiee-i?iaeaaee ia ?uiea ?ano?nia, iie
ii?aaeaeytho oeaio e eiee/anoai ?ano?nia.

Caeeth/aiea:

Oicyenoaaiiay aeeciue /aeiaa/anoaa iiaeao auoue ono?iaia ?acee/iui
ia?acii. Yoe ?acee/ey neeueiaa anaai i?iyaeythony a niiniaao i?eiyoey
oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee e oeia nianoaaiiinoe ia iniiaiua aeaeu ?ano?nia.
*aeiaa/anoao ecaanoiu /aou?a oeia yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai: o?aaeeoeeiiiay,
?uii/iay, eiiaiaeiay e niaoaiiay.

?uii/iay nenoaia nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaao oaeia ono?ienoai yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie iauanoaa, i?e eioi?ii ana yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu iaoiaeyony a
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, a ana ?aoaiey i?eieiathony ia niioaaonoaothueo
?uieao. Aeayoaeueiinoue yoeo ?uieia ieeai ia ia?aie/eaaaony e ia
?aaoee?oaony.

Eiiaiaeiay nenoaia. Oaeay yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaao
eeeaeaeaoeeth /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa e aa caiaio
ia ainoaea?noaaiioth nianoaaiiinoue. Iniiaiua yeiiiie/aneea aii?inu
?aoathony ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey e ?aaeecothony n
iiiiuueth iaycaoaeueiuo aeey eniieiaiey ?anii?yaeaiee e ieaiia. Aeey
yoiai ainoaea?noai auioaeaeaii ?aaoee?iaaoue ana aniaeou yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie iauanoaa, aeeth/ay onoaiiaeaiea oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou. Ieioia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oaeie nenoaiu naycaii n iioa?ae eioa?ana ethaeae e
o?oaeo e ioeaieie aai ?acoeueoaoia ii oi?iaeueiui e?eoa?eyi, eioi?ua
iiaoo ia niaiaaeaoue n ?aaeueiuie ioaeaeaie iauanoaa. Niaoaiiay
yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia. Yoa yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia i?aaeiieaaaao ni/aoaiea
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia n
ia?aie/aiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoueth. Ainoaea?noai o/anoaoao a
?aoaiee iniiaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo aii?inia ia n iiiiuueth ieaiia, a iooai
oeaio?aeecaoeee a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee /anoe yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia. Yoe
?ano?nu ?ani?aaeaeythony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau eiiiaine?iaaoue iaeioi?ua
neaainoe ?uii/iuo iaoaieciia.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Yeiiiieea: O/aaiee / Iiae. ?aae. Aeioe. Aoeaoiaa A.O. 2-a ecaeaiea,
i?a?a?aa. e aeii. – I.: Ecaeaoaeuenoai Aae.

2. Yeiiiieea: O/aaiee / Iiae. ?aae. Eeineoe E.A. eieaa 1, 2-a ecaeaiea.
Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Aeoa-I?ann”. 1997 a.

3. Aa?aneiia A.A. Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia: aaiacen, no?oeoo?a, ?acaeoea
iaoee.- Ii.,1991 a.

4. Io?aaa ?. I. Iniiau yeiiiie/aneeo oai?ee: Iee?iyeiiiieea: O/aa. aeey
aocia. – I.: Auno. oe., 1996.- 447n.

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