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Экономическая теория Давида Рикардо

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Ieaeaai?iaeneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao

ei. Eiaa/aaneiai

?AOA?AO

II
AeENOeEIEEIA

“ENOI?Ess YEIIIIE*ANEEO O*AIEE”

IA OAIO

“YEIIIIE*ANEAss OAI?Ess AeAAEAeA ?EEA?AeI”

Auiieiee:

nooaeaio 727 a?oiiu

Iaoaaa N.Y.

I?iaa?ee:

i?aiiaeiaaoaeue

OeeiaI.E.

a.Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae

1996a.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219528 PAGEREF
_Toc375219528 2

O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219529 PAGEREF
_Toc375219529 2

Iaaeinoaoee iaoiaea ?eea?aei. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219530 PAGEREF
_Toc375219530 3

I?aeiouanoaa oai?ee ?eea?aei. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219531 PAGEREF
_Toc375219531 4

Caeii noieiinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219532 PAGEREF _Toc375219532 6

Caiaeueiay ?aioa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219533 PAGEREF _Toc375219533 8

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219534 PAGEREF _Toc375219534 8

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc375219535 PAGEREF _Toc375219535 9

NIENIE ENIIEUeCOAIIE EEOA?AOO?U

Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee 1983a.

Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee 1989a.

Aaaaeaiea

Aunoae nooiaie ?acaeoey iinea eeanne/aneay ao?aeoaciay
iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey aeinoeaaao a o?oaeao Aeaaeaea ?eea?aei,
iineaaeiaaoaey A.Nieoa, enneaaeiaaaoaai a ?aieao ao?aeoaciiai e?oaici?a
caeiiiia?iinoe eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee yiioe i?iiuoeaiiiai
ia?aai?ioa. Aai oai?ey noieiinoe eiaao eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia cia/aiea
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a iae niaea?aeaony iaaeinoaoee.

Iaeiaei nia?aiaiiay ao?aeoaciay iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey aaaeao y?inoioth
ai?ueao i?ioea oai?ee Ae.?eea?aei. Ao?aeoaciua yeiiiienou iuoathony
ii?iaa?aiooue e eneaceoue o?oaeiaoth oai?eth ?eea?aei e iniiaaiiua ia
iae oai?ee ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, iie io?eoeatho iaee/ea noieiinoe eae oaeiaie,
eae iniaiai yaeaiey, ioee/athuaainy io oeaiu, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e i?aai
oai?ee noieiinoe ia nouanoaiaaiea. Iai?eia?, oaaaeneee yeiiiieno
A.Ith?aeaeue ecia?aaeaao oai?eth ?eea?aei eae “iaeee aanniuneaiiue
oo?eci”. Ii n/eoaao, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe

ia nouanoaoao iauaeoeaiie noieiinoe, a anoue oieueei aa noauaeoeaiua
ioeaiee.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie eneaaeatho niaea?aeaiea O.O.N ?eea?aei,
naeeaeay aa n ?acee/iuie aioeiao/iuie eiino?oeoeeyie aoeueaa?iuo
yeiiiienoia, n eioi?uie yoa oai?ey ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai.

I?e/eia noieue oii?iuo, aeaeaei ia neo/aeiuo iiiuoie nia?aiaiiuo
ao?aeoaciuo yeiiiienoia ii?iaa?aiooue O.O.N Ae.?eea?aei ninoieo a oii,
/oi a ii oaeaeae a ca/aoi/iie oi?ia iooe aaeeinoaaiiiai iao/iiai
iiaeoiaea e aiaeeco eaieoaeecia, eioi?ua a eiia/iii eoiaa iicaieytho
?ane?uoue aai aioeia?iaeioth, yenieoaoaoeeiiioth nouiinoue.

O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe.

Ae.?eea?aei i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe aeey
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee eae iaoee a oeaeii, a iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony o?oaeii, “eiaao aeey iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee a
aunoae noaiaie aaaeiia cia/aiea: ie/oi ia ii?iaeaeaei oae iiiai ioeaie e
?aciiaeanee a iaoea, eae eiaiii iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue iiiyoee, eioi?ua
naycuaaeenue ni neiaii “noieiinoue”.

O?oaeiaay oai?ey noieiinoe ?anniao?eaaeanue ?eea?aei a ea/anoaa
enoiaeiiai ioieoa i?e aiaeeca yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia eaieoaeecia.

Ae.?eea?aei aeaeeo a ii?aaeaeaiee noieiinoe oiaa?ia ?aai/ei a?aiaiai,
cao?a/aiiui ia eo i?iecaiaenoai, ia oieueei caeii iaiiauo ioiioaiee
oiaa?ia, a, ii oa?aeoa?enoeea E.Ia?ena, “enoiaeiue ioieo oeceieiaee
ao?aeoaciie nenoaiu”. Aai iaoiae, ii Ia?eno, ninoieo a oii, /oi “ii
enoiaeeo ec ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu noieiinoe oiaa?a ?aai/ei a?aiaiai e
caoai enneaaeoao, i?ioeai?a/ao ee i?i/ea yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey yoiio
ii?aaeaeaieth noieiinoe, eee ianeieueei iie iiaeeoeoee?otho aai”.

Oaeie oai?aoe/aneee iiaeoiae e aiaeeco nenoaiu eai. ioiioaiee eiae
ia?iiiia iao/iia cia/aiea. Ii aia?aua iieiaeee O.O.N. a iniiao
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eaieoaeecia, io?aaeathuoth anaiauea, iaeaieaa
oeie/iua aeey eaieoaeecia oiaa?iua ioiioaiey. Oai naiui ii iaia?oaeee
aioo?aiithth, oioy eeoue naioth iauoth, iniiao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu oicyenoaa.

Aunieay ioeaiea ?iee Ae.?eea?aei aeaaony E.Ia?enii a nayce n oai,
/oi ?eea?aei i?eiye a ea/anoaa enoiaeiiai ioieoa enneaaeiaaiey
ii?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe ?aai/ei a?aiaiai. Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieye
enneaaeiaaoue ioiioaiey aiaoiae aeaeeiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee
eaieoaeecia e eo nouiinoe aeey anae eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu
oicyenoaa, acyoie a oeaeii. Yoa iniaaiiinoue iaoiaea ?eea?aei aeaea aio
aiciiaeiinoue i?aiaeieaoue a ecaanoiie ia?a i?ioeai?a/ey yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee Nieoa, eioi?ue a naia a?aiy ia niia i?aaeeueii ?aoeoue i?iaeaio
enoiaeiiai ioieoa yeiiiie/aneie iaoee.

Iaoiae ?eea?aei i?aaenoaaeye niaie, oioy iiea aua a ia?acaeoie
oi?ia, iaoiae ainoiaeaeaiey io aano?aeoiiai (oiaa?, noieiinoue) e
eiie?aoiiio ( iaeiieaiea eaieoaea, i?eaueue, ?aioa, ca?aaioiay ieaoa).
Naia enneaaeiaaiea eaieoaeecia ii

ia/eiaao n aiaeeca oiaa?a, a caoai ?anniao?eaaao eai. ioiioaiey iiae
oaeii c?aiey niioaaonoaey eee ianiioaaonoaey eo i?eioeeio o?oaeiaie
noieiinoe.

Oaeie iaoiae iicaieee ?eea?aei aeinoe/ue aaaeiuo iao/iuo
?acoeueoaoia aeey ao?aeoaciiai yeiiiienoa, iaeiei ec eioi?uo yaeyaony
iaia?oaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie i?ioeai?a/eainoe eeanniauo eioa?ania, e
noi?ioee?iaae eo oae, eae aa “iieacuaaao aioo?aiiyy naycue”.

Iaaeinoaoee iaoiaea ?eea?aei.

Iaeiaei, n iiceoeee E.Ia?ena, iaoiae ?eea?aei aue aeaeae io
niaa?oainoaa. Aeey iaai auea oa?aeoa?ia iao/iay ia?aie/aiiinoue, eioi?ay
au?aceeanue i?aaeaea anaai a iaoaoece/aneii iiaeoiaea ?eea?aei e
yeiiiie/aneei yaeaieyi. Ii ia noiae iiiyoue aicieeiiaaiea
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee eae ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey oiaa?iuo ioiioaiee,
oaeaeaoue eo enoi?e/anee i?aoiaeyuee oa?aeoa?. A oiaa?iuo ioiioaieyo ii
aeaeae eeoue iauoth iniiao eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee, a ia eo
enoiaeioth enoi?e/aneoth aaco.

Ae?oaei aaaeiui au?aaeaieai iao/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe iaoiaea
?eea?aei, io?aaeathuei aai ao?aeoacioth ia?aie/aiiinoue, yaeyaony oi /oi
ii ia oiae iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?eiaieoue aano?aeoiue iaoiae. E.Ia?en
auneacuaae ii yoiio iiaiaeo, /oi “anee ?eea?aei oi?aeatho a neeoeii
aieueoie aano?aeoeee, oi ni?aaaaeeeaui aue au i?ioeaiiieiaeiue oi?ae – a
iaaeinoaoi/iie neea aano?aeoeee, a ianiiniaiinoe i?e ?anniio?aiee
noieiinoe oiaa?ia caauoue i?eauee – oaeo, anoathuee ia?aae iei ec noa?u
eiieo?aioeee”.

Iaeia ec i?e/ei iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, ia?aie/aiiinoe iaoiaea ?eea?aei
ninoieo a oii, /oi ii ia noiae ?ac?aaioaoue aei eiioea iao/iie o?oaeiaie
oai?ee noieiinoe. Iiyoiio aai oai?ey ia iiaea aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa
enoiaeiiai ioieoa iiaeeeiii iao/iiai aiaeeca eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieee.

?eea?aei ia niia ?ac?aaioaoue aeaa eeth/aaua i?iaeaiu aai oai?ee
noieiinoe, eioi?ua e nua?aee ?aoathuoth ?ieue.

?eea?aei ia enneaaeoao oao niaoeeoe/aneeo iauanoaaiiuo oi?i, eioi?ua
i?eia?aoaao o?oae, i?iecaiaeyuee oiaa?. ?anniao?eaay eaieoaeenoe/aneoth
oi?io i?iecaiaenoaa eae aa/ioth e aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeioth, ii ia
i?iaiaeeo ?acee/ey iaaeaeo o?oaeii eae iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aiiaua e oie aai iniaie enoi?e/aneie
oi?iie, eioi?oth ii i?eia?aoaao, noaiiaynue enoi/ieeii noieiinoe oiaa?a.
?eea?aei ia ?acee/aao aeaa iniiaiua noi?iiu o?oaea oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey
– o?oae eiie?aoiue, yaeythueeny enoi/ieeii iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoe
oiaa?a, e o?oae aano?aeoiue, nicaeathuee noieiinoue oiaa?a. Ia?en
n/eoaao, /oi ii ia iiieiae, /oi n ii?aaeaeaieai iaiiaie noieiinoe oiaa?a
?aai/ei a?aiaiai naycaii oi, /oi oiaa?u a naiai ?acaeoee iaecaaaeii
aeieaeiu aeieoe aei ia?aciaaiey aeaiaa. Ionthaea aai ioeai/iay oai?ey
aeaiaa.

Eeanniaay ia?aie/aiiinoue ia iicaieeea ?eea?aei iiaeieoe e
nicaeaieth o/aiey i aeaienoaaiiii oa?aeoa?a o?oaea, o/aiey, e eioi?iio
oyaioaao iiieiaiea anae iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, ia iicaieeea o?oaeiaie
oai?ee noieiinoe noaoue a ?oeao ?eea?aei iiaeeeiii iao/iui iaoiaeii
enneaaeiaaiey eaieoaeecia.

Aoi?ie eeth/aaie i?iaeaiie, eioi?oth ia noiae ?aoeoue
Ae.?eea?aei, yaeeanue i?iaeaia i?aa?auaiey noieiinoe a oeaio
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaiiieiaiea nouiinoe

oeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa eae iiaeeoeeaoeee noieiinoe oiaa?a yaeeinue a naith
i/a?aaeue i?e/eiie oeaeie oeaie oai?aoe/aneeo ioeaie ?eea?aei. Ii ia
noiae aeaoue aei eiioea iao/iia iainiiaaiea o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe,
ieacaeny ia a ninoiyiee aei eiioea ?ane?uoue caeiiu eiie?aoiuo oi?i
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Yoe ioeaee i?eaaee ?eea?aei e io?eoeaieth
aaniethoiie caiaeueiie ?aiou e naycaiiie n iae i?iaeai.

?aoathuei iaaeinoaoeii iaoiaea ainoiaeaeaiey io aano?aeoiiai e
eiie?aoiiio o ?eea?aei, y?ei iaiaaeathuei aai ao?aeoacioth
ia?aie/aiiinoue, yaeyaony eaii?e?iaaiea ei iaoiaeieiae/aneiai cia/aiey
oai?ee i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Aoaeo/e nuiii naiaai aaea e eeanna,
?eea?aei ia aeaeae oie yeiiiie/aneie iniiau, n iiceoeee eioi?ie
neaaeiaaei au aeaaaoue aiaeec eaieoaeenoe/aneei ioiioaieyi
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii ia iiaeioae e iiieiaieth ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee caeiio
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe a nenoaia ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee, ia noiae ioe?uoue
yoiai caeiia e ia aeae aiaeeca eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee n oi/ee
c?aiey oai?ee i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. Yoi ia iicaieeei ?eea?aei
i?iieeiooue a naioth nooue nenoaiu ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia?acaeoinoue oai?ee noieiinoe ?eea?aei, i?aaeaea anaai ionoonoaea a
iae o/aiey i aeaienoaaiiii oa?aeoa?a o?oaea, ia iicaieeea aio iieii
?aoeoue i?iaeaio niioiioaiey noieiinoe e iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoe.
?eea?aei ia noiae iauynieoue ?aaeueiue oaeo aeaienoaaiiinoe oiaa?a,
?ane?uoue i?e/eio i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey noieiinoe e
iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoe a oneiaeyo ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea,
oioy e aeaao iienaiea yoiai yaeaiey.

Ii ?eea?aei, o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a, yaeyaony
noanoaioeeae (iniiaie) aai noieiinoe. a eiee/anoai yoiai o?oaea
ii?aaeaeyao aaee/eio yoie noieiinoe. ?eea?aei ienae, /oi “o?oae yaeyaony
iniiaie anyeie noieiinoe e …ioiineoaeueiia eiee/anoai aai ii?aaeaeyao
ioiineoaeueioth noieiinoue oiaa?ia…”.

Ia ?ane?ua aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaeu o?oaea, i?iecaiaeyuaai oiaa?,
Ae.?eea?aei ana aea a ioee/ee io A.Nieoa aieaa iieii aano?aae?oaony io
io?aneaaie niaoeeoeeaoeee o?oaea. O?oae, niaeanii ?eea?aei, ai anao
io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa a ?aaiie ia?a aunooiaao a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea
noieiinoe. ?acee/ea a io?aneaaie niaoeeoeee o?oaea ia yaeyaony,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aiyonoaeai e ii?aaeaeaieth noieiinoe o?oaeii.

I?aeiouanoaa oai?ee ?eea?aei.

Aica?auaynue e iieiaeeoaeueiui noi?iiai aai oai?ee iaaei
neacaoue, /oi iaoiae ?eea?aei iineoaeee aaaeiui yoaiii a ?ac?aaioea
iiaeeeiii iao/iie iaoiaeieiaee, eai ii niaea?aeeo a naaa iaoiae
ainoiaeaeaiey io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio, ia iniiaa eioi?iai iiaeii
nicaeaoue no?ieioth iao/ioth oai?eth eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia neo/aeii nia?aiaiiua ao?aeoaciua yeiiiienou noieue
y?inoii aunooiatho i?ioea O.O.N Ae.?eea?aei.

Aeinoeaeaiey ?eea?aei a iaeanoe iieeo. yeiiiiee ?anniao?eaathony
aiieiaaoaie eaieoaeecia eae niaa?oaiii ia naycaiiua n aai oai?eae
noieiinoe. ?.Eaey/iyi ienae i ?eea?aei, /oi aai iaeaieaa aaaeiie ioeaeie
auei ionoonoaea aaeeinoaa iaaeaeo aai oai?eae noieiinoe e oai?eae
?ani?aaeaeaiey. Ii iiaieth A.Ith?aeaey, Ae.?eea?aei aeinoea aaaeiuo
oniaoia a iaoea ia aeaaiaea?y, a aii?aee O.O.N, aii?aee naiaio iaoiaeo.
O.a aai oai?ey ?ani?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ay yaeyaony iniiaiui aai aeeaaeii a
iieeo. yeiiiieth, auea au?aaioaia iacaaeneii io aai oai?ee noieiinoe.
Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae eeethno?aoeeth e
iieiaeaieth Eiooa Aeenaey i oii, /oi auaeathueeny yeiiiieno anaaaea
noieo auoa naiaai iaoiaea.

Eaeiai aea a oaeii ?aaeueiia niaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoa
iieeo. yeiiiiee, aeaiiiai Ae.?eea?aei?

Eae ecaanoii, iaeaieaa y?ei i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey ethaeae
au?aaeathony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo eeannia, a yoe iineaaeiea
iniaaiii ?aeueaoii iaia?oaeeaathony a aeaea i?ioeai?a/ee eeannia ii
aii?inai ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iineieueeo eiaiii yoa noi?iia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee naiui iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii cao?aaeaaao iaoa?eaeueiua
eioa?anu ethaeae. ?aceia iaino?aiea eeanniauo i?ioeai?a/ee,
ii?iaeaeaiiia i?iiuoeaiiii ia?aai?ioii, nia?aiaiieeii eioi?iai aue
Ae.?eea?aei, iaoei naia iaeaieaa eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia au?aaeaiea a ai?ueaa
eeannia ca oaaee/aiea aeiee a iaoeeiiaeueiii aeioiaea.

O Ae.?eea?aei iaia/aaony iiiuoea auaeaeeoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey ethaeae ec anao yaeaiee nioeeaeueiie aeecie e iauyaeo eo
i?aaeiaoii iieeo. yeiiiiee. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?eea?aei
ioiaeaeanoaeyao anth niaieoiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee n
ioiioaieyie ?ani?aaeaeaiey, ia?aie/eaay oai naiui ?aiee i?aaeiaoa
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. E, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, enoi?e/aneay, aeaaiui
ia?acii eeanniaay ia?aie/aiiinoue ?eea?aei ia iicaieeea aio iao/ii
?aoeoue yoo iniiaioth i?iaeaio i?aaeiaoa iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. ?eea?aei
ia oaeaeinue oaeaeaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey ethaeae a ea/anoaa
iniaiai nioeeaeueiiai yaeaiey, ia oaeaeinue ?ac?aaioaoue yoo eaoaai?eth.

?eea?aei ia noiae iaia?oaeeoue caaeneiinoue niaieoiiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee io o?iaiy ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, caeiiiia?iue, enoi?e/anee i?ioiaeyuee oa?aeoa? yoeo
ioiioaiee.

No?aieaiea ?eea?aei i?eiaieoue O.O.N e aiaeeco ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii
nouanoao au?aaeaei iiiuoeo eniieueciaaoue iaoiae ainoiaeaeaiey io
aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio aeey enneaaeiaaiey nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee eaieoaeecia, Eiaiii iiyoiio noieue aaeeiiaeooiu iiiuoee
nia?aiaiiuo ao?aeoaciuo yeiiiienoia ioi?aaoue oai?eth noieiinoe ?eea?aei
io aai oai?ee ?ani?aaeaeaiey, aeaoue yoie iineaaeiae oceia, ia?aie/aiiie
enoieeiaaiea. “?eea?aei ia?aie/eaaao naie eioa?an e iai?aaeyao naith
aeeneonneth e aii?inai, eanathueiny ?ani?aaeaeaiey aiaaonoaa e eaaeaueo
a aai iniiaa i?eioeeiia,- ieoao aia?eeaineee ao?aeoaciue o/aiue iieeo.
yeiiiiee O.Iaoo. – Nieo ia eeieoe?oao naay iiaeiaiui ia?acii; iai?ioea,
ii i?aaei?eieiaao aanueia oniaoioth iiiuoeo “ioaaoeoue a ?aieao aaeeiiai
e?oaici?a aaneiia/iia iiiaiia?acea yeiiiie/aneiai ie?a. Caneoaa
?eea?aei eiaiii a oii, /oi ii iiiuoaeny aeaoue aiaeec naiue iauae,

aioo?aiiae iniiau anae nenoaiu eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Ao?aeoaciua eaieoaeenou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi o?oaeiaay oai?ey
noieiinoe iaoaao ?eea?aei a enneaaeiaaiee eaieoaeecia. “Oai?ey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae,- ieoao A.Ith?aeaeue i O.O.N Ae.?eea?aei,-
ea?aao /enoi iaaaoeaioth ?ieue a aai o?aeoiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaea”.
A iaaeaeo oai naia ?ac?aaioea yoie oai?ee, aa ?acaeoea a o?oaeao
?eea?aei icia/aee aiaeec aaaeiaeoeo e neiaeiaeoeo i?ioeannia
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee. E yoio oaeo, /oi ?eea?aei yaeeny ia?aui
yeiiiienoii, niciaoaeueii iieiaeeaoei a iniiao naieo enneaaeiaaiee
o?oaeiaie i?eioeei, eiaiii yoio oaeo i?aaeii?aaeaeee oi, /oi
yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey ?eea?aei ieacaeanue aunoei, iai?aacieaeaiiui
ae?oaeie yeiiiienoaie aeinoeaeaieai eeanne/aneie ao?aeoaciie
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee.

Caeii noieiinoe.

Ae.?eea?aei yaeyaony iineaaeiaaoaeai A.Nieoa e aai caneoaa ninoieo
a oii, /oi ii cia/eoaeueii aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii /ai Nieo ?ac?aaioae
iieiaeaiea i o?oaea, cao?a/aiiii ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a, eae
noanoaioeee noieiinoe e ?aaoeyoi?a aa aaee/eiu. Ii ?anniio?ae ?yae
aoeueaa?iuo o?aeoiaie noieiinoe e ioa?inee eo iaeio ca ae?oaie.

?eea?aei ioaa?a iaiao/ioth o?aeoiaeo oai?ee noieiinoe Nieoa, aai
ii?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?a aeioiaeaie ?acee/iuo eeannia iauanoaa,
oioy e ia i?aiaeieae aei eiioea oae iacuaaaioth “aeiaio Nieoa”.

Ae.?eea?aei oece/anee ioaa?aaao e oai?eth, iauyaeythuoth
enoi/ieeii noieiinoe oiaa?ia eo ?aaeeinoue, oioy ia ia?aue acaeyae
eaaeaony, /oi ii i?eaea?aeeaaaony i?ioeaiiieiaeiie iiceoeee. ?eea?aei
ieoao: “ Oiaa?u, iaeaaeathuea iieaciinoueth, /a?iatho naith iaiiaoth
noieiinoue ec aeaoo enoi/ieeia: naiae ?aaeeinoe e eiee/anoaa o?oaea,
o?aaothuaai aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa”.

Ia?aue enoi/iee ?eea?aei ioiineo eneeth/eoaeueii e
iaaini?iecaiaeeiui aeaaai (?aaeeea noaooe, ea?oeiu, eieae, iiiaou e
o.i). Aio ii/aio, aiai?y i oiaa?ao, eo iaiiaie noieiinoe e caeiiao,
?aaoee?othueo eo ioiineoaeueiua oeaiu, iu anaaaea eiaai a aeaeo oieueei
oaeea oiaa?u, eiee/anoai eioi?uo iiaeao auoue oaaee/aii /aeiaa/aneei
o?oaeii e a i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?uo aeaenoaea eiieo?aioeee ia
iiaeaa?aaaony ieeaeei ia?aie/aieyi. O.a. oaeea oiaa?u eae au aiiaua ia
iiaoo iaeaaeaoue noieiinoueth, oae eae yoi aaeeie/iua oiaa?u e
i?iecaiaeeony ia aeey iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey. ?eea?aei i?inoi
ecia?aaeaao a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea eo “noieiinoe” iaeei ec oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia oeaio oiaa?a.

?eea?aei n/eoaao, /oi e iio?aaeoaeueneay noieiinoue (iieaciinoue
oiaa?a a iauanoaa) ia ea?aao aieueoie ?iee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noieiinoe
oiaa?a.

Caeanue iiaeii i?ioeeoe?iaaoue aai auneacuaaiea ii yoiio iiaiaeo:
“Iieaciinoue aauae,-i?aaenoaaeyao, aannii?ii, iniiao noieiinoe, ii
noaiaiue iieaciinoe ia iiaeao auoue ia?ie noieiinoe. Oiaa?,
i?iecaiaeeiue n aieueoae o?oaeiinoueth, aoaeao anaaaea aei?iaea, /ai
oiaa?, i?iecaiaeeiue n aieueoae eaaeinoueth, aeaaea anee au ana ethaee
aaeeiiaeooii n/eoaee, /oi iineaaeiee aieaa iieaciue, /ai ia?ae. Oiaa?
aeieaeai auoue iieacai, /oiau eiaoue noieiinoue, ii o?oaeiinoue aai
i?iecaiaenoaa anoue i?aaeeueiay ia?a aai noieiinoe. Ii yoie i?e/eia
aeaeaci iaiaa oeaiii, /ai cieioi, oioy e aieaa iieacii.”

I?e enneaaeiaaiee caeiia noieiinoe ia?aae ?eea?aei eae yeiiiienoii yiioe
i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aai?ioa anoaaae aii?in: eaeeie aea cao?aoaie o?oaea
?aaoee?oaony noieiinoue oiaa?a, anee o?oaeiaua cao?aou iaeeiai
?aianeaiieea, ?aai/aai a iaiooaeoo?a eee ?aai/aai ia oaa?eea ?acei
?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie? ?eea?aei i?eoae e auaiaeo i oii, /oi
noieiinoue oiaa?a ?aaoee?oaony ia oai o?oaeii, eioi?ue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
eaeao ia ecaioiaeaiea oiaa?a, a o?oaeii, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeei aeey
ecaioiaeaiey aeaiiiai oiaa?a i?e ooaeoeo oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?acee/ea a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, nouanoaothuaa
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, ia i?ioeai?a/eo ii?aaeaeaieth
noieiinoe o?oaeii.

Iiae aeeyieai i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aai?ioa, i?eaaaeoaai e iaeiieaieth
cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeia a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie oi?ia, Ae.?eea?aei aia?aua
a yniie oi?ia iinoaaee i?iaeaio ia?aianaiey noieiinoe n i?oaeee o?oaea
ia ecaioaaeeaaaiue i?e iiiiue yoeo i?oaeee oiaa?. A iniiaiie naiae
?aaioa ?acthie?oao yoo eaeath oaeei ia?acii: “Ia noieiinoue oiaa?ia
aeeyao ia oieueei o?oae, ii e o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia i?oaeey, eino?oiaiou
e caeaiey, niinianoaothuea yoiio o?oaeo”. Ia neo/aeii A.Nieo eae
yeiiiieno iaiooaeoo?iie nooiaie eaieoaeecia ia caia/aao i?ioeanna
ia?aianaiey noieiinoe ni n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Auyniaiea yoie i?iaeaiu eiaei ia?iiiia cia/aiea. ?eea?aei
iieacae, /oi i?oaeey o?oaea ia nicaeatho iiaie noieiinoe. Eo nianoaaiiay
noieiinoue, yaeythuayny ?acoeueoaoii i?ioeiai o?oaea, ia?aiineony ia
oiaa?. Oai naiui ?eea?aei ?aoeoaeueii aunooiee i?ioea aiieiaaoe/aneie
oai?ee “i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eaieoaea”, iauyaeyaoae eaieoae enoi/ieeii
i?iiuoeaiiie i?eauee. ?eea?aei aeae aieaa aeoaieia, /ai Nieo,
iainiiaaiea o?oaeiaie noieiinoe. Ii i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi e a oneiaeyo
eaieoaeecia noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony cao?a/aiiui ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a
o?oaeii, /oi iaeiieaiea eaieoaeia ia ioiaiyao i?eioeei o?oaeiaie
noieiinoe, a eeoue oneiaeiyao i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey noieiinoe oiaa?a. Ii,
iiyoue aea ec-ca iaiiiyoie ei aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaeu o?oaea, ii ia noiae
aei eiioea ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaio ia?aianaiey noieiinoe ni n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia ?ane?uaay iaoaiecia ia?aianaiey noieiinoe ni n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa ia oiaa?, ?eea?aei ia aeaao /aoeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i
no?oeoo?a noieiinoe oiaa?a.

Oai?ey i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe ia auea enoiaeiui ioieoii aai aiaeeca
e ?eea?aei ia i?eoae e aeaeaieth eaieoaea ia iinoiyiiue e ia?aiaiiue.

O.O.N aeaea ?eea?aei oaa?aeia iniiaaiea aeey aai oai?ee
?ani?aaeaeaiey. ?eea?aei niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii enoiaeeo a iae ec
i?eciaiey oiai, /oi aaeeiui enoi/ieeii noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa
yaeyaony o?oae iaaiiuo ?aai/eo. Ii ioaa?aaao oa eiioeaioeee oaeoi?u,
ecia?aaeathuea a ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia noieiinoe oa oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
o/anoaotho a nicaeaiee eeoue iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoe oiaa?a,- caieth
e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

?eea?aei aeinoeaaao aaaeiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?e enneaaeiaaiee
i?eauee. Iie?aynue ia O.O.N, ?eea?aei onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi i?eaueue anoue
/anoue noieiinoe oiaa?a e, eae anyeay noieiinoue, iia eiaao naiei
enoi/ieeii o?oae iaaiiuo ?aai/eo. Aieaa oiai, ?eea?aei ?ane?uaaao
yenieoaoaoi?neoth i?e?iaeo i?eauee. Ii ieoao, /oi i?eaueue anoue /anoue
noieiinoe oiaa?a ca au/aoii ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/eo. O.a. i?eaueue
aunooiaao eae iaiiea/aiiue, ii i?enaiaiiue o?oae iaaiiuo ?aai/eo.

?eea?aei oaeaea niaoeaaao caeiiu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe n caeiiaie
i?eauee. Ia?en ieoao, /oi oai aaea ?eea?aei i?aaeeueii eceaaaao caeiiu
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, ii eneaaeaao eo oai, /oi oi?ioee?oao eo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eae caeiiu i?eauee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii oi/ao caeiiu
i?eauee iaiin?aaenoaaiii, aac i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaiueaa, i?aaenoaaeoue eae
caeiiu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

A aai oai?ee iaiiiyoii ioeoaea aa?aony i?eaueue i?e eoiea-i?iaeaaea:
iaaiiue ?aai/ee iieo/aao, a niioaaonoaee n aai oai?eae, ca
i?iecaaaeaiiue ei oiaa? iieiue aai yeaeaaeaio, ?aaiue anae nicaeaiiie
noieiinoe. O.a. eae oaeiaay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue ia iiaeao
aicieeiooue, anee oieueei ia ia?ooaaony caeii noieiinoe a ioiioaieyo
o?oaeii e eaieoaeii. Eiaiii caeanue e?iaony i?ioeai?a/ea: eeai
iai?aaeeai enoiaeiue ioieo anae aai nenoaiu- o?oaeiaay oai?ey
noieiinoe-e oiaaea i?eaueue anoue ?acoeueoao ia?ooaiey caeiia noieiinoe,
eeai yoa oai?ey i?aaeeueia e oiaaea nouanoaiaaiea i?eauee iaaiciiaeii,
oioy iii yaeyaony oaeoii.

Caiaeueiay ?aioa.

N iiceoeee O.O.N Ae.?eea?aei noiae aeaoue i?aaeeueioth a oeaeii
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie caiaeueiie ?aiou. Oa?aeoa?ia
iinoaiiaea Ae.?eea?aei aii?ina: ia i?ioeai?a/eo ee aicieeiiaaiea ?aiou
ii?aaeaeaieth noieiinoe oiaa?ia o?oaeii? Aai eioa?anoao, “ia aucuaaao ee
ia?auaiea caiee a nianoaaiiinoue e neaaeothuaa ca

yoei nicaeaiea ?aiou eaeiai-eeai eciaiaiey a ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe
oiaa?ia iacaaeneii io eiee/anoaa o?oaea, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey eo
i?iecaiaenoaa”.

Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi noieiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oeaiu
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia ii?aaeaeythony cao?aoaie o?oaea ia eo
i?iecaiaenoai i?e iaeooaeoeo oneiaeyo, oi anoue ia ooaeoeo caieyo,
?eea?aei i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi oa?ia?u ia n?aaeieo e eo/oeo caieyo
iieo/atho aeiaaai/iue aeioiae, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo a
ecaea?aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa ia ooaeoeo (?aaoee?othueo oeaio) e aeaiiuo
(n?aaeieo e eo/oeo) o/anoeao. Aeiaaai/iue aeioiae i?enaaeaaaony
aeaaeaeueoeai caiee a oi?ia ?aiou.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?eea?aei aeieacae, /oi enoi/iee ?aiou ia caiey, a o?oae
iaaiiuo ?aai/eo a naeueneii oicyenoaa, iieiaeea oai naiui eiiaoe
i?aaeiei eeethceyi i caiea eae enoi/ieea ?aiou. ?aioa o ?eea?aei
aunooiaao eae nioeeaeueiue oaiiiai, aicieeiiaaiea eioi?iai naycaii n
ia?aciaaieai /anoiie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

?eea?aei aeinoeaaao aaaeiuo ?acoeueoaoia a aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie
caiaeueiie ?aiou aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi iaoiaeieiae/iie iniiaie aiaeeca o
iaai aunooiaao O.O.N. Iaeiaei nouanoaoao ioeaee a aai o?aeoiaea a nayce
n iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth aai iaoiaea enneaaeiaaiey. Ii oie aea i?e/eia, a
neeo iaaeinoaoi/iie ?ac?aaioaiiinoe O.O.N e i?aaeaea anaai iaiiieiaiey
niioiioaiey noieiinoe e oeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a, ?eea?aei ia
enneaaeiaae aaniethoioth caiaeueioth ?aioo. Aieaa oiai, ii io?eoeae aa
nouanoaiaaiea ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi iia yeiau i?ioeai?a/eo caeiio
noieiinoe.

Ae?oaie aaaeiie i?e/eiie io?eoeaiey ?eea?aei aaniethoiie ?aiou yaeyaony
iaiiieiaiea ei aeaeaiey eaieoaea ia iinoiyiioth e ia?aiaiioth /anoue. A
yoie nayce neaaeoao oeacaoue ia oi, /oi ?eea?aei ioeai/ii ?aoaao
i?iaeaio niioiioaiey ?aiou e oeaiu oiaa?a, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi ?aioa ia
oaei?iaeaao naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oiaa?u.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa

Naith iniiaioth oi/eo c?aiey ?eea?aei i?eiaiyao e e aiaeeco ca?aaioiie
ieaou. E caeanue iaia?oaeeaaaony eae iao/iay i?aaiia?iinoue, oae e
ao?aeoaciay ia?aie/aiiinoue aai iaoiaea.

?eea?aei a ioee/ee io Nieoa i?iaiaeeo niaa?oaiii /aoeia ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo o?oaeii, eioi?ue aiieiuai a oiaa?a e ii?aaeaeyao noieiinoue
yoiai iineaaeiaai, oiaa?a, e oae iacuaaaiie “noieiinoueth o?oaea”, oi
anoue ca?aaioiie ieaoie. Ii aeaeeo ia oieueei oi, /oi noieiinoue oiaa?a
e “noieiinoue o?oaea” ?acee/iua yaeaiey, ii e oi, /oi eiee/anoaaiii iie
ia ?aaiu: noieiinoue oiaa?a aieueoa “noieiinoe o?oaea”. Iaeiaei Ia?en
ieoao, /oi aicieeiiaaiea yoiai oaeoa inoaaony iayniui.

Caeeth/aiea

O/aiea ?eea?aei – aaaeiue yoai ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie ao?aeoaciie
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, yaeythuaeny, eae ecaanoii, iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia
ia?enecia. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iiaeieiaao cia/aiea O.O.N ?eea?aei. Aai
oai?ey noieiinoe ea?aao ia?iiioth ?ieue iineieueeo iia eaaeeo a iniiaa
anaai yeiiiie/aneiai o/aiey ?eea?aei e iaia/aao iiaeeeiii iao/iue
iiaeoiae e aiaeeco yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia eaieoaeecia. Caneoaa
?eea?aei ninoieo a oii, /oi ii noiae auaeaeeoue naiia iauaa, naiia
yeaiaioa?iia ioiioaiea ao?aeoaciiai i?iecaiaenoaa, naeaeae iiiuoeo
auyaeoue aioo?aiiea caeiiiia?iinoe nenoaiu eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee,
iauyaeoue aeaeeiua i?ioeannu eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu, enoiaey ec aa
aioo?aiiae iniiau, ec ii?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe oiaa?ia cao?a/aiiui ia eo
i?iecaiaenoai o?oaeii. Iaeiaei i?enoonoaea enoi?e/aneie e eeanniaie
ia?aie/aiiinoe, e nouanoaiaaiea i?ioeai?a/ee a aai o?oaeiaie oai?ee
noieiinoe ia iicaieeee ?eea?aei ?aoeoue ana aii?inu iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee e eni?aaeoue ana ioeaee e iaaeinoaoee.

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