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Экономическая теория

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Aieiaiaeneee iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey

Aieiaaea

1998

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-2” Oaia 12. Nnoaeiue eaieoae e i?ioeaio PAGEREF
_Toc414072050 \h 5

12.1. O?aeoiaea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e i?ioeaioa a oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe PAGEREF _Toc414072051 \h 5

12.2. Nnoaeiue eaieoae e i?ioeaio a ia?enenoneie oai?ee. PAGEREF
_Toc414072052 \h 6

12.3. Aeeneiioe?iaaiea. PAGEREF _Toc414072053 \h 8

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072054 \h 11

Oaia 13. E?aaeeo. PAGEREF _Toc414072055 \h 12

13.1. Nouiinoue e ooieoeee e?aaeeoa. PAGEREF _Toc414072056 \h 12

13.2. Oi?iu e?aaeeoa PAGEREF _Toc414072057 \h 13

13.3. E?aaeeoiay nenoaia. Aaiee PAGEREF _Toc414072058 \h 15

13.4. ?aoi?ia e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu a ?innee. PAGEREF _Toc414072059 \h
17

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072060 \h 19

Oaia 14. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae. PAGEREF
_Toc414072061 \h 20

14.1. Aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa. PAGEREF _Toc414072062 \h 20

14.2. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa e aai ?ieue a yeiiiieea. PAGEREF
_Toc414072063 \h 22

14.3. ?acaeoea aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea e eciaiaiea ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe. Oeiainiaay ieeaa?oey PAGEREF _Toc414072064 \h 24

14.4. Iniaaiiinoe ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a ?innee PAGEREF _Toc414072065
\h 26

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072066 \h 28

Oaia 15. Oeiainu PAGEREF _Toc414072067 \h 30

15.1. Oeiainu, eo no?oeoo?a e ooieoeee. Oeiainiaue ?uiie PAGEREF
_Toc414072068 \h 30

15.2. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu PAGEREF _Toc414072069 \h 31

15.3. Iaeiaiaay nenoaia PAGEREF _Toc414072070 \h 32

15.4. ?aoi?ia oeiainiaie nenoaiu ?innee a 1990-o a. a. PAGEREF
_Toc414072071 \h 33

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072072 \h 38

Oaia 16. Eioeyoeey e aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea PAGEREF _Toc414072073
\h 39

16.1. Iaoaieci eioeyoeee PAGEREF _Toc414072074 \h 39

16.2. Oeiainiaay iieeoeea PAGEREF _Toc414072075 \h 42

16.3. E?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea PAGEREF _Toc414072076 \h 45

16.4. Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea a ?innee a 1990-a aa. PAGEREF
_Toc414072077 \h 47

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072078 \h 49

Oaia 17. Iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. PAGEREF
_Toc414072079 \h 51

17.1. Nouiinoue e oeiu iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. No?oeoo?a
niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa PAGEREF _Toc414072080 \h 51

17.2. Iieacaoaee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa PAGEREF _Toc414072081
\h 53

17.3. ?aaeecaoeey niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. PAGEREF
_Toc414072082 \h 59

17.4. I?iii?oeee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. PAGEREF _Toc414072083
\h 61

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072084 \h 62

Oaia 18. Oai?ey yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney Aeae. Eaeina PAGEREF
_Toc414072085 \h 64

18.1. Iiaeaeue ioeueoeieeeaoi?a PAGEREF _Toc414072086 \h 64

18.2. ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea oiaa?ia. E?eaay IS PAGEREF _Toc414072087 \h
68

18.3. ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea aeaiaa. E?eaay LM PAGEREF _Toc414072088 \h
69

18.4. Iauaa yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea ii Aeae. Eaeino PAGEREF
_Toc414072089 \h 71

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072090 \h 72

Oaia 19. Caiyoinoue e aac?aaioeoea PAGEREF _Toc414072091 \h 74

19.1. Iiiyoea caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu PAGEREF _Toc414072092 \h 74

19.2. Oi?iu aac?aaioeoeu e o?aeoiaee aa i?e/ei PAGEREF _Toc414072093
\h 74

19.3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea caiyoinoe PAGEREF _Toc414072094
\h 78

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072095 \h 79

Oaia 20. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino e yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu PAGEREF
_Toc414072096 \h 81

20.1. Nouiinoue, iieacaoaee e oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa PAGEREF
_Toc414072097 \h 81

20.2. Oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa PAGEREF _Toc414072098 \h 84

20.3. Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu e oeeeeu PAGEREF _Toc414072099 \h 85

20.4. Iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a ?innee a 1990-a aa. PAGEREF
_Toc414072100 \h 90

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072101 \h 94

Oaia 21. Iniiau ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. PAGEREF
_Toc414072102 \h 96

21.1. Oi?aaeaiea e ?aaoee?iaaiea a yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannao PAGEREF
_Toc414072103 \h 96

21.2. Ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneee eaieoaeeci. ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a
nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea PAGEREF _Toc414072104 \h 99

21.3. Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. PAGEREF
_Toc414072105 \h 101

21.4. Eciaiaiea ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea ?innee. PAGEREF
_Toc414072106 \h 106

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu PAGEREF _Toc414072107 \h 107

Oaia 22. Anaie?iia oicyenoai PAGEREF _Toc414072108 \h 108

22.1. Anaie?iia oicyenoai e aai ninoaa PAGEREF _Toc414072109 \h 108

22.2. Caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa. PAGEREF
_Toc414072110 \h 110

22.3. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea ?innee. PAGEREF _Toc414072111 \h
113

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072112 \h 115

Oaia 23. Oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. PAGEREF
_Toc414072113 \h 116

23.1. Ie?iaay oi?aiaey PAGEREF _Toc414072114 \h 116

23.2. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea. PAGEREF _Toc414072115 \h
120

23.3. Aaethoiua ioiioaiey. PAGEREF _Toc414072116 \h 124

23.4. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu. PAGEREF _Toc414072117
\h 127

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e PAGEREF _Toc414072118 \h 128

Eeoa?aoo?a PAGEREF _Toc414072120 \h 131

Oaia 12. Nnoaeiue eaieoae e i?ioeaio

12.1. O?aeoiaea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e i?ioeaioa a oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe

A oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe eaieoae o?aeooaony aiaenoi?e/anee. Ii
?anniao?eaaaony eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ?ano?n, nicaeathuee oeaiiinoue
oiaa?ia. E iaio ioiinyony aini?iecaiaeeiua n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa
(oece/aneee eaieoae), iaauee e niiniaiinoe ethaeae (/aeiaa/aneee
eaieoae), eiouanoai, i?eiinyuaa aeioiae (eaieoae aiiaua). N/eoaaony, /oi
iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeeaae eaieoaea a nicaeaaaaioth oeaiiinoue.

Eaieoae ?anniao?eaaaony eae ia?aie/aiiue ?ano?n, iaee/iue iauai eioi?iai
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aicaea?aeaiey aai nianoaaiieeia. Nianoaaiieee
eaieoaea, niaeanii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, iiaee au i?inoi
iio?aaeoue (i?iieoue, i?ianoue e o.i.) eiathueany o ieo aeaaa
(iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, naiaiaeiia a?aiy), ii iie oiio?aaeytho eo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueii (a aeaea eaieoaea), aicaea?aeeaathony io iio?aaeaiey
aeaa a oa/aiea eaeiai-oi a?aiaie. A ?acoeueoaoa o iauanoaa ia?acoaony
aeiiieieoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu, nicaeathuea aeiaaai/iua
aeaaa (oeaiiinoe). Nianoaaiieee eaieoaea i?e yoii eniuouaatho oyaeanoue
aicaea?aeaiey, iineieueeo ioeeaaeuaatho iio?aaeaiea eiathueony o ieo
aeaa ia aoaeouaa, iio?aaeytho eo oieueei /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue io?acie
a?aiaie.

Iieaciinoue aea aeaa, ii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, iaaeaao ai
a?aiaie. *ai ?aiueoa iio?aaeoaeue iieo/aao eo aeey iio?aaeaiey, oai auoa
eo iieaciinoue. Yoi icia/aao, iai?eia?, /oi i?eia?aoaiea a iieueciaaiea
aaoiiiaeey naaiaeiy eiaao aieaa aunieoth iieaciinoue, /ai iieaciinoue
i?eia?aoaiey oiai aea aaoiiiaeey, ii /a?ac aiae.

Oyaeanoue aicaea?aeaiey ?anniao?eaaaony a oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe
eae noiia iaoaeiaieuenoaee, eniuouaaaiuo nianoaaiieeaie aeaa a nayce n
eniieueciaaieai eo aeaa a ea/anoaa eaieoaea. Aaee/eia oyaeanoe
aicaea?aeaiey iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
aicaea?aeaiey e io iauaia aeaa, eniieuecoaiuo eae eaieoae. Iiyoiio
eiaeeaeaeooiu niaeaoathony ia aicaea?aeaiea oieueei i?e oneiaee, /oi iii
aoaeao aiciaa?aaeaeaii, oi anoue i?e oneiaee ieaou ca eaieoae. Ieaoa ca
eaieoae iacuaaaony i?ioeaioii. Anee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue eniieuecoao
nianoaaiiue eaieoae, oi ieaoa ca eaieoae (i?ioeaio) aeinoaaony aio. Anee
aea eaieoae aa?aony acaeiu, oi i?ioeaio oiea/eaaaony nianoaaiieeo
eaieoaea. A yoii neo/aa eaieoae, n oi/ee c?aiey aai nianoaaiieea,
yaeyaony nnoaeiui; a n oi/ee c?aiey aai iieueciaaoaey, – caaiiui.

O?iaaiue i?ioeaioa ?anniao?eaaaony a oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe eae
?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina ia eaieoae e aai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ni?in
ia eaieoae caaeneo io aai i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (ioaea/e).
Iiae iineaaeiae iiieiaaony i?e?ino oeaiiinoe i?iecaiaeeiuo eaieoaeii
aeaa i?e oaaee/aiee ?acia?a eaieoaea ia aaeeieoeo. N/eoaaony, /oi
i?aaeaeueiay ioaea/a eaieoaea i?e aic?anoaiee aai iauaia nieaeaaony.
Iaeneiaeueiay oeaia, eioi?oth iieueciaaoaeue eaieoaea niaeanai ca iaai
caieaoeoue, ?aaiyaony i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/a eaieoaea. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa,
anee ii caieaoeo aieueoa, /ai i?aaeaeueiay ioaea/a, oi /anoue eaieoaea
aoaeao aeaaaoue aio iaiueoa oeaiiinoe, /ai ii ca iaa caieaoee.
Caaeneiinoue iauaia ni?ina ia eaieoae io aai i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/e
au?aaeaaony n iiiiuueth e?eaie ni?ina ia eaieoae (ni. e?eaay I? ia
?en.1).

I? (IW)

I?

MW

i

MW I?

0 K0 K

?en. 1.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ieieiaeueiay oeaia, ii eioi?ie nianoaaiiee aeaiiiai
iauaia aeaa niaeaoaaony ia eniieueciaaiea eo a ea/anoaa eaieoaea,
niaeanii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, ?aaiyaony i?aaeaeueiie oyaeanoe
eniuouaaaiiai ei i?e yoii aicaea?aeaiey. Caaeneiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey
eaieoaea io i?aaeaeueiie oyaeanoe aicaea?aeaiey iau/ii eeethno?e?oaony n
iiiiuueth e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey eaieoaea (ni. e?eaay MW ia ?en. 1).

I?ioeaio ( i ) ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?aaiiaaniay oeaia ni?ina ia eaieoae e
aai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Niioaaonoaaiii ?acia? eaieoaea ?anniao?eaaaony eae
?aaiiaaniue iauai i?iaeaae eaieoaea (E0).

I?ioeaio a oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, oaeei ia?acii, iaeiia?aiaiii
?aaai i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/a eaieoaea e i?aaeaeueiie oyaeanoe
aicaea?aeaiey. I?ioeaio ia eaieoae o?aeooaony eae yeaiaio ecaea?aeae,
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea nianoaaiieea ca aicaea?aeaiea. Enoi/ieeii i?ioeaioa
n/eoaaony nai eaieoae.

12.2. Nnoaeiue eaieoae e i?ioeaio a ia?enenoneie oai?ee

A ia?enenoneie oai?ee nnoaeiue eaieoae ?anniao?eaaaony eae ii?aaeaeaiiia
yeiiiie/aneia ioiioaiea, eae iaeia ec oi?i eaieoaea, eioi?ay iineo
enoi?e/anee i?aoiaeyuee oa?aeoa? e i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiey a i?ioeanna
?acaeoey eaieoaeecia.

Enoi?e/aneei i?aaeoanoaaiieeii nnoaeiiai eaieoaea yaeyaony
?inoiaue/aneee eaieoae, eioi?ue aiciee a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe, aei
iiyaeaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, e ianeoaeeaae ioiioaiey
iaoo?aeueiiai (?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai, oaiaeaeueiiai) e iaeeioiaa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?inoiauee i?aaeinoaaeye aeaiueae a nnoaeo, eioi?ua
eniieueciaaeenue eae aeaiueae, oi anoue aeey iieaou i?eia?aoaaiuo
oiaa?ia.

Nnoaeiue aea eaieoae ia?aciaaeny ia iniiaa i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea e
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iainiaeaoothny /anoue i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea,
ooieoeeiie?othuoth a ea/anoaa aeaiaa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo acaeiu. Aai
ioee/ea io ?inoiaue/aneiai eaieoaea a oii, /oi ii eniieuecoaony
caaiueeii ia eae aeaiueae, a eae eaieoae, oi anoue ia i?inoi aeey iieaou
oiaa?ia, a aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. E?oaiiai?io
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea iiaeii au?aceoue oi?ioeie:

NI

Ae – Ae … I?. …O( – Ae( – Ae(( ; aaea: aeou Ae
– Ae e Ae( – Ae(( icia/atho auaea/o

?N

nnoaeu e aa aica?ao niioaaonoaaiii. Oo?eoe icia/atho iaee/ea aic?anoaiey
aeaiaa a i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea e oio oaeo, /oi
/anoue yoiai i?e?inoa inoaaony eaieoaeenoo-i?aaei?eieiaoaeth, a /anoue –
auiea/eaaaony a aeaea i?ioeaioa eaieoaeenoo-nianoaaiieeo.

Nnoaeiue eaieoae aunooiaao eae oiaa?, eioi?ue i?iaeaaony e iieoiaaony.
Iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue yoiai oiaa?a caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi n aai
iiiiuueth nicaeaaony i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue. Ioee/ea aai io ae?oaeo
oiaa?ia a oii, /oi aai iio?aaeaiea (eniieueciaaiea) ia oie/oiaeaao ie
noieiinoe, ie iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe eaieoaea. Iie oieueei
aic?anoatho a i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa eaieoaea. I?iaeaaaoe
i?aaeinoaaeyao eaieoae oieueei ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea, nio?aiyy
nianoaaiiinoue ia iaai. Oeaia aea eaieoaea eae oiaa?a (i?ioeaio)
au?aaeaao ia aai noieiinoue, – iineieueeo nai eaieoae au?aaeaao naith
nianoaaiioth noieiinoue, – a niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ni?inii ia eaieoae e
aai i?aaeeiaeaieai.

Ia?aciaaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea i?eaaei e ?acaeaeaieth eaieoaea ia
eaieoae-nianoaaiiinoue e eaieoae-ooieoeeth. Eae nianoaaiiinoue eaieoae
i?aaeinoaaeyaony a nnoaeo e aica?auaaony aai nianoaaiieeo. Eae ooieoeey
eaieoae i?eieiaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth oi?io, a caoai – oiaa?ioth e
aeaiaaeioth, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai nicaeaaony i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue. I?e
eniieueciaaiee nnoaeiiai eaieoaea nicaeaiiay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue (a
oi?ia i?eauee) aeaeeony ia aeaa /anoe: nnoaeiue i?ioeaio, iieo/aaiue
nianoaaiieeii eaieoaea, e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae, eaeouee
ooieoeeiie?othuaio eaieoaeenoo. Enoi/ieeii oiai e ae?oaiai yaeyaony
i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue.

?anoe?aiea ianooaaia nnoaeiiai eaieoaea i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth a iauanoaa
neiy ?aiouea, aeeaouaai ia i?ioeaiou n eaieoaea e ecaaaeaiiiai io anyeie
aeayoaeueiinoe ii i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoio neie iieo/aao aeioiae
oieueei iioiio, /oi ii – nianoaaiiee eaieoaea. Aeey naiiai aea
i?iecaiaenoaa aai nouanoaiaaiea ie/aai ia aeaao, a yaeyaony eeoue
aeiiieieoaeueiie iaa?oceie, ecuyoeai /anoe nicaeaaaaiiai i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa.

Iieo/aiea aeioiaea ia eaieoae a aeaea i?ioeaioa ii?iaeaeaao eeethceth
oiai, /oi eaieoae iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth e nianoaaiiiio
naiiaic?anoaieth. Ia naiii aea aeaea enoi/ieeii aic?anoaiey eaieoaea
yaeyaony i?eaaai/iue o?oae a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa. Eaieoae eae aeaiueae,
acyoua a nnoaeo, iiaeao, eiia/ii, eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaiiaeaiey e
?anoe?aiey oaoie/aneie aacu i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi iiauoaao
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iaaiiiai o?oaea e oaaee/eaaao i?eaaai/ioth
noieiinoue. Iaeiaei yoi ia ioiaiyao oiai oaeoa, /oi i?eaaai/iay
noieiinoue nicaeaaony eiaiii o?oaeii, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?iai
aeaaiaea?y iiaie oaoieea aic?anoaao.

Iineieueeo aneaaenoaea iaaeio?aneaaiai ia?aeeaa eaieoaea i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aciaaiea n?aaeiae ii?iu i?eauee, o?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa, eae
i?aaeei, ia i?aauoaao n?aaeiae ii?iu i?eauee. Iiyoiio, eae e n?aaeiyy
ii?ia i?eauee, ii eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e iiieaeaieth. A eaaeaeii aea
eiie?aoiii neo/aa o?iaaiue i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai iaaeaeo
ni?inii ia nnoaeiue eaieoae e aai i?aaeeiaeaieai. Ia o?iaaiue nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa ieacuaaao aeeyiea oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. A
ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena o?iaaiue i?ioeaioa iiauoaaony, iineieueeo
?acei aic?anoaao ni?in ia e?aaeeo. A ia?eiae iiaeuaia, iaiai?io,
i?ienoiaeeo iaeioi?ia nieaeaiea o?iaiy i?ioeaioa. I?e aic?anoaiee
eioeyoeee ?anoao e o?iaaiue i?ioeaioa, oae eae ii aeieaeai iaania/eoue
ia oieueei nio?aiaiea, ii e i?e?ino ?aaeueiie noieiinoe eaieoaea.

A iauanoaa aiciiaeiu ia oieueei eaieoaeenoe/aneea ioiioaiey. Iiyoiio
aicieeaao aii?in: /oi i?ienoiaeeo n nnoaeiui eaieoaeii e i?ioeaioii,
anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue ioiioaiey iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, nioeeaeenoe/aneia i?iecaiaenoai? Eae oaea aiai?eeinue
(ni. /anoue 1, oaia 9), niaeanii iaeioi?ui eiioeaioeeyi e a
nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa aeey iaania/aiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee iaiaoiaeeia eo ieaoiinoue – ia o?iaia
eo i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie yooaeoeaiinoe. (Yooaeoeaiinoue yoiai ?ano?na
caeeth/aaony ia a nicaeaiee noieiinoe, a a yeiiiiee ?aai/aai a?aiaie e
ia yoie iniiaa ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.)
Iaeiaei a yoii neo/aa eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ia yaeythony oiaa?ii, iineieueeo
iie ia yaeythony iauaeoii ioiioaiee iaaeaeo /anoiuie nianoaaiieeaie, a
ana a?aiy inoathony a iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ieaoa ca ieo ia
icia/aao nouanoaiaaiey neiy-nioeeaeueiiai ia?aceoa. Iia auiieiyao ?ieue
eino?oiaioa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa e eaeao ia ioaeaeu
iauanoaa a oeaeii.

12.3. Aeeneiioe?iaaiea

Iiae aeeneiioe?iaaieai iiieiaaony: 1) i?eaaaeaiea ?aciia?aiaiiuo
eiaanoeoeee e aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ia?eiaeo a?aiaie;
2) neeaeea i?e i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa. A aeaiiii ?acaeaea aoaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny oieueei ia?aia cia/aiea aeaiiiai oa?ieia.

N aeeneiioe?iaaieai naycaiu neaaeothuea iiiyoey:

1) Aioo?aiiyy ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee – ioiioaiea
yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee (i?eauee ia eaieoae) e eo
?acia?o. Aoaeai iaicia/aoue aeaiioth aaee/eio /a?ac aA = Y/E, aaea: Y –
yooaeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, E – eo iauai.

2) *enoay ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe – aioo?aiiyy ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe ca au/aoii
i?ioeaioa ia eaieoae. Iaicia/aiea: e* = aA – i, aaea: aA – aioo?aiiyy
ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe, i – noaaea i?ioeaioa. Aeaiiay aaee/eia iieacuaaao
i?aauoaiea aioo?aiiae ii?iu ieoiaaiinoe iaae noaaeie i?ioeaioa.

3) Ii?ia aeeneiioe?iaaiey – iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee,
auae?aaiue a ea/anoaa aa ii?iaoeaa. A ea/anoaa ii?iu aeeneiioe?iaaiey
iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ?acee/iua aaee/eiu: aioo?aiiyy ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe,
ii?ia i?ioeaioa (iau/ii – o/aoiay noaaea i?ioeaioa ii e?aaeeoai
Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea), ii?iaoea yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e
ae?oaea. Auai? eiie?aoiiai cia/aiey ii?iu aeeneiioe?iaaiey caaeneo io
oeaee e eiie?aoiiai niaea?aeaiey aeeneiioe?iaaiey.

4) Eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey – iieacaoaeue, ?aaiue aaeeieoea iethn
ii?ia aeeneiioe?iaaiey, eee 1+ r, aaea: r – ii?ia aeeneiioe?iaaiey.

5) Aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue – aaee/eia eiaanoeoeee eee aeaiaaeiuo
iinooieaiee, i?eaaaeaiiay e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ia?eiaeo.

6) Iiieiaeueiay noaaea i?ioeaioa ( ii )- oaeoe/aneay noaaea i?ioeaioa,
ia o/eouaathuay eioeyoeeth. Iia iieacuaaao o?iaaiue i?e?inoa aeaiaaeiie
aaee/eiu eaieoaea (aeeaaea).

7) ?aaeueiay noaaea i?ioeaioa ( i? ) – noaaea i?ioeaioa, o/eouaathuay
eioeyoeeth e oa?aeoa?ecothuay i?e?ino ?aaeueiie noieiinoe eaieoaea
(aeeaaea).

; aaea: E – ia?aiia/aeueiia cia/aiea eaieoaea (aeeaaea), E( –
aic?inoaa cia/aiea eaieoaea (aeeaaea), IOe – eiaeaen ?inoa oeai.
Ioiioaiea E( /E iieacuaaao ?ino aeaiaaeiie aaee/eiu eaieoaea (aeeaaea),
a i? – i?e?ino aai ?aaeueiie noieiinoe.

I?eia?.

Aeeaae, ?aaiue 1000, aeae aiaeiaie aeioiae a ?acia?a 210. O?iaaiue
eioeyoeee (i?e?ino oeai) ca aiae ninoaaee 10 %. A yoii neo/aa
iiieiaeueiay noaaea i?ioeaioa aoaeao ?aaia 210/ 1000 = 0,21 eee 21 %, a
?aaeueiay noaaea i?ioeaioa: 1210/(1000(1,1) – 1 = 0,1 (eee 10 %).

Yooaeo io eniieueciaaiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, eae i?aaeei, ?acee/ai ii
aiaeai. Iiyoiio ii?aaeaeaiea aioo?aiiae ii?iu eo yooaeoeaiinoe
(ieoiaaiinoe) – aeaei ia i?inoia. Aeey aa ii?aaeaeaiey eniieuecoaony
neaaeothuee iaoiae.

. Eia/a aiai?y, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey eiatho
n?aaeiaaiaeiaoth ii?io yooaeoeaiinoe, ?aaioth iaeioi?ie aaee/eia o, e
iaoiaeeony cia/aiea yoie aaee/eiu.

I?eia?. Ionoue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ?acia?ii 1000 neoaeao aeaa aiaea e
aeatho aeioiae a 1-ii aiaeo, ?aaiue 600; ai 2-ii – 900. O?aaoaony iaeoe
aioo?aiithth ii?io yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

Iia iaoiaeeony ec ?aoaiey o?aaiaiey: 1000 = 600/(1+o) + 900/(1+o)2.
Iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea yoiai o?aaiaiey aaeeinoaaiii e ?aaii i?eia?ii
0,295.

Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a oneiaeyo aeaiiie caaea/e noaaea i?ioeaioa
ninoaaeyao 15 % a aiae, oi /enoay ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee
aoaeao ?aaia 0,295 – 0,15 = 0,145 eee 14,5 %.

; aaea: Et – ?acia? eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a aiaeo t; 1+r – eiyooeoeeaio
aeeneiioe?iaaiey. Ii yoie oi?ioea ana eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey i?eaiaeyony e
ia/aeueiiio iiiaioo a?aiaie.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ii?aaeaeyaony aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noiia aeioiaeia:

; aaea: Yt – aeioiae a aiaeo t. Caeanue iie oaeaea i?eaiaeyony e
ia/aeueiiio iiiaioo a?aiaie.

Anee ?aaeecaoeey ?aciuo i?iaeoia i?e iaeeiaeiaii iauaia
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeaao ?aciua ai a?aiaie aeioiaeu, oi iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiui yaeyaony oio i?iaeo, eioi?ue aeaao aieaa aunieoth
aeeneiioe?iaaiioth noiio aeioiaeia.

Anee eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ia ?aciua i?iaeou inouanoaeythony a oa/aiea ?yaea
eao, oi eo ?acia?u n?aaieaathony eae aeeneiioe?iaaiiua noiiu.

Anee eiaaony ianeieueei aa?eaioia eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a ?aeiino?oeoeeth
i?aaei?eyoey, aeathueo iaeeiaeiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, ii ?acee/iuo ii iauaio
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e o?iaith oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee
iinea inouanoaeaiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui aa?eaioii
yaeyaony oio, eioi?ue aeaao iaeiaiueooth aaee/eio i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?ao,
oi anoue aaee/eiu (E + rC); aaea: E – iauai eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, N –
o?iaaiue oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee iinea ?aaeecaoeee
aeaiiiai aa?eaioa eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, r – ii?ia aeeneiioe?iaaiey
(ii?iaoea yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee).

I?eia?. Eiathony aeaa aa?eaioa ?aeiino?oeoeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
iicaieythuea i?aaei?eyoeth aueoe ia iaeeiaeiaoth i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
iiuiinoue. Iie ?acee/athony iauaiaie eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee (E1=100 e E2=150)
e o?iaiai oaeoueo ecaea?aeae ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee iinea eo
?aaeecaoeee (N1=40 e N2=30). Ii?iaoea yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee
?aaai 12,5%. Ii?aaeaeeoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue aa?eaio
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

A aeaiiii neo/aa iu aeaeei, /oi 1-ue aa?eaio o?aaoao iaiueoaai iauaia
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, /ai 2-ie, ii caoi 2-ie aa?eaio aeaao nieaeaiea
oaeoueo cao?ao ii n?aaiaieth n 1-ui. *oiau onoaiiaeoue, eaeie ec
aa?eaioia eo/oa, ioaeii ?ann/eoaoue i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou. I?e
?aaeecaoeee 1-ai aa?eaioa iie ninoaayo 100(0,125 + 40 = 52,5; a i?e
?aaeecaoeee 2-ai: 150(0,125 + 30 = 48,75. Iineieueeo 2-ie aa?eaio aeaao
aieaa ieceia cia/aiea i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?ao, oi ii e yaeyaony aieaa
yooaeoeaiui.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1.Niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee:

1. Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio – yoi ieaoa ca eaieoae, o?iaaiue eioi?ie
ii?aaeaeyaony yooaeoeaiinoueth eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

2. Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio – yoi i?aa?auaiiay oi?ia /anoe i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe, aunooiathuay a oi?ia ieaou ca eaieoae.

3. O?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia eaieoae.

4. O?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/ae
(i?aaeaeueiui i?iaeoeoii) eaieoaea.

5. O?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony i?e?inoii aeioiaea,
iieo/aaiui a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey nnoaeu.

A: 1, 2 A: 2, 3 A: 2
A: 3, 4 Ae: 2, 5

2. Niaeanii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe:

1. Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio – yoi i?aa?auaiiay oi?ia /anoe i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe.

2. Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio – yoi ieaoa ca iieueciaaiea eaieoaeii, o?iaaiue
eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiui aeioiaeii, iieo/aiiui aeaaiaea?y
yoiio eaieoaeo.

3. Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio – yoi ieaoaae, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oaea?aeaiey
eaieoaea a aeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna.

4. O?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey nnoaeiiai eaieoaea.

5. O?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaeueiui i?iaeoeoii
(ioaea/ae) eaieoaea.

A: 1, 2, 3, 5. A: 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 3, 4, 5.
A: 3, 5. Ae: 4. 5.

3. Niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee:

1. I?e?ino aeioiaea, iieo/aiiue aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth eiaanoeoeee,
– yoi aeeaae eaieoaea a nicaeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?a.

2. I?e?ino aeioiaea, iieo/aiiue aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth eiaanoeoeee,
– yoi ecauoi/iay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue, nicaeaiiay aeaaiaea?y aic?inoae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

3. I?e?ino aeioiaea, iieo/aiiue aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth eiaanoeoeee,
– yoi aaee/eia nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa.

4. *anoue noieiinoe oiaa?a nicaeaaony o?oaeii, a /anoue – eaieoaeii,
iineieueeo iauai i?iecaiaenoaa caaeneo ia oieueei io eiee/anoaa o?oaea,
ii e io ?acia?a eniieuecoaiiai eaieoaea.

5. Any noieiinoue oiaa?a nicaeaaony o?oaeii, a eaieoae eeoue aeeyao ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth neeo o?oaea.

A: 1, 2, 3, 4. A: 2, 3, 5. A: 2, 3, 4.
A: 2. Ae: 2, 5.

4. *ai iauyniyao oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe ienoiaeyuee aeae e?eaie
ni?ina ia eaieoae e ainoiaeyuee – i?aaeeiaeaiey eaieoaea?

5. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo o?oaeiaie oai?eae noieiinoe e oai?eae
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe a iiieiaiee enoi/ieea e o?iaiy nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa?

6. A /ai ioee/ea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea io ?inoiaue/aneiai?

7. *ai ioee/aaony eaieoae eae oiaa? io iau/iiai oiaa?a?

8. Eaeiaa naycue iaaeaeo n?aaeiae ii?iie i?eauee e noaaeie i?ioeaioa a
ia?enenoneie oai?ee?

9. *oi iiieiaaony iiae aeeneiioe?iaaieai e aeey /aai iii eniieuecoaony?

10. Ii aeeaaeo ia/eneaii 30 % aiaeiauo. O?iaaiue eioeyoeee ca aiae
ninoaaee 24%. Eaeiaa ?aaeueiay aiaeiaay noaaea i?ioeaioa ii aeaiiiio
aeeaaeo ?

11. Iauai eiaanoeoeee ?aaai 2000. Iieo/aiiue io eo ?aaeecaoeee aeioiae
ninoaaee: a 1-i aiaeo – 1500, ai 2-i – 1250. Noaaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa
– 12 % a aiae. Eaeiaa /enoay ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee ?

12. Iiae?yae/ee i?aaeeaaaao aeaa aa?eaioa iieaou no?iyuaainy iauaeoa.
I?e 1 aa?eaioa: a 1 aiaeo ioaeii caieaoeoue 50 % noieiinoe iauaeoa, ai
2-i – 30 %, a 3-i – 20%. I?e 2-i aa?eaioa niioaaonoaaiii: a 1-i aiaeo –
34 %, ai 2-i – 33 % e a 3-i – 33 %. Iaeiaei iauay niaoiay noieiinoue
iauaeoa i?e 2-i aa?eaioa aoaeao ia 4 % auoa, /ai a ia?aii. Eaeie aa?eaio
auaiaeiaa caeac/eeo, anee aiaeiaay ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee o iaai
?aaia 10 %?

13. Eiathony aeaa aa?eaioa eiaanoeoeee. Iie ioee/athony oieueei
?acia?aie i?aaeiieaaaaiuo aiaeiauo aeioiaeia (a 1, 2 e 3 aiaeao):

Aeey 1 aa?eaioa: Y1 = 200, Y2 = 120, Y3 = 60.

Aeey 2 aa?eaioa: Y1 = 160, Y2 = 140, Y3 = 100. Eaeie ec yoeo
aa?eaioia auaiaeiaa, anee ii?ia ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee ?aaia 15 % ?

14. Eiathony o?e aa?eaioa oaoie/aneie ?aeiino?oeoeee i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey
inouanoaeaiey 1-ai o?aaothony eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, ?aaiua 2400, o?iaaiue
oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee iinea ?aaeecaoeee 1-ai
i?iaeoa ninoaaeo 600. Aeey 2-ai aa?eaioa yoe iieacaoaee ?aaiu
niioaaonoaaiii 2600 e 570, a aeey 3-ai – 2800 e 550. Ii?iaoea
yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ?aaai 12,5 %. Eaeie ec o?ao aa?eaioia
iaeaieaa yeiiiie/ai ?

15. Eaeea oaeoi?u ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa?

Oaia 13. E?aaeeo

13.1. Nouiinoue e ooieoeee e?aaeeoa

E?aaeeo – iaiouaieaiue yeaiaio nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee. Ii iaoneiaeai, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, iaee/eai o yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia a?aiaiii
iaeniieuecoaiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa; n ae?oaie – ia?aciaaieai o ieo
a?aiaiiie iio?aaiinoe a aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao.

A?aiaiii iaeniieuecoaiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa iiaoo ia?aciauaaoueny o
ianaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee (aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, n?aaenoaa ia
?aeiino?oeoeeth e ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa, n?aaenoaa oiiaea iieaou
o?oaea, naa?aaeaiey e o. i.). Eie iiaoo auoue n?aaenoaa athaeaeaoia
?aciuo o?iaiae e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.

A?aiaiiay iaoaaoea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa iiaeao aicieeiooue o i?aaei?eyoee
(naciiiinoue eee aeeeoaeueiue oeeee i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?eiae iaaeaeo
ioa?oceie i?iaeoeoeee e aa iieaoie iinoaaueeii e o. i.), o ianaeaiey
(no?ieoaeuenoai aeeeuey, i?eia?aoaiea aei?iainoiyueo aauae), o
ainoaea?noaa (iaaeinoaoi/iue nai? iaeiaia i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e nioeeaeueiuo auieao).

Aeey iai?a?uaiinoe i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa iauaeoeaii iaiaoiaeeii
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?e oneiaee eo aica?auaiey /a?ac
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy ia?aoii eo aeaaeaeueoeai. Yoi e inouanoaeyaony n
iiiiuueth e?aaeeoa.

E?aaeeo – yoi ioiioaiey a i?ioeanna ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia oneiaeyo n?i/iinoe, aica?aoiinoe e ieaoiinoe.
N?i/iinoue icia/aao i?aaeinoaaeaiea a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaa oieueei
ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. Aica?aoiinoue – aica?auaiea eo iinea enoa/aiey
n?iea aeaaeaeueoeo. Ieaoiinoue – auieaoo i?ioeaioa ca iieueciaaiea
e?aaeeoii. Noi?iiaie e?aaeeoiiai ioiioaiey yaeythony e?aaeeoi? (oio, eoi
i?aaeinoaaeyao nnoaeo) e caaiuee (iieo/aoaeue e?aaeeoa).

Iniiaie e?aaeeoa yaeyaony nnoaeiue oiiae. Yoi a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, aeeoioee?iaaiiua aeey oeaeae e?aaeeoiaaiey.
Enoi/ieee nnoaeiiai oiiaea – n?aaenoaa ianaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee,
ainoaea?noaa. E?aaeeo inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia aeaeaeaiey nnoaeiiai
oiiaea.

Iiiyoea nnoaeiiai oiiaea yaeyaony aieaa iauei ii n?aaiaieth ni nnoaeiui
eaieoaeii. A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa nnoaeiue eaieoae yaeyaony /anoueth
nnoaeiiai oiiaea, iineieueeo caaiiua n?aaenoaa iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ia
oieueei a ea/anoaa eaieoaea, ii e a ea/anoaa aeaiaa (ianaeaieai,
ainoaea?noaii aeey iieaou eo ?anoiaeia), a oaeaea a ea/anoaa
eieeaeoeaiuo e iauanoaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. I?e ionoonoaee
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe nnoaeiue oiiae aiiaua ia niaea?aeeo
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea.

Ooieoeee e?aaeeoa a yeiiiieea:

– Iiaeeecaoeey, aeeoioee?iaaiea, eiioeaio?aoeey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

– Iaania/aiea aania?aaieiinoe i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa.

– Onei?aiea iai?ioa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia.

– Caiaia aeaenoaeoaeueiuo aeaiaa e?aaeeoiuie aeaiueaaie e e?aaeeoiuie
iia?aoeeyie.

– Yeiiiiey ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey, naycaiiuo n aeaiaaeiui oicyenoaii.

A nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea e?aaeeo ia oieueei iiauoaao iauoth
yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa, ii e yaeyaony aai
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai. Aianoa n oai ?anoe?aiea e?aaeeoa ineaaeyao naycue
iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e eiia/iuie iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee, /oi
nicaeaao oneiaey aeey io?uaa i?iecaiaenoaa io iio?aaeaiey, ia?aciaaiey
ianiioaaonoaey iaaeaeo ieie e aicieeiiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia.

13.2. Oi?iu e?aaeeoa

Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea iniiaiua oi?iu e?aaeeoa:

1) Ii n?ieai: e?aoein?i/iue – aei 6 ianyoeaa, n?aaeian?i/iue – aei 1
aiaea, aeieain?i/iue – ianeieueei eao.

2) Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo – e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue iaeiei i?aaei?eyoeai
ae?oaiio. Ii a iniiaiii naycai n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea ca ioa?oaeaiioth
(iinoaaeaiioth) i?iaeoeoeeth. N?aaenoaii eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa yaeyaony
aaenaeue i?aaei?eyoey – iaycaoaeuenoai auieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio a
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. Aaenaey auaatho i?inoua (aac i?aaa ia?aaiaea) e
ia?aaiaeiua (ia?aaiaeyony ia ae?oaeo e?aaeeoi?ia n iiiiuueth
ia?aaeaoi/iie iaaeiene (eiaeinnaiaioa)). Ia?aaiaeiua aaenaey iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie.
Aaenaey iiaoo iieoiaoueny aaieaie ni neeaeeie (aeeneiioii). Yoa
iia?aoeey iacuaaaony o/aoii aaenaeae. A ?acoeueoaoa i?aai iieo/aiey
aeieaa ia?aoiaeeo e aaieo. Ia aaenaeyo iiaeao auoue aaieianeia
ii?o/eoaeuenoai (aaaeue), eioi?ia aunoaaeyaony aaieii i?aaei?eyoey,
auaeaaoaai aaenaeue. Yoi iiauoaao aai iaaeaaeiinoue.

Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo ia iaycaoaeueii ioi?ieyaony a aeaea aaenaey. A
iaoae no?aia iniiaiie oi?iie eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
yaeyaony caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ae?oa ae?oao ii ieaoaaeai
(iaieaoaaee). Eo iauai ia na?aaeeio 1997 a. i?aaunee 600 o?eeeeiiia
?oaeae.

3) Aaieianeee e?aaeeo – e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue aaieaie. I?e yoii
aaiee eniieuecotho i?e e?aaeeoiaaiee a iniiaiii, ia nianoaaiiua, a
i?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa (n?aaenoaa ia n/aoao i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee,
o/?aaeaeaiee; ia aeeaaeao ianaeaiey), io/anoe – caaiiua (iaaeaaieianeea
e?aaeeou). Nianoaaiiua aea n?aaenoaa aaieia ninoaaeytho iacia/eoaeueioth
aeieth eo nnoaeiiai oiiaea. Aaiee auiieiytho ?ieue iin?aaeieeia a
e?aaeeoa. Ii nouanoao e?aaeeoi?aie yaeythony ia iie, a oa yeiiiie/aneea
noauaeou, /uee n?aaenoaa iie eniieuecotho.

4) Iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo – yoi e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue ianaeaieth
(ia iieoieo eee no?ieoaeuenoai aeeeuey, i?eia?aoaiea aei?iainoiyueo
oiaa?ia). A aeaiiii neo/aa e?aaeeo eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa aeaiaa, a ia
eaieoaea eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Ii iineieueeo yoe aea aeaiueae
iiaoo auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu a nnoaeo e a ea/anoaa eaieoaea, oi ca
iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo oaeaea oiea/eaaaony i?ioeaio, eae e ca ae?oaea
oi?iu nnoae.

5) Caeiaiaue e?aaeeo – e?aaeeo iiae caeia eiouanoaa. *anoiue neo/ae:
eiioa/iue e?aaeeo – e?aaeeo iiae caeia iaaeaeaeeiinoe (caiee n
iino?ieeaie ia iae).

6) Eeceia – e?aaeeo a aeaea aeieain?i/iie a?aiaeu iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Ioianaiea eeceiaa e oi?iai e?aaeeoa
iauyniyaony oai, /oi iieueciaaoaeue iai?oaeiaaiey iieo/aao aai oeaeeeii,
oi anoue anth aai noieiinoue, a caoai aica?auaao yoo noieiinoue /anoyie
a aeaea a?aiaeiuo ieaoaaeae, aeeth/athueo oaeaea e nnoaeiue i?ioeaio.

7) Ainoaea?noaaiiua (ioieoeeiaeueiua) caeiu e e?aaeeou – ioiioaiey, a
eioi?uo caaiueeii eee e?aaeeoi?ii yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aai (i?aai
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey). Ainoaea?noai (i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey)
i?eaaaatho e caeiai aeey oeiaine?iaaiey naieo ?anoiaeia eee nioeeaeueiuo
auieao. Iie oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeytho e e?aaeeou oai i?aaei?eyoeyi eee
athaeaeaoiui i?aaiecaoeeyi, a ooieoeeiie?iaaiee eioi?uo iie
caeioa?aniaaiu.

8) Iaeiaiaue e?aaeeo – ion?i/ea ieaoaaea iaeiaia. Ii enoa/aiee ia?eiaea
ion?i/ee caaiuee aiineo ia oieueei noiio iaeiaia, ii e ia/eneaiiue ia
iaa nnoaeiue i?ioeaio.

9) Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo – ioiioaiea, a eioi?ii e?aaeeoi? e caaiuee
i?eiaaeeaaeao e ?aciui no?aiai. *anoiue neo/ae: iaaeainoaea?noaaiiue
e?aaeeo – e?aaeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia iaeiie no?aiu
ainoaea?noaaiiiio i?aaio ae?oaie.

13.3. E?aaeeoiay nenoaia. Aaiee

E?aaeeoiay nenoaia – yoi niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee e einoeoooia
(o/?aaeaeaiee), i?aaiecothueo yoe ioiioaiey.

E e?aaeeoiui o/?aaeaeaieyi ioiinyony: aaiee e iaaaieianeea
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua o/?aaeaeaiey. A /enei iineaaeieo aoiaeyo:
e?aaeeoiua oiaa?euanoaa e nithcu, iauanoaa acaeiiiai e?aaeeoa,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee e oiiaeu, iaineiiiua oiiaeu, no?aoiaua
eiiiaiee, eiiaa?aeu, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oe?iu (oaeoi?eiaiaua,
eeceiaiaua e o. i.).

Aaiee auiieiytho iniiaioth ianno e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee e ia?acotho naiaai
?iaea einoye e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu. Ia?aiia/aeueii iie aicieeee eae
o/?aaeaeaiey, a eioi?uo o?aieeenue a?aiaiii iaeniieuecoaiua oeaiiinoe.
Ia yoie iniiaa iie i?aa?aoeeenue a iin?aaeieeia a ieaoaaeao e e?aaeeoa.
Caoai e?oa auiieiyaiuo eie iia?aoeee ?anoe?eeny. I?ienoiaeeee
eiioeaio?aoeey e oeaio?aeecaoeey aaieianeiai eaieoaea. Nicaeaaaeenue
iaaeaaieianeea iauaaeeiaiey: ea?oaee, neiaeeeaou, o?anou, eiioea?iu.

A eiioea 19 – ia/aea 20 aaea a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao
i?iecioei oi?ie?iaaiea aaieianeeo iiiiiieee – e?oiiuo aaieia eee eo
iauaaeeiaiee, aeiieie?othueo ia ?uiea aaieianeeo oneoa. ?ieue aaieia a
yeiiiieea eciaieeanue, iie noaee o/?aaeaeaieyie, niiniaiuie
eiio?iee?iaaoue iieiaeaiea aeae ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e aa?oeoue
eo noaeueao. Iiiiiieenoe/aneee i?iiuoeaiiue eaieoae noae n?aueaaoueny n
iiiiiieenoe/aneei aaieianeei eaieoaeii a aaeeiue oeiainiaue eaieoae.
Noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe aaieianeeo iiiiiieee noaea ?anoe?youeny ca i?aaeaeu
no?aiu, /oi i?eaaei e ia?aciaaieth aaieia, eiathueo oeeeaeu a ?aciuo
no?aiao, e aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo iineo iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oa?aeoa?.

Aiaeiae/iua i?ioeannu oa?aeoa?iu e aeey ae?oaeo caaiueaa e?aaeeoiie
nenoaiu (iaaaieianeeo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee). Nia?aiaiiue oeiainiaue
eaieoae aeeth/aao a naay ia oieueei i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey e
aaiee, ii e naoue iaaaieianeeo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee (no?aoiauo
eiiiaiee, iaineiiiuo oiiaeia e o.i.).

Aianoa n oai a e?aaeeoiie nenoaia eiaea ianoi e oeaio?aeecaoeey,
naycaiiay n ia?aciaaieai oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia e iiauoaieai eo ?iee a
e?aaeeoiie nenoaia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao aaieianeay
nenoaia yaeyaony aeaooo?iaiaaie. A iaa aoiaeyo: oeaio?aeueiue aaie
(aa?oiee o?iaaiue); eiiia?/aneea e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aaiee (ieaeiee
o?iaaiue).

Eiiia?/aneea aaiee – yoi aaiee, auiieiythuea oe?ieee e?oa aaieianeeo
iia?aoeee. Eo eiiaaea iacuaatho oieaa?naeueiuie. Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
aaiee – aaiee, auiieiythuea a iniiaiii ii?aaeaeaiiue aieaa eee iaiaa
oceee e?oa aaieianeeo iia?aoeee. Oae, a /enei niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aaieia
aoiaeyo:

– Eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee, niaoeeaeece?othueany ia iia?aoeeyo n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie.

– Eiiiaaoeeiiiua aaiee – e?aaeeoiaaiea eiiiaaoeee, oi anoue
iiaiaaaaeaiee, eiathueo aunieee o?iaaiue ?enea.

– Naa?aaaoaeueiua – ianeoaeeaaiea aeeaaeia a?aaeaeai.

– Eiioa/iua – niaoeeaeecaoeey ia eiioa/iii e?aaeeoa.

– Caiaeueiua – e?aaeeoiaaiea iiae caeia caiaeueiuo o/anoeia.

Oeaio?aeueiue aaie auiieiyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua ooieoeee:

– Aeaiaaeiay yienney, i?aaiecaoeey e ?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey.

– ?an/aoiue e ?aca?aiue oeaio? aaieia, a oii /enea eanniaia
ianeoaeeaaiea aaieia (i?eai e auaea/a iaee/iuo aeaiaa).

– E?aaeeoi? iineaaeiae einoaioeee (eiioeaio?aoeey e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia,
e?aaeeoiaaiea aaieia).

– ?aciauaiea e ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa (aeaiiceoa?ee e
oeneaeueiue aaaio ainoaea?noaa). Iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, i?aaeaea
anaai – ainoaea?noaaiiuie.

– Eniieiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa (niaianoii n ae?oaeie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie).

– Iia?aoeee n ae?aaioeaiiuie iaoaeeaie, aaethoie. Oi?aaeaiea
cieioi-aaethoiuie ?aca?aaie ainoaea?noaa, ii?aaeaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiiai
eo?na aaethou.

– Auaea/a aa?aioee.

– Eiio?ieue e ?aaoee?iaaiea anae e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu (ii?aaeaeaiea
i?aaee, ia?aie/aiee, ii?iaoeaia aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, auaea/a e iocua eeoeaicee).

Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ianeoaeeaaao i?aaei?eyoey e
ianaeaiea, ii eiaao aeaei a iniiaiii n aaieaie. Ianaeaiea e i?aaei?eyoey
ianeoaeeaathony eiiia?/aneeie e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie aaieaie.

Iniiaiua aeaeu iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo eiiia?/aneeie e
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie aaieaie:

– Aaaeaiea n/aoia th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, ?an/aou iaaeaeo ieie.

– Ianeoaeeaaiea aeeaaeia ianaeaiey.

– Eanniaua (i?eai e auaea/a iaee/iuo aeaiaa).

– E?aaeeoiaaiea (a ?aciuo oi?iao).

– Iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie (auione, ?aciauaiea, eoiey, i?iaeaaea).

– Aaethoiua iia?aoeee.

– O?anoiaua (oi?aaeaiea oeaiiinoyie eeeaioa ii aai aeiaa?aiiinoe).

– Auaea/a aa?aioee e ii?o/eoaeuenoa.

– Eeceiaiaua.

– Oaeoi?eiaiaua (iieoiea o iinoaaueea i?aaa acuneaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe n
iieo/aoaey oiaa?a).

I?eaueue aaieia oi?ie?oaony eae inoaoie iieo/aiiuo i?ioeaioia (ii
e?aaeeoai, auaeaiiui aaieaie) ca au/aoii oiea/aiiuo i?ioeaioia (ii
i?eaea/aiiui e caaiiui n?aaenoaai) e aaieianeeo ecaea?aeae (ia iieaoo
o?oaea, aii?oecaoeeth iniiaiiai eaieoaea, eiiioiaeueiuo e a?aiaeiuo
ieaoaaeae e o. i.).

Enoi/ieeii aaieianeie i?eauee, niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee, yaeyaony
/anoue noieiinoe i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa, nicaeaiiiai a noa?a
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii?ia i?eauee a aaieianeie noa?a a i?ioeanna
iaaeio?aneaaiai ia?aeeaa eaieoaea onoaiaaeeaaaony ia o?iaia n?aaeiae
ii?iu i?eauee.

N oi/ee c?aiey oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, enoi/ieeii aaieianeie
i?eauee yaeyaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay niiniaiinoue aaiee?ia.

13.4. ?aoi?ia e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu a ?innee

E ia/aeo 1990-o a. a. aeey e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu NNN? auei oa?aeoa?ii:

1) Iiiiiieey ainoaea?noaa a e?aaeeoiie noa?a. Ana oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua
o/?aaeaeaiey auee ainoaea?noaaiiuie. Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo aue oi?acaeiai
a ia/aea 1930-o a. a. Iniiaiie oi?iie e?aaeeoa aue aaieianeee e?aaeeo.
Ii i?aaeinoaaeyeny Ainoaea?noaaiiui aaieii NNN? eee e?aaeeoiuie
o/?aaeaeaieyie, iiaeeiio?ieueiuie aio. Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie ianeoaeeaae
i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiey, a?aaeaeai. *a?ac aai nenoaio
i?ioiaeeee ana ?an/aou e ieaoaaee a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa. Ieeaeeo ae?oaeo
aaieia, e?iia iaai e aoiaeyueo a aai nenoaio o/?aaeaeaiee, ia auei.
Ainno?ao aue iiiiiieenoii a noa?a no?aoiaaiey. Iaineiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea
auei oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiui. Iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie e aaethoie
inouanoaeyeenue oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie.

2) Ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea e?aaeeoa. E?aaeeo ?anniao?eaaeny eae
n?aaenoai auiieiaiey caaeaiee ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai ieaia e aoiaeee
ninoaaiie /anoueth a yoio ieai. E?aaeeoiaaiea oei a iniiaiii ii ieaio e
aeey auiieiaiey ieaia. Iieo/aiea aiaieaiiaiai e?aaeeoa auei cao?oaeiaii.

3) Iniiaiuie oi?iaie e?aaeeoa auee:

– Aaieianeee.

– Iio?aaeoaeueneee.

– Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu e e?aaeeou.

– Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiue.

– Nnoaeu ec ?aca?aia ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa (auaeaaaeenue
i?aaei?eyoeyi, aoiaeyuei a nenoaio ieienoa?noaa (aaaeiinoaa) a iniiaiii
i?e aicieeiiaaiee iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo neooaoeee).

– Iaoo?aeueiua nnoaeu (a naeueneii oicyenoaa a aeaea naiyi ia
i?iaaaeaiea naaa n aica?aoii a oii aea aeaea iinea oai?ee o?iaeay).

4) Ieceee o?iaaiue i?ioeaioa. Oae, a 1989 a. aiaeiaay noaaea i?ioeaioa
ninoaaeyea:

– ii e?aoein?i/iiio e?aaeeoo – 2,8 %;

– ii aeieain?i/iiio – 0,8 %;

– ii ainoaea?noaaiiui caeiai – 2-3 %;

– ii aeeaaeai ianaeaiey – 2 %;

– ii aeaiiceoai eieoicia e eiiia?aoeee – 0,5 %.

5) Ainaaie NNN? a oeaeyo noeioee?iaaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aaaeaiey
oicyenoaa eniieueciaae o?e ?aaeeia e?aaeeoiaaiey:

– eueaioiue (aeey i?aaei?eyoee, iaania/eaathueo aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia);

– iauee (aeey ii?iaeueii ?aaioathueo i?aaei?eyoee);

– iniaue (aeey i?aaei?eyoee, ia?aoeeiiaeueii eniieuecothueo auaeaeaiiua
n?aaenoaa e aeiioneathueo ia?ooaiea ieaoaaeiie aeenoeeieeiu).

6) Aunieea nei?inoue i?ioiaeaeaiey ieaoaaeae e o?iaaiue ieaoaaeiie
aeenoeeieeiu, a oii /enea ca i?iaeoeoeeth e oneoae, a athaeaeao e o. i.,
iineieueeo ana ?an/aou e ieaoaaee a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa inouanoaeyeenue
iaeiei aaieii e auee iieiinoueth aio iiaeeiio?ieueiu.

A ia/aea 1990-o a. a. auea i?iaaaeaia ei?aiiay ?aoi?ia e?aaeeoiie
nenoaiu. Ainoaea?noai ia?anoaei auoue iiiiiieenoii a noa?a e?aaeeoa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaie aue i?aia?aciaai a Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?innee,
eioi?ue noae aai i?aaiieeii. Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aaiea NNN? aai ?ieue a yeiiiieea cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeeanue.
Oeaio?aeueiue aaie iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ianeoaeeaaao i?aaei?eyoey e
ianaeaiea. Ii ia?aie/ai auiieiaieai ooieoeee, naienoaaiiuo oeaio?aeueiui
aaieai a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea, i eioi?uo aiai?eeinue auoa.

Auea nicaeaia oeaeay nenoaia iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, eioi?uo aei yoiai ia auei: aaieia, no?aoiauo eiiiaiee,
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee e oiiaeia, iaineiiiuo oiiaeia e o. i.,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianeoaeeaathueo ianaeaiea e i?aaei?eyoey. A ?acoeueoaoa
/enei caiyouo a oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie noa?a ?acei aic?inei.

?acei nie?aoeeinue ainoaea?noaaiiia e?aaeeoiaaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeou ia?anoatho auoue oeaeaauie e ana aieueoa
i?eia?aoatho ?uii/iue oa?aeoa?, ?aciauathony ia ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo.
Oi?acaeiaii ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea e?aaeeoa. Iii auei caiaiaii
?uieii e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia. Ainoaea?noai nae/an iiaeao eeoue ieacuaaoue
?aaoee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia e?aaeeoioth nenoaio, ii ia iiaeao i?yii
oi?aaeyoue ath. Auee aiiaue aic?iaeaeaiu oi?acaeiaiiua a 1930-a a. a.
oi?iu e?aaeeoa: eiiia?/aneee, caeiaiaue, eiioa/iue, iaeiaiaue, eeceia.
Cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeny iaai? iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo aaieaie, a nayce n
?acaeoeai ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa e ioiaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee ia
aaethoiua iia?aoeee. A oeaeii, e?aaeeoiay nenoaia i?eia?aea /a?ou,
naienoaaiiua eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea.

?aoi?ia e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu nii?iaiaeaeaeanue ia?anoaieai iaaaoeaiuo
oaiaeaioeee a oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie noa?a:

– Cia/eoaeueiui nie?auaieai e?aaeeoiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaieianeea
?ano?nu iai?aaeythony, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia iia?aoeee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie e aaethoie, ia e?aaeeoiaaiea eiiia?/aneeo
iin?aaeie/aneeo no?oeoo?, a ia ia oeiaine?iaaiea ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa.
Aeieain?i/iue e?aaeeo (a ii i?aaeiacia/aaony, eae i?aaeei, aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee) i?aeoe/anee i?ae?aoee naia
nouanoaiaaiea. Ana yoi icia/aao, /oi e?aaeeo a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ia?anoae auiieiyoue naie aaaeiaeoea ooieoeee a yeiiiieea.

– Iiauoaaony ?ieue ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia a oeiaine?iaaiee ?anoiaeia
ainoaea?noaa. A ?acoeueoaoa ?anooo aioo?aiiee e aiaoiee ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeiea e ?anoiaeu ia eo ianeoaeeaaiea e iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeeo
ioea/eaaiea aeaiaa ec ?aaeueiiai (i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai) naeoi?a yeiiiieee
a iin?aaeie/anei-niaeoeyoeaioth noa?o.

– Nenoaia ?an/aoia e ieaoaaeae cia/eoaeueii oneiaeieeanue, oiae o?iaaiue
ieaoaaeiie aeenoeeieeiu. E?aaeeoiay nenoaia ieacaeanue a ii?aaeaeaiiie
ia?a iiae eiio?ieai e?eieiaeueiie e oaiaaie yeiiiieee. Ia?iiiua noiiu
iaee/iuo aeaiaa ?anoeuaiu ec aaieia ii iiaeaeaeueiui aeieoiaioai,
i?iiaee a aacaica?aoiii e?aaeeoa, ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie
aaieia “ia caeiiiii iniiaaiee”. Ii aeaiiui ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae
?innee A. Eoeeeiaa, iaeaoaiiui a ia/aea 1997 a., aeaaiaea?y
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ainoaea?noai ieacaeinue ia?aaeaiiui
ia 67 o?eeeeiiia ?oaeae.

– Iineieueeo iaainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey i?aneaaeotho
oeaeue iiauoaiey nianoaaiiie i?eauee, e?aaeeoiay ?aoi?ia i?eaaea e
cia/eoaeueiiio iiauoaieth noaaee i?ioeaioa. ?aaeueiay noaaea i?ioeaioa
(n o/aoii eioeyoeee) a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eia?ii a 10 ?ac auoa
i?aae?aoi?iaiiie. E?aaeeo aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee noae aieaa
aei?iaei e iaiaa aeinooiiui, /oi cao?oaeiyao auoiae yeiiiieee ec
e?ecena.

A oeaeii e?aaeeoiay nenoaia noaea iaiaa yooaeoeaiie, ianiio?y ia
iiiaie?aoiia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia yoie noa?u e iniauaiea aa
ia?aaeiaie eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieeie. A ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a iia aeaaea
cao?oaeiyao ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aceoe?oao ia iai. Ionthaea
neaaeoao, /oi iaiaoiaeeiu ea?aeeiaeueiua ia?u ii eni?aaeaieth aeaiiiai
iieiaeaiey.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. E?aaeeo iauaeoeaii iaoneiaeai:

1. Ia?aie/aiiinoueth aeaiaa.

2. Niiniaiinoueth eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeaaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae.

3. Iaee/eai a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa o iaeieo
yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia e eo a?aiaiiie iaoaaoee o ae?oaeo.

4. Aeeoioeyoeeae aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a aaieao.

5. Iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aeeaa eaieoaea ec io?aneae n ieceie
?aioaaaeueiinoueth a auniei?aioaaaeueiua io?anee.

2. Ec eaeeo iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia oi?ie?oaony nnoaeiue oiiae?

3. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie nnoaeiiai eaieoaea e nnoaeiiai
oiiaea?

4. Eaeiau ooieoeee e?aaeeoa a yeiiiieea?

5. Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo – yoi e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue:

1. ia eiiia?/aneeo oneiaeyo.

2. iaeiei i?aaei?eyoeai ae?oaiio.

3. eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie.

4. ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe iaaeaeo e?aaeeoi?ii e caaiueeii.

5. a oeaeyo iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiiai nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa.

6. Eaeea i?aaiecaoeee ioiinyony e o/?aaeaeaieyi e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu:

1. Aaiee.

2. No?aoiaua eiiiaiee.

3. Iaineiiiua oiiaeu.

4. Oi?aiaua eiiiaiee.

5. Oiiaeiaua ae?aee.

A: 1 A: 1, 2 A: 1, 2, 3 A: 1,
2, 3, 4 Ae: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

7. Eaeea iia?aoeee auiieiythony eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie:

1. Yienney aeaiaa.

2. Oi?aiaey oiaa?aie e oneoaaie.

3. No?aoiaaiea eiouanoaa.

4. Yienney oeaiiuo aoiaa.

5. Eoiey-i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

6. ?anii?yaeaiea aeeaaeaie e oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ii aeiaa?aiiinoe
eeeaioia.

7. O/ao aaenaeae.

A: 1, 3, 4, 6 A: 2, 4, 5, 7 A: 3, 4, 5, 6
A: 4, 5, 6, 7 Ae: 5, 6

8. Eaeea iia?aoeee auiieiyao Oeaio?aeueiue aaie:

1. E?aaeeoiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee.

2. Eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee.

3. Eoiey-i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

4. E?aaeeoiaaiea eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

5. ?an/aou iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie.

A: 3, 4. A: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 1, 2, 3, 4.
A: 1, 3, 4, 5. Ae: 4, 5.

9. Eaeoth ?ieue a yeiiiieea ea?atho: Oeaio?aeueiue aaie? eiiia?/aneea
aaiee?

10. Eaeea noauaeou yeiiiieee ioiinyony e e?aaeeoiui o/?aaeaeaieyi?

11. Aaie eniieuecoao aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa a noiia
80, caaiiua – 100, i?eaea/aiiua – 1220. I?ioeaiou ii i?eaea/aiiui
n?aaenoaai – 30 % aiaeiauo, ii caaiiui – 44 % aiaeiauo. Ecaea?aeee aaiea
ninoaaeytho 50. a) Eaeie aeieaeia auoue n?aaeiyy noaaea ii e?aaeeoai
aaiea, /oiau aai i?eaueue auea ?aaia 100? a) Ia neieueei aa ioaeii
iiauneoue, /oiau i?eaueue aaiea noaea ?aaiie 200?

12. Aaie o/eouaaao aaenaeue ia noiio 1000 ca aeaa ianyoea aei aai
iiaaoaiey. Eaeei aeieaeai auoue aeeneiio, /oiau noaaea iany/iiai
i?ioeaioa, iieo/aaiiai aaieii, auea ?aaia 2 %?

13. Eaeea eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaea e?aaeeoii-aaieianeay nenoaia ?innee a
1990-a aiaeu?

14. Ii/aio a oiaea ?aoi?iu e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu ?innee cia/eoaeueii au?in
o?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa?

15. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa ninoiyiea nia?aiaiiie e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu ?innee n
oi/ee c?aiey auiieiaiey ath naieo yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee.

Oaia 14. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae

14.1. Aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa

Oeaiiua aoiaae – ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeieoiaiou, oaeinoiaa?ythuea i?aai ia
aeieth a eiouanoaa eee ia iieo/aiea oeaiiinoae, a oii /enea aeaiaaeiuo
noii. Oeaiiua aoiaae, n oi/ee c?aiey iniaaiiinoae ianeoaeeaaaiuo eie
ioiioaiee, aeaeyony ia neaaeothuea aeaeu:

1) Naeaeaoaeuenoaa i aeiea a eiouanoaa (aeoeee, na?oeoeeaou aeoeee e
ae?.); aeieoiaiou, aeathuea i?aai ia iieo/aiea aeaiaa, eee aeaiaaeiua
aoiaae (iaeeaaoeee, aaenaey, /aee) e oiaa?iua aoiaae, cae?aieythuea
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe eee caeiaa ia oiaa?u (eiiinaiaiou, neeaaeneea
naeaeaoaeuenoaa e ae?.).

2) Eiaiiua (ioi?ieaiu oieueei ia ii?aaeaeaiiia eeoei);
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea (nianoaaiiee aoiaae oio, eoi ath iaeaaeaao);
i?aea?iua (iiaoo ia?aioi?ieyoueny ia ae?oaia eeoei n iiiiuueth
ia?aaeaoi/iie iaaeiene -eiaeinnaiaioa).

3) Ainoaea?noaaiiua e /anoiua (iaainoaea?noaaiiua) aoiaae.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae iau/ii auioneathony aeey iie?uoey
aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.

4) Oiiaeiaua (i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oaaee/aiey eaieoaea yieoaioa – aeoeee,
iaeeaaoeee) e eiiia?/aneea (ianeoaeeaathuea eiie?aoiua naeaeee ii
e?aaeeoai e ieaoaaeai – aaenaey, /aee, caeiaiaua naeaeaoaeuenoaa).

5) ?uii/iua (iauaeou naiaiaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee), ia?uii/iua (ia
ia?ai?iaeathony), n ia?aie/aiiui ia?auaieai.

6) Aunieieeeaeaeiua (eaaei ia?aoeiua a aeaiueae), ieceieeeaeaeiua (iaiai
ia aeaiueae aiciiaeai, ii cao?oaeiai), iaeeeaeaeiua (iaia?aoeiua a
aeaiueae).

Iniiaiua oi?iu oeaiiuo aoiaa:

– Aeoeee. I ieo ?a/ue oea a oaia 7.

– Iaeeaaoeee – aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa, aeathuea i?aai ia iieo/aiea
aeaiaaeiie noiiu ii enoa/aiee n?iea, ia eioi?ue iie auiouaiu. Ii
aeieain?i/iui iaeeaaoeeyi, eae i?aaeei, ?aaoey?ii auiea/eaaaony aeioiae
a aeaea i?ioeaioa io eo noieiinoe. Iaeeaaoeee iiaoo auioneaoueny
i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea
i?aaei?eyoeyie e ae?oaeie th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie. A iaoae no?aia a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aiaeaaeatho ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee: e?aoein?i/iua
(auioneathony ia 3 e 6 ianyoeaa), aeieain?i/iua, aaethoiua,
naa?aaaoaeueiiai caeia, iaeanoiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo caeiia, aeeeeuiua
iaeeaaoeee e ae?. Inouanoaeai auione ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee,
i?iaeaaaaiuo ia ie?iaii ?uiea, aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo caeiia.

– Aaenaey. E?iia aaenaeae i?aaei?eyoee, i eioi?uo oaea aiai?eeinue, e
iei ioiinyony aaieianeea e eacia/aeneea aaenaey. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iaycaoaeuenoaa auieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio a ii?aaeaeaiiue
n?ie e auioneathony i?e iaaeinoaoea o aaieia eee ainoaea?noaa “aeeauo”
aeaiaa. Aaenaey iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa ieaoaaea, ii
enoa/aiee oeacaiiiai n?iea iiaaoathony. Eacia/aeneea aaenaey iiaoo
iaiaieaaoueny ia iaeiaiaua inaiaiaeaeaiey (oi anoue i?eieiathony a
ea/anoaa oieaou iaeiaia).

– *aee (ni. oaio 3).

– Na?oeoeeaou – ?acee/iua aeaeu naeaeaoaeuenoa. Na?oeoeeao aeoeee –
naeaeaoaeuenoai i nianoaaiiinoe ia ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aeoeee
niioaaonoaothuaai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa. Aeaiiceoiue na?oeoeeao –
naeaeaoaeuenoai i aeaiiceoiii aeeaaea th?eaee/aneiai eeoea a aaiea
(?aciiaeaeiinoue n?i/iiai aeeaaea). Naa?aaaoaeueiue na?oeoeeao –
naeaeaoaeuenoai i naa?aaaoaeueiii aeeaaea oece/aneiai eeoea a aaiea.
Cieioie na?oeoeeao – ainoaea?noaaiiay oeaiiay aoiaaa, eioi?ay ii
enoa/aiee onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea iiaaoaeanue aeaiaaeiie noiiie,
niioaaonoaothuae noieiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa cieioa. AEeeeuiue
na?oeoeeao – ioieoeeiaeueiay oeaiiay aoiaaa, eioi?ay iiaaoaeanue
aeaiaaeiie noiiie, niioaaonoaothuae noieiinoe 1 i2 aeeeuey.

– Iioeeiiu – iaycaoaeuenoaa eoieoue eee i?iaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia
eiee/anoai oeaiiuo aoiaa (eee oiaa?ia) ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia e a
ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie.

– Oueth/a?niua eiio?aeou – niaeaoaiey i aoaeoueo naeaeeao ii
eoiea-i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia eee aaethou a ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa e ii
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia.

– Aa??aiou – oeaiiua aoiaae, aeathuea aeiiieieoaeueiua eueaiou
aeaaeaeueoeai aeoeee eee naeaeaoaeuenoaa i i?eaia oiaa?a ia o?aiaiea.

Ano?a/athony e ae?oaea ?aciiaeaeiinoe oeaiiuo aoiaa. Iai?eia?, a ?innee
i?eiaiyeny aaeeinoaaiiue a naiai ?iaea aeae oeaiiuo aoiaa, eioi?ue ia
oiio?aaeyeny ie a iaeiie ae?oaie no?aia, – i?eaaoecaoeeiiiua /aee
(“aao/a?u”). Iie i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iaycaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa
iaiaiyoue ia ieo eiouanoai ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a niioaaonoaee
n ?uii/iuie oneiaeyie (ii ?uii/iiio eo?no iaiaia).

14.2. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa e aai ?ieue a yeiiiieea

?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa – yoi niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee a i?ioeanna auionea,
?aciauaiey e eoiee-i?iaeaaee oeaiiuo aoiaa. Auaeaeytho: ia?ae/iue ?uiie
oeaiiuo aoiaa – auione e ia?ae/iia eo ?aciauaiea; aoi?e/iue ?uiie –
iineaaeothuay ia?ai?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa. Noauaeou ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa:
yieoaiou, eiaanoi?u, eiaanoeoeeiiiua einoeooou. Yieoaiou – oa, eoi
auioneaao oeaiiua aoiaae. Eiaanoi?u – oa, eoi ca naie n/ao e io naiaai
eiaie i?eia?aoaao oeaiiua aoiaae. Eiaanoeoeeiiiua einoeooou –
th?eaee/aneea eeoea, eneeth/eoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth eioi?uo
yaeythony iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

Aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia:

– a?iea?neay (ia niaa?oatho naie iieoiee-i?iaeaaee, a oieueei
niinianoaotho caeeth/aieth naeaeie);

– aeeea?neay (iieoiea aeey aeaeueiaeoae i?iaeaaee);

– aaaeaiea e o?aiaiea ?aano?a oeaiiuo aoiaa;

– aeaiiceoa?iay (o?aiaiea e o/ao i?aa ia oeaiiua aoiaae);

– ?an/aoii-eee?eiaiaay;

– i?aaiecaoeey oi?aiaee oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

Oi?iu eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia: a?iea?neea oe?iu, aeeea?neea,
eiinaeoeiaiaua (eiinoeueoe?otho), eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee e oiiaeu,
aeaiiceoa?ee e ae?.

?aciiaeaeiinoueth eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia yaeythony oiiaeiaua ae?aee
– ianoa, aaea ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeyony oi?ae ii oeaiiui aoiaaai. Oiiaeiaua
ae?aee yaeythony iaeiiia?/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie, eo oeaeueth yaeyaony ia
iieo/aiea i?eauee, a i?aaiecaoeey oi?aiaee oeaiiuie aoiaaaie. Iie eiatho
oi?io aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa. *eaiu ae?ae oiea/eaatho aciinu. E aeioiaeai
ae?ae ioiinyony oaeaea io/eneaiey io niaa?oaiiuo naeaeie. Ana aeioiaeu
ae?ae eaeoo ia iie?uoea eo ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n i?aaiecaoeeae
oi?aiaee. Ae?aeaaay oi?aiaey oeaiiuie aoiaaaie yaeyaony eeoue /anoueth
?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa. Ia ae?aeao i?iaeathony e iieoiathony oeaiiua aoiaae
ainoaea?noaa e ioiineoaeueii iacia/eoaeueiiai /enea ei?ii?aoeee,
iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo e noaaeeueii ?aaioathueo. Oae, a NOA ec iauaai /enea
ei?ii?aoeee, ?aaiiai 3,5 ieeeeiiia, ia ae?aeao eioe?othony aeoeee eeoue
1700 ei?ii?aoeee (iaiaa 0,2 %). Aiaae?aeaaie iai?io oeaiiuo aoiaa
cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeeo eo iai?io ia ae?aeao. Iaeiaei aeeiaieea eo?nia
aeoeee e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa ia ae?aea yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ninoiyiea yeiiiieee. Anee a oeaeii eaeao
eo iiauoaiea, oi yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia yeiiiie/aneii iiaeuaia, a
iiieaeaiea aiai?eo i niaaea.

Iai?eia?, anee aeoeey iiieiaeii a 1000 aeaao aiaeiaie aeeaeaeaiae,
?aaiue 400, a aiaeiaay noaaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa = 20 %, oi ?uii/iay
noieiinoue aeoeee aoaeao ?aaia: ?N = Ae : i = 400 : 0,2 = 2000. Eo?n aea
aeoeee aoaeao ?aaai 2000:1000 = 2 eee 200 %.

A ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea eiathony naiua ?aciiia?aciua aa?eaiou ii?aaeaeaiey
aeioiaeiinoe oeaiiuo aoiaa e eo ?uii/iuo eo?nia. Aeey eo ?an/aoa
i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua iaoiaeeee, iiae/an aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiua. Ii nooue
eo ninoieo eiaiii a n?aaiaiee aeioiaeiinoe oeaiiie aoiaae n o?iaiai
nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa.

Aeaaiaea?y ?uieo oeaiiuo aoiaa a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea
inouanoaeyaony ia?aeea eaieoaea iaaeaeo io?aneyie e i?aaei?eyoeyie.
Eaieoae ooiaeeo ec iecei?aioaaaeueiuo io?aneae, i?iecaiaenoa, noa?
aeayoaeueiinoe e aeeaaaony ooaea, aaea aai aeioiaeiinoue iaeaieaa
auniea. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa oaeaea niinianoaoao iiaeeecaoeee,
aeeoioeyoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a yeiiiieea.
Iin?aaenoaii ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a inouanoaeyaony
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu e nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeiainia. Iia?aoeee ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa eniieuecothony ainoaea?noaii
a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

?ieue ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a nia?aiaiiie eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea
iaoneiaeaia:

– i?aiaeaaeaieai aeoeeiia?iie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe;

– cia/eoaeueiie ?ieueth ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea;

– ?acaeoeai e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu.

Nouanoaiaaiea ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa neoaeeo iniiaie oeeoeaiiai eaieoaea.
Oeeoeaiue eaieoae – yoi eaieoae, au?aaeaiiue oeaiiuie aoiaaaie,
aeathueie aeioiae. Anee ?acia?u oeeoeaiiai eaieoaea cia/eoaeueiu, oi
aeioiae n iaai iicaieyao aai nianoaaiieeo ecaaaeoueny io anyeie
niceaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A yoii neo/aa nianoaaiieee oeeoeaiiai
eaieoaea, eae e nianoaaiieee nnoaeiiai eaieoaea, ia?acotho neie ?aiouea.
N ?uieii oeaiiuo aoiaa naycaii e nouanoaiaaiea neiy eeoe, iieo/athueo
aeioiae io niaeoeyoeaiuo naeaeie n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, oaeaea ia
nicaeathueo ieeaeeo oeaiiinoae.

A nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa ionoonoaoao,
iineieueeo caeanue iao eaieoaea eae yeiiiie/aneiai ioiioaiey. Iaeiaei e
caeanue ainoaea?noai iiaeao auioneaoue oeaiiua aoiaae (aeaaiui ia?acii
iaeeaaoeee) n oeaeueth caeinoaiaaiey n?aaenoa ianaeaiey,
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee aeey oeiaine?iaaiey naieo
?anoiaeia.

14.3. ?acaeoea aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea e eciaiaiea ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe. Oeiainiaay ieeaa?oey

Ia?aua aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa iiyaeeenue aua a 18 aaea. Cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue ia?auo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa ieacaeanue aiineaaenoaee
iaaeecianiiniaiie. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea ia/aeny ianoiyuee aoi a
ia?aciaaiee aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aeoe/anee ana
e?oiiua e n?aaeiea iaainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?aiao yaeythony aeoeeiia?iuie. Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae noae
i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie eaieoaea.

Ia?aciaaiea e ?acaeoea aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa iicaieyei a naeaoua n?iee
oeaio?aeeciaaoue ia?iiiua aeaiaaeiua noiiu, eniieuecoaiua a ea/anoaa
eaieoaea, a iiauo, i?ia?anneaiuo io?aneyo yeiiiieee. Aac aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoa iaaiciiaeii, iai?eia?, auei ?acaeoea aeaeaciuo aei?ia, eioi?ia
o?aaiaaei cia/eoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Aeaaiaea?y aeoeeiia?iie
oi?ia eaieoaea aue nicaeai iaoaieci auno?iai aai ia?aeeaa iaaeaeo
io?aneyie e i?aaei?eyoeyie, /oi iicaieeei onei?eoue no?oeoo?iua naeaeae
a yeiiiieea.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea i?iecioee ii?aaeaeaiiua
eciaiaiey e a ioiioaieyo nianoaaiiinoe. Ii oi?ia aeoeeiia?iay
nianoaaiiinoue – yoi nianoaaiiinoue anao aeoeeiia?ia, iauay
nianoaaiiinoue. *enei aeoeeiia?ia e?oiiuo eiiiaiee iiaeao en/eneyoueny
aeanyoeaie e nioiyie ouny/, aeaaea ieeeeiiaie. I?e/ai aeaaiaea?y
eoiea-i?iaeaaea aeoeee nianoaaiieee eaieoaea iinoiyiii iaiythony. E ia
?aaeueiii i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo aeoeeiia?iiai
iauanoaa yoi ieeae ia neacuaaaony. Aeey iaai ia eiaao cia/aiey – eoi
naaiaeiy eoiee aeoeee e noae iiaui niaeaaeaeueoeai eaieoaea. Ia iaai
aeeyao eeoue iauai ?aaeueiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, eioi?ue inouanoaeyaony
aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii, e oi, eae aaaeaony oi?aaeaiea oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth. Oi?aaeaiea aea (anee ia n/eoaoue i?eiyoey iaeaieaa
aaaeiuo ?aoaiee, ioiineiuo e eiiiaoaioeee iauaai nia?aiey aeoeeiia?ia,
i?aaeaiey iauanoaa eee niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia) inouanoaeyaony iaaiiuie
niaoeeaeenoaie – oi?aaeythueie (iaiaaeaea?aie). Aieueoeinoai iaeeeo
aeoeeiia?ia ia o/anoaoao aeaaea a i?eiyoee iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ?aoaiee
eiiiaiee. Aeey ieo nianoaaiiinoue naiaeeony oieueei e iieo/aieth
aeeaeaeaiaea.

Ana yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ioaeaeyaony io
?aaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii e ana aieueoa
ia?anoaao auoue iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aieaa oiai,
iinoiyiiay auieaoa aeeaeaeaiaeia nianoaaiieeai, ie/aai ia aeathuei aeey
?aaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, nie?auaao aiciiaeiinoe
?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao i?eauee e a yoii niunea ia?aie/eaaao
aai. *anoiay nianoaaiiinoue noaiiaeony iaioaeiie aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoathuae aai ?acaeoeth. Aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia
nianoaaiiinoe aieioioth iiaeaiaeeo e ia?aoiaeo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa a
nianoaaiiinoue naieo ?aaioieeia eee iauanoaa, aeaaiaea?y /aio
i?iecaiaenoai ecaaaeeinue au io aeiiieieoaeueiie e iaioaeiie aio
iaa?ocee a aeaea iioa?e /anoe i?eauee ia auieaoo aeeaeaeaiaeia. A
iauanoai ecaaaeeinue au io ie/aai ia nicaeathuaai neiy ?aiouea.

Ia?aoiae i?aaei?eyoee a eieeaeoeaioth nianoaaiiinoue oaea ia/aeny ai
anao ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a oi?ia aueoia i?aaei?eyoee eo
?aaioieeaie. A ?yaea no?ai yoi inouanoaeyaony aeaaea n iiiiuueth
ainoaea?noaa (i?ia?aiiu ESOP). A NOA, iai?eia?, ian/eouaaaony ieiei 10
ouny/ i?aaei?eyoee, aueoieaiiuo ?aaioieeaie. Nouanoaoao oeaeia iao/iia
iai?aaeaiea, eioi?ia aeieacuaaao, /oi aueoieaiiua eieeaeoeaaie
i?aaei?eyoey ?aaioatho aieaa yooaeoeaii, /ai inoaeueiua, iineieueeo ia
ieo auoa caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia a yeiiiiee ?ano?nia,
i?aoiiiaeaiee nianoaaiiinoe e iiauoaiee ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aianoa n oai neaaeoao iiiieoue e oi, /oi ?aaeueiui oicyeiii
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa yaeyaony oio, eoi aeaaeaao eiio?ieueiui iaeaoii
aeoeee. A eaieoaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa, ianiio?y ia nouanoaiaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee, iaoiaeyueony a eieeaeoeaiie e iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe,
ana aea ainiiaenoaothuae inoaaony /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue. Eiio?ieueiua
iaeaou iiaeaaeythuaai /enea aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa i?eiaaeeaaeao
ioiineoaeueii oceiio e?oao /anoiuo nianoaaiieeia. Iiiaeanoai iaeeeo
aeoeeiia?ia yaeyaony niaeaaeaeueoeaie eaieoaea eeoue oi?iaeueii.
Aieueoeinoai aea ianaeaiey aiiaua ia eiaao a nianoaaiiinoe ieeaeeo
aeoeee. Oi?iaeueii iauay nianoaaiiinoue, oaeei ia?acii, nio?aiyao naie
/anoiue oa?aeoa?.

Aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe iicaieyao iaeiie eiiiaiee
onoaiaaeeaaoue eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth ae?oaie iooai iieoiee
eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aa aeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa iineaaeiyy, aoaeo/e
oi?iaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiie, ia aeaea noaiiaeony caaeneiie. Eiiiaiey,
aeaaeathuay eiio?ieueiui iaeaoii ae?oaie eiiiaiee, iacuaaaony
“iaoa?eineei” iauanoaii. A eiiiaiey, eiio?ieueiui iaeaoii eioi?ie iia
aeaaeaao, “aei/a?iei”. Iaeii e oi aea iauanoai-“iaoue” iiaeao eiaoue
iiiaeanoai “aei/a?ieo” e “aio/aouo” eiiiaiee. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue,
eiio?ieueiue iaeao aeoeee ia?aaeei ninoaaeyao 5-10 % aeoeee. Iiyoiio
iauanoai “iaoue” iiaeao eiio?iee?iaaoue eaieoae, eioi?ue a aeanyoee ?ac
i?aainoiaeeo aa nianoaaiiue. E?iia oiai, e naii iauanoai “iaoue” iiaeao
eiio?iee?iaaoueny ai?acaei iaiueoei eaieoaeii, /ai aanue aai eaieoae,
anee aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiio?ieueiue iaeao aeaiiiai iauanoaa.

?acaeoea aeoeeiia?iie oi?iu eaieoaea cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/eei neeyiea
?acee/iuo eaieoaeia, a oii /enea ooieoeeiie?othueo a ?aciuo io?aneyo
yeiiiieee. Ia neo/aeii ia?eiae ianniaiai nicaeaiey aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa
ii a?aiaie niaiae n ia?aciaaieai i?iiuoeaiiuo e aaieianeeo iiiiiieee e
eo n?aueaaieai a oeiainiaue eaieoae. Ia iniiaa aea ?acaeoey oeiainiaiai
eaieoaea i?iecioei ia?aciaaiea oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee. A iaa aoiaeyo
iaeaieaa e?oiiua oeiainiaua a?oiie?iaee, ainiiaenoaothuea a yeiiiieea e
eiio?iee?othuea cia/eoaeueioth /anoue eaieoaea no?aiu.

A NOA, iai?eia?, ian/eouaaaony 22 oeiainiaua eiia?ee, ia?acothuea
oeiainiaoth ieeaa?oeth e eiio?iee?othuea aieaa 90 % eaieoaea no?aiu. A
no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ian/eouaaaony ii 5-10 oeiainiauo a?oii,
ioiineiuo e oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee. A nia?aiaiiie ?innee ia?aciaaeinue
ieiei 30 oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii, eiio?iee?othueo yeiiiieeo no?aiu,
eioi?uo iiaeii ioianoe e oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee. Iaeiaei /enei yoeo a?oii
nie?auaaony iooai eo neeyiey.

Oeiainiaay ieeaa?oey ainiiaenoaoao ai anao noa?ao aeecie
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa – ia oieueei a yeiiiieea, ii e a iieeoeea,
n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, eaeaieiaee, eoeueoo?a. Nia?aiaiioth
eaieoaeenoe/aneoth yeiiiieeo iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae naiaiaeioth
?uii/ioth, ia ?aaoee?oaioth. Iia ?aaoee?oaony oeiainiaie ieeaa?oeae e
ainoaea?noaii, neoaeauei eioa?anai oie aea oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee.

14.4. Iniaaiiinoe ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a ?innee

A nioeeaeenoe/aneie ieaiiaie yeiiiieea iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe a
nouanoaiaaiee ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, iineieueeo caeanue ionoonoaoao
/anoiieaieoaeenoe/aneay nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e
?uiie eaieoaea, a e?aaeeo ia yaeyaony iauaeoii ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee.
Iiyoiio a i?ioeanna iino?iaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa a iaoae
no?aia ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa aue oi?acaeiai. Yoi i?iecioei a ia/aea 1930-o
aa.

Ec anao aeaeia oeaiiuo aoiaa a oi a?aiy inoaeenue oieueei iaeeaaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeia, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiyeenue n?aaee ianaeaiey. A
oaeie oi?ia ainoaea?noai a?aei aeaiueae a aeiea o a?aaeaeai ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. Oeacaiiua iaeeaaoeee ia auee iauaeoii ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee. I?ioeaio ii iei aue no?iai oeene?iaai e ia iiaeaa?aeai
eieaaaieyi ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u.

Oaeia iieiaeaiea i?iaeieaeaeinue aei eiioea 1980-o aa., iiea ia
ia/aeenue ?uii/iua ?aoi?iu. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, eae oae aiai?eeinue,
?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaiouaieaiuo yeaiaioia,
auiieiythueo aaaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee. Iiyoiio nicaeaiea ?uiea
oeaiiuo aoiaa noaei iaeiei ec aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiee ?uii/iuo
i?aia?aciaaiee.

I?aaeiinueeaie aai aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey yaeeenue:

– I?eaaoecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ay oea aeaaiui
ia?acii a oi?ia eo aeoeeiie?iaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa auei auiouaii ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai aeoeee, noaaoeo iauaeoii ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. E?iia oiai,
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy nouanoaiaae ?uiie i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia
(“aao/a?ia”), eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo
eino?oiaioia i?eaaoecaoeee.

– ?aoi?ia e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu, aeeth/ay ia?aciaaiea e ?acaeoea
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaeaea anaai
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e ?uii/iuo oi?i e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee (i?aaeaea anaai
– eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa).

– Ia?aoiae e oeiaine?iaaieth aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa a
iniiaiii ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia, ?aciauaaiuo ia ?uii/iuo
oneiaeyo. Ionthaea – auno?ue ?ino ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa,
i?aaeaea anaai – AEI.

– Noaiiaeaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a eeoea anaaiciiaeiuo
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia (eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee e oiiaeu,
a?iea?neea, eiinaeoeiaiaua e i?i/ea oe?iu, oiiaeiaua ae?aee). *enei
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia, iaeaaeathueo eeoeaiceae,
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aauoaao 3000. Aieaa o?aoe eo nin?aaeioi/aiu a 4
?aaeiiao: Iineaa, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, Naa?aeeianea e Iiaineae?nea. *enei
oiiaeiauo ae?ae – ieiei 60. (A 1993 a. eo auei 119, ii caoai iioae
i?ioeann eo nie?auaiey).

Aeey ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa?aeoa?iu
neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe:

1) Ia?acaeoinoue eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Ii /eneo oiiaeiauo ae?ae ?inney i?aainoiaeeo ethaoth no?aio ie?a. Aeey
n?aaiaiey: a NOA ian/eouaaaony 7 oiiaeiauo ae?ae. a Aa?iaiee – 8,
Aaeeeia?eoaiee – 6, O?aioeee – 7, ssiiiee – 8, Eoaeee – 10, Eiaeee – 19.
Iaeiaei ii eiee/anoao niaa?oaaiuo naeaeie e eo noieiinoe ?inneeneea
oiiaeiaua ae?aee iaiiiai onooiatho ia oieueei ae?aeai ?acaeouo, ii e
aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai.

Aieueoeinoai eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia ?innee eiatho n?aaieoaeueii
iacia/eoaeueiuo onoaaiie eaieoae e ii ie?iaui e?eoa?eyi
iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiu.

2) Ieceay eeeaeaeiinoue aieueoeinoaa auiouaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aaeaea
anaai aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee i?aaei?eyoee. Ia ae?aeao eioe?othony aeoeee
iacia/eoaeueiiai /enea i?aaei?eyoee, i?e/ai iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
ec ieo eioe?oaony oieueei ia 1-2 ae?aeao. Aieaa eee iaiaa aunieie
eeeaeaeiinoueth iaeaaeatho oieueei AEI e aeoeee ianeieueeeo eiiiaiee (
?AI “AYN”, Aaci?ii e o.i.).

3) I?aiaeaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aaeaea anaai AEI.

4) Ieceay aeioiaeiinoue aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa aeoeee i?e aunieie
aeioiaeiinoe AEI. A oi a?aiy eae ii aieueoeinoao aeoeee aeeaeaeaiae
iecie eee aiiaua ionoonoaoao, aeioiaeiinoue AEI a 1996-97 aa. ninoaaeyea
40-80 % a ?an/aoa ia aiae. (?aioaaaeueiinoue a ?aaeueiii naeoi?a
yeiiiieee a 1997 a. auea ia o?iaia 6-7 %). A yiaa?a 1998 a.
aeioiaeiinoue AEI iiaeieiaeanue aei 45 %. (I?aaaea, a oaa?aea 1998 a.
iia nieceeanue aei 25 %). Aeey n?aaiaiey ioiaoei, /oi aeioiaeiinoue
(aiaeiaay) ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee a NOA ninoaaeea a 1996-97 aa.
ieiei 5 %, a Aa?iaiee – 3,2-3,5%, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee – 5,5-6,6 %.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa nicaeaao iaaaoeaiua yaeaiey a
yeiiiieea. I?ienoiaeeo iooie n?aaenoa ec ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee a
oeiainiai-niaeoeyoeaiue. Eiiia?/aneea aaiee a iniiaiii aeeaaeuaatho
n?aaenoaa a iia?aoeee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeaiiuie aoiaaaie e aaethoie,
iieo/ay ia?iiiua i?eauee. Enoi/ieeii yoie i?eauee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
yaeyaony ?ino ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa – aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai.

Oae, aioo?aiiee aeiea ?inneeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii AEI aic?in a 1997 a.
ii n?aaiaieth n 1994 a. n 11 o?e. aei 500 o?e. ?oa. Ca oio aea ia?eiae
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa nie?aoeeenue n 501 aei 409 o?e.
?oa. (a oaeoueo oeaiao, aac o/aoa iaanoeaiaiey aeaiaa), a aeaiaaeiay
ianna a ia?auaiee oaaee/eeanue n 97,8 aei i?eia?ii 500 o?e. ?oaeae (oi
anoue caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii AEI n?aaiyeanue n ?acia?aie
aeaiaaeiie iannu). A 1997 a. n?aaeiaiany/iua iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey
ninoaaeee 18 o?e. ?oa., a n?aaeiaiany/iua ?anoiaeu ia ianeoaeeaaiea AEI
(auieaoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa) – 34 o?e. ?oa., oi anoue ii/oe a 2
?aca aieueoa [31, n.4, 8].

Ainoaea?noai iie?uaaao caaeieaeaiiinoue ii AEI ca n/ao ana iiauo e iiauo
caeiia, a oii /enea aiaoieo. I?e yoii oneeeaaaony oeiainiaay
caaeneiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa io eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea. A aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaiiieiaao i?aeoeeo ia/aeueii ecaanoiuo AI “III”,
“Oiia?-Eiaano” e o.i. “ie?aieae”, eioi?ay, eae ecaanoii, caeii/eeanue
iieiui oeiainiaui e?aoii iineaaeieo. Ainoaea?noai, anoanoaaiii, eiaao
aieueoa aiciiaeiinoae aeey ion?i/ee naiaai aaie?ionoaa, ii ?aii eee
iicaeii iii ianooieo, anee ia i?iecieaeao ea?aeeiaeueiiai eciaiaiey
oeiainiaie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eo?nu aeoeee ?inneeneeo eiiiaiee iaei naycaiu n
?acoeueoaoaie eo oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a
ii?aaeaeythony i?iaeieaeathuaeny ai?ueaie iaaeaeo oeiainiauie a?oiiaie
ca ia?aaeae nianoaaiiinoe. I?ienoiaeeo neoiea eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii ii
aeaoaaea aeoeee aaaeiaeoeo ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee, aneaaenoaea /aai iie
ia?aoiaeyo iiae aai eiio?ieue. Yoi eanaaony, iai?eia?, i?aaei?eyoee
iaoaeeo?aee, eaniiai eiiieaena, iaoeiino?iaiey.

A oeaeii ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa a ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia auiieiyao
naieo yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee, i?aaeaea anaai ia inouanoaeyaony
eiaanoe?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u. Iai?ioea, aeaaiaea?y aio
i?ienoiaeeo iooie n?aaenoa ec yoie aaaeiaeoae noa?u aeecie iauanoaa. Ia
inouanoaeyaony ia?aeeaa eaieoaea io ieceiyooaeoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoee e
i?iecaiaenoa e aunieiyooaeoeaiui.

Ia?aciaaiea ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa nicaeaei a iauanoaa oeiainiaua
a?oiie?iaee, ecaeaeathuea eieinnaeueiua aeioiaeu io iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie e ii nouanoao yenieoaoe?othuea ioa/anoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e
i?enaaeaathuea ana aieaa cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aeioiaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeaiueaaie e oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ?

2. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeoeeyie e iaeeaaoeeyie?

3. N eaeeie oeaeyie i?iecaiaeeony auione e iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa?

4. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa – yoi:

1. Ianoi, aaea i?ienoiaeeo eoiey- i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

2. Oiiaeiaay ae?aea.

3. Niaieoiiinoue naeaeie ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

4. Niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee a i?ioeanna yiennee e eoiee-i?iaeaaee oeaiiuo
aoiaa.

5. Niaieoiiinoue oiiaeiauo ae?ae e oiiaeiauo ioaeaeia oiaa?ii-nu?ueaauo
ae?ae.

5. Eiaanoeoeeiiiua einoeooou – yoi:

1. Yeiiiie/aneea noauaeou, aeaeathuea eiaanoeoeee.

2. Oa noauaeou, eioi?ua io naiaai eiaie e ca naie n/ao i?eia?aoatho
oeaiiua aoiaae.

3. Eiiiaiee, eioi?ua iieoiatho eee i?iaeatho oeaiiua aoiaae.

4. Eiiiaiee, eioi?ua auiieiytho ?acee/iua iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

5. TH?eaee/aneea eeoea, eneeth/eoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth eioi?uo
yaeythony iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

6. Anaaaea ee iieoiaoaeai oeaiiuo aoiaa yaeyaony eiaanoi?, a i?iaeaaoeii
– yieoaio? Ioaao iiynieoa.

7. Oeiainiaue eaieoae – yoi:

1. Eaieoae, ia?aciaaiiue iooai neeyiey i?iiuoeaiiiai e aaieianeiai
eaieoaea.

2. Eaieoae, aunooiathuee a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia.

3. Eaieoae, ia?aciaaiiue a ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey iiiiiieenoe/aneiai
i?iiuoeaiiiai e iiiiiieenoe/aneiai aaieianeiai eaieoaea.

4. Eaieoae, ooieoeeiie?othuee a oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie noa?a.

5. Eaieoae oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

8. *oi iiieiaaony iiae oeiainiaie ieeaa?oeae ? Ca n/ao /aai iia
ainiiaenoaoao a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea?

9. Aiaeiaie aeeaeaeaiae ia aeoeee iiieiaeii 1000 ninoaaeyao 140.
Aiaeiaay noaaea aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa ?aaia 10 %. I?e eaeii eo?na aeoeee
eo iieoiea auaiaeia e i?e eaeii – ia auaiaeia ? (N/eoaaony, /oi iieoiea
aeoeee inouanoaeyaony a ia/aea aiaea).

10. Iinoaauee iieo/ee ca ioa?oaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth aaenaeue ia noiio 20
iei. ?oa. ni n?ieii iiaaoaiey 4 ianyoea. Noaaea aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa –
2% a ianyoe. Ca eaeoth oeaio ii niiaeao i?iaeaoue aaenaeue a aeaiiue
iiiaio ?

11. Aaenaeue ia noiio 5000 i?iaeaaony ca aeaa ianyoea aei iiaaoaiey.
Noaaea i?ioeaioa – 5 % a ianyoe. I?e eaeii aeeneiioa iieoiea aaenaey
auaiaeia ? (Neiaeiua i?ioeaiou).

12. Eo?n AEI ca aeaa ianyoea aei iiaaoaiey ?aaai 0.9. Auaiaeia ee eo
iieoiea, anee noaaea i?ioeaioa ?aaia 5 % a ianyoe ?

13. Aeoeey iiieiaeii 1000, aeathuay aiaeiaie aeeaeaeaiae a 150,
i?iaeaaony ii eo?no 0.75. I?e eaeie aiaeiaie noaaea i?ioeaioa iieoiea
aeoeee auaiaeia ?

14. Aaenaeue ia noiio 8000 ca aeaa ianyoea aei iiaaoaiey i?iaeaaony n
aeeneiioii, ?aaiui 1000. I?e eaeie iany/iie noaaea i?ioeaioa iieoiea
aaenaey auaiaeia? (Neiaeiua i?ioeaiou).

15. Eo?n AEI ca 2 ianyoea aei eo iiaaoaiey ?aaai 0,8. I?e eaeie noaaea
aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa iieoiea AEI auaiaeia ?

16. Eo?n aeoeee eiiiaiee A ?aaai 0,8. Ecaanoii, /oi /a?ac 5 ianyoeaa ii
aa?iyoiaa anaai noaiao 0,9. I?e eaeie iany/iie noaaea aaieianeiai
i?ioeaioa auaiaeii eoieoue aeoeee a aeaiiue iiiaio, /oiau ii enoa/aiee 5
ianyoeaa i?iaeaoue?

17. *oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy?
Auiieiyao ee ii naie yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee?

18. Eaeei ia?acii e eoaea i?ienoiaeeo iooie aeaiaa ec ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a
yeiiiieee a nia?aiaiiie ?innee?

Oaia 15. Oeiainu

15.1. Oeiainu, eo no?oeoo?a e ooieoeee. Oeiainiaue ?uiie

Oeiainu – yoi ioiioaiey a i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa. A iauaeaiiie
i?aeoeea iiae oeiainaie iiieiatho naie aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu.

Auaeaeytho oeiainu:

– i?aaei?eyoee, caieiathueony eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth;

– i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiee, caieiathueony iaeiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth;

– iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee (i?ionithcia, aeaeaeaiee, ia?oee);

– ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu.

Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ianaeaiey iau/ii ia ioiinyo e oeiainai, oioy iie
neoaeao iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainia e iaeiei ec
?acoeueoaoia eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey.

Oi?iu iinooieaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia naiua ?aciiia?aciua: n?aaenoaa io
i?iaeaaee i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa; iaaaua e /eaineea aciinu; i?iaeaaea
aeoeee e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa; iiaea?oaiaaiey; e?aaeeo; iaeiae e
ieaoaaee ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu; n?aaenoaa athaeaeaoa e
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia; aeaiaaeiay yienney e ae?. Noieue aea
?aciiia?aciu e iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaeiaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. I?e yoii
oi, /oi aeey iaeieo noauaeoia yeiiiieee yaeyaony ?anoiaeii oeiainia, –
aeey ae?oaeo aunooiaao eae eo iinooieaiey.

Ooieoeee oeiainia:

1) Ianeoaeeaaiea i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aania?aaieiia iinooieaiea
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai iai?a?uaiinoe
i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa.

2) ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay. Iin?aaenoaii oeiainiauo iioieia i?ienoiaeeo
?ani?aaeaeaiea e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

3) Eiio?ieueiay. Oeiainiaua iieacaoaee a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie oi?ia
au?aaeatho niioiioaiea cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiio?iee?oy oeiainu, iiaeii eiio?iee?iaaoue anth
oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a oeaeii.

4) Noeioee?othuay. Oeiainiaue iaoaieci noeioee?oao yeiiiie/aneeo
noauaeoia e oai eee eiui aeaenoaeyi. Aaaeii, /oiau ii iai?aaeye eo ia
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie – yoi ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa e nnoaeiiai eaieoaea.
Iin?aaenoaii aai inouanoaeyaony ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu e
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a – aeaeaeaiea oeiainiauo iioieia a eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieea. A nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea oeiainiaue ?uiie ionoonoaoao,
iineieueeo a iae iao ?uiea eaieoaea.

15.2. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu aeeth/atho a naay oeaio?aeeciaaiiua oeiainu e
oeiainu ainoaea?noaaiiuo (ioieoeeiaeueiuo) i?aaei?eyoee.
Oeaio?aeeciaaiiua oeiainu oi?ie?othony e ?ani?aaeaeythony i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Iie neeaaeuaathony ec
iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia, oeiainia ?aaeiiia e oa??eoi?ee. A iaoae
no?aia yoi – oaaea?aeueiua oeiainu, oeiainu noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e
ianoiua oeiainu (ai?iaeia, ?aeiiia).

Aeaaiui yeaiaioii oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oeiainia yaeyaony athaeaeao.
Athaeaeao aeeth/aao a naay athaeaeaou ?aciuo o?iaiae (ainoaea?noaa a
oeaeii, ?aaeiiia, oa??eoi?ee), eioi?ua eiatho ii?aaeaeaiioth
iacaaeneiinoue ae?oa io ae?oaa. Niaieoiiinoue athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae
iacuaaaony eiinieeaee?iaaiiui athaeaeaoii. E?iia oiai, e
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui oeiainai ioiinyony aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu (eiathuea
oeaeaaia iacia/aiea) e ainoaea?noaaiiue (ioieoeeiaeueiue) e?aaeeo
(caeiu).

Oeaio?aeeciaaiiua ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?yaea
iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae (oeiaine?iaaiea iai?iiu, i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo
i?aaiia, athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey, ?acee/iuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?ia?aii).

Iie oi?ie?othony ca n/ao aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa e ae?oaeo iinooieaiee.

E aeioiaeai ainoaea?noaa ioiinyony: iaeiae, ieaoaaee a athaeaeao e ai
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, n?aaenoaa io i?eaaoecaoeee eiouanoaa, aeioiaeu
io ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia, io aceiaiey oo?aoiuo naieoeee,
eiioeneaoeee eiouanoaa. Aeioiaeaie ainoaea?noaa ia yaeythony n?aaenoaa
io ?aciauaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia e aeaiaaeiay yienney, oioy iie
oaeaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey oeiaine?iaaiey aai ?anoiaeia.

?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaa aeaeyony ia aeaa iniiaiua /anoe: o?ainoa?ou
(aeaiaaeiua auieaou – iiniaey, iainee, aeioaoeee) e ?anoiaeu ia iieoieo
oiaa?ia e oneoa. Oiio?aaeaiea oa?ieia “o?ainoa?o” icia/aao, /oi yoe
aeaiaaeiua noiiu ainoaea?noai oieueei ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao iaaeaeo ?aciuie
/eaiaie iauanoaa, a ia i?eia?aoaao ia ieo eaeea-eeai oiaa?u eee oneoae
ia ?uiea.

Iin?aaenoaii nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia a ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony io 35
(NOA) aei 61 (Oaaoeey) i?ioeaioa aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.

I?aauoaiea ?anoiaeia ainoaea?noaa iaae aai aeioiaeaie iacuaaaony
aeaoeoeeoii ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia. Iineieueeo iaaeinoaoie aeaiaa ai
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeao eee o ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
oeiaine?oaony ec athaeaeaoa, oi aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia
aunooiaao a oi?ia aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa (iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai eee
?aaeiiaeueiiai, oa??eoi?eaeueiiai).

Aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa oeiaine?oaony aeaoiy iniiaiuie niiniaaie: 1) ca
n/ao oaaee/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai (ioieoeeiaeueiiai) aeieaa (aioo?aiiaai
eee aiaoiaai); 2) ca n/ao aeaiaaeiie yiennee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa eiaao ianoi ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao. Aai o?iaaiue
iau/ii ia i?aauoaao 5 % aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa, oioy i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo ii iiaeao auoue e auoa.

15.3. Iaeiaiaay nenoaia

Aeaaiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa yaeythony iaeiae, a /enei
eioi?uo iau/ii aeeth/athony e ieaoaaee ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu,
iineieueeo iie, eae e iaeiae, iinyo iaycaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Iaeiae auiieiytho aeaa iniiaiua ooieoeee:

1) Oeneaeueioth, oi anoue iaania/eaatho iinooieaiea n?aaenoa aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

2) ?aaoee?othuoth. N iiiiuueth iaeiaia ainoaea?noai ieacuaaao
aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu: niinianoaoao ?anoe?aieth iaeieo
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e cao?oaeiyao ae?oaea, aeeyao ia o?iaaiue oeai e
iauaiu i?iaeaae oiaa?ia e oneoa, ia yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
?ano?nia, ?aaoee?oao niioiioaiea a o?iaiyo eiia/iuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey.

C iaeiaaie naycaiu neaaeothuea iiiyoey:

– Iaeiaiaay aaca – iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Ath iiaoo auoue: aeioiaeu
(i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee, aeioiaeu a?aaeaeai, io iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie e o. i.); noieiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo oiaa?ia; ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe; eniieuecoaiua ?ano?nu; eiouanoai e aai ia?aaea/a e
ae?.

– Iaeiaiaay noaaea – o?iaaiue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaeoa.
Iia eiaao oi?io aeaiaaeiie aaee/eiu eee i?ioeaioa io noieiinoe iaeiaiaie
aacu.

– Iaeiaiaua eueaiou: – iaiaeaaaaiue ieieioi; – ecuyoea yeaiaioia
iaeiaiaie aacu; inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaa; – iiieaeaiea noaaee; –
iaeiaiaue e?aaeeo o ae?.

Iniiaiua aeaeu iaeiaia:

1) Iauea (i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa
iacaaeneii io eiie?aoiiai iai?aaeaiey yoeo ?anoiaeia) e niaoeeaeueiua
(ieaoaaee ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu eee a athaeaeao, eiathuea
niaoeeaeueiia oeaeaaia iacia/aiea).

2) I?yiua (aceiathony i?yii ec aeioiaeia th?eaee/aneeo eee oece/aneeo
eeoe) e einaaiiua (aeeth/athony a oeaio oiaa?ia a aeaea iaaeaaaee e
ecaea?aeeai e i?eauee; oaeoe/anee iiea/eaathony iieoiaoaeyie, ii ia
i?yii, a iin?aaenoaii iieoiee oiaa?ia).

3) N th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e n oece/aneeo eeoe.

4) Iauaainoaea?noaaiiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua e ianoiua. A ?innee:
oaaea?aeueiua; noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee; ianoiua. Ioianaiea iaeiaia e oiio
eee ae?oaiio o?iaith ii?aaeaeyaony ia oai, a athaeaeao eaeiai o?iaiy iie
iinooiatho; a oai, eaeie o?iaaiue ii?aaeaeyao ?acia?u iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Iauee o?iaaiue iaeiaia ii?aaeaeyaony a eiia/iii n/aoa ?acia?aie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, iio?aaiinoyie a oeiaine?iaaiee athaeaeaoiie
noa?u e ecia?yaony ioiioaieai noiiu iaeiaia e aaeiaiio iaoeeiiaeueiiio
i?iaeoeoo. Aai aaee/eia ia ia/aei 1990-o a. a. a ?acaeouo no?aiao
eieaaaeanue a i?aaeaeao: NOA, ssiiiey, Oaaeoea?ey – 30-35 %; Eoaeey,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aa?iaiey, Eaiaaea, Oeieyiaeey – 36-40 %; Aano?ey,
O?aioeey, Aaeueaey – 41-45 %; Ii?aaaey, Aieeaiaeey – 46-50%; Aeaiey,
Oaaoeey – 51-56 %. A n?aaeiai ii ?acaeoui eaieoaeenoe/aneei no?aiai –
38,4 %; ii no?aiai AYN – 40,8 %.

Aeey iaeiaiauo nenoai ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai oa?aeoa?ii, /oi
iaeiae ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee a noiia a 2-3 ?aca ieaea noiiu
iiaeioiaeiuo iaeiaia n ianaeaiey, a noiia iineaaeieo, eae i?aaeei, ia
i?aainoiaeeo noiiu einaaiiuo iaeiaia. Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea a noiia oaeaea i?aauoatho noiio iaeiaia ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee (a 1-4 ?aca). Iie auiea/eaathony eae i?aaei?eyoeyie, oae e
naieie ?aaioieeaie. A oeaeii iauai iaeiaia n oece/aneeo eeoe auoa, /ai n
th?eaee/aneeo.

Niaeanii oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey (A. Eaooa?), iauai iaeiaiauo
iinooieaiee caaeneo io iauaai o?iaiy iaeiaiaie noaaee (ioiioaiey iaeiaia
e aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe). I?e aa iiauoaiee, ia/eiay n ioey e aei 100 %,
iauai iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee aia/aea ?anoao, aeinoeaaao iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiie aaee/eiu, a caoai i?e aeaeueiaeoai oaaee/aiee iaeiaiaie
noaaee ii iaaeaao aei ioey. Eia/a aiai?y, i?e noii?ioeaioiii (eee
aeeceii e iaio) ecuyoee aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe o i?aaei?eyoee
iieiinoueth en/acatho anyeea iioeau oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iioeiaeueiie noaaeie iaeiaia a niioaaonoaee n yoie eiioeaioeeae yaeyaony
oa, i?e eioi?ie aeinoeaaaony iaeneioi iaeiaiauo nai?ia. Iia ninoaaeyao
30-40 % aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. I?e oaaee/aiee o?iaiy iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
auoa yoie noaaee i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe e
nie?auaiea noiiu iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee. Aeaiiay eiioeaioeey a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy acyoa ia aii?oaeaiea ai iiiaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao.

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia – oeiaine?iaaiea
iai?iiiuo i?ia?aii, nioeeaeueiuo (nioeeaeueiua auieaou, ia?aciaaiea,
cae?aaiio?aiaiea), iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo,
aeioaoeee naeueneiio oicyenoao e ae?oaei io?aneyi, niaea?aeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

15.4. ?aoi?ia oeiainiaie nenoaiu ?innee a 1990-o a. a.

Oeiainiaay nenoai NNN? ia?aae ia/aeii ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu iaeaaeaea
neaaeothueie /a?oaie:

– I?aiaeaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia, iineieueeo iniiaiay ianna
i?aaei?eyoee auee ainoaea?noaaiiuie.

– Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea oeiainia. Naiaeiue oeiainiaue ieai aue
ninoaaiie /anoueth aaeeiiai ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai ieaia e aeeth/ae a
naay oeiainiaua ieaiu i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiee,
ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa, athaeaeaou ?anioaeee, iaeanoae e ianoiuo
Niaaoia, iauaainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao. Ana aai /anoe auee
acaeiioaycaiu n iieacaoaeyie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
aeaeaeaieai ?ano?nia e i?iaeoeoia. Iniiaiua iieacaoaee oeiainiauo ieaiia
i?aaei?eyoee ooaa?aeaeaeenue auoanoiyueie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey. Caaea/ae oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey auei iaania/aiea
ananoi?iiiae naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo iioieia a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey aania?aaieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa e aeinoeaeaiey eiia/iuo oeaeae ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia.

– Ia?yaeo n oeiainiaui ieaie?iaaieai, oeiainiaua ioiioaiey
?aaoee?iaaeenue ainoaea?noaii n iiiiuueth onoaiiaeaiey i?aaee oeiainiauo
?an/aoia; oeiainiauo ii?iaoeaia, ii?aaeaeyaoeo ia?aciaaiea e
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo; ii?iaoeaia
io/eneaiee a athaeaeao e o. ae.

– Ainaaie NNN? e eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiua i?aaiu inouanoaeyee aeanoeee
eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu. Iiiiiieueiia
iieiaeaiea Ainaaiea iicaieyei aio ia i?iaiaeeoue ieaoaaee i?aaei?eyoee,
ia?ooaaoea oeiainiaoth aeenoeeieeio, e a i?eioaeeoaeueiii ii?yaeea
inouanoaeyoue iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee.

– Ana aeioiaeu ainoaea?noaa oee a ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao NNN?.
Aa?oiaiue Niaao NNN? auaeaeye n?aaenoaa, eaeouea ia oeiaine?iaaiea
iauanithciuo i?ia?aii, e n?aaenoaa a athaeaeaou nithciuo ?anioaeee.
?anioaeeeaineea Niaaou ?ani?aaeaeyee auaeaeaiiua ei n?aaenoaa iaaeaeo
iaeanoyie, iaeanoiua Niaaou – iaaeaeo ai?iaeaie e ?aeiiaie.
?ani?aaeaeaiea athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa i?ienoiaeeei ia iniiaa aaeeiiai
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai ieaia, eioi?ue aeeth/ae a naay caaeaiey ii
?acaeoeth no?aiu a oeaeii, aa ?aaeiiia e oa??eoi?ee e ?ac?aaaouaaeny n
o/aoii ?aaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae yoiai ?acaeoey. *a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiue
athaeaeao ia?a?ani?aaeaeyeinue ieiei 45-50 % aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa.

– A aeioiaeao athaeaeaoa aeiey i?yiuo iaeiaia n ianaeaiey auea
iacia/eoaeueiie (ieiei 7 %). Iniiaiay ianna aeioiaeia iinooiaea a oi?ia
io/eneaiee ec i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee e einaaiiuo iaeiaia. Io/eneaiey ec
i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee caaenaee io iauaia e ea/anoaa eniieuecoaiuo eie
?ano?nia. Iiyoiio eo o?iaaiue aue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui aeey eaaeaeiai
i?aaei?eyoey. Iniiaiie oi?iie einaaiiuo iaeiaia aue iaeia n iai?ioa. Ii
aeeth/aeny a oeaiu oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia oiaa?ia, ii ?aciui
noaaeai. Iaeia n iai?ioa eniieueciaaeny aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey oeai e
neoaeee enoi/ieeii aeioaoeee ii oai aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee, aaea
ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiu auee ieaea noieiinoe.

– I?e iaaeinoaoea aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ieaiiauo
?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa i?eiaiyeenue aioo?aiiea ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu.

Nicaeaiea a na?aaeeia 1960-o a. a. a niaaoneie yeiiiieea cao?aoiiai
oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia i?eaaei e ?acaeoeth iaaaoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee, a
oii /enea e a oeiainiaie noa?a. Iiyaeeny e noae ?anoe aeaoeoeeo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, a neeo oaeoaeaiey aeeni?iii?oeee iaaeaeo
oiaa?iie e aeaiaaeiie iannaie oneeeaaeanue iaiaania/aiiinoue oeiainia
iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie e i?iaeoeoaie. Ia?anoaee ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue
e naie a i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, ?ac?ooaaoea aai
ieaiiia?iinoue. Noaea ?acaeaaoueny oaiaaay yeiiiieea.

A oiaea ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu oeiainiaay nenoaia ?innee iiaeaa?aeanue
ei?aiiiio eciaiaieth:

1) ?acei nie?aoeeanue aeiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia a yeiiiieea ca
n/ao i?eaaoecaoeee cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

2) I?iecioea ?ai?aaiecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia. Aianoi aaeeiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa auea nicaeaia oeaeay nenoaia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oeiainia, ?acaeaeaiiay ii o?iaiyi (oaaea?aoeey –
noauaeo oaaea?aoeee – ai?iae, ?aeii). Eaaeaeue ec o?iaiae iieo/ee
aaoiiiiiua enoi/ieee aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee, eioi?ua ca iei cae?aieaiu,
e ia?aoae ia naiaai ?iaea naiioeiaine?iaaiea. A ea/anoaa oaeeo
enoi/ieeia aunooiatho niioaaonoaothuea iaeiae eee ii?aaeaeaiiua aeiee
iaeiaia, ieaoaaee ca ?ano?nu e ae?. I?aaaea, nio?aiyaony e ia?aie/aiiay
oeiainiaay iiiiuue ni noi?iiu oaaea?aoeee ?yaeo aa noauaeoia, a
noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee – iaeioi?ui ?aeiiai e ai?iaeai.

3) Cia/eoaeueii iiauneeanue aeiey iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia. Nicaeaia
oeaeay naoue iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia.
Ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea oeiainia oi?acaeiaii, aianoi iaai
ia?aciaai oeiainiaue ?uiie (?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa e nnoaeiiai eaieoaea).
?ieue ainoaea?noaa a oeiainiaie nenoaia a i?eioeeia noaea oaeie aea, eae
a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea. Yoi – ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea /anoe aaeiaiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa /a?ac nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia e
?aaoee?iaaiea oeiainiaie nenoaiu a oeaeii.

4) Inouanoaeaia ?aoi?ia iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. Nenoaiu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao, caaenyueo io ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoee, caiaiaia
iaeeiaeiaui ii?yaeeii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey anao i?aaei?eyoee. Ioiaiai e
iaeia n iai?ioa. Iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai iiauo iaeiaia, a ?acoeueoaoa
/enei iaeiaia iiiaie?aoii aic?inei. E iiaui iaeiaai ioiinyony: iaeia ia
i?eaueue, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee e
oece/aneeo eeoe, aeoeecu, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu, ia iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie, ieaoaaee a ?acee/iua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e iiiaea ae?oaea.
?anoe?eeny e e?oa iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Ana iaeiae ?acaeaeaiu ia
o?e o?iaiy: oaaea?aeueiua iaeiae, noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee, ianoiua.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiuie iaeiaaie n i?aaei?eyoee yaeythony:

– Iaeia ia i?eaueue. Iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – iaeaaaaiay i?eaueue. A
oeaeyo noeioee?iaaiey niioaaonoaothueo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe a
iaeaaaaioth i?eaueue ia aeeth/aaony /anoue i?eauee, ?anoiaeoaiay ia
oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey, iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?ac?aaioee, niaea?aeaiea nioeeaeueiie noa?u,
iiiiuue naeueneiio oicyenoao, aeaaioai?eoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue e ae?.

– Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey –
aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue (?aciinoue iaaeaeo aeaiaaeiie au?o/eie
i?aaei?eyoey e iaoa?eaeueiuie cao?aoaie). Aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
ia?a?aaio/eeia naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee onoaiiaeaia noaaea
IAeN, eioi?ay a aeaa ?aca iaiueoa iniiaiie noaaee.

– Aeoeecu. Onoaiiaeaiu oieueei ii ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee
(aeiii-aiaei/iua, oaaa/iua, thaaee?iua ecaeaeey, i?aaeiaou ?ineioe,
aaoiiiaeee e cai/anoe e iei e ae?.).

– Oaiiaeaiiua (eiii?oiua e yenii?oiua) iioeeiu.

– Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu, a aei?iaeiua oiiaeu.

– Iaeia ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee.

– Caiaeueiue iaeia.

– Ieaoaaee ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu.

Iniiaiie iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe – iiaeioiaeiue iaeia. Aaaaeai
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e aai en/eneaieth (iaiaeaaaaiue ieieioi e
aic?anoaiea iaeiaiauo noaaie n aic?anoaieai aaee/eiu aeioiaea). E?iia
iaai, ianaeaiea oiea/eaaao iaeia n o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa; caiaeueiue
iaeia; iaeia n eiouanoaa; iaeia n eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaaaaiiai a ii?yaeea
aea?aiey e ianeaaeiaaiey.

A oiaea ?aoi?iu iaeiaiaie nenoaiu auee nicaeaiu iiaua iaeiaiaua neoaeau
– iaeiaiaay einiaeoeey e iaeiaiaay iieeoeey. Ooao aiia?aoa,
eiio?iee?othuaai nai? iaeiaia, ?acei oaaee/eeny. Iaeiaei a iaeiaiaie
nenoaia eiaaony iaiaei ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeai.

A oeaeii ?inneeneay iaeiaiaay nenoaia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioee/aaony io
iaeiaiauo nenoai ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai aieaa ieceie aeieae
iaeiaia n oece/aneeo eeoe a iauae noiia iaeiaia e aieaa aunieie aeieae
iaeiaia n i?aaei?eyoee. Anee ?inneeneia i?aaei?eyoea ia iieuecoaony
iaeiaiauie eueaioaie, ia ianao oo?aoiuo naieoeee ca i?in?i/eo iaeiaiauo
ieaoaaeae e iieiinoueth auiea/eaaao ana onoaiiaeaiiua iaeiae, oi a
n?aaeiai iii ioaeaao ainoaea?noao 56-57% nicaeaiiie aeiaaaeaiiie
noieiinoe. Yoi auoa, /ai iaeiaiaia a?aiy, aiceiaeaiiia ia i?aaei?eyoey a
aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai. Oaeie o?iaaiue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, iniaaiii a
oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, cao?oaeiyao inouanoaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e aanue i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa a
oeaeii. Ia neo/aeii, /oi ana i?aaei?eyoey eaaaeueiie yeiiiieee
iaoiaeyony nae/an a oyaeaeii oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee, a oaiaaeee, ia
ieaoyuea iaeiaia, i?ioeaaoatho.

Iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa iai?aaeaia ia nieaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie
i?aaei?eyoee e iiauoaiea o?iaiy iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ianaeaiey, ii aa
?aaeecaoeey iaoaeeeaaaony ia e?aeia ieceee o?iaaiue aeioiaeia
aieueoeinoaa ?inneyi. Iiyoiio iii iuoaaony i?iaanoe aa a ne?uoie oi?ia
(aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiay ?aoi?ia, iaineiiiay ?aoi?ia icia/atho nie?auaiea
nioeeaeueiuo auieao ianaeaieth, /oi ?aaiineeueii oaaee/aieth iaeiaia), a
oaeaea eaeao ia nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa. Acyo eo?n oaeaea ia
nieaeaiea noaaie iaeiaia n i?aaei?eyoee i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nie?auaiee
iaeiaiauo eueaio ei e ?anoe?aiee iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Iniaaiiinoueth iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?innee yaeyaony e aunieee o?iaaiue
oaiaaie yeiiiieee (ieiei 40 %), ooiaeyuae io auieaou iaeiaia.
Niae?aaiinoue iaeiaia ec aiaea a aiae nieaeaaony, ianiio?y ia ana oneeey
iaeiaiauo neoaea. I?e/eia e?iaony i?aaeaea anaai a oaeoaeaiee
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, a oaeaea a iaioeaaeaiiinoe ?aaiou
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue a naeaoua n?iee ia?aeoe
io i?aaeieo iaoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ieaiiaui oicyenoaii e
i?eioeeieaeueii eiui iaoiaeai ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Aeiey nia?aiiuo iaeiaia a aaeiaii iaoeeiiaeueiii i?iaeoeoa nieceeanue n
45-50% a niaaoneia a?aiy aei iaiaa 25 % a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e i?iaeieaeaao
nieaeaoueny. Yoi iaiueoa, /ai a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai. Ionthaea e
nieaeaiea aeiee ainoaea?noaa a ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee aaeiaiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Iia oaeaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ieaea, /ai a
aieueoeinoaa yoeo no?ai.

Iaeiae a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia auiieiytho ie oeneaeueiie, ie ?aaoee?othuae
ooieoeee, iineieueeo iie ia iaania/eaatho ie iie?uoea ieaiiauo ?anoiaeia
athaeaeaoa, ie ?ino eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, ie ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, a oii
/enea i?ei?eoaoiuo io?aneae yeiiiieee.

?acoeueoaoii ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu, aeeth/athuae e ?aoi?io oeiainiaie
nenoaiu, noaei cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea ?aaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey anao
iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia: iai?iiu, ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa, ia?aciaaiey, iaoee, cae?aaiio?aiaiey, eoeueoo?u, aeeeeuiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa, nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey e ae?.

Oae, iai?eia?, ca iineaaeiea 10 eao athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea
?inneeneie iaoee nie?aoeeinue a 17 ?ac. A 1970 a. ?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaa
ia ia?aciaaiea ninoaaeyee 7 % AII, a 1994 a. – 3,4 %, a a 1997 a. – oaea
0,6 %. A ?acoeueoaoa no?aio iieeioee aeanyoee ouny/ iieiaeuo,
oaeaioeeauo niaoeeaeenoia.

?aoi?iu aucaaee ?ac?ooaiea iai?iiiniiniaiinoe no?aiu, iaoee,
nioeeaeueiie noa?u. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ?aaeueiia oeiaine?iaaiea aic?inei
oieueei ii iaeiiio iai?aaeaieth – ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa e i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu nae/an oaeoe/anee ia auiieiytho naiae
yeiiiie/aneie ?iee, i eioi?ie aiai?eeinue auoa. I?aaeoaeuenoai aiai?eo i
“athaeaeaoiii e?ecena” e ia auiea/eaaao ca?aaioioth ieaoo
athaeaeaoieeai, auiieiaiiua caeacu i?aaei?eyoeyi iai?iiiiai eiiieaena,
onoaiiaeaiiua aeioaoeee naeueoici?aaei?eyoeyi e o. ae. A 1997 a. aac
niaeaney caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao aue
naeaanoe?iaai i?aaeoaeuenoaii ii iaeioi?ui aaaeiaeoei noaoueyi aieaa /ai
ia iieiaeio, oioy e iaia/aiiua ?aiaa noiiu oeiaine?iaaiey auee yaii
iaaeinoaoi/iu aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey niioaaonoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae. Iineieueeo iaoaaoea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia eiaao ianoi ia
oieueei a oeaio?a, ii e “ia ianoao”, oi oneeeaaaony ai?ueaa noauaeoia
oaaea?aoeee n oeaio?ii ca ?ani?aaeaeaiea a naith iieueco niae?aaiuo
iaeiaia. Yoi aaaeao e ia?anoaieth oeaio?iaaaeiuo nee e nicaeaao ii/ao
aeey ?ac?ooaiey aaeeiiai ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa.

Ianiio?y ia ana oneeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa nio?aiyaony ioiineoaeueii aunieee
o?iaaiue aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa e eioeyoeee. Ia?aoiae e oeiaine?iaaieth
aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia ?acei oaaee/ee
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea. Aiaoiee aeiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee i?aaunee 170
ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia, aioo?aiiee – 500 o?eeeeiiia ?oaeae. E yoiio
neaaeoao aua aeiaaaeoue caaeieaeaiiinoue athaeaeaoia noauaeoia
oaaea?aoeee e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho oiaea iaiaeoth
aaee/eio. Cao?aou athaeaeaoa ia ianeoaeeaaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai aeieaa
no?aieoaeueii ?anooo e a i?ioeii aiaeo i?eia?ii a aeaa ?aca i?aauneee
noiiu iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee. Aeey iiaaoaiey ?anoouae caaeieaeaiiinoe
i?aaeoaeuenoai aa?ao ana iiaua e iiaua caeiu, aeiaeaaaony ion?i/ee
ieaoaaeae ii aiaoiaio aeieao. A ?acoeueoaoa noiia aeieaa oaaee/eaaaony,
oneeeaaaony caaeneiinoue aioo?aiiae iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa io
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ue oaea aoeaaeueii aeeeooao, /oi aeieaeii
aeaeaoue ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai.

?ino aioo?aiiaai aeieaa aaaeao, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, e ioea/ea aeaiaa
ec ?aaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee a
niaeoeyoeaii-oeiainiaoth noa?o. E?iia oiai, iii ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue
aei aaneiia/iinoe. ?aii eee iicaeii iii iaa?iaony ianiiniaiinoueth
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aanoe ?anoiaeu ii aai ianeoaeeaaieth e aiciaiiaeaieai
aeia?eioeyoeee, ii a aua aieaa oyaeaeii aeey yeiiiieee aa?eaioa, /ai yoi
auei a 1992-95 a. a.

E?ecenii ioaa/aiu ia oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu, a any oeiainiaay
nenoaia. Iauai iaieaoaaeae i?aaunee 600 o?eeeeiiia ?oaeae. *enei
oauoi/iuo i?aaei?eyoee auno?i ?anoao. Oeiainiaua iieacaoaee aieueoeinoaa
i?aaei?eyoee oooaeoathony. Oeiainiaay nenoaia ia auiieiyao ie iaeio ec
yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee, eioi?oth i?ecaaia iaania/eaaoue. Oeiainiaua
?ano?nu ia?aea/eaathony a oaiaaoth yeiiiieeo. Ooa/ea eaieoaea ca
a?aieoeo ninoaaeea nioie ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aoi?ia oeiainiaie nenoaia ia oeo/oeea aa ninoiyiea, a
caaiaea a aeoaieee e?ecen. Aeey auoiaea ec yoiai e?ecena o?aaothony ia?u
ii ei?aiiiio eciaiaieth anae yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa, e ia
oieueei aa, a e anae nenoaiu yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie: aeaiueae e oeiainu?

2. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ?uieii eaieoaea e oeiainiaui ?uieii?

3. Eaeiau iniiaiua ooieoeee oeiainia a yeiiiieea?

4. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie: ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu e
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao?

5. Eaeiau iniiaiua yeaiaiou no?oeoo?u ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia?

6. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo i?yiuie e einaaiiuie iaeiaaie?

7. *ai ioee/athony iauaainoaea?noaaiiua e ianoiua iaeiae?
iauaainoaea?noaaiiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua iaeiae?

8. Eaeoth ?ieue a yeiiiieea ea?atho iaeiae?

9. Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa – yoi:

1. Iaoaaoea aeaiaa a athaeaeaoa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia.

2. I?aauoaiea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa iaae iinooieaieyie n?aaenoa a
athaeaeao.

3. I?aauoaiea ?anoiaeia oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oeiainia ainoaea?noaa iaae
iaeiaiauie iinooieaieyie.

4. I?aauoaiea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa iaae aai aeioiaeaie.

Eniieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiie yiennee aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoiaeia
ainoaea?noaa.

10. *oi ioiineony e i?yiui (I) e /oi e einaaiiui (E) iaeiaai:

1. Iaeia ia i?eaueue.

2. Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu.

3. Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

4. Oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu.

5. Iaeia ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee.

A) i: 1, 5; e: 2, 3, 4. A) i: 1, 3, 5; e: 2, 4.
A) i: 1, 4, 5; e: 2, 3.

A) i: 1; e: 2, 3, 4, 5. Ae)
i: 1, 2, 5; e: 3, 4.

11. E aeioiaeai athaeaeaoa ioiinyony:

1. Iaeiae.

2. Io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

3. N?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua io ?aciauaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia.

4. N?aaenoaa io i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa.

5. I?ioeaiou, iieo/aiiua ii e?aaeeoai ainoaea?noaa.

A: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 1, 3, 4, 5. A: 1, 4, 5.
A: 1. Ae: 1, 4.

12. ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa i?ioeiaine?iaaiu: ca n/ao nai?a iaeiaia – ia
600, ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea – ia 240, ia
aiaoiai ?uiea – ia 120, ca n/ao aeaiaaeiie yiennee – ia 80. Ii?aaeaeeoue
aaee/eio aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa.

13. ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa ninoaaeee 800. Iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey a athaeaeao
– 570. Aeioiaeu io i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa – 10,
i?ioeaiou, iieo/aiiua ii e?aaeeoai, i?aaeinoaaeaiiui ainoaea?noaii, –
20. Aeaiaaeiay yienney – 70. Ia neieueei oaaee/eeny ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeiea.

14. *oi iiieiaaony iiae iioeiaeueiie iaeiaiaie noaaeie niaeanii
eiioeaioeee A. Eaooa?a?

15. A /ai nouiinoue e eaeiau iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aoi?iu oeiainiaie
nenoaiu ?innee a 1990-a aa.?

16. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua i?yiua e iniiaiua einaaiiua iaeiae a
nia?aiaiiie iaeiaiaie nenoaia ?innee.

17. I?eaaaeeoa i?eia?u eniieueciaaiey ?aaoee?othuae ?iee iaeiaia a
nia?aiaiiie iaeiaiaie nenoaia ?innee.

18. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa ninoiyiea oeiainiaie nenoaiu ?innee n oi/ee c?aiey
auiieiaiey ath iniiaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee.

Oaia 16. Eioeyoeey e aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea

16.1. Iaoaieci eioeyoeee

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey, ia/eiay n 1970-o aa. eioeyoeey a ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao i?eiyea o?iie/aneee oa?aeoa?. Aa o?iaaiue a
1970-90 aa. eieaaaeny a n?aaeiai a i?aaeaeao io 5 aei 8,5 % a aiae (26,
n.545(.

Nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiua o?aeoiaee iaoaiecia nia?aiaiiie eioeyoeee.

Ia?aay enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aeaaiui enoi/ieeii eioeyoeee yaeyaony
aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, aneaaenoaea eioi?iai ia?acoaony
ecauoie aeaiaa a ia?auaiee. Iaanoeaiaiea aeaiaa, oaeei ia?acii,
naiaeeony a iniiaiii e eioeyoeee ni?ina.

Aoi?ay o?aeoiaea iauyniyao eioeyoeeth iaee/eai iiiiiieecia a yeiiiieea,
eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e eneonnoaaiiiio ?inoo oeai, i?aaeaea anaai ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu, a caoai e ia i?iaeoeou. Eioeyoeey, oaeei
ia?acii, ?anniao?eaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii eae eioeyoeey ecaea?aeae.

?anniio?ei ia?aoth ec yoeo o?aeoiaie. Anee n/eoaoue aa aa?iie, oi
iaiaoiaeeii niaeaneoueny n oai, /oi i?e aacaeaoeoeeoiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa eioeyoeey iaaiciiaeia. Iiiuoee aeinoe/ue
aacaeaoeoeeoiinoe athaeaeaoa i?aaei?eieiaeenue iaiaeiie?aoii ai anao
?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. A NOA a eiioea 1980-o aiaeia aue
aeaaea i?eiyo caeii a ia?aoiaea e aacaeaoeoeeoiiio athaeaeaoo. Iaeiaei,
ianiio?y ia ana oneeey, aeinoe/ue aacaeaoeoeeoiinoe athaeaeaoa ia
oaeaaony.

Aiaeiae/iay ea?oeia iaaethaeaaony e a ?innee n 1992 a., eiaaea
i?aaeoaeuenoai A.Aaeaea?a iauyaeei i iaia?aiee naanoe ainoaea?noaaiiue
athaeaeao aac aeaoeoeeoa. ?acoeueoao ieacaeny i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiui. A
1993 a. neooaoeey iiaoi?eeanue. Iicaeiaa i?aaeoaeuenoai oaea ia
iuoaeinue naaeaine?iaaoue athaeaeao iieiinoueth, a eeoue nie?aoeoue
o?iaaiue aai aeaoeoeeoa.

Anee ioa?ineoue yaii ioeai/iia iiaiea, aoaeoi ainoaea?noai niciaoaeueii
nicaeaao aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa, oi neaaeoao niaeaneoueny n oai, /oi
naaeaine?iaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu ia iicaieytho eaeea-oi
iauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, neea eioi?uo auoa, /ai aeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia ia aeiionoeoue athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

Eae i?aaeei, aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa iiyaeyaony a nayce n oai, /oi ?anoiaeu
athaeaeaoa ?anooo auno?aa, /ai aai aeioiaeu. Oaaee/aiea aea ?anoiaeia
athaeaeaoa, eae i?aaeei, aucuaaaony eiaiii iiauoaieai o?iaiy oeai, a ia
i?inoui aeaeaieai caeiiiaeaoaeae auaeaeeoue aieueoa aeaiaa ia
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?ia?aiiu. ?ino oeai i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
oaaee/eoue oeiaine?iaaiea yoeo i?ia?aii, /oiau nio?aieoue ?aaeueioth
iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue auaeaeaiiuo ia ieo n?aaenoa.

Iinooieaiea aea n?aaenoa a athaeaeao i?e ?inoa oeai, oioy e
oaaee/eaaaony, ii iaaeeaiiaa aai. A ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea, oaeei ia?acii,
ia eioeyoeey yaeyaony neaaenoaeai athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, a
athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo – neaaenoaeai eioeyoeee.

Niaeanii aoi?ie o?aeoiaea, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, eioeyoeey
iaoneiaeeaaaony iaee/eai iiiiiieecia a yeiiiieea. A niioaaonoaee n iae,
aeiiaieeii eioeyoeee iau/ii n/eoathony i?ionithcu, eioi?ua aeiaeaathony
?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou, /oi aucuaaao ?ino ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, a
cia/eo, e aaaeao e iiauoaieth oeai. Aic?anoaiea oeai, a naith i/a?aaeue,
aucuaaao ai?ueao i?ionithcia ca iiaia oaaee/aiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e
aaaeao e iiaiio aeoeo eioeyoeee.

I?ionithcu aeaenoaeoaeueii ai?thony ca iiauoaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou.
Iaeiaei aeaiiua noaoenoeee ii aieueoeinoao ?acaeouo no?ai aiai?yo i oii,
/oi, eae i?aaeei, ?ino oeai iaaiiyao iiauoaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou, e
oaaee/aiea ca?aaioiie ieaou eaeao iinea ?inoa oeai, ca/anooth ia
aeiaiiyy aai. Iniaaiii iaaeyaeii yoi eiaei ianoi a ?innee a 1990-a aa.
Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia iaaiiue o?oae aeiaeaaaony
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey a naith iieueco iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, a eaieoae.

Aieaa ?aaeenoe/ia iiyoiio neaaeothuay ea?oeia: iiiiiieee, no?aiynue
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae a naith iieueco, eneonnoaaiii
caauoatho oeaiu e ecaeaeatho iiiiiieueii aunieoth i?eaueue. Iio?aaeoaee,
a /enea eioi?uo e ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, e iaaiiua ?aaioieee,
auioaeaeathony eie iieoiaoue i?iaeoeoeeth ii aieaa aunieei oeaiai, a
ainoaea?noai – oaaee/eaaoue oeiaine?iaaiea naieo i?ia?aii. ?ino
noieiinoe aeecie aaaeao e oiio, /oi i?ionithcu aeiaeaathony iiauoaiey
ca?aaioiie ieaou. Yoi iiaeieiaao o?iaaiue ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa.
Aeaiueae iaanoeaieaathony. ?aaeueiay iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue i?eauee
oaeaea nieaeaaony. Iiyoiio iiiiiieee aiiaue iiaeieiatho oeaiu.
Ia/eiaaony i/a?aaeiie aeoie eioeyoeeiiiie nie?aee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaoaieci nia?aiaiiie eioeyoeee – yoi ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a iieueco iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea (ca n/ao
iaaiiiai o?oaea e iaiiiiiieece?iaaiiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae) n
iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

Iineieueeo neeoeii aunieea oaiiu eioeyoeee (aaeiie?othuay eioeyoeey,
aeia?eioeyoeey) aaaeoo e naiyi a iauanoaaiiii aini?iecaiaenoaa e niaaeo
a yeiiiieea, oi ainoaea?noai e iiiiiieenoe/aneee eaieoae niaianoiuie
oneeeyie oaea?aeeaatho eioeyoeeth a aeiionoeiuo i?aaeaeao. Anee iia ana
aea auoiaeeo ca yoe i?aaeaeu, oi i?eieiathony naiua aeanoeea ia?u ii aa
iaocaeaieth, aieioue aei caii?aaeeaaiey oeai e ca?aaioiie ieaou, eae yoi
auei a NOA a ia/aea 1970-o aa. eee ai O?aioeee a 1980-a aa. A ?innee
ai?ueaa n aeia?eioeyoeeae a 1990-a aa. aaeanue a oii /enea e oaeeie
aeanoeeie (oi/iaa – aeanoieeie) iaoiaeaie, eae iaauieaou ca?aaioiie
ieaou ?aaioieeai athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ioeac ainoaea?noaa io iieaou
auiieiaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia, i?aaeinoaaeaiey caieaie?iaaiiuo
aeioaoeee naeueoici?iecaiaeeoaeyi e oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e o. i.

Ioiineoaeueii eioeyoeee a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea nouanoaoao oaeaea
ianeieueei oi/ae c?aiey.

Noi?iiieee ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu n/eoatho, /oi eioeyoeey i?e nioeeaeecia
yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui ao?eaooii yeiiiieee. Eo a?aoiaioaoeey no?ieony ia
oii, /oi a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey ?aaioatho ia ia
iio?aaeoaeae, a ia auiieiaiea ieaia, eioi?ue ninoaaeai oeaio?aeueiuie
i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey e iiaeao ia niaiaaeaoue n ?uii/iui ni?inii. I?e
ianiioaaonoaee ieaia e ni?ina /anoue i?iaeoeoeee ia ?aaeecoaony. O
i?aaei?eyoee aicieeatho oauoee, eioi?ua iie?uaathony ca n/ao
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. A ?acoeueoaoa a iai?ioa iiyaeythony
iaiaania/aiiua oiaa?iie iannie aeaiueae, oi anoue aicieeaao eioeyoeey.

Aaiaa?neee yeiiiieno ss. Ei?iae (27( aeaeeo iaecaaaeiinoue eioeyoeee a
nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea a iyaeinoe athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee, oi
anoue oaeiaeaoai?aiee ainoaea?noaii /?acia?iuo oeiainiauo cai?inia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. *?acia?iue oa?aeoa? oeiainiauo cai?inia
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee, ii aai iiaieth, iaoneiaeai no?aieaieai
eo e ?anoe?aieth.

Iaeiaei ?aaeueiay oicyenoaaiiay i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi a
nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea eioeyoeey ia anaaaea eiaea ianoi. Oae, a
ia?eiae n 1947 ii 1954 aa. a iaoae no?aia i?iaiaeeeanue iieeoeea
ieaiiaiai nieaeaiey oeai. Aa iniiaie auei ieaie?iaaiea nieaeaiey anao
aeaeia cao?ao e naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Ieai ii i?iecaiaenoao
i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeyeny ia iniiaa cayaie oi?aiauo i?aaiecaoeee, ianoeo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina ianaeaiey.
Ca ia?eiae 1947-54 aa. o?iaaiue ?icie/iuo oeai iiieceeny a 2-3 ?aca. I?e
yoii eiaea ianoi naaeaine?iaaiiinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia ia
?icie/iii ?uiea, a aeioiaeu athaeaeaoa nenoaiaoe/anee i?aauoaee aai
?anoiaeu.

A na?aaeeia 1950-o aa. io iieeoeee ieaiiaiai nieaeaiey oeai ia?aoee e
iieeoeea noaaeeueiinoe oeai i?e ?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou. Yoi i?eaaei e
ia?aaiiia?iiio ?inoo naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, auno?aa – a o?oaeiaieeo
io?aneyo e iaaeeaiiaa – a iaeaieaa oaoie/anee iniauaiiuo, a cia/eo, e
?acee/eyi a eo ?aioaaaeueiinoe e aeaaea oauoi/iinoe ?yaea io?aneae
(i?aaeaea anaai – naeueneiai oicyenoaa e oaeaaeiauaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe). A ?acoeueoaoa noaee ?anoe athaeaeaoiua aeioaoeee
i?aaei?eyoeyi.

E?iia oiai, a oio ia?eiae any yeiiiieea auea iaoeaeaia ia ?ino aaeiauo
iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeae (iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa a oooeao, iao?ao, oiiiao
e o.i.). Oaeie iiaeoiae i?eaae e ?anoiaeaeaieth iaaeaeo ni?inii e
i?aaeeiaeaieai e caoiaa?eaaieth /anoe i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee. O
i?aaei?eyoee, auiieiyaoeo ieaiiaua caaeaiey ii ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa,
noaee ?anoe oauoee ec-ca o?oaeiinoae ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi oaeaea
o?aaiaaei athaeaeaoiuo aeioaoeee. A eoiaa /a?ac athaeaeao a yeiiiieeo
noaee iinooiaoue aeaiueae, ia iaania/aiiua oiaa?iie iannie, e noaea
?acaeaaoueny ne?uoay eioeyoeey.

A oiaea oicyenoaaiiie ?aoi?iu 1965-66 aa. iaia/aeinue ono?aieoue
iienaiiua auoa iaaaoeaiua oaiaeaioeee. Aeey yoiai auea ea?aeeiaeueii
eciaiaia any nenoaia ieaie?iaaiey e noeioee?iaaiey. Yeiiiieea auea
iaoeaeaia ia ?ino aaeiauo noieiinoiuo iieacaoaeae. Ieaie?iaaiea
nieaeaiey cao?ao auei oi?acaeiaii. Eia/a aiai?y, aue nicaeai cao?aoiue
oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci, eioi?ue aeaeae auaiaeiui oaei?iaeaiea, a ia
oaeaoaaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee, e i?ioeai?a/ee i?eioeeiai iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee
ieaiiaiai oicyenoaa.

A oao io?aneyo, aeey eioi?uo auea oa?aeoa?ia auno?ay iaiiaeyaiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaeaea anaai – a iaoeiino?iaiee e eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
a eiioea 1960-o aiaeia ia/aeny ?ino oeai. A ae?oaeo aea io?aneyo, oai,
aaea ?ino oeai aue iaaiciiaeai ec-ca noaaeeueiinoe anni?oeiaioa
i?iaeoeoeee (naeueneia oicyenoai, aeiauaathuea io?anee, iaoaeeo?aey e
ae?.), iiauoaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e oaei?iaeaiea iai?oaeiaaiey aucaaee
nieaeaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe e ?ino oauoeia. Iiyaeeenue e noaee ia?anoaoue
oaeea yaeaiey, eae aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, ecauoie
aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee, aeaoeoeeo oiaa?ia, ecauoie ?aai/eo iano. A
yoio ia?eiae eioeyoeey ?acaeaaeanue a iniiaiii a ne?uoie oi?ia, eae
ecauoie aeaiaa a ia?auaiee, e aa ?ino cia/eoaeueii onei?eeny.

Ec neacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi eioeyoeey a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea
eiaao ianoi ia anaaaea, a eeoue i?e ia?ooaiee iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo
i?eioeeiia i?aaiecaoeee ieaiiaie yeiiiieee. I?e i?aaeeueiie, iao/ii
iainiiaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee nioeeaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa eiaao ianoi
ia eioeyoeey e ?ino aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa, a iiauoaiea iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe aeaiaa e aacaeaoeoeeoiinoue athaeaeaoa.

16.2. Oeiainiaay iieeoeea

Iiae oeiainiaie iieeoeeie iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue ia? ii i?aaiecaoeee
oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia.
Oeiainiaay iieeoeea aeeth/aao a naay iaeiaiaoth e athaeaeaoioth
iieeoeeo, a oaeaea iieeoeeo a ioiioaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa.

A nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea nouanoaotho ?aciua eiioeaioeee
oeiainiaie iieeoeee. Inoaiiaeiny ia iniiaiuo ec ieo.

A eaeineaineie oai?ee oeiainiaay (eee oeneaeueiay) iieeoeea n/eoaaony
iaeaieaa aaaeiui eino?oiaioii ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee,
n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iiaeaea?aeeaaaony caiyoinoue e naaeaine?iaaiiinoue
a yeiiiieea. Aeaaiay caaea/a oeiainiaie iieeoeee ii Eaeino – iaania/aiea
yooaeoeaiiai niaieoiiiai ni?ina ia ?uiea. Yoi cia/eo, /oi i?e
iaaeinoaoea ni?ina ainoaea?noai aeieaeii i?eieiaoue ia?u ii aai
oaaee/aieth, a i?e ecauoea – ii aai nie?auaieth.

A iaania/aiee yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina a eaeineaineie oai?ee aeaaioth ?ieue
ea?aao oeiainiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa. I?e iaaeinoaoea ni?ina
ainoaea?noai iiauoaao naie ?anoiaeu e nioeeaeueiua auieaou e nieaeaao
iaeiae, a i?e ecauoea niaieoiiiai ni?ina – oiaiueoaao ?anoiaeu e
nioeeaeueiua auieaou e oaaee/eaaao iaeiae.

Eaeineaioeu auaeaeytho aeaa aeaea oeiainiaie iieeoeee: aeene?aoeeiiioth
iieeoeeo e “ano?iaiiua noaaeeecaoi?u”.

Aeene?aoeeiiiay oeiainiaay iieeoeea ninoieo a eciaiaiee iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu, ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa e nenoaiu nioeeaeueiuo auieao. Oaeea
eciaiaiey iiaoo aiineoueny oieueei caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe e
ia iiaoo auoue neeoeii /anouie, eia/a a yeiiiieeo aoaeao aiineoueny oain
e ia?acaa?eoa. Ionthaea e iacaaiea yoeo ia? – “aeene?aoeeiiiay
iieeoeea”, oi anoue iieeoeea, i?aaeiieaaathuay ia iai?a?uaiua eciaiaiey,
a aeene?aoiua, niaa?oaaiua iaeei ?ac ca aieaa eee iaiaa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua io?acee a?aiaie.

“Ano?iaiiua noaaeeecaoi?u” icia/atho onoaiiaeaiea oaeie caaeneiinoe
aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ainoaea?noaa, nenoaiu nioeeaeueiuo auieao io
aaee/eiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, i?e eioi?ie iie aaoiiaoe/anee
?anoe?ytho niaieoiiue ni?in i?e yeiiiie/aneii niaaea e naea?aeeaatho aai
?ino i?e ?acaeoee eioeyoeee.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue “ano?iaiiuo noaaeeecaoi?ia” iauyniyaony oai, /oi aeey
i?eiaiaiey ia? aeene?aoeeiiiie iieeoeee iaiaoiaeeii aia/aea oi/ii
onoaiiaeoue, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a yeiiiieea: niaae eee “ia?aa?aa”. Yoi
o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie, nicaeaao eaa caiacaeuaaiey iaaeaeo
ianooieaieai yaeaiey e ?aaeoeeae ia iaai ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia. Aeaeaa iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaioaoue i?iaeo ia?, ianoaeeoue e
ooaa?aeeoue eo a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiao, /oi aua aieueoa oaaee/eaaao
oeacaiiue eaa. Iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey ia? o?aaothony eiie?aoiua eino?oeoeee
ii eo i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa eaa caiacaeuaaiey iiaeao noaoue ianoieueei aeeeoaeueiui,
/oi ca yoi a?aiy oa?aeoa? yaeaiee a yeiiiieea eciaieony: niaae niaieony
iiaeuaiii, eee iiaeuai – niaaeii. E i?eiyoua ia?u aianoi oiai, /oiau
i?aiyonoaiaaoue niaaeo, aoaeoo onoaoaeyoue eioeyoeeiiiue “ia?aa?aa”, eee
iaiai?io, oneeeaaoue niaae aianoi “ioeaaeaeaiey” eioeyoeee.

Niaeanii eaeineaineie oai?ee, aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey caiyoinoe e
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iaiaoiaeei o?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa. Ii aucuaaao iaeioi?ue o?iaaiue eioeyoeee e ?ino
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Ana yoi yaeyaony ieaoie ca iaania/aiea
caiyoinoe e yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. Iaeei ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae eaeineaineiai
iai?aaeaiey, aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno A.Oeeeein, eco/ay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu e o?iaiai eioeyoeee, naeaeae auaiae i oii, /oi iia
iineo ia?aoiue oa?aeoa?, e au?acee aa n iiiiuueth e?eaie, eioi?ay
iieo/eea aai eiy (e?eaay Oeeeeina).

A ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai aeaenoaeoaeueii
eiaao ianoi o?iie/aneay eioeyoeey e ?ino ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Oae,
aeiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa NOA oaaee/eeny n 256,9 ie?ae. aeiee. a 1950 a. aei
2600,8 ie?ae. aeiee. a 1988a., e naaiaeiy i?aauoaao 3 o?eeeeiia
aeieea?ia, oi anoue ninoaaeyao ii?yaeea 11000 aeiee. ia eaaeaeiai
aeeoaey yoie no?aiu.(9, o.1,n.367-370( .

Iaeiaei aeaaiua iiiiiaiou eaeineaioeaa – iiiaoa?enou iiaeaa?aatho
niiiaieth iaee/ea ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo o?iaiai eioeyoeee e
o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu, nnueaynue ia oa oaeou, eiaaea yoe ia?aiao?u ?inee
e iaaeaee ia?aeeaeueii. Iie io?eoeatho aiciiaeiinoue nie?auaiey
aac?aaioeoeu e iiauoaiey oaiiia ?inoa yeiiiieee i?e iiiiue oeiainiaie
iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa, n/eoay, /oi a yeiiiieea eiatho ianoi
“anoanoaaiiue” o?iaaiue caiyoinoe e “anoanoaaiiue” ?ino, eioi?ua
ainoaea?noai ia a ninoiyiee oaaee/eoue, a iiaeao eeoue oiaiueoeoue
aeaaiaea?y naiae iai?iaeoiaiiie oeiainiaie iieeoeea.

Iiiaoa?enou a naieo ?annoaeaeaieyo enoiaeyo ec neaaeothuae iniiaiie
oi?ioeu:

; aaea: I – ni?in ia aeaiueae, O – /enei naeaeie, ? – n?aaeiyy oeaia
iaeiie naeaeee, v – n?aaeiyy nei?inoue ia?auaiey naeaeie (/enei naeaeie,
ianeoaeeaaaiia aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae).

Iie n/eoatho, /oi ia?aiao? O, au?aaeathuee iauai ?aaeueiiai aaeiaiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, ?anoao anoanoaaiiui oaiiii a 2-5 % a aiae.
Nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa noaaeeueia. Iiyoiio aeey iaania/aiey
noaaeeueiinoe oeai, ionoonoaey eioeyoeee a yeiiiieea iaiaoiaeeii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue noaaeeueiinoue aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee. Ionthaea
iiiaoa?enou aeaeatho auaiae i oii, /oi aeaaiay caaea/a oeiainiaie
iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa – iaania/aiea noaaeeueiinoe aeaiaaeiie iannu a
ia?auaiee (aa ?ino ia 2-5% a aiae). A iaeiei ec oneiaee yoiai yaeyaony
aacaeaoeoeeoiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
naaaeaiea aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa e ieieioio.

Iiiiiaiou iiiaoa?enoia aic?aaeatho ia yoi nnueeaie ia oio oaeo, /oi
nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia iaeaaeaao
noaaeeueiinoueth. I?ioeaieeaie iiiaoa?enoia i?eaiaeyony e oaeea
a?aoiaiou:

?ino oeai aiciiaeai e i?e noaaeeueiie aeaiaaeiie ianna – ca n/ao,
iai?eia?, oiaiueoaiey iauaiia i?iaeaae, ?anoe?aiey eiiia?/aneiai
e?aaeeoa, oaaee/aiey nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa.

Iaaiciiaeii oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue, neieueei aeaiaa iaoiaeeony a ia?auaiee.

Iaaiciiaeii iaania/eoue o?aaoaiia eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee aaeaeo
oiai, /oi ia iaai aeeyao iiiaeanoai ia iieiinoueth eiio?iee?oaiuo
ainoaea?noaii oaeoi?ia: aaieianeay aeoeaiinoue, aaethoiue iaiai, ni?in
ia aeaiueae e ae?.

I?aaenoaaeoaee oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaaioth caaea/o
oeiainiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa aeaeyo a noeioee?iaaiee niaieoiiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iniiaiui n?aaenoaii yoiai, ii eo iiaieth, yaeyaony
iaeiaiaay nenoaia. Aeey ioeaiee o?iaiy iaeiaia eie eniieuecoaony
iieacaoaeue n?aaeiae (yooaeoeaiie) iaeiaiaie noaaee, ?aaiie ioiioaieth
noiiu iaeiaia e iieiiio aeioiaeo (oi anoue aeioiaeo aac au/aoia
iaeiaia). Iaeei ec oai?aoeeia oeacaiiiai iai?aaeaiey A.Eaooa? naeaeae
auaiae, /oi n iiauoaieai n?aaeiae iaeiaiaie noaaee i?ienoiaeeo aia/aea
?ino noiiu iaeiaia, a caoai aa nieaeaiea. Yoi yaeyaony neaaenoaeai oiai,
/oi, ia/eiay n iaeioi?iai o?iaiy, ?ino iaeiaiaie noaaee aucuaaao ana
aieueoaa nie?auaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, a i?e iaeiaiaie noaaea a 100
% i?iecaiaenoai aiiaua i?ae?aoeony. A.Eaooa? au?acee caaeneiinoue
iaaeaeo n?aaeiae iaeiaiaie noaaeie e noiiie iaeiaiauo nai?ia n iiiiuueth
e?eaie, eioi?ay iieo/eea aai eiy (e?eaay Eaooa?a). Iia ecia?aaeaia ia
?en. 2. Iioeiaeueiie iaeiaiaie noaaeie, ii iiaieth noi?iiieeia oai?ee
yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey, yaeyaony oa, i?e eioi?ie aeinoeaathony
iaeaieueoee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa e iaeneiaeueiay noiia iaeiaiauo nai?ia.
Iia iaoiaeeony a eioa?aaea 30-40 % iieiiai aeioiaea (ia a?aoeea
iaicia/aia oi/eie A). I?e iaiueoae noaaea aoaeoo iaaeinoaoi/iuie
aeioiaeu ainoaea?noaa, a i?e aieueoae – caieaeai o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa.
E?iia oiai, noi?iiieee oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey n/eoatho, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii nie?auaoue oeiaine?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ca n/ao
?inoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa, /oiau ia auei iooiea eiaanoeoeee ec
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao iieeoeeo naaeaine?iaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa e nie?auaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia. A nioeeaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieea oeiainiaay iieeoeea ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeii ec n?aaenoa
ieaiiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Iia no?ieony ia
oeiainiaii ieaie?iaaiee. Oeiainiaua ieaiu ninoaaeythony ia eaaeaeii
i?aaei?eyoee, a eaaeaeie i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiee. Iie niaeanothony
iaaeaeo niaie e iauaaeeiythony a aaeeiue oeiainiaue ieai,
ooaa?aeaeaaiue ainoaea?noaii. Iniiaiay caaea/a oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey
– iaania/aiea aania?aaieiinoe, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa e aeinoeaeaiea ieaiiauo oeaeae a
iaia/aiiua n?iee. Aeey nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ia
aacaeaoeoeeoiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Aeaaea a aiaeu Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, ia/eiay n 1943 a., ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao NNN?
naiaeeeny aac aeaoeoeeoa. I?aauoaiea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa iaae aai
aeioiaeaie a iaoae no?aia iiyaeeinue e noaei o?iie/aneei n eiioea 1960-o
aa., oi anoue n iiiaioa nicaeaiey cao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, i
eioi?ii aiai?eeinue auoa.

16.3. E?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea

Iiae e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeeie iiieiaaony ?aaoee?iaaiea
ainoaea?noaii iauaia e no?oeoo?u aeaiaaeiie iannu e e?aaeeoiuo
iia?aoeee. Oeaee e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee ii?aaeaeythony iauae
iieeoeeie ainoaea?noaa ii ?aaoee?iaaieth yeiiiieee. Iau/ii eie
yaeythony: iaania/aiea onoie/eainoe aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu,
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe yeiiiieee, i?aiaeieaiea e?eceniuo yaeaiee,
noaaeeecaoeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, iiauoaiea o?iaiy caiyoinoe e o.i.

?acee/atho i?yiua e einaaiiua iaoiaeu e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee.

E i?yiui iaoiaeai ioiinyony:

Ieaie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e e?aaeeoa. Yoio iaoiae yaeyaony
iniiaiui a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea. Aai i?eiaiaiea icia/aao
ieaie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo iioieia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, a oii /enea:
iaaeio?aneaauo, iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo, aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ianaeaiey,
eanniauo iia?aoeee ioaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaiea e o.ae., a oaeaea
ieaie?iaaiea e?aaeeoa, eioi?ue aunooiaao a iniiaiii a oi?ia aaieianeiai
e?aaeeoa. Ieaie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e e?aaeeoa ia?acotho
ninoaaioth /anoue aaeeiiai ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey. Iii
inouanoaeyaony aeey iaania/aiey iaoa?eaeueii-oeiainiaie
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe yeiiiieee e auiieiaiey a n?ie iniiaiuo ieaiiauo
caaeaiee.

A eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea ainoaea?noai ieaie?oao eeoue iaeioi?ua
iieacaoaee, eanathueany aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e e?aaeeoa. Yoi i?aaeaea
anaai: ?acia? aeaiaaeiie yiennee, iauai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoia
ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao, ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu e ?yae ae?oaeo.

Onoaiiaeaiea i?aaee aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia,
ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee, eiio?ieue ca eo
niaethaeaieai, naieoeee ca eo ia?ooaiea.

Iaeiaeaiea ia?aie/aiee ia aeayoaeueiinoue oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo
einoeoooia, ii?aaeaeaiea iaycaoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee e iae, auaea/a
eeoeaicee (?ac?aoaiee) ia oio eee eiie aeae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaoiaeu, ia?a/eneaiiua a ioieoao 2) e 3), i?eiaiythony ai anao no?aiao,
oioy e a ?aciuo oi?iao.

Einaaiiua iaoiaeu:

Eciaiaiey a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee.

Iia?aoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ia oeiainiaii ?uiea: n ainoaea?noaaiiuie
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, ii o/aoo aaenaeae e o.i.

Eciaiaiea o/aoiie noaaee i?ioeaioa ii e?aaeeoai Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea
(noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey).

A eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea iniiaiuie eino?oiaioaie
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee yaeythony: iaycaoaeueiay ?aca?aiay ii?ia,
onoaiaaeeaaaiay aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia; noaaea ?aoeiaine?iaaiey;
iauaiu auionea (iiaaoaiey) ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa
(iau/ii – a oi?ia iaeeaaoeee).

Aeey naeaoey aeaiaaeiie iannu a oeaeyo nie?auaiey niaieoiiiai
ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina e nieaeaiey oaiiia eioeyoeee eniieuecoaony
iieeoeea “aei?iaeo aeaiaa”. Iia icia/aao:

a) iiauoaiea iaycaoaeueiie ?aca?aiie ii?iu;

a) iiauoaiea o/aoiie noaaee ii e?aaeeoai Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea (noaaee
?aoeiaine?iaaiey);

a) i?aauoaiea auionea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee iaae eo iiaaoaieai.

I?eiaiaiea yoie iieeoeee noaeaao aiciiaeiinoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia a
?anoe?aiee aeaiaaeiie aacu, nieaeaao ni?in ia nnoaeu, ioea/eaaao
aeaiueae ec ia?auaiey a iaiai ia iaeeaaoeee.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oeaee – oaaee/aiey aeaiaaeiie iannu e
niaieoiiiai ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina ia ?uiea – eniieuecoaony iieeoeea
“aeaoaauo aeaiaa”. Iia i?aaeiieaaaao:

a) nieaeaiea iaycaoaeueiie ?aca?aiie ii?iu;

a) nieaeaiea o/aoiie noaaee ii e?aaeeoai Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea;

a) nie?auaiea auionea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee ii n?aaiaieth n eo
iiaaoaieai.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?anoe?ythony aiciiaeiinoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ii
nicaeaieth aeaiaa; oaaee/eaaaony ni?in ia nnoaeu; a ia?auaiea
iaea/eaathony aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiueae.

Oeiainiaay e e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea ?anniao?eaathony nia?aiaiiuie
iaia?enenoneeie oai?eyie eae aeaa aeaaiua oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee, a oii /enea – a ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae.

16.4. Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea a ?innee a 1990-a aa.

A eiioea 1980-o aa. eioeyoeey a NNN?, eioi?ay auea ii?iaeaeaieai
cao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, i?eiyea aanueia iuooeiua ?acia?u.
Iia aunooiaea oiaaea a ne?uoie oi?ia – eae ecauoie aeaiaa a ia?auaiee
i?e noaaeeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeai e aaea e ia?anoaieth aeaoeoeeoa
oiaa?ia. Yoi i?eaaei e aaaaeaieth ea?oi/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?yaea
aaaeiaeoeo iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia ianniaiai ni?ina (eieaana, ianei,
iuei).

I?aaeoaeuenoai NNN? a 1991 a. iiiuoaeinue ecuyoue ecauoie aeaiaa ec
ia?auaiey e naaeaine?iaaoue athaeaeao iooai iiauoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?icie/iuo oeai, aieaa cia/eoaeueiiai, /ai ?ino aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia
ianaeaiey. Aue inouanoaeai oaeaea iaiai aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia iaeaieaa
aunieiai aeinoieinoaa (a 50 ?oa.) a oeaeyo iaianaiey oaea?a ii oaiaaie
yeiiiieea. A neo/aa oniaoa yoe ia?u iicaieeee au a?aiaiii ainnoaiiaeoue
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue oiaa?iie e aeaiaaeiie iannu. Iaeiaei i?e nio?aiaiee
cao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy neooaoeey
aiiaue noaea au i?aaeiae, oi anoue niiaa au iiyaeeny e noae ?anoe
oiaa?iue aeaoeoeeo.

Iiyoiio aeey ea?aeeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu eioeyoeee a ?aieao
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa a oio ia?eiae auei iaiaoiaeeii
caiaieoue cao?aoiue oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci nenoaiie ieaie?iaaiey e
noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiiee iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi i?aaeeaaaeinue iiiaeie niaaoneeie yeiiiienoaie. Auee
iiaeaioiaeaiu e ai?iae?iaaiu eiie?aoiua ?ac?aaioee, eioi?ua aeaee i?e eo
i?eiaiaiee ia i?aeoeea iuooeiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo. (Ni., iai?.,(28(.)

Iaeiaei ?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu ia aini?eieiaei oaeea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e ia
niae?aeinue eo aiaae?youe, iineieueeo aeaeaei auoiae ec neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeee a iinoaiaiiii ia?aoiaea e “ieaiiai-?uii/iie” yeiiiieea. Aianoa
n oai e oiiiyiooua auoa ia?u i?aaeoaeuenoaa NNN? ia aeaee ieeaeiai
?acoeueoaoa ii oie i?e/eia, /oi oiaaeaoiaa ?oeiaiaenoai ?NON? a ioaao ia
?aoaiea nithciiai oeaio?a iiauneoue ainoaea?noaaiiua ?icie/iua oeaiu
i?ae?aoeei ia?a/eneaiea n?aaenoa a nithciue athaeaeao e iioei ia
oaaee/aiea iainee e ca?aaioiie ieaou ia oa??eoi?ee ?NON?. A ?acoeueoaoa
?anoiaeu nithciiai athaeaeaoa (iai?iia, Aeaaeaiey iaoe, aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea e ae?oaea noaouee) noaee oeiaine?iaaoueny a iniiaiii ca n/ao
yiennee. Ianiio?y ia iiauoaiea oeai, ecauoie aeaiaa a ia?auaiee ?acei
oaaee/eeny. Aeaoeoeeo oiaa?ia i?eia?ae oa?aeoa? oiaa?iiai “aieiaea”.
Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo nithciui ?oeiaiaenoaii e ?oeiaiaenoaii ?innee
caeii/eeanue eeeaeaeaoeeae Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Oai?aoeee ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iieaaaee, /oi ne?uoay eioeyoeey
e oiaa?iue aeaoeoeeo – iaiouaieaiua /a?ou ieaiiaie yeiiiieee, oioy
enoi?ey aeaaaea oaaaeeoaeueiua i?eia?u, ii?iaa?aaaoea oaeea acaeyaeu.
Iie aeaeaee aaeeinoaaiiue iooue ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu eioeyoeee a ioiaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey, oi anoue “eeaa?aeecaoeee” oeai, e
nea/eiia?aciie i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eeaa?aeecaoeey e i?eaaoecaoeey auee ia /enoi
?inneeneeie ecia?aoaieyie. Eo i?iaaaeaiey o?aaiaae Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
aaethoiue oiiae a iaiai ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia ?innee. Eiaiii aai
o?aaiaaiey auee iieiaeaiu a iniiao ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee ?innee,
eioi?ay ia/aeanue n 1992 a. e iieo/eea iacaaiea “oieiaie oa?aiee”. Aei
yoiai aiaeiae/iay iieeoeea ii ianoiyieth IAO i?iaiaeeeanue a ?yaea no?ai
Eaoeineie Aia?eee e Iieueoa. Iia no?ieeanue ia iiiaoa?enoneie
eiioeaioeee, nooue eioi?ie, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, caeeth/aaony a
iiaeaea?aeaiee noaaeeueiiai eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee i?e ?aceii
noaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

A ?acoeueoaoa iieeoeee eeaa?aeecaoeee e i?eaaoecaoeee ne?uoay eioeyoeey
ia?aoea a ioe?uooth. A 1992 a. oeaiu au?inee a 26,1 ?aca, a 1993 – a
9,4; a 1994 – a 3,2; a 1995 – a 2,3; a 1996 a. – a 1,24 ?aca. Ca 9
ianyoeaa 1997 a. oeaiu au?inee aua ia 12%. Oaeei ia?acii, a 1992-96 aa.
a ?innee eiaea ianoi, oioy e caoooathuay, aeia?eioeyoeey, eioi?ay
ia?aoea a aaeiie?othuoth eioeyoeeth a 1997 a. Oaeie ianooaa ?inoa oeai
aucaae cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea, aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca, iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa a no?aia, aaa?a yeiiiieeo a aeoai/aeoee yeiiiie/aneee
e?ecen.

I?iaiaey iieeoeeo eeaa?aeecaoeee e i?eaaoecaoeee, i?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee
a ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae aeaeaei noaaeo ia aeanoeoth oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo
e iieeoeeo “aei?iaeo aeaiaa”. Iia aeeth/aea a naay:

– Ia?aie/aiea aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa iooai nie?auaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia e nioeeaeueiuo auieao, a oii /enea: iaiieaoa auiieiaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyie ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia, iaauaeaeaiea caieaie?iaaiiuo
aeioaoeee naeo e oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, nie?auaiea oeiaine?iaaiey
iaoee, ia?aciaaiey e iaaeeoeeiu e o.i.

– Oeiaine?iaaiea aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa i?aeiouanoaaiii ca n/ao
oaaee/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Auione e i?iaeaaea aeey yoie oeaee
iinoiyiii ?anoouaai iauaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee, a oii /enea –
eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ai. ?ino aiaoiaai aeieaa.

– Nie?auaiea oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoia yeiiiieea. ?aciauaiea eo ia
eiieo?niie iniiaa, a aeaea eiiaa?aeiuo e?aaeeoia.

–Onoaiiaeaiea aunieie ?aca?aiie ii?iu (15-18 %).

– Iiaeaea?aeaiea aunieie o/aoiie noaaee ii e?aaeeoai Oeaio?aeueiiai
aaiea (aeioiaeeea aei 210 % aiaeiauo).

– Ia?aie/aiea aeaiaaeiie yiennee.

?acoeueoaoaie oaeie iieeoeee noaee:

– Aicieeiiaaiea e oaeoaeaiea e?ecena ieaoaaeae a yeiiiieea. Iaieaoaaee
ia inaiue 1997 a. i?aauneee 600 o?eeeeiiia ?oa.

– Iiiaiiany/iua caaea?aeee n auieaoie ca?aaioiie ieaou. Caaeieaeaiiinoue
ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa ia inaiue 1997 a. ninoaaeea 55 o?eeeeiiia ?oa.

– ?ino ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa ia ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa e
iaaeeaa niaeoeyoeaiuo oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo no?oeoo? ca n/ao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee.

– Cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea ?aaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie noa?u
e ia?anoaiea ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee a iae. Oi aea a ioiioaiee
a?iee, iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aa?a?iiai eiiieaena no?aiu.

–Ooa/ea eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo e a oaiaaoth yeiiiieeo.

– Ia?aea/ea aeaiaa ec ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a a noa?o aaethoii-oeiainiauo
iia?aoeee, nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, naeoue oaiiu eioeyoeee oaeaeinue ca n/ao ia?iiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo iioa?ue. I?e/ai eioeyoeey ana aua nio?aiyaony aeinoaoi/ii
aunieie – ia o?iaia aaeiie?othuae, a iiaeuai i?iecaiaenoaa iinea 6 eao
niaaea ana aua ia ia/aeny. Ana yoi ia iicaieyao ioeaieoue iieeoeeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaa eae ioaa/athuoth iaoeeiiaeueiui eioa?anai ?innee.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. Eioeyoeey – yoi:

1. Nieaeaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaa.

2. Iaiaania/aiiinoue aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa cieioiaaethoiuie ?aca?aaie
ainoaea?noaa.

3. Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee.

4. Nieaeaiea aaethoiiai eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu.

Ecauoie aeaiaa a ia?auaiee.

2. Eaeiau iniiaiua o?aeoiaee iaoaiecia nia?aiaiiie eioeyoeee?

3. Niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee:

1. Eioeyoeey – yoi iaoaieci ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia a iieueco
eaieoaea ca n/ao iaaiiiai o?oaea.

2. Eioeyoeey aucaaia ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneei iaoaieciii
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

3. Eioeyoeey aucaaia iyaeie oeiainiaie iieeoeeie ainoaea?noaa.

4. Eioeyoeey – neaaenoaea “ia?aa?aaa” yeiiiieee, oi anoue auoiaea
yeiiiieee ia i?aaeae i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

5. Eioeyoeey a ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?aieoeao iaiaoiaeeia aeey iaania/aiey
noaaeeueiinoe e ?inoa yeiiiieee.

A: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 1, 2, 3, 4. A: 1, 2, 3.
A: 1, 2. Ae: 2.

4. Niaeanii iaieaeineaineie eiioeaioeee, oia?aiiay eioeyoeey – yoi:

1. Iaecaaaeiay ieaoa ca noaaeeueiinoue e ?ino yeiiiieee.

2. Neaaenoaea iaee/ey iiiiiieecia a yeiiiieea.

3. Neaaenoaea /?acia?iuo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

4. Naeaeaoaeuenoai “ia?aa?aaa” a yeiiiieea.

5. I?iyaeaiea ianiaa?oainoaa naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee.

5. Niaeanii iiiaoa?enoneie eiioeaioeee:

1. Iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaaoueny naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa, iineieueeo aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa – aeaaiay i?e/eia eioeyoeee.

2. Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa – iaecaaaeiay ieaoa ca
noaaeeueiinoue e ?ino yeiiiieee.

3. Eioeyoeey – neaaenoaea iai?aaeeueiie iieeoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea e
aucuaaao oain a yeiiiieea.

4. Eioeyoeey ia o?iaia 3-5 % a aiae aeiionoeia e iaecaaaeia aeey
iaania/aiey ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney.

5. Aeey i?aiaeieaiey eioeyoeee iaiaoiaeeii ia?aie/eoue ?ino aeaiaaeiie
iannu.

A: 1, 3, 5. A: 2, 4. A: 2, 4, 5.
A: 5. Ae: 2, 5.

6. Ca yiaa?ue oeaiu au?inee ia 1.5 %, ca oaa?aeue – ia 2.7 %, ca ia?o –
ia 2.2 %. Eaeia ?ino oeai ca 1 eaa?oae ?

7. Ca 1-e eaa?oae oeaiu au?inee ia 6 %, ca 2-e – ia 15 %, ca 3-e – ia 20
%, ca 4-e – ia 30 %. Eaeia n?aaeiaiany/iue oaii ?inoa oeai ?

8. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo eaeineaioeaie, iiiaoa?enoaie e noi?iiieeaie
oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey a iiieiaiee nooe oeiainiaie iieeoeee?

9. *oi iiieiaaony iiae “cao?aoiui oicyenoaaiiui iaoaieciii”, eioi?ue
ia?aciaaeny a niaaoneie yeiiiieea n na?aaeeiu 1960-o aa.?

10. *oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey oeiainiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa a
nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa?

11. AEanoeay oeiainiaay iieeoeea icia/aao:

1. Oeenaoeeth nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa ia ioiineoaeueii ieceii o?iaia.

2. AEanoeee eiio?ieue ca oieaoie iaeiaia.

3. Oeiaine?iaaiea anao i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia no?iai ii ieaio.

4. AEanoeia ia?aie/aiea yiennee aeaiaa e aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa.

5. AEanoeee eiio?ieue ca ?anoiaeiaaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia.

12. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeene?aoeeiiiie iieeoeeie e “ano?iaiiuie
noaaeeecaoi?aie”?

13. N eaeie oeaeueth i?eiaiyaony iieeoeea “aei?iaeo aeaiaa”? “aeaoaauo
aeaiaa”?

14. *oi ioiineony e iieeoeea “aei?iaeo” (+) e /oi – e iieeoeea
“aeaoaauo”(- ) aeaiaa:

1. Iiauoaiea o/aoiie noaaee Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea.

2. Iiauoaiea ii?iu iaycaoaeueiuo ?aca?aia eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

3. Iiauoaiea iieoiee Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee ii
n?aaiaieth n eo i?iaeaaeae.

4. Iiauoaiea ?acia?ia aeaiaaeiie yiennee.

5. Iiauoaiea o?iaiy iaeiaia.

A: (+): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A: (+): 1, 2, 3; (-): 4, 5.
A: (+): 1, 2, 5; (-): 3, 4.

A: (+):1, 2; (-): 3, 4. Ae: (+): 1,
2, 5; (-): 3, 4.

15. Eaeia aeae e?eaie A.Eaooa?a e /oi iiieiaaony iiae iioeiaeueiie
n?aaeiae iaeiaiaie noaaeie a oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey?

16. Eaeiau iniiaiua o?aeoiaee i?e/ei ne?uoie eioeyoeee a yeiiiieea NNN?
a 1970-80-a aa.?

17. Eaeeie iaoiaeaie aaeanue ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae a ?innee a 1992-97
aa.? Eaeiau aa ?acoeueoaou?

18. Eaeiau iniiaiua eino?oiaiou e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee a
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea?

19. Aiciiaeai ee ?ino oeai i?e iaeciaiiie aeaiaaeiie ianna a ia?auaiee?
Ioaao iainiiaaoue.

20. Eaeiau iniiaiua a?aoiaiou, auaeaeaaaiua i?ioea eaeineaineie iieeoeee
a ioiioaiee eioeyoeee? Iiiaoa?enoneie iieeoeee?

Oaia 17. Iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai

17.1. Nouiinoue e oeiu iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. No?oeoo?a
niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa

Iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai – yoi niaieoiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ioeannia, iaania/eaathueo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue e ?acaeoea iauanoaa.
Iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai – iiiaia?aiiue i?ioeann. Iii aeeth/aao a
naay: – aini?iecaiaenoai naieo ethaeae; – aini?iecaiaenoai oneiaee
aeecie ethaeae; – aini?iecaiaenoai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa; –
aini?iecaiaenoai yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony
aini?iecaiaenoai niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Niaieoiiue
iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo (NII) – yoi aanue i?iaeoeo, i?iecaaaeaiiue a
iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae, iau/ii – ca aiae.
Ia iniiaa iinoiyiiiai aiciaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa NII i?ienoiaeeo aai
iaiai, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e iio?aaeaiea. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai
oaeiaeaoai?ythony iauanoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe e iaania/eaathony oneiaey
i?iaeieaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?inoia aini?iecaiaenoai – aiciaiiaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeciaiiii
ianooaaa. I?e yoii iauai NII ia oaaee/eaaaony.

?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai – aiciaiiaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa a
oaaee/eaathuainy ianooaaa. Yoi au?aaeaaony a aic?anoaiee iauaia NII.
?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?acaeoey
iauanoaa. I?e i?inoii aini?iecaiaenoaa iauanoai eae au canouaaao ia
iaeiii e oii aea o?iaia. I?e noaeaiee aea ianooaaa i?iecaiaenoaa
ia/eiathony i?ioeannu aeaa?aaeaoeee iauanoaa.

Niaieoiiue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo eiaao aeaa noi?iiu:
iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiioth e noieiinoioth. N oi/ee c?aiey
iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiiiai ninoaaa, niaieoiiue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo
ninoieo ec n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa (n?aaenoa e i?aaeiaoia o?oaea) e
i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey. Ii noieiinoe ii neeaaeuaaaony ec ia?aianaiiie
noieiinoe (noieiinoue ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa) e iiaie
noieiinoe (nicaeaiiie aeeaui o?oaeii).

N oi/ee c?aiey ?acee/iiai yeiiiie/aneiai iacia/aiey, auaeaeythony
neaaeothuea iniiaiua /anoe NII:

1) Oiiae aiciauaiey. Ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aiciauaiey eciioaiiuo
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa (n?aaenoa e i?aaeiaoia o?oaea).

2) Oiiae aeeciaiiuo n?aaenoa ?aaioieeia iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
eee iaiaoiaeeiue i?iaeoeo. Ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae, ainnoaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey niiniaiinoae ?aaioieeia
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

3) I?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo. Ii iai?aaeyaony ia:

– ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u (iaeiieaiea);

– niaea?aeaiea iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u e iao?oaeiniiniaiuo /eaiia
iauanoaa;

– aiciauaiea /enouo ecaea?aeae (a?iey, i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu,
?aeeaia e o. i.);

– ia?aciaaiea iao?oaeiauo aeioiaeia io /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe (i?ioeaio
ia eaieoae, caiaeueiay ?aioa e ae?.).

E?iia noa?u iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eae aiai?eeinue a oaia 1
(/anoue 1 aeaiiiai iiniaey), a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa o/anoaoao
oaeaea e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a, iacia/aiea eioi?ie caeeth/aaony a
ieacaiee oneoa e nicaeaiee aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae. E iae ioiinyony: iaoea,
eneonnoai, ia?aciaaiea, cae?aaiio?aiaiea, eoeueoo?a e ae?.

Iiyoiio anee aiai?eoue i ?acoeueoaoao iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa a
oeaeii, oi ia?yaeo n niaieoiiui iauanoaaiiui i?iaeoeoii, iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue e ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u. Iie
ioeaieaathony iau/ii iauaiii ieacaiiuo oneoa.

Iauai oneoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony ninoaaii oneoa e eo noieiinoueth. I
noieiinoe oneoa iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea oneoae
i?eieiatho oi?io oiaa?ia, oi anoue yaeythony ieaoiuie. Anee aea oneoae
i?aaeinoaaeythony eo iio?aaeoaeyi aanieaoii, oi o/anoue eo “noieiinoue”
iiaeii eeoue ii ecaea?aeeai ia eo ieacaiea. Iai?eia?, i?e aanieaoiii
iao/aiee a oeiea ainoaea?noai ?anoiaeoao n?aaenoaa ia iieaoo o?oaea
o/eoaeae, iieoieo o/aaieeia e iaaeyaeiuo iiniaee, ?aiiio caeaiee e o.i.,
ii ?ac iao/aiea aanieaoiia, oi aeaiiua oneoae ia eiatho noieiinoe. Eo
“noieiinoue” a aeaiiii neo/aa naiaeeony e ecaea?aeeai, naycaiiui n eo
ieacaieai.

Iauai niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e iauai oneoa ?anniao?eaathony
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ea/anoaa aaeeiiai iieacaoaey: iauai i?iaeoeoia e
oneoa.

Iaeiaei i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue, /oi ?yae aeaeia
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ioiineony e /enoui ecaea?aeeai
iauanoaa. Yoi, iai?eia?, io?aia iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, neoaeaa a
aii?oaeaiiuo neeao, ?aeeaia oiaa?ia e o. i. Eo nouanoaiaaiea iaoneiaeaii
oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiuie enoi?e/aneeie oneiaeyie. Anee, iai?eia?,
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ioii?oo oneiaey, ii?iaeaeathuea aieiu, oi ioiaaeao
e iaiaoiaeeiinoue a a?iee. Anee nie?aoeony i?anooiiinoue, oi oiaiueoeony
iio?aaiinoue e a i?aaiio?aieoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iauai oneoa,
ioiinyueony e /enoui ecaea?aeeai iauanoaa, a neeo yoiai, auei au
iai?aaiia?ii ioiineoue e ?acoeueoaoai iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.
Yoi nei?aa – auioaeaeaiiua ecaea?aeee, a ia ?acoeueoaou.

17.2. Iieacaoaee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa

Iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia
e oneoa, yaeythony:

1) aaeiaie iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo;

2) eiia/iue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo;

3) /enoue i?iaeoeo iauanoaa;

4) aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue e aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeou;

5) /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae.

Ia?aua ec yoeo o?ao iieacaoaeae eniieuecothony aeey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iieacaoaeue aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa (AII) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
noiio oeai anae i?iaeoeoeee iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ca
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae, iau/ii – ca aiae (ianyoe, eaa?oae). Ii
ii?aaeaeyaony a oaeoueo e a oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo oeaiao. Iineieueeo
oaeouea oeaiu eciai/eau, oi iie ia aeatho aeinoaoi/ii oi/iiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eciaiaiee ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa n oa/aieai
a?aiaie. Iiyoiio eniieuecoaony ecia?aiea aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa a oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo oeaiao (oi anoue a oeaiao ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ia?eiaea). Oaeia ecia?aiea iicaieyao ioeaieaaoue ?ino (eee iaaeaiea)
oece/aneiai iauaia NII. Aeey ia?aoiaea io oaeoueo oeai e
oneiaii-iinoiyiiui aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea AII aeaeeony ia n?aaeiee
eiaeaen ?inoa oeai (aeaoeyoi?) a aeaiiii ia?eiaea ii n?aaiaieth n
aaciaui (enoiaeiui). Eee i?eiaiythony aieaa neiaeiua iaoiaeeee.

Iieacaoaeue aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa eniieuecoaony aeey aiaeeca
ia oieueei ?inoa ?acoeueoaoia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e aai
no?oeoo?u e iaaeio?aneaauo naycae. Iaeiaei aeaiiue iieacaoaeue iaeaaeaao
oai iaaeinoaoeii, /oi niaea?aeeo a naaa iiaoi?iue n/ao iaeieo e oao aea
noieiinoiuo aaee/ei.

Iieaaeai niune iiaoi?iiai n/aoa ia oneiaiii i?eia?a.

Aeiionoei, eiaaony oaoiieiae/aneay naycue iaaeaeo /aou?ueiy
i?aaei?eyoeyie: ?oaeieeii, iaoaeeo?ae/aneei, iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuei e
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiui caaiaeaie. ?oaeiee iinoaaeyao ?oaeo ia
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae noieiinoueth 50. Oio, a naith i/a?aaeue,
auieaaeyao ec iaa iaoaee e iinoaaeyao aai ia iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuee
caaiae. Ionoue noieiinoue iaoaeea ninoieo ec ia?aianaiiie noieiinoe
?oaeu (50) e iiaie noieiinoe (50) e ?aaia 100. Iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuee
caaiae ?anoiaeoao iaoaee e i?iecaiaeeo aeaoaee aeey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai
i?aaei?eyoey. Aeiionoei, /oi a noieiinoue yoeo aeaoaeae aoiaeeo
ia?aianaiiay noieiinoue iaoaeea (100) e iiaay noieiinoue (50). Oiaaea
iauay noieiinoue aeaoaeae ninoaaeo 150. Iaoeiino?ieoaeueiue caaiae
ecaioiaeyao iaoeiu. A i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa ia iai i?ienoiaeeo ia?aiin
noieiinoe aeaoaeae (150) e nicaeaaony iiaay noieiinoue a 50. A
?acoeueoaoa noieiinoue iaoei aoaeao ?aaia 200.

Anee a yoeo oneiaeyo iiaen/eoaoue iauee aaeiaie i?iaeoeo /aou?ao
i?aaei?eyoee, oi ii ninoaaeo: 50 + 100 + 150 + 200 = 500. Iaeiaei a yoo
aaee/eio noieiinoue ?oaeu (50) aioea /aou?a ?aca (eae noieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee ?oaeieea, eae ninoaaiay /anoue noieiinoe iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai,
iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaai e iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoee). Noieiinoue
iaoaeea (100) aioea a aaee/eio aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa o?e ?aca (eae
noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai caaiaea, a oaeaea eae ninoaaiay
/anoue noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaai e
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai caaiaeia). A noieiinoue aeaoaeae (150) – aeaa ?aca.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi anee ana /aou?a i?aaei?eyoey, ?anniio?aiiua a
iaoai i?eia?a, iauaaeeiyony a iaeii, oi anoue noaioo iaeiei
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeai, oi aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey yoiai iauaaeeiaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey aoaeao ?aaia anaai 200, oi anoue noieiinoe iaoei. Eia/a
aiai?y, iauaaeeiaiea i?aaei?eyoee-niaaeieeia aucuaaao nie?auaiea
iieacaoaey aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa, oioy i?e yoii ?aaeueiua ?acoeueoaou
i?iecaiaenoaa ia iaiythony. E iaiai?io, i?e ?acaeaeaiee iaeiiai
i?aaei?eyoey ia aieaa iaeeea niaaeiua i?aaei?eyoey aoaeao eiaoue ianoi
oaaee/aiea iieacaoaey aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa i?e oii aea ?aaeueiii iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaee/eia AII caaeneo ia oieueei io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa,
ii e io aeaeaiey aai ia ia?ae/iua caaiuey. Iiyoiio eniieueciaaiea
aeaiiiai iieacaoaey i?aaeiieaaaao, ia?yaeo n ii?aaeaeaieai aeaoeyoi?a,
o/ao e no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee a yeiiiieea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau eneeth/eoue iiaoi?iue n/ao ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa,
eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue eiia/iiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa (EII). Ii
aeeth/aao a naay ana nicaeaiiua n?aaenoaa o?oaea e i?aaeiaou
iio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea i?e?ino caiania i?aaeiaoia o?oaea. Eia/a aiai?y,
ii ninoieo ec oao i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua auee i?iecaaaeaiu a aeaiiii
ia?eiaea (aiae, ianyoe, eaa?oae) e ia auee ec?anoiaeiaaiu a ea/anoaa
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, oi anoue iioee ia: iaiiaeaiea e ?anoe?aiea
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia; oaaee/aiea
caiania iai?ioiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee;
iio?aaeaiea (a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey).

Eiia/iue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo ioee/aaony io aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa ia aaee/eio i?iiaaeooi/iiai i?iaeoeoa, oi anoue i?aaeiaoia
o?oaea, cao?a/aiiuo a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa a aeaiiii ia?eiaea: EII =
AII – II, aaea: II – i?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo.

Eneeth/aiea ec EII i?iiaaeooi/iiai i?iaeoeoa e iicaieyao “iona/ue”
iiaoi?iue n/ao noieiinoe. Ii noieiinoe EII ?aaai noiia aiiaue nicaeaiiie
a i?iecaiaenoaa noieiinoe e aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia.

*enoue i?iaeoeo iauanoaa aeeth/aao a naay iaiaoiaeeiue e i?eaaai/iue
i?iaeoeou. Ii iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiiiio ninoaao /enoue i?iaeoeo iauanoaa
ninoieo ec i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey, n?aaenoa o?oaea, eaeoueo ia
?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u, i?e?inoa caiania
i?aaeiaoia o?oaea. Eia/a aiai?y, ii ioee/aaony io eiia/iiai
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa ia aaee/eio oiiaea aiciauaiey n?aaenoa o?oaea.

Ii noieiinoe ii ?aaai aiiaue nicaeaiiie noieiinoe a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa eee noieiinoe EII ca au/aoii aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo
oiiaeia. Ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio iacia/aieth /enoue i?iaeoeo iauanoaa
yaeyaony enoi/ieeii /enoiai iaeiieaiey e iio?aaeaiey a iauanoaa. Iiyoiio
eiiaaea iiae iei iiieiatho noiio oiiaeia /enoiai iaeiieaiey e
iio?aaeaiey.

*enoia iaeiieaiea – yoi i?e?ino iauaiia eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia, i?aaeaea
anaai – n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea n?aaenoa o?oaea a
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a iauanoaa. Ia?yaeo n iei, eniieuecoaony oa?iei
“aaeiaia iaeiieaiea”, iiae eioi?ui iiieiaaony noiia /enoiai iaeiieaiey e
oiiaea aiciauaiey n?aaenoa o?oaea (aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia).

Aeey ioeaiee iauaia ia oieueei ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e noa?u
oneoa eniieuecoaony iieacaoaeue aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa
(AII). Ii aeeth/aao a naay eiia/iue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo e oneoae
ianaeaieth. I?e/ai ?a/ue eaeao eae ia oneoaao ioaeaeueiui /eaiai
iauanoaa eee eo a?oiiai, oae e ianaeaieth (ianaeaiiiai ioieoa, ?aaeiia,
no?aiu) a oeaeii. E oneoaai ioaeaeueiui /eaiai iauanoaa eee eo a?oiiai
ioiinyony, iai?eia?, oneoae ia?eeiaoa?ia, a?a/ae, a?oenoia, o/eoaeae e
o.i. E oneoaai ianaeaieth a oeaeii – io?aia iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea,
?aaeeiaauaiea e oaeaaeaeaiea e o.i.

Noieiinoue AII ?ann/eouaaaony eae aiiaue nicaeaiiay noieiinoue e
aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia a iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa e
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a, eee eae noiia aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. A
/anoiinoe, anee ?a/ue eaeao ia oneoaao, oi aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue
ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noieiinoueth oneoa e noieiinoueth
cao?a/aiiuo i?e ieacaiee oneoa i?aaeiaoia o?oaea.

Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo neoaeeo enoi/ieeii iio?aaeaiey e
aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey a iauanoaa.

Noaoenoeea auaeaeyao aeaa iieacaoaey aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa:
1) nianoaaiii aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AII) – yoi AII,
nicaeaiiue ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a oii /enea – eo ca?oaaaeiuo
oeeeaeao; 2) aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI) – AII, nicaeaiiue ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, iaoiaeyueony ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu (aeeth/ay oeeeaeu
ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i, ii aac ca?oaaaeiuo oeeeaeia iaoeeiiaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee).

?acee/atho oaeaea iiieiaeueiue AII, oi anoue aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea AII a
oaeoueo oeaiao; e ?aaeueiue AII – au?aaeaiea aai a oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo
oeaiao. ?aaeueiue AII eniieuecoaony aeey n?aaiaiey iauaiia AII a ?aciua
ia?eiaeu a?aiaie.

Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo ca au/aoii oiiaea aiciauaiey n?aaenoa
o?oaea ia?acoao /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (*II). N oi/ee c?aiey
ninoaaa, /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo aeeth/aao a naay ana nicaeaiiua
i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey, oneoae, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa e i?aaeiaou o?oaea,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey /enoiai iaeiieaiey. A yoii ninoieo aai
yeiiiie/aneia iacia/aiea.

Noieiinoue /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa ?aaia anae aiiaue
nicaeaiiie a iauanoaa noieiinoe ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie. E?iia
iiaie noieiinoe, nicaeaiiie a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a, a iaa aoiaeeo
oaeaea e noieiinoue, nicaeaiiay a iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a, oi anoue
noieiinoue oneoa ca au/aoii noieiinoe ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo i?e eo ieacaiee
n?aaenoa e i?aaeiaoia o?oaea.

A aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee aaee/eia *II ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia aeaiaaeiie
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa, oiaiueoaiiie ia aaee/eio
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e aii?oecaoeee (oi anoue ia aaee/eio ia?aianaiiie
noieiinoe).

N oi/ee c?aiey o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue
i?iaeoeo anoue oi aea naiia, /oi e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, oi anoue
noiia?iue aeioiae anao /eaiia iauanoaa.

Iaeiaei, niaeanii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae
ioee/aaony io /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Noaoenoeea
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, iino?iaiiay ia oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe,
eniieuecoao aeaa aa?eaioa ?an/aoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

I?e ia?aii aa?eaioa ii ?ann/eouaaaony eae noiia ca?aaioiie ieaou,
i?ioeaioa, ?aiou e i?eauee. I?e aoi?ii – eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo *II e
einaaiiuie iaeiaaie. A ethaii neo/aa iauai einaaiiuo iaeiaia a
noieiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ia aeeth/aaony (oioy e aeeth/aaony a
*II). Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi einaaiiua iaeiae, ii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe, ia yaeythony ieaoie ca yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu, a, cia/eo, ia
au?aaeatho nicaeaiiie eie oeaiiinoe (iieaciinoe).

A ?acoeueoaoa iieo/aaony, /oi /anoue noieiinoe /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa (a ?acia?a einaaiiuo iaeiaia) ieeai ia nicaeaaony. Aieaa oiai,
aaee/eia noieiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea caaeneo
io iaeiaiaie nenoaiu no?aiu. I?e oaaee/aiee aeiee a iae einaaiiuo
iaeiaia nieaeathony “ieaoaaee ca yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu” e ?acia?
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Iaiai?io, i?e i?aa?auaiee /anoe einaaiiuo
iaeiaia a i?yiua ieacuaaaony, /oi iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea
“?anoao”. I?e yoii a ?aaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeao ia i?iecieoe ieeaeeo
eciaiaiee. Ianinoiyoaeueiinoue oaeiai iiaeoiaea e ii?aaeaeaieth
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea i/aaeaeia. Iaeiaei ii yaeyaony i?inoui
neaaenoaeai oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe.

N oi/ee c?aiey o?oaeiaie oai?ee noieiinoe, noieiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaiiay
einaaiiuie iaeiaaie, anoue eeoue /anoue noieiinoe i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa, e io eciaiaiee aeiee einaaiiuo iaeiaia iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea ia caaeneo.

Ii aeaiiui aia?eeaineiai aeo?iaea “Statistical abstract”, a 1986 a.
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae NNN? ninoaaeye 1 o?eeeeii 50 ieeeea?aeia
aeieea?ia NOA (a oeaiao 1980 a.) e aue ?aaai 64 % io iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea NOA. Iaeiaei a 1990-a a. a. iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae ?innee ?acei
nie?aoeeny. Nae/an ii iaoiaeeony ia o?iaia 7-8 % io iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea NOA.

Ii aeaiiui oiai aea aeo?iaea, a 1985 a. AII a NNN? aue ?aaai 2,2
o?eeeeiia aeieea?ia; a NOA – 4,01 o?eeeeiia; a ssiiiee – 1,36; a
Aa?iaiee – 0,83. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy AII ?innee ninoaaeyao iaiaa 10 % io
o?iaiy NOA.

E?iia NII, ?acoeueoaou iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ecoao oaeaea
iieacaoaeue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa. Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai – yoi
niaieoiiinoue nicaeaiiuo o?oaeii oeaiiinoae, iaeiieaiiuo iauanoaii e
aeaiiiio iiiaioo a?aiaie. A iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai aeeth/athony: –
iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu; – iaoa?eaeueiua
yeaiaiou iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa (caianu i?aaeiaoia o?oaea e aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai); – ee/iia eiouanoai ianaeaiey.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai oa?aeoa?ecoao ?acoeueoaou iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ca aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a?aiaie. Aianoa n oai iii yaeyaony
i?aaeiinueeie aeaeueiaeoaai aini?iecaiaenoaa. *ai auoa iaoeeiiaeueiia
aiaaonoai, oai aieueoa aiciiaeiinoae aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
iauanoaa. Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou i?aaeeaaatho aeeth/aoue a iaoeeiiaeueiia
aiaaonoai ?acaaaeaiiua i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu iauanoaa,
aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe. Iaeiaei aeey yoiai o?aaoaony eo noieiinoiia
ecia?aiea, a aai iaoiaeeea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?ac?aaioaia.

Niaieoiiue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, iaoeeiiaeueiia
aiaaonoai yaeythony iauaiiuie, aaeiauie iieacaoaeyie. Iie ia
oa?aeoa?ecotho yooaeoeaiinoue iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa aeaeyony ia aeaa
a?oiiu: 1) iieacaoaee nioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe e 2) iieacaoaee
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe.

Ia?aay a?oiia iieacaoaeae oa?aeoa?ecoao iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai n
oi/ee c?aiey aai eiia/iiai e aeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa – i?ioeanna
aini?iecaiaenoaa naieo ethaeae. Aoi?ay a?oiia iieacaoaeae oa?aeoa?ecoao
aini?iecaiaenoai eae i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia, /oi yaeyaony iniiaie e
n?aaenoaii aeinoeaeaiey eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa – aini?iecaiaenoaa
ethaeae.

Nioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa au?aaeaaony
oaeeie iieacaoaeyie, eae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie ethaeae,
iieacaoaee eo caei?iauey, oneiaey o?oaea, yeieiaey, iaania/aiiinoue
aeeeueai, ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeueiuie aeaaaie, oneoaaie e ae?.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu THIANEI e Anaie?iay i?aaiecaoeey cae?aaiio?aiaiey
(AIC) aeey ioeaiee o?iaiy aeecie ethaeae eniieuecotho aa?aae?iaaiiue
iieacaoaeue, eioi?ue iacuaaaony eiyooeoeeaioii aeecianiiniaiinoe iaoeee.
Ii ecia?yaony ii iyoeaaeeueiie oeaea e oa?aeoa?ecoao aiciiaeiinoue
nio?aiaiey aaiioiiaea, oeceieiae/aneiai e eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?iaiy
?acaeoey iaoeee.

Niaeanii enneaaeiaaieyi THIANEI-AIC 1992-93 aa., 5 aaeeia ia eiaao ie
iaeia no?aia a ie?a.

4 aaeea iieo/eee Oaaoeey, Aieeaiaeey, Aaeueaey, Aeaiey, Eneaiaeey.

3 aaeea o NOA, ssiiiee, Aa?iaiee e ae?oaeo ?acaeouo no?ai, a oaeaea o
“iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo ae?aeiiia” (Oaeaaiue, TH. Ei?ay, Neiaaio? e
ae?.), Ec?aeey, Einoa-?eee, THaineaaee.

2 aaeea icia/aao, /oi aeecianiiniaiinoue iaoeee iiaeao nieaeaoueny, anee
ainoaea?noai ia aoaeao oaaee/eaaoue anneaiiaaiee ia cae?aaiio?aiaiea,
iaoeo, ia?aciaaiea, oeo/oaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, aeeeeuiia
no?ieoaeuenoai. Oaeoth ioeaieo iieo/eee: Eeoae, Naa. Ei?ay, E?ae,
A?aceeey, A?aaioeia, Iiiaieey, Aeaaiey, Oo?oeey, ainoaea?noaa A. Aa?iiu,
Eoaa, Aueaoiai, ?yae ?acaeaathueony no?ai e ae?oaea.

Iiiaea no?aiu iiiaaeatho a eioa?aae io 1,5 aei 1,9: Oe?aeia, Eacaonoai,
Aaea?onue, Iieaeiaa, Niiaee, Aaeoe, Ae?ia e ae?.

Naiui iecoei aue ii?aaeaeai eioa?aae io 1 aei 1,4. Ii icia/aao, /oi
aneaaenoaea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
oooaeoaiey yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee ianaeaiea yoeo no?ai ia?a/aii ia
aeaa?aaeaoeeth e iinoaiaiiia auie?aiea. ?innee a 1992-93 a. a. aue
aunoaaeai aaee 1,4 (o?iaaiue *aaea, Yoeiiee, TH. Noaeaia). Oaeia
iieiaeaiea aicieeei a 1990-a aa. a oiaea ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i, eiaaea ?acei
nie?aoeeinue oeiaine?iaaiea ainoaea?noaii nioeeaeueiie noa?u, oiae
o?iaaiue aeecie ?inneyi, nia?oiinoue noaea ?anoe auno?aa ?iaeaeaaiinoe e
iaiiiai iaiaiaea aa. N?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie a ?innee n
1990 ii 1996 a. a. oiaea ia 6 eao, o ioae/ei – n 69 aei 56 eao. Nae/an
ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie ioae/ei ?inney caieiaao 134-a ianoi a
ie?a, aeaiuei – 100-a. A a ia/aea 1970-o aa. NNN? caieiae iaeii ec
ia?auo iano a ie?a ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie (70 eao).

Neacaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi o?iaaiue nioeeaeueiie
yooaeoeaiinoe ioa/anoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iaaeiionoeii iecie.
Iaeiaei ii i?iaeieaeaao iaaeaoue, /oi o?aaoao ea?aeeiaeueiiai eciaiaiey
neiaeeaoeony oaiaeaioeee.

Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue ecia?yaony aeaoiy aeaeaie iieacaoaeae:
iaeie oa?aeoa?ecotho ?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaa ia aeooo ianaeaiey,
ae?oaea – niioiioaiea ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao.

Aaaeiaeoeie iieacaoaeyie ia?aiai aeaea yaeythony: aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue
i?iaeoeo ia aeooo ianaeaiey e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae ia aeooo ianaeaiey.
A ia/aea 1980-o a. a. NNN? ii i?iecaiaenoao AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey
aieioioth i?eaeeceeny e o?iaith ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. Oae,
ii aeaiiui aia?eeaineiai aeo?iaea “Statistical abstract”, a 1984 a. yoio
iieacaoaeue ninoaaee a NOA – 16240 aeiee., O?aioeee – 8932; Aiaeee –
7882; NNN? – 7635; Eniaiee – 4089; TH. Ei?aa – 2110. Oi aea eiaei ianoi
e a ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. A 1986 a., a
aeieea?ao NOA 1980 a. aeaiiue iieacaoaeue aue ?aaai: a NOA – 6675; a
n?aaeiai ii ?acaeoui eaieoaeenoe/aneei no?aiai – 5550; ii no?aiai
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu – 4650, a NNN? – 3750.

Iaeiaei a oiaea ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu i?iecioei ?aceia nie?auaiea AII e
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea ?innee aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca. A ?acoeueoaoa ?inney
ieacaeanue ioa?ioaiiie iacaae ia ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee. Ii
i?iecaiaenoao AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey aa iaioee iiiaea ainoaea?noaa:
aieueoeinoai no?ai Eaoeineie Aia?eee, THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, N?aaeiae
Acee, aeaaea Ao?eee, a oii /enea oaeea ainoaea?noaa, eae: Aaeiao, Ne?ey,
E?ai, Ooien e iiiaea ae?oaea. Ec ainoaea?noaa, caieiaaoaai iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo iaeaieaa ?acaeouie no?aiaie e no?aiaie ni n?aaeiei o?iaiai
?acaeoey, eaeei aue NNN?, ?inney no?aieoaeueii oiaea a ?ac?yae
neaai?acaeouo no?ai.

Iieacaoaeyie yooaeoeaiinoe, niiinoaaeythueie ?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaa n
aai cao?aoaie, yaeythony:

1) I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea – ioiioaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa eee e ?aai/aio a?aiaie, cao?a/aiiiio a iaoa?eaeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoio iieacaoaeue au?aaeaao iauai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea, eioi?ue nicaeaaony a n?aaeiai iaeiei ?aaioieeii iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa; eee a n?aaeiai ca aaeeieoeo ?aai/aai a?aiaie a
iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa. E?iia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
o?oaea, ?ann/eouaathony iieacaoaee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a
iniiaiuo io?aneyo yeiiiieee: i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneii oicyenoaa, a
no?ieoaeuenoaa, ia o?ainii?oa.

2) Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea – ioiioaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
cao?ao e iaoeeiiaeueiiio aeioiaeo. Eiiaaea ?ann/eouaathony aieaa /anoiua
iieacaoaee: iaoaeeiaieinoue, yia?aiaieinoue e ae?oaea. Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue
iiaeao n/eoaoueny oaeaea ii aaeiaiio iaoeeiiaeueiiio i?iaeoeoo (aianoi
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea). Iia oa?aeoa?ecoao o?iaaiue cao?ao i?aaeiaoia
o?oaea ia aaeeieoeo eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee.

3) Oiiaeiioaea/a – ioiioaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea (eee AII) e
noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Iia iieacuaaao auoiae eiia/iie
i?iaeoeoeee n aaeeieoeu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Eiiaaea aianoi
oiiaeiioaea/e iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny iieacaoaeue oiiaeiaieinoe,
yaeythueeny ia?aoiie aaee/eiie oiiaeiioaea/e.

A na?aaeeia 1980-o aa. o?iaaiue iauanoaaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
a NNN? aue ?aaai i?eia?ii 40 % io o?iaiy NOA, caieiaaoeo ia?aia ianoi a
ie?a ii yoiio iieacaoaeth. A i?iiuoeaiiinoe NNN? – 53-55 % io o?iaiy
NOA, naeueneii oicyenoaa – 15-16 %. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ionoaaaiea ?innee
io NOA e ae?oaeo ?acaeouo no?ai ii iieacaoaeyi yooaeoeaiinoe ?acei
aic?inei.

17.3. ?aaeecaoeey niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa

?aaeecaoeey niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui
oneiaeai iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. A i?ioeanna aa i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aciaaiea aeioiaeia i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iinooieaiea ei iaiaoiaeeiuo
?ano?nia, i?eia?aoaiea ?aaioieeaie aeeciaiiuo n?aaenoa e ainnoaiiaeaiea
eo niiniaiinoe e o?oaeo. Anee /anoue NII ia ?aaeecoaony, oi a i?ioeanna
aini?iecaiaenoaa ia/eiathony naie: caoiaa?eaaiea i?iaeoeoeee,
iaieaoaaee, iaaeinoaoie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e
caiyoinoe e o. i. Aeey aania?aaieiinoe aini?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeia
aania?aaieiinoue ?aaeecaoeee NII.

?aaeecaoeey NII eiaao naie aioo?aiiea caeiiiia?iinoe e acaeiinayce. A
iaeaieaa iauai aeaea iie auee aia?aua noi?ioee?iaaiu E. Ia?enii. Aeey
aiaeeca ?aaeecaoeee NII E. Ia?en ?acaeaeee ana iauanoaaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai ia aeaa iiae?acaeaeaiey: I – i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa e II – i?iecaiaenoai i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey. Ii eco/ae
?aaeecaoeeth NII “a /enoii aeaea”, oi anoue aano?aae?oynue io iiiaeanoaa
eiie?aoiuo /anoiinoae, a oii /enea io aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, aiaoiae
oi?aiaee, ioeeiiaiey oeai io noieiinoe o ae?. Yoi iicaieeei aio
au?aceoue nouiinoue iauaeoeaiuo acaeiinaycae a iaeaieaa iauai aeaea.

Iieaaeai aa ia oneiaiii i?eia?a.

Aeiionoei, /oi noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee I iiae?acaeaeaiey neeaaeuaaaony ec
neaaeothueo /anoae: WI = 8000 c + 2000 v + 2000 m = 1200; a II
iiae?acaeaeaiey: WII = 3000c + 1500 v + 1500 m = 6000. Caeanue
i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?aaie/aneia no?iaiea eaieoaea a I iiae?acaeaeaiee
?aaii 4:1, a ai 2-i – 2:1; ii?ia i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe a iaieo
iiae?acaeaeaieyo iaeeiaeiaa (100 %).

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi a I iiae?acaeaeaiee i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue aeaeeony
ia iaeiieaiea e iio?aaeaiea a i?iii?oeee 1:1, oi anoue iaeiieaiea (I) =
1000 e iio?aaeaiea (I) = 1000. O/eouaay, /oi i?aaie/aneia no?iaiea
eaieoaea a I iiae?acaeaeaiee (c : v) = 4:1, iieo/aai, /oi ec 1000
iaeiieaiey a I iiae?acaeaeaiee ia i?e?ino iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea ((n)
eaeao 800, a ia i?e?ino ia?aiaiiiai ((v) – 200; oi anoue I = 800(n +
200(v.

A I iiae?acaeaeaiee nicaeathony n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Iio?aaiinoue
naiiai I iiae?acaeaeaiey a n?aaenoaao i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaia I(n + (n)
(aiciauaiea eciina e iaeiieaiea iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea), oi anoue = 8800.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoa /anoue noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee I iiae?acaeaeaiey
aeieaeia auoue ?aaeeciaaia aioo?e naiiai I iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Inoaaoayny /anoue noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee I iiae?acaeaeaiey, ?aaiay I(v +
(v + I) = 3200, aeieaeia auoue iieo/aia a iai a aeaea i?aaeiaoia
iio?aaeaiey (oiiae aeeciaiiuo n?aaenoa ?aaioieeia, iio?aaeaiea ca n/ao
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoa /anoue noieiinoe aeieaeia
auoue iaiaiaia ia ?aaioth noieiinoue i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey, oi anoue
?aaeeciaaia ai II iiae?acaeaeaiee a iaiai ia aai i?iaeoeoeeth.

Aeiionoei, /oi ai II iiae?acaeaeaiee i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue
?ani?aaeaeyaony ia neaaeothuea /anoe: i?e?ino iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea
II((n) = 200, i?e?ino ia?aiaiiiai II((v) = 100, iio?aaeaiea = 1200.
Caeanue i?iecaiaeyony i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey. Naiiio II iiae?acaeaeaieth
o?aaoaony i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey a iauaia: 1500v + 100(v + 1200I = 2800.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoa /anoue i?iaeoeoa II iiae?acaeaeaiey aeieaeia auoue
?aaeeciaaia a naiii yoii iiae?acaeaeaiee. A ia aaee/eio II(n + (n) =
3200 aio iaiaoiaeeiu n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa (aiciauaiea eciina e
iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea). Iiyoiio aeaiiay /anoue aai i?iaeoeoa
aeieaeia auoue iaiaiaia ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, oi anoue a I
iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec I iiae?acaeaeaiey ai II eaeao noieiinoue I(v + (v +
I), a ec II a I noieiinoue II(n + (n). (“I” e “II” ia?aae neiaeaie
neoaeao aeey iaicia/aiey iiia?a iiae?acaeaeaiey.) Aeey
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe yeiiiieee yoe aeaa aaee/eiu aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu. A
iaoai i?eia?a iie niaiaaeatho (3200 e 3200). A neo/aa aea eo
ianiaiaaeaiey /anoue NII ia ?aaeecoaony, aicieeaao aeeni?iii?oeey
iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai, ia?ooathony oneiaey aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Oneiaea naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaaeaeo I e II iiae?acaeaeaieyie iiaeii
i?eaanoe e neaaeothuaio aeaeo: I(n + II(n = I(v + m) – IIc. Eia/a
aiai?y, iaeiieaiea iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea a iaieo iiae?acaeaeaieyo
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa caaeaii ?aciinoueth iaaeaeo aiiaue
nicaeaiiie noieiinoueth a I iiae?acaeaeaiee e iinoiyiiui eaieoaeii ai II
iiae?acaeaeaiee. Anee noiia iaeiieaiey iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea aoaeao
ioeeiiyoueny io aeaiiie aaee/eiu, oi yoi i?eaaaeao e aeeni?iii?oeee
iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeaeueiaeoaa eco/aiea ioe?uouo E. Ia?enii acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo
iiae?acaeaeaieyie iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaei e onoaiiaeaieth
caeiia i?aeiouanoaaiiiai ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii
ninoieo a oii, /oi noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee I iiae?acaeaeaiey ?anoao
auno?aa noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee II iiae?acaeaeaiey; eee, /oi iaeii e oi
aea, – a oii, /oi aeiey noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee I iiae?acaeaeaiey a iauae
noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee oaaee/eaaaony. Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie aeaenoaey yoiai
caeiia yaeythony: iiauoaiea i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea e oaeoaeaiea
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea.

Iie?aynue ia ioe?uoua E. Ia?enii acaeiinayce iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa, o/aiuie auee onoaiiaeaiu e aieaa aeaoaeueiua
iaaeio?aneaaua i?iii?oeee – n iiiiuueth iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee
iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina. I?ei?eoao a aa nicaeaiee i?eiaaeeaaeeo
?inneeneei yeiiiienoai. Iaaeio?aneaaie aaeain ioee/aaony io noaiu
aini?iecaiaenoaa, ?ac?aaioaiiie E. Ia?enii, oai, /oi a iai
?anniao?eaathony ia aeaa iiae?acaeaeaiey, a iiiaeanoai io?aneae
yeiiiieee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaeio?aneaaie aaeain yaeyaony iniiaie
aiaeeca, i?iaiice?iaaiey e i?ia?aiie?iaaiey yeiiiieee ai anao ?acaeouo
no?aiao. A NNN? ii eaaeae a iniiaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey
yeiiiieee.

17.4. I?iii?oeee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa

I?iii?oeee iaaeaeo I e II iiae?acaeaeaieyie iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaaeaeo io?aneyie yeiiiieee ia en/a?iuaatho anao iauaeoeaiuo i?iii?oeee
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua aeieaeiu ?aaeeciaaoueny a
oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeea. Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea iniiaiua aeaeu i?iii?oeee
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa:

– Iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii e i?e?iaeie. I?e?iaea
i?aaeinoaaeyao iauanoao i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua neoaeao eae n?aaenoaaie
i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie i?aaeiaoaie iio?aaeaiey
(aicaeoo, aiaea, ean). I?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii e i?e?iaeie caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?iecaiaenoai
iaania/eaaaony iaiaoiaeeiuie n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa e a oi aea a?aiy
i?ienoiaeeo oeo/oaiea n?aaeu iaeoaiey ethaeae. Iia iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ca
n/ao aiaae?aiey ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo, aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee, i/enoee e
ooeeecaoeee iooiaeia, io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, aini?iecaiaenoaa
?aiaa iaaini?iecaiaeeiuo ?ano?nia e i?.

A iaoae no?aia yoa i?iii?oeey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?ooaia, /oi
au?aaeaaony a oooaeoaiee yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee, oeuie/aneie au?oaea
eania, caa?yciaiee aiaeu e aicaeooa e o. i., /oi iaiineo ia?iiiue a?aae
caei?iaueth ethaeae e iauanoaaiiiio aini?iecaiaenoao a oeaeii.

– Iauayeiiiie/aneea i?iii?oeee:

– iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e iauanoaaiiuie iio?aaiinoyie (iia aunooiaao a
oi?ia i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai, ii ia oiaeaeanoaaiia
ae, iineieueeo ?aaainoai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeao aeinoeaaoueny i?e
iaaeia?ocea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae e iaiieiii oaeiaeaoai?aiee
aeaenoaeoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa);

– iaaeaeo o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie iauanoaa e ?aai/eie ianoaie (i?e
ia?ooaiee yoie i?iii?oeee aicieeaao aac?aaioeoea e iaiieiia
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae);

– iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?ie
(iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a ia nicaeaao iaoa?eaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia, ii
yaeyaony aaaeiui oneiaeai iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, iineieueeo
iaania/eaaao oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae e ?acaeoea niiniaiinoae
ethaeae, ?acaeoea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna o. ae.);

– iaaeaeo iio?aaeaieai e iaeiieaieai (?ino iaeiieaiey oaaee/eaaao
iio?aaeaiea a aoaeouai, ii nie?auaao aai a ianoiyuai, iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeeiiaeueiia eo ni/aoaiea, i?e eioi?ii iio?aaeaiea ?anoao
noaaeeueii aunieeie oaiiaie).

– Iaaeio?aneaaua i?iii?oeee (i ieo aiai?eeinue auoa).

– Iaae?aaeiiaeueiua (io?aaeatho iauaeoeaiua acaeiinayce a ?acaeoee
?aaeiiia no?aiu).

– Oa??eoi?eaeueiua (aioo?aiiea i?iii?oeee a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee ?aaeiia,
eee ai?iaea, ?aeiia).

– Io?aneaaua (iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiie io?anee).

– Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua (au?aaeatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea,
niaoeeaeecaoeeth e eiiia?e?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie
?aciuo no?ai).

-Aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiua (i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie
i?aaei?eyoey).

Naaeaine?iaaiiinoue iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa icia/aao
iiaeaea?aeaiea aai i?iii?oeee. Iia yaeyaony iauaeoeaii iaiaoiaeeiui
oneiaeai naiiai iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, aac eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii
aai ii?iaeueiia i?ioaeaiea.

A oiaa?ii-eaieoaeenoe/aneii oicyenoaa iauaeoeaiua yeiiiie/aneea
i?iii?oeee iiaeaea?aeeaathony iin?aaenoaii noeoeeiuo eieaaaiee ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?u, caeanue ?aaoey?ii iiaoi?ythony yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i ia?ooaiee aaaeiaeoeo i?iii?oeee iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Nioeeaeenoe/aneay aea nenoaia oicyenoaa iicaieyao ?acaeaaoue yeiiiieeo
ieaiiia?ii e niciaoaeueii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iauaeoeaiua i?iii?oeee
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Ia yoie iniiaa iia a ninoiyiee
iaania/eoue aieaa auno?ia ?acaeoea iauanoaa, i /ai aiai?eo enoi?e/aneee
iiuo nioeeaeecia a NNN? e ae?oaeo no?aiao.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. A /ai ?acee/ea e acaeiinaycue iiiyoee: iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai
e aini?iecaiaenoai niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa?

2. Eaeiau iniiaiua no?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa, ?acee/iua ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio iacia/aieth?

3. A /ai ?acee/ea e acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie: niaieoiiue
iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo e aaeiaie iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo?

4. A /ai caeeth/aaony iiaoi?iue n/ao i?e ?an/aoa aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa?

5. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa,
eiia/iiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e /enoiai i?iaeoeoa iauanoaa?

6. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie: aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa
e aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa? aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa
e aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa? aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa e
/enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa?

7. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo o?oaeiaie oai?eae noieiinoe e oai?eae
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe a iiieiaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea?

8. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aaeiaui iaeiieaieai e /enoui iaeiieaieai?

9. Eae ?ann/eouaaaony aaee/eia aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa?
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea?

10. *oi au?aaeatho iieacaoaee nioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe a ioee/ea io
iieacaoaeae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe?

11. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua iieacaoaee nioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa e iieacaoaee aai yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe.

12. Oeaaeeoa oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa
(naaeaine?iaaiiinoe I e II iiae?acaeaeaiee iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa).
*oi i?ienoiaeeo i?e ia?ooaiee yoeo oneiaee?

13. Iaciaeoa iniiaiua aeaeu i?iii?oeee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.
*oi au?aaeatho i?iii?oeee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa?

14. Caeii i?aeiouanoaaiiiai ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa
ninoieo a oii, /oi:

1) Iauai i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ?anoao auno?aa, /ai iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey.

2) Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai ?anoao auno?aa iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u.

3) Oaiiu ?inoa 1 iiae?acaeaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa auoa oaiiia
?inoa 2 iiae?acaeaeaiey.

4) Aeiey noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee 1 iiae?acaeaeaiey a iauae noieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee 1 e 2 iiae?acaeaeaiee aic?anoaao.

5) Noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee 1 iiae?acaeaeaiey ?anoao iaaeeaiiaa, /ai
noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee 2 iiae?acaeaeaiey.

15. Caeii i?aeiouanoaaiiiai ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa
iaoneiaeai:

1) Oaeoaeaieai iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea.

2) ?inoii i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea.

3) Iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa
aeey iaania/aiey ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey.

4) ?inoii ii?i ?anoiaea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ia aaeeieoeo
i?iecaiaeeiuo i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey.

5) Oai, /oi iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey caaeneo i?aaeaea
anaai io iauaia e ea/anoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

A: 1. A: 1, 2. A: 2, 5. A:
3, 4, 5. Ae: 2.

16. Iauai i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa o?oaea ninoaaee – 200, i?aaeiaoia
o?oaea – 1200, i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey – 900, caianu i?aaeiaoia o?oaea
oaaee/eeenue ia 40, ia?aaeeciaaiiuo i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey – ia 80. Ia
?anoe?aiea n?aaenoa o?oaea auei iai?aaeaii 100. Iaeoe aaee/eiu: a)
aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, a) iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, a)
aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey e a) /enoiai iaeiieaiey.

17. Iauai aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa ninoaaee – 4000, aaeiaia
iaeiieaiea – 1000, /enoia iaeiieaiea – 700, oaaee/aiea caiania
i?aaeiaoia o?oaea – 10, ia?aaeeciaaiiuo i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey – 20.
Iaeoe: a) iauai i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa o?oaea; a) iauai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey.

18. ?acia? iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea a I iiae?acaeaeaiee iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaai 6000, i?aaie/aneia no?iaiea eaieoaea – 4:1. ?acia?
iinoiyiiiai eaieoaea ai II iiae?acaeaeaiee ?aaai 2000, i?aaie/aneia
no?iaiea eaieoaea – 2:1. Ii?ia i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe a iaieo
iiae?acaeaeaieyo – 100 %. A I iiae?acaeaeaiee /enoia iaeiieaiea
ninoaaeyao 900. Ii?aaeaeeoue ?acia?u: a) /enoiai iaeiieaiey n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa ai II iiae?acaeaeaiee, a) i?e?inoa ia?aiaiiiai eaieoaea ai
II iiae?acaeaeaiee. a) ?ann/eoaoue, eaeie aoaeao e eiioeo aoi?iai aiaea
noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee II iiae?acaeaeaiey i?e naaeaine?iaaiiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

19. ?acia? ia?aiaiiiai eaieoaea a I iiae?acaeaeaiee iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaai 1600, i?aaie/aneia no?iaiea eaieoaea – 4:1. ?acia?
ia?aiaiiiai eaieoaea ai II iiae?acaeaeaiee ?aaai 1300, i?aaie/aneia
no?iaiea eaieoaea – 2:1. Ii?ia i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe a iaieo
iiae?acaeaeaieyo – 100 %. Ai II iiae?acaeaeaiee /enoia iaeiieaiea
ninoaaeyao 150. Ii?aaeaeeoue ?acia?u: a) /enoiai iaeiieaiey a I
iiae?acaeaeaiee, a) i?e?inoa ia?aiaiiiai eaieoaea a I iiae?acaeaeaiee.
a) ?ann/eoaoue, eaeie aoaeao e eiioeo aoi?iai aiaea noieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee I iiae?acaeaeaiey i?e naaeaine?iaaiiinoe aini?iecaiaenoaa .

20. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae oaaee/eeny ia 5 %, /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa – ia 1,5 %, i?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo – ia 4
%, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu – ia 4,5 %. Eae eciaieeenue: a)
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, a) iaoa?eaeiaieinoue
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, a) eaieoaeiaieinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea?

21. *eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?aoeeanue ia
1 %, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea oaaee/eeanue ia 2,5 %,
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea oiaiueoeeanue ia 1 %,
eaieoaeiaieinoue – aic?inea ia 1 %. Eae eciaieeenue aaee/eiu: a)
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, a) i?iiaaeooi/iiai i?iaeoeoa, a)
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia?

Oaia 18. Oai?ey yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney Aeae. Eaeina

18.1. Iiaeaeue ioeueoeieeeaoi?a

Aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno Aeae.I.Eaein (1883-1946 aa.) [17] nicaeae o/aiea,
noaaoaa iniiaie nia?aiaiiie iaia?enenoneie iae?iyeiiiieee. Eaein
?acaeaeye oai?eth i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe e iuoaeny n aa iiiiuueth
iiiyoue acaeiinayce iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie yeiiiieeo a
oeaeii. E oaeei iieacaoaeyi ii ioiinee: niaieoiiue ni?in e niaieoiiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea, o?iaaiue caiyoinoe, oaii eioeyoeee (o?iaaiue oeai), ni?in
ia aeaiueae e eo i?aaeeiaeaiea, iio?aaeaiea e naa?aaeaiea, eiaanoeoeee
(iaeiieaiea), iaeiae e ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu, /enoue yenii?o
(?aciinoue iaaeaeo yenii?oii e eiii?oii) e ae?.

N oi/ee c?aiey Eaeina, niaieoiiue (iaoeeiiaeueiue) aeioiae (Y)
oi?ie?oaony io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia, e aai aaee/eia caaeneo io ?acia?ia
niaieoiiiai ni?ina. Aeioiae ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia iio?aaeaiea (N) e
naa?aaeaiey (S): Y = C + S. Anee iio?aaeaiea aiiaue ia?acoao ni?in ia
i?iaeoeou e oneoae, oi naa?aaeaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia nicaeatho aai.
Iiyoiio anee au, e?iia iio?aaeaiey, ionoonoaiaaee ae?oaea oaeoi?u
oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina, oi ii aue au ieaea, /ai iieo/aiiue aeioiae, oi
anoue aue au iaaeinoaoi/ai aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey i?aaeiae caiyoinoe e
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaeiaei a iauanoaa eiathony eiaanoeoeee, oi anoue n?aaenoaa. eaeouea ia
oaaee/aiea eaieoaea. Eiaanoeoeee (I), eae e iio?aaeaiea, ia?acotho ni?in
ia i?iaeoeou e oneoae. Eo enoi/ieeii yaeythony naa?aaeaiey, ii iie
iaiaycaoaeueii ?aaiu iineaaeiei. A iauai neo/aa eiaanoeoeee ia
i?aainoiaeyo naa?aaeaiee: I ( S.

A neo/aa, anee ?acia? eiaanoeoeee iaiueoa aaee/eiu naa?aaeaiee,
niaieoiiue ni?in noaiiaeony iaaeinoaoi/iui aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey i?aaeiae
caiyoinoe. Ii aoaeao niiniaai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue caiyoinoue oieueei a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea iauai eiaanoeoeee niaiaaeaao n aaee/eiie naa?aaeaiee, oi
anoue eiaaea auiieiyaony: I = S.

Ia ?acia?u naa?aaeaiee e eiaanoeoeee aeaenoaotho ?aciua oaeoi?u.

.

Noiia neeiiiinoae e iio?aaeaieth e naa?aaeaieth, eae e noiia
i?aaeaeueiuo neeiiiinoae e iio?aaeaieth e naa?aaeaieth, i/aaeaeii
?aaiyaony aaeeieoea: n + s = 1; n( + s( = 1.

?acia? naa?aaeaiee au?aaeaaony eae S = sY , a i?e?ino naa?aaeaiee – eae
(S = s((Y. Iauai iio?aaeaiey – eae N = nY, a aai i?e?ino – eae (N =
n((Y.

Niaeanii eaeineaineie oai?ee, neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth (naa?aaeaieth)
ii?aaeaeyaony ineoieiaeae ethaeae. Ethaee ii naiae i?e?iaea oaeiau, /oi
n ?inoii aeioiaea neeiiiu ana aieueooth aai /anoue iai?aaeyoue ia
naa?aaeaiey, a iaiueooth – ia iio?aaeaiea. Eia/a aiai?y, neeiiiinoue e
iio?aaeaieth i?e oaaee/aiee aeioiaea oiaiueoaaony, a neeiiiinoue e
naa?aaeaieth – oaaee/eaaaony; oi anoue naa?aaeaiey ?anooo auno?aa, /ai
aeioiae.

?acia? aea eiaanoeoeee, ii oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe (eioi?oth
Eaein ?acaeaeye), caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai io i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/e
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e o?iaiy i?ioeaioa (ieaoa ca eaieoae). I?e iiauoaiee
(nieaeaiee) i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/e eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ni?in ia ieo (oi
anoue eiaanoeoeee) oaaee/eaaaony (oiaiueoaaony). E iaiai?io, i?e ?inoa
(iaaeaiee) o?iaiy i?ioeaioa ni?in ia eiaanoeoeee nieaeaaony (?anoao).

Iineieueeo ?acia?u eiaanoeoeee e naa?aaeaiee ii?aaeaeythony ?aciuie
yeiiiie/aneeie oaeoi?aie, oi eo niaiaaeaiea iiaeao i?iecieoe /enoi
neo/aeii. Iiyoiio aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?aaainoaa eiaanoeoeee e
naa?aaeaiee o?aaoaony ainoaea?noaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiieeo. Nooue
yoiai aicaeaenoaey – iiaeaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie aaee/eiu niaieoiiiai
ni?ina ia ?uiea. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aoaeao eiaoue ianoi iaaeinoaoie
ni?ina, e eae neaaenoaea – nie?auaiea caiyoinoe, e?eceniua yaeaiey a
yeiiiieea.

E?iia oiai, aicaeaenoaea eiaanoeoeee ia ?acia? niaieoiiiai aeioiaea
oneeeaaaony ioeueoeieeeaoi?ii. Ioeueoeieeeaoi? – yoi eiyooeoeeaio,
ia?aiiiaeaiea eioi?iai ia i?e?ino eiaanoeoeee iieacuaaao aaee/eio
i?e?inoa niaieoiiiai aeioiaea. Eia/a aiai?y, anee i?e?ino eiaanoeoeee
?aaai (I, a ioeueoeieeeaoi? – m, oi i?e?ino aeioiaea au?aaeaaony
oi?ioeie: (Y = m(I.

*oiau iiiyoue, eae ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eia ioeueoeieeeaoi?a, ?anniio?ei
oneiaiue i?eia?.

Aeiionoei, /oi i?aaeaeueiay neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth (n() ?aaia 0,8; a
i?aaeaeueiay neeiiiinoue e naa?aaeaieth (s(), niioaaonoaaiii, – 0,2. I?e
yoii iio?aaeaiea icia/aao iieoieo oiaa?ia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ionoue i?e aeaiiuo i?aaeiieiaeaieyo i?ienoiaeeo i?e?ino eiaanoeoeee,
?aaiue 1. Oiaaea yoi auciaao oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia ?uiea ia 1 e oaaee/eo
aeioiaeu oao oe?i, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho yoio i?e?ino ni?ina oiaa?aie,
oaeaea ia 1. Iaicia/ei ia?aciaaaoeeny i?e?ino aeioiaeia /a?ac (Y1 = 1.
Ii ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia iio?aaeaiea (N1= 0,8 e ia naa?aaeaiea: 0,2.

Iaeiaei oaaee/aiea iio?aaeaiey ia 0,8 auciaao iiaue i?e?ino aeioiaeia a
yeiiiieea, ?aaiue oaaee/aieth iio?aaeaiey, oi anoue 0,8. Aeioiaeu
aic?anooo o oao oe?i, ia i?iaeoeoeeth eioi?uo oaaee/eaaaony ni?in a
?acoeueoaoa i?e?inoa iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia. Iaicia/ei yoio iiaue
i?e?ino aeioiaeia /a?ac (Y2. Ii, a naith i/a?aaeue, oaeaea
?ani?aaeaeyaony ia iio?aaeaiea ((N2 = 0,8(0,8) e naa?aaeaiey ((S2 =
0,2(0,8).

Ia?aciaaaoeeny iiaue i?e?ino iio?aaeaiey, a naith i/a?aaeue, ii?iaeaeaao
aeaeueiaeoee i?e?ino aeioiaeia, ?aaiue i?e?inoo iio?aaeaiey: (Y3=
0,8(0,8; eioi?ue iiyoue ?aniaaeaaony ia i?e?ino iio?aaeaiey ((N3 =
0,8(0,8(0,8) e i?e?ino naa?aaeaiee ((S3 = 0,2(0,8(0,8). I/a?aaeiie
i?e?ino iio?aaeaiey ((N3 = 0,8(0,8(0,8) aucuaaao ia?aciaaiea iiaiai
i?e?inoa aeioiaeia ia oo aea aaee/eio. E o.ae.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii eiioeaioeee ioeueoeieeeaoi?a, eiaanoeoeee a
yeiiiieea ii?iaeaeatho aaneiia/iue ?yae i?e?inoia aeioiaeia,
?aniaaeathueony ia i?e?inou iio?aaeaiey e i?e?inou naa?aaeaiee. I?e?ino
aeioiaea n iiia?ii n iiaeii au?aceoue eae (Yn = 0,8n-1; niioaaonoaaiii
iio?aaeaiey eae (N3 = 0,8n; a n-ue i?e?ino naa?aaeaiee – eae (Sn =
0,2(0,8n.

= 1.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iaoai i?eia?a eiaanoeoeee ?acia?ii 1 aucaaee i?e?ino
niaieoiiiai aeioiaea ia 5 e naa?aaeaiee ia 1.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi ioeueoeieeeaoi? a aeaiiii neo/aa ?aaai 5, oi anoue
i?e?ino niaieoiiiai aeioiaea ?aaai iyoe i?e?inoai eiaanoeoeee. Iaeiaei
anee au i?iecioei ia oaaee/aiea, a nie?auaiea eiaanoeoeee ia 1, oi
aiaeiae/iuie ?annoaeaeaieyie iiaeii auei au aeieacaoue, /oi niaieoiiue
aeioiae oiaiueoeeny au ia 5. Ioeueoeieeeaoi?, oaeei ia?acii, oneeeaaao
eieaaaiey a yeiiiieea, aicieeathuea aneaaenoaea eciaiaiee a
eiaanoeoeeyo.

E?iia oiai, ec i?eaaaeaiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo aueeaaeie aeaeii, /oi a
?acoeueoaoa i?e?inoa aeioiaeia ia?aciaaeenue naa?aaeaiey, ii aaee/eia
?aaiua naeaeaiiui eiaanoeoeeyi (1 = 1). Eia/a aiai?y, eiaanoeoeee eae au
nicaeaee enoi/iee, ec eioi?iai iie iiaoo auoue i?ioeiaine?iaaiu.

; aaea: n( – i?aaeaeueiay neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth. I?e/ai a ea/anoaa
n( aa?aony aeiey iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia ia iieoieo oieueei
iaoeeiiaeueiuo oiaa?ia a iauae noiia aeioiaeia, iineieueeo cao?aou ia
i?eia?aoaiea eiii?oiuo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa ia nicaeatho aeioiaeia o
iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

.

Anee, iai?eia?, noiia a neiaeao aic?anoao ia (, oi i?e?ino aeioiaea
ninoaaeo m(, a anee ii nie?aoeony ia (, oi yoi auciaao oiaiueoaiea
aeioiaea ia m(.

Aeey eeethno?aoeee aeaenoaey ioeueoeieeeaoi?a ?anniio?ei oneiaiue
i?eia?.

Aeiionoei, /oi aeiey iaeiaia a aeioiaea ninoaaeyao 20 %, ia iio?aaeaiea
eaeao 75% aeioiaea, inoathuaainy iinea oieaou iaeiaia, e, e?iia oiai, 10
% aeioiaea ?anoiaeoaony ia i?eia?aoaiea eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia. A yoeo
oneiaeyo iaia/aaony nie?auaiea eiaanoeoeee ia 10 e oiaiueoaiea /enoiai
yenii?oa ia 5. *oi aeieaeii naeaeaoue i?aaeoaeuenoai, /oiau iiauneoue
niaieoiiue ni?in ia 6 e oai naiui iaania/eoue iiauoaiea caiyoinoe aei
o?aaoaiiai o?iaiy?

Eiioeaioeey ioeueoeieeeaoi?a ia icia/aao, /oi aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeyi
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aiciiaeii aaneiia/iia oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. N
oi/ee c?aiey oai?ee Eaeina, iaeneiaeueiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aie/ai
eiathueieny ?ano?naie e niioaaonoaoao iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa i?e iieiie
caiyoinoe. Anee ii aeinoeaioo, oi aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa
iaaiciiaeii. A yoii neo/aa ?ino niaieoiiiai ni?ina aoaeao aanoe ia e
?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa (e niaieoiiiai aeioiaea), a e eioeyoeee.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi aeaaiay caaea/a ainoaea?noaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue yooaeoeaiue niaieoiiue ni?in, oi anoue oaeie, eioi?ue
iaania/eaaao iieioth caiyoinoue e ia aaaeao e eioeyoeee.

18.2. ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea oiaa?ia. E?eaay IS

?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea oiaa?ia ii Eaeino aeinoeaaaony a oii neo/aa, eiaaea
niaieoiiue ni?in ia oiaa?u niaiaaeaao n eo niaieoiiui i?aaeeiaeaieai.
Aeioiae, i?e eioi?ii aeinoeaaaony aeaiiia ?aaainoai, iacuaaaony
?aaiiaaniui aeioiaeii.

?aaainoai niaieoiiiai ni?ina e niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey aiciiaeii i?e
?acee/iuo o?iaiyo caiyoinoe, oi anoue ?aciuo iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iiyoiio ?aaiiaaniue aeioiae iiaeao i?eieiaoue ?aciua cia/aiey.
Iaeaieueoay aai aaee/eia aeinoeaaaony i?e iaeneiaeueiii iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, oi anoue i?e iieiie caiyoinoe.

O?iaaiue ?aaiiaaniiai aeioiaea caaeneo io aaee/eiu niaieoiiiai ni?ina.
Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo eiiiiiaioia niaieoiiiai ni?ina yaeythony eiaanoeoeee.
*ai auoa iauai eiaanoeoeee, oai aieueoa aaee/eia ?aaiiaaniiai iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa (aeioiaea).

Eiaanoeoeee aea, niaeanii oai?ee Eaeina, iaoiaeyony a ia?aoiie
caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy i?ioeaioa: /ai auoa i?ioeaio, oai iaiueoa iauai
eiaanoeoeee. e iaiai?io. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi ia?aoiie yaeyaony e
caaeneiinoue ?aaiiaaniiai aeioiaea io o?iaiy i?ioeaioa. N iiauoaieai
o?iaiy i?ioeaioa ?aaiiaaniue aeioiae iaaeaao, a n aai oiaiueoaieai –
oaaee/eaaaony.

Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo o?iaiai i?ioeaioa e ?aaiiaaniui aeioiaeii,
au?aaeaiiay a aeaea a?aoeea, iieo/eea iacaaiea e?eaie IS (ni. ?en. 2).
Oaeia iacaaiea auoaeaao ec iieiaeaiey eaeineaineie oai?ee i oii, /oi
iaeiei ec iniiaiuo oneiaee ?aaiiaaney yaeyaony ?aaainoai eiaanoeoeee e
naa?aaeaiee: I = S. E?eaay IS a?aoe/anee ecia?aaeaao oa ninoiyiey a
yeiiiieea, i?e eioi?uo aeinoeaaaony aeaiiia ?aaainoai. Eii?aeeiaoa i
iaicia/aao o?iaaiue i?ioeaioiie noaaee, a Y – ?aaiiaaniue aeioiae.
?aaiiaaniue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa (aeioiae) i?e yoii ?anniao?eaaaony eae
caaenyuee oieueei io o?iaiy i?ioeaioa, a i?i/ea oaeoi?u i?aaeiieaaathony
iaeciaiiuie.

Aeeyiea ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia ia ?aaiiaaniue aeioiae au?aaeaaony a aeaea
naeaeaia e?eaie IS. Ana oaeoi?u, eioi?ua oaaee/eaatho niaieoiiue ni?in,
niauatho aa ai?aai aaa?o, /oi ecia?aaeaii eae ia?aoiae io IS e IS1. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo iiae aicaeaenoaeai: ?inoa i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoe e
iio?aaeaieth, oaaee/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e /enoiai yenii?oa,
nieaeaiey iaeiaia. Naeaea e?eaie IS ai?aai aaa?o au?aaeaao iauaa
iiauoaiea niai-

eoiiiai aeioiaea (iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa).

Aeaenoaea oaeoi?ia, nieaeathueo niaieoiiue ni?in, au?aaeaaony a aeaea
naeaeaiae?eaie IS aeaai aiec (ia?aoiae io IS e IS2). A yoii iai?aaeaiee
aeaenoaotho ia e?eaoth IS neaaeothuea oaeoi?u: nieaeaiea i?aaeaeueiie
neeiiiinoe e iio?aaeaieth, nie?auaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia e
/enoiai yenii?oa, ?ino iaeiaia. Niauaiea e?eaie IS aeaai aiec
ecia?aaeaao iauaa nie?auaiea niaieoiiiai aeioiaea (iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa).

18.3. ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea aeaiaa. E?eaay LM

Noaaea i?ioeaioa a oai?ee Eaeina o?aeooaony eae ii?aaeaeyaiay
?aaiiaaneai ni?ina ia aeaiueae e eo i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue
(ni. /anoue 1, oaia 4), n oi/ee c?aiey Eaeina, ana aiaaonoai eiaeeaeaeia
ninoieo ec aeaoo iniiaiuo /anoae: eeeaeaeiinoe (nianoaaiii aeaiueae) e
iaeeeaeaeiuo oeaiiinoae (eiouanoai, iaaeaeaeeiinoue, oeaiiua aoiaae).
Eiaeeaeaeu iinoiyiii ?aoatho aii?in i oii, eaeoth /anoue aiaaonoaa
eiaoue a aeaea aeaiaa, a eaeoth – a eiie oi?ia. Ii aaae iiiyoea
i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe. Yoi oi eiee/anoai aiaaonoaa, eioi?ia ethaee
oioyo eiaoue a aeaea aeaiaa.

Ii oai?ee Eaeina, ca iaeaaeaiea eeeaeaeiinoueth iaaei ieaoeoue iioa?ae
i?ioeaioia, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au iieo/aoue, anee au aeaiueae auee
aeiaeaiu a oeaiiua aoiaae eee eiouanoai, i?eiinyuaa aeioiae. Iiyoiio /ai
auoa i?ioeaio, oai ieaea i?aaeii/oaiea eeeaeaeiinoe (e auoa aeaeaiea
aeeaaeuaaoue aeaiueae a aeoeau, i?eiinyuea aeioiae). E iaiai?io, /ai
ieaea i?ioeaio, oai auoa i?aaeii/oaiea eeeaeaeiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii Eaeino, i?e iaeiii e oii aea o?iaia
i?iecaiaenoaa e oeai ia oiaa?u ni?in ia aeaiueae iaoiaeeony a ia?aoiie
caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa. Aeaiiay caaeneiinoue
au?aaeaaony n iiiiuueth e?eaie i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe L (ni. ?en. 3)

I?aaeeiaeaiea aea aeaiaa – yoi eiee/anoai aeaiaa a ia?auaiee. Aai
a?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea – aa?oeeaeueiay eeiey I. Ia?ana/aiea e?eaie
i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe L n i?yiie I iieacuaaao oi/eo ?aaiiaaney
ni?ina ia aeaiueae e eo i?aaeeiaeaiey. I?aeeiaoa yoie oi/ee
niioaaonoaoao ?aaiiaaniie noaaea i?ioeaioa.

Iieiaeaiea e?eaie i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe L, niaeanii eaeineaineie
oai?ee, caaeneo io ?acia?ia niaieoiiiai aeioiaea. *ai aieueoa aeioiae,
oai aieueoaa eiee/anoai aeaiaa ethaee oioyo eniieueciaaoue aeey iieoiee
oiaa?ia e a ea/anoaa aeaiaaeiuo ?aca?aia. Eia/a aiai?y, ia aanue i?e?ino
aeioiaea, a eeoue aai /anoue eaeao ia i?eia?aoaiea aeoeaia (oeaiiuo
aoiaa, iaaeaeaeeiinoe), aeathueo aeioiae.

Aic?anoaiea i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe n iiauoaieai ?acia?ia aeioiaea
a?aoe/anee ecia?aaeaaony naeaeaii e?eaie i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe L
ai?aai aaa?o.

Oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia aeaiueae i?e iaeciaiiii eo i?aaeeiaeaiee a
eaeineaineie oai?ee i?eaiaeeo e iiauoaieth ?aaiiaaniie noaaee i?ioeaioa.
Ia ?en. 3 aeaiiay caaeneiinoue au?aaeaaony oaaee/aieai i?aeeiaou oi/ee
ia?ana/aiey i?yiie I e?eauie L (c i1 aei i2) i?e naeaeaa e?eaie
i?aaeii/oaiey eeeaeaeiinoe io L1 e L2.

Iineieueeo n oaaee/aieai aeioiaea ?anoao i?aaeii/oaiea eeeaeaeiinoe, oi,
niaeanii eaeineaineie oai?ee, neaaeoao, /oi iiauoaaony e ?aaiiaaniay
noaaea i?ioeaioa. Eia/a aiai?y, eiaaony i?yiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
?acia?ii niaieoiiiai aeioiaea e ?aaiiaaniui o?iaiai i?ioeaioa.

Aeaiiay caaeneiinoue a?aoe/anee ecia?aaeaaony a aeaea e?eaie LM (ni.
?en. 4). E?eaay LM niaea?aeeo ana oaeea oi/ee, eii?aeeiaou eioi?uo
niioaaonoaotho ?aaiiaaniui ninoiyieyi ia ?uiea aeaiaa (?aaiiaaniay
noaaea i?ioeaioa a caaeneiinoe io oiai eee ae?oaiai cia/aiey niaieoiiiai
aeioiaea) i?e iaeciaiiii eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee.

Ia iieiaeaiea e?eaie LM aeeyao i?aaeaea anaai eiee/anoai aeaiaa a
ia?auaiee. I?e aai oaaee/aiee i?ienoiaeeo naeaea e?eaie ai?aai aiec (io
LM1 e LM2), a i?e oiaiueoaiee – aeaai aaa?o (io LM2 e LM1). A ia?aii
neo/aa niauaiea e?eaie au?aaeaao iauaa iiieaeaiea ?aaiiaaniie
i?ioeaioiie noaaee, a ai aoi?ii – aa iauaa iiauoaiea.

18.4. Iauaa yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea ii Aeae. Eaeino

Iauaa yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea ii Eaeino icia/aao ?aaiiaanea ia ?uiea
oiaa?ia e ?uiea aeaiaa. Iii ecia?aaeaaony a aeaea ia?ana/aiey e?eauo IS
e LM (ni. ?en. 5). Eii?aeeiaou oi/ee ia?ana/aiey yoeo e?eauo
niioaaonoaotho ?aaiiaaniui cia/aieyi niaieoiiiai aeioiaea (iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa) e noaaee i?ioeaioa.

?ac?aaioaiiue Eaeinii iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao eniieuecoaony aeey aiaeeca
yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia e ii?aaeaeaiey ia? ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieeo a oeaeyo iaania/aiey iieiie caiyoinoe e iauaai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney.

Iiae?iaiaa eaeineaineea iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeiiiieee aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu a neaaeothueo oaiao. Caeanue aea ioiaoei,
/oi oai?ey Eaeina, io?aaeay iaeioi?ua ?aaeueii nouanoaothuea acaeiinayce
a yeiiiieea, eiaao e ii?aaeaeaiiua neaaua ianoa.

I?aaeaea anaai yoi eanaaony oiai, /oi iia no?ieony ia noauaeoeaenoneie
oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, ?acaeaeyao aa o?aeoiaeo oeai, ca?aaioiie
ieaou, noaaee i?ioeaioa e o.ae. Yeiiiie/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe a oai?ee
Eaeina auaiaeyony ii nouanoao ec ineoieiaee iiaaaeaiey ethaeae.

A oai?ee Eaeina o/eouaaaony a iniiaiii iauay aaee/eia niaieoiiiai
ni?ina, a iaaeio?aneaaui naycyi, iauaeoeaiui yeiiiie/aneei i?iii?oeeyi
ia oaeaeyaony aeieaeiiai aieiaiey A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea aaaeiia
cia/aiea eiaao e oi, ia eaeea oiaa?u i?aaeuyaeyaony ni?in, a ia oieueei
aai iauay aaee/eia. Iai?eia?, anee i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea ni?ina ia
nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu ni noi?iiu eiino?aiiuo iieoiaoaeae e oaeia aea ii
aaee/eia nie?auaiea ni?ina ia ioa/anoaaiioth eiia/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth
(oiaa?u ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, n?aaenoaa o?oaea) ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea
ec-ca oneeaiey eiieo?aioeee ni noi?iiu eiino?aiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, oi
yoi i?eaiaeeo, eae i?aaeei, e na?ueaciiio yeiiiie/aneiio niaaeo.
Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea neooaoeey neiaeeeanue a iaoae yeiiiieea iinea 1992 a.
Ii oai?ee aea Eaeina a aeaiiie neooaoeee niaaea ia aeieaeii auoue.

Ia neo/aeii iia ieacaeanue ia a ninoiyiee iauynieoue ?yae yaeaiee,
aicieeoee a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea a 1970-a aa., i?aaeaea anaai
?ino oeai, iaaethaeaaoeeny a ia?eiaeu yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea, e ia niiaea
au?aaioaoue neieueei-ieaoaeue yooaeoeaiua ia?u i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenai 1970-o aiaeia.

Ianiioaaonoaea auaiaeia eaeineaineie oai?ee ?aaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei
i?ioeannai ioia/atho e aa iiiiiaiou – i?aaenoaaeoaee iaieeanne/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey [9, O.1, N.312-316].

Iai?eia?, iie oeacuaatho, /oi i?e iiauoaiee i?ioeaioa iiaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue i?eoie eaieoaea a no?aio e oaaee/aiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina e
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii eaeineaineie aea oai?ee a yoii neo/aa aeieaeii
eiaoue ianoi nie?auaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa (e?eaay IS). Iai?ioea, i?e
nieaeaiee i?ioeaioa aianoi ?inoa iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, eae yoi neaaeoao
ec eaeineaineie oai?ee, iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny iooie eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo
e a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai – nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?e iiauoaiee aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee /anoi iaaethaeaaony iiauoaiea
o?iaiy i?ioeaioa, yaeythuaany ?aaeoeeae ia eioeyoeeth, a ia aai
nieaeaiea, eae yoi auoaeaei au ec oai?ee Eaeina (naeaea e?eaie LM ai?aai
aiec).

Ianiio?y ia ?anniio?aiiua iaaeinoaoee, oai?ey Eaeina a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
eae oaea aiai?eeinue, neoaeeo iniiaie iaia?enenoneie iae?iyeiiiieee.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. *oi iiieiaaony a eaeineaineie oai?ee iiae ioeueoeieeeaoi?ii? Eae
?ann/eouaaaony aai aaee/eia?

2. A /ai ninoieo aeaenoaea ioeueoeieeeaoi?a a yeiiiieea?

3. Eaeiau iniiaiua yeaiaiou niaieoiiiai ni?ina niaeanii oai?ee Eaeina?
Eae aeeyao eo eciaiaiea ia iauai i?iecaiaenoaa (niaieoiiue aeioiae)?

4. *ai ia?aie/eaaaony ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa a eaeineaineie oai?ee?

5. Anaaaea ee, niaeanii oai?ee Eaeina, iiauoaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina
aaaeao e ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa? *oi iiieiaaony a eaeineaineie oai?ee iiae
yooaeoeaiui ni?inii?

6. *oi au?aaeaao e?eaay IS ? Iauynieoa, ii/aio iia eiaao ienoiaeyuee
aeae.

7. Eaeea oaeoi?u aeeytho ia iieiaeaiea e?eaie IS?

8. *oi iiieiaaony a oai?ee Eaeina iiae i?aaeii/oaieai eeeaeaeiinoe?

9. Eaeiaa caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ni?inii ia aeaiueae e o?iaiai i?ioeaioa a
eaeineaineie oai?ee? *ai iia iauyniyaony?

10. *oi au?aaeaao e?eaay LM? Ii/aio iia eiaao ainoiaeyuee aeae?

11. Eaeea oaeoi?u aeeytho ia iieiaeaiea e?eaie LM?

12. A /ai ninoieo iauaa yeiiiie/aneia ?aaiiaanea niaeanii oai?ee Eaeina?

13. N iiiiuueth e?eaie IS iieaaeeoa, /oi aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue, anee: a)
nie?aoeony i?aaeaeueiay neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth; a) nieceony o?iaaiue
i?ioeaioa; a) oaaee/eony /enoue yenii?o; a) iiauneony ?acia?
eiaanoeoeee; ae) oiaiueoaony i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua caeoiee.

14. N iiiiuueth e?eaie LM iieaaeeoa, /oi aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue, anee: a)
I?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaiaeeo iieeoeeo “aei?iaeo aeaiaa”. a) I?aaeoaeuenoai
niaa?oeei aeiiieieoaeueioth yienneth aeaiaa. a) Iiauneeny o?iaaiue
i?ioeaioa. a) Oaaee/eeny niaieoiiue aeioiae. ae) I?aaeoaeuenoai
i?iaiaeeo iieeoeeo “aeaoaauo aeaiaa”.

15. N iiiiuueth e?eauo IS e LM iieaaeeoa, /oi aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue,
anee: a) ?ino niaieoiiiai ni?ina aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oaaee/aieai
eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee; a) ?ino niaieoiiiai ni?ina aoaeao
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oiaiueoaieai eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee; a)
oiaiueoaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oiaiueoaieai
eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee; a) oiaiueoaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina aoaeao
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee.

16. N iiiiuueth e?eauo IS e LM iieaaeeoa, /oi aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue,
anee: a) ?ino eiaanoeoeee aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oaaee/aieai
eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee; a) ?ino i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia
aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oiaiueoaieai eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee; a)
oiaiueoaiea /enoiai yenii?oa aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oiaiueoaieai
eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee; a) oiaiueoaiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia
aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee.

17. Eniieuecoy a?aoeee e?eauo IS e LM, iieaaeeoa. /oi i?iecieaeao a
yeiiiieea, anee: a) Oaaee/eaaaony ?acia? eiaanoeoeee ca n/ao
naa?aaeaiee. a) Nie?auaaony i?aaeaeueiay neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth. a)
I?aaeoaeuenoai oaaee/eaaao naie ?anoiaeu, oeiaine?oy eo: ca n/ao
aeaiaaeiie yiennee; ca n/ao eiino?aiiuo caeiia; ca n/ao aioo?aiieo
caeiia; ca n/ao iiauoaiey iaeiaia. a) I?aaeoaeuenoai nie?auaao naie
?anoiaeu a oeaeyo oiaiueoaiey aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa. ae) I?aaeoaeuenoai
nie?auaao iaeiae e ia oo aea aaee/eio – ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa.

18. A eaeineaineie iiaeaee n iinoiyiiuie oeaiaie: iaeiae ninoaaeytho 25
% aeioiaeia; ia iio?aaeaiea eaeao 80 % ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea (aeioiaea
ca au/aoii iaeiaia).

a) Ii?aaeaeeoue aaee/eio ioeueoeieeeaoi?a.

a) Eae eciaieony aaee/eia ioeueoeieeeaoi?a, anee aeiaaaeyaony
neaaeothuaa oneiaea: 10 % aeioiaeia ?anoiaeoaony ia eiii?oiua caeoiee.

a) A oneiaeyo ioieoa a) i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea eiaanoeoeee ia 12.
Ii?aaeaeeoue: eae eciaieony aaee/eia a) iauaai aeioiaea e b)
iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia.

a) A oneiaeyo ioieoa a) i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea eiaanoeoeee ia 5 e
/enoiai yenii?oa – ia 10. *oi aeieaeii naeaeaoue i?aaeoaeuenoai, /oi
iauee aeioiae oaaee/eeny ia 10 ?

19. A eaeineaineie iiaeaee n iinoiyiiuie oeaiaie: iaeiae ninoaaeytho 20
% iauaai aeioiaea, ia eiii?oiua iieoiee o?aoeony 20 % iauaai aeioiaea,
ia iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu eaeao 75 % ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea. Eae
iiaeeyao ia aaee/eio iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia: a) nieaeaiea /enoiai
yenii?oa ia 30? a) oaaee/aiea eiaanoeoeee ia 18?

20. A oneiaeyo i?aaeuaeouae caaea/e eiaanoeoeee oaaee/eaathony ia 12,
eciaiaiea i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoe e iio?aaeaieth i?eaaei e nie?auaieth
iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia ia 30. ?ann/eoaeoa, eae aeieaeai eciaieoueny
?acia? i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, /oiau i?e?ino iio?aaeoaeueneeo
?anoiaeia aue ?aaai 10.

Oaia 19. Caiyoinoue e aac?aaioeoea

19.1. Iiiyoea caiyoinoe e aac?aaioeoeu

Caiyoinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao noaiaiue o/anoey ianaeaiey a iauanoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy caiyoinoe ec anaai ianaeaiey
auaeaeyaony yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiia. E iaio ioiinyony a?aaeaeaia
o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa, caieiathueany aeayoaeueiinoueth, i?eiinyuae
aeioiae, eee aeoeaii euouea oaeoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Oae, ia ia/aei 1997
a. a ?innee e yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiio ianaeaieth ioiineeinue 72,7
ieeeeiia /ae., eee i?eia?ii 49 % anae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey.

A caiyoia ianaeaiea aeeth/atho /anoue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey,
a oii /enea: ?aaioathueo ii iaeio, caiyouo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth, neoaeaueo a Aii?oaeaiiuo
Neeao (n?i/iay neoaeaa), o/aueony o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa. Ia ia/aei
1997 a. caiyoia ianaeaiea a ?innee ninoaaeyei 65,9 iei. /ae., eee 90,5 %
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi e caiyoui
ioiinyony ?aaioieee, ?aaioathuea iaiieioth ?aai/oth iaaeaeth ec-ca
oeiainiauo o?oaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey (ieiei 4 % caiyouo ia ia/aei 1997
a.); a oaeaea iaoiaeyueany a auioaeaeaiiuo ioioneao ii ?aoaieth
aaeieieno?aoeee (4,3 %).

E aac?aaioiui ioiinyony eeoea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa, eioi?oth
aeoeaii euoo aeayoaeueiinoue, i?eiinyuoth aeioiae, ii ia iiaoo aa iaeoe.
Ia ia/aei 1997 a. a ?innee ian/eouaaeinue 6,9 iei. aac?aaioiuo (9,5 % io
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey). Ec ieo auaeaeythony ioeoeeaeueii
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua aac?aaioiua, oi anoue oa, eoi ?aaoey?ii ioia/aaony a
neoaeaa caiyoinoe (3,4 % io yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey ia oio aea
iiiaio a?aiaie).

O?iaiai caiyoinoe iacuaaaony aeiey caiyoiai ianaeaiey a yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiii, o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu – aeiey aac?aaioiuo. Oae, ia ia/aei 1997
a. o?iaaiue caiyoinoe a ?innee ninoaaeye 90,5 %; a o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu
– 9,5 %. I?e yoii ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi caiyoinoue iiaeao auoue
/anoe/iie, a aac?aaioeoea aeey ?aciuo ethaeae – i?iaeieaeaoueny ?aciua
i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie.

Aeey aiaeeca o?iaiy caiyoinoe eniieuecoaony oa?iei “iieiay caiyoinoue”.
Aai niaea?aeaiea o?aeooaony a ?aciuo eiioeaioeeyo ii-?aciiio. A
iaieeanne/aneeo e eaeineaineie eiioeaioeeyo iiae iieiie caiyoinoueth
iiieiaaony ?aaainoai /enea aaeainee /eneo euoueo ?aaioo. A ia?enenoneie
oai?ee iia iiieiaaony eae ?aaeueiia iaania/aiea eaaeaeiio
o?oaeiniiniaiiio /eaio iauanoaa aiciiaeiinoe ?aaioaoue ii naiei
niiniaiinoyi (aa?aioey i?aaa ia o?oae).

19.2. Oi?iu aac?aaioeoeu e o?aeoiaee aa i?e/ei

Iaieeanne/aneay oai?ey auaeaeyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua oi?iu
aac?aaioeoeu:

1) O?eeoeeiiiay. Iia naycaia n anoanoaaiiie oaeo/anoueth eaae?ia e
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aeey eaaeaeiai aac?aaioiiai eiaaony naiaiaeiia
?aai/aa ianoi, ii o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, /oiau ii aai iaoae.

2) No?oeoo?iay. Iia aucaaia no?oeoo?iuie naeaeaaie a yeiiiieea,
iaiythueie no?oeoo?o ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo ii
i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiui a?oiiai. Iia i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
eaaeaeue aac?aaioiue iiaeao iaeoe naiaiaeiia ?aai/aa ianoi, ii aeey aai
o?oaeiono?ienoaa o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiay ia?aiiaeaioiaea (iieo/aiea
ae?oaie i?ioannee, niaoeeaeueiinoe, eaaeeoeeaoeee).

3) Naciiiay. Iia naycaia n naciiiuie eieaaaieyie ni?ina ia ?aai/oth
neeo. Iai?eia?, a naeueneii oicyenoaa iio?aaiinoue a ?aaioieeao
aic?anoaao a ia?eiae oai?ee o?iaeay e nie?auaaony a ceiiee ia?eiae.

Ia?a/eneaiiua aeaeu aac?aaioeoeu, niaeanii iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee, iinyo
anoanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? e iaono?aieiu ieeaeei ainoaea?noaaiiui
?aaoee?iaaieai.

4) Oeeeee/aneay aac?aaioeoea – iaoneiaeaia oeeeee/aneeie eieaaaieyie
ni?ina ia o?oae. Iia aic?anoaao a ia?eiae niaaea e canoiy e en/acaao ai
a?aiy iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia yeiiiieee. Yoe oacu oeeeea iii/a?aaeii
niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Ainoaea?noai, a niioaaonoaee n iaieeanne/aneie
oai?eae, a ninoiyiee ineaaeoue oeeeee/aneea eieaaaiey e nie?aoeoue
oeeeee/aneoth aac?aaioeoeo.

Iaieeanne/aneay oai?ey ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ?uii/iay yeiiiieea i?e
ionoonoaee iiiiiieecia ia ?uiea o?oaea e ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey aaoiiaoe/anee iiaeaea?aeeaaao
?aaiiaanea ni?ina ia o?oae e aai i?aaeeiaeaiey, oi anoue anoanoaaiiue
o?iaaiue caiyoinoe (aac?aaioeoeu). ?aaiiaanea aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao
onoaiiaeaiey noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou ia o?iaia, ?aaiii, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, a, n ae?oaie, – aai
i?aaeaeueiie oyaeanoe.

Anee aea ia ?uiea o?oaea ia?acothony iiiiiieee a eeoea i?ionithcia,
eioi?ua aeiaeaathony iiauoaiey noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou naa?o
?aaiiaaniie, eee ainoaea?noai naieie ?aoaieyie iiaeieiaao ieieiaeueioth
noaaeo ca?aaioiie ieaou auoa ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy, oi aac?aaioeoea
ia/eiaao i?aauoaoue anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi
caauoaiiay noaaea ca?aaioiie ieaou nie?auaao ni?in ia o?oae e
iaeiia?aiaiii oaaee/eaaao aai i?aaeeiaeaiea. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?acoaony
ecauoie i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea.

Niaeanii iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee, aeey nie?auaiey o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu e
iiauoaiey caiyoinoe iaiaoiaeeii ono?aieoue iiiiiieeci i?ionithcia ia
?uiea o?oaea e ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou,
naeaeaoue noaaeo ca?aaioiie ieaou naiaiaeii eieaaethuaeny iiae aeeyieai
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia o?oae. Anyeea ae?oaea iae?iyeiiiie/aneea ia?u
ii iiauoaieth o?iaiy caiyoinoe ath ioaa?aathony eae aaniieaciua.

A ioee/ea io iaieeanne/aneie, eaeineaineay eiioeaioeey enoiaeeo ec oiai,
/oi e a oneiaeyo naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea o?oaea /anoue
aac?aaioeoeu iiaeao auoue aucaaia iaaeinoaoeii yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina ia
oiaa?u iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iia au?aaeaao iaiieioth caiyoinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia e iiaeao auoue nie?auaia iin?aaenoaii
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. Iaania/aiea iieiie
caiyoinoe, n oi/ee c?aiey Aeae. Eaeina, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, yaeyaony
iaeiie ec aeaaiuo oeaeae aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa. I?e yoii iieiay
caiyoinoue o?aeooaony a eaeineaineie oai?ee eae iaee/ea oieueei
anoanoaaiiie aac?aaioeoeu, oi anoue oae aea, eae e a iaieeanne/aneie
oai?ee.

Ia?enenoneay oai?ey eia/a iiieiaao i?iaeaio aac?aaioeoeu. Iia enoiaeeo
ec oiai, /oi caiyoinoue ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony ni?inii ia ?aai/oth neeo
ni noi?iiu eaieoaea, a yoio ni?in caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai io ?acia?a
eaieoaea e aai i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey. Aic?anoaiea i?aaie/aneiai
no?iaiey eaieoaea aaaeao e ioiineoaeueiiio nieaeaieth ni?ina ia ?aai/oth
neeo (ii n?aaiaieth n oaaee/aieai eaieoaea).

I?aaeeiaeaiea aea ?aai/ae neeu oaaee/eaaaony a neeo ?aci?aiey /anoe
iaeeeo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae e eo i?aa?auaiey a iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia. A
?acoeueoaoa a eaieoaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa ia?acoaony ?aca?aiay a?iey
o?oaea – ethaee, aeoeaii euouea ?aaioo, ii ia iaoiaeyuea i?eiaiaiey
naiei o?oaeiaui niiniaiinoyi. *anoue ianaeaiey i?aa?auaaony a iaoia?ia,
oi anoue ethaeae, eioi?ua io/ayeenue e oaea ia euoo ?aaioo. Iie
ia?acotho nioeeaeueioth ii/ao i?anooiiinoe, i?inoeoooeee, ia?eiiaiee e
o. i.

Niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee, iniiaiuie oi?iaie aac?aaioeoeu yaeythony:

1) Oaeo/ay aac?aaioeoea – ?aaioieee oi i?eoyaeaathony, oi iooaeeeaathony
eaieoaeii, ia?aoiaey n iaeiiai ?aai/aai ianoa ia ae?oaia, a ?yaea
neo/aaa iaiyy i?ioanneth, eaaeeoeeaoeeth. A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iiiyoea
oaeo/ae aac?aaioeoeu niaiaaeaao n o?eeoeeiiiie e no?oeoo?iie oi?iaie
aac?aaioeoeu.

2) Canoieiay aac?aaioeoea. Iia icia/aao, /oi ?aaioieee eeoue
yieciaee/anee iaoiaeyo ?aaioo, a iniiaiii aea inoathony eeoaiiuie aa.

3) Ne?uoay – ?aaioieee eeoue oi?iaeueii caiyou, a ii nouanoao ia
iaania/aiu ?aaioie, aeathuae aeinoaoi/iue aeioiae. Iie ia ia?aoiaeyo a
?ac?yae “ioe?uouo” aac?aaioiuo, iineieueeo eeai ia ?aoathony iieeiooue
eiathuothny noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe, eeai iaaeathony ia eciaiaiey e
eo/oaio.

4) Oeeeee/aneay – aucaaiiay ?aaoey?iuie iiaoi?aieyie e?ecenia a
yeiiiieea.

5) Naciiiay – naycaia n naciiiuie eieaaaieyie ni?ina ia o?oae.

Aac?aaioeoea, niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee, – yaeaiea, naienoaaiiia
oieueei eaieoaeenoe/aneiio iauanoao. Iia icia/aao iaee/ea ?aca?aiie
a?iee o?oaea, eioi?ay ea?aao ?ieue anaaaea eiathuaainy a iaee/ee
?aca?aa, iaania/eaathuaai nea/eiia?aciua iaaeio?aneaaua ia?aeeau
eaieoaea. Iaee/ea ?aca?aiie a?iee o?oaea oaeaea neoaeeo n?aaenoaii
oneeaiey yenieoaoaoeee caiyouo ?aai/eo, eioi?ua iiae no?aoii oaieueiaiey
niaeaoathony ia iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiua aeey ieo oneiaey iaeia, ia aieueoee
o?oae ca oo aea eee iaiueooth iieaoo. Iaee/ea ?aca?aiie a?iee o?oaea
icia/aao, /oi eaieoaeeci aeaeaao /anoue ethaeae ioiineoaeueii ecauoi/iui
ianaeaieai, a eioi?uo eaieoae ia ioaeaeaaony.

Aieaa oiai, eiathuayny a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea e iaoneiaeaiiay
?inoii i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea oaiaeaioeey e ioiineoaeueiiio
nie?auaieth ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo (ii n?aaiaieth n aa i?aaeeiaeaieai)
aaaeao e iiauoaieth o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu. ?ino o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu
nii?iaiaeaeae eaieoaeeci ia anai i?ioyaeaiee aai enoi?ee. Yoa
oaiaeaioeey i?iyaeyaony e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, oioy a ia?eiaeu iaeeaeaiey
e iiaeuaia yeiiiieee /enei aac?aaioiuo nie?auaaony. Oae, a iineaaeiea
aiaeu ioeoeeaeueiay /eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo a no?aiao IYN? (24 iaeaieaa
?acaeoua eaieoaeenoe/aneea ainoaea?noaa) i?aauneea 35 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.
Ioeoeeaeueiua aeaiiua i n?aaeiaaiaeiaii o?iaia aac?aaioeoeu a no?aiao
IYN? i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea.

Oaaeeoea 1. N?aaeiee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu e n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu ?inoa
yeiiiieee a no?aiao IYN? [10, c.544-545; n.41]

Aiaeu 1975-80 aa. 1981-85 aa. 1986-90 aa. 1991-97 aa.

N?aaeiaaiaeiaie o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, a % 5,3 7,8 6,8 7,7

N?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaii i?e?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa, a % 3,0 2,5 3,1 2,7

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi iaeioi?ia iiieaeaiea o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu a
1986-90 aa. auei naycaii n iiauoaieai oaiiia ?inoa yeiiiieee (oaca
iiaeuaia yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea), a aai aic?anoaiea a 1981-85 aa. auei
aucaaii eo oiaiueoaieai (oaca niaaea e canoiy yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea).
Iaeiaei i?e yeiiiie/aneii iiaeuaia 1986-90 aa. n?aaeiee o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu ieacaeny a 1,28 ?aca auoa, /ai a 1975-80 aa., eiaaea oaiiu
?inoa yeiiiieee auee aeaaea /ooue ieaea, /ai a 1986-90 aa. A ia?eiae
yeiiiie/aneiai iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia 1994-97 aa. n?aaeiee o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu (7,7 %) aue ii/oe oaeei aea, eae a ia?eiae niaaea 1991-93
aa. e a 1,13 ?aca auoa, /ai a i?aaeuaeouai ia?eiaea iiaeuaia 1986-90 aa.
Yoi aiai?eo i iaee/ee oaiaeaioeee e iiauoaieth o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu
ia?yaeo n aai eieaaaieyie iiae aicaeaenoaeai oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee a
yeiiiieea.

Iaia?enenoneea oai?ee aeaeyo i?e/eio yoie oaiaeaioeee a onei?aiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, eioi?ue onei?yao e oaeoaeyao no?oeoo?iua
naeaeae a yeiiiieea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiauoaao o?iaaiue no?oeoo?iie (a
cia/eo, e anoanoaaiiie) aac?aaioeoeu.

Ia?enenoneay oai?ey, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, iauyniyao oeacaiioth
oaiaeaioeeth ?inoii i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea e ae?oaeie
iauaeoeaiuie caeiiiia?iinoyie aai iaeiieaiey, eioi?ua aaaeoo e
ioiineoaeueiiio nieaeaieth ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo i?e oaaee/aiee aa
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iniaaiii aunie o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a neaai?acaeouo
no?aiao Ao?eee, Acee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee, aoiaeyueo a ie?iaoth
eaieoaeenoe/aneoth nenoaio oicyenoaa. Yoi iauyniyaony yenieoaoaoeeae
ia?iaeia oeacaiiuo no?ai ?acaeouie eaieoaeenoe/aneeie ainoaea?noaaie.
(Ia yoii ?a/ue iieaeao iiae?iaiaa a oaia 22).

A oneiaeyo iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa,
niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee, aac?aaioeoea eneeth/aaony. Caeanue naie
o?oaeyueany ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue naiae caiyoinoe. ?ino oaoie/aneie
aii?oaeaiiinoe o?oaea e aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe eniieuecoaony eie eae
n?aaenoai aunaiaiaeaeaiey naiaai a?aiaie aeey auiieiaiey ?aciiia?aciuo
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, nie?auaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie e oaaee/aiey
naiaiaeiiai.

Iiuo ?acaeoey nioeeaeecia a NNN? e ae?oaeo no?aiao oaaaeeoaeueii
iieacae, /oi a nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa aa?aioe?oaony iieiay
caiyoinoue anao o?oaeiniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai, oioy oaoie/aneay
aii?oaeaiiinoue o?oaea e caeanue iai?a?uaii iiauoaaony.

A iaoae no?aia aac?aaioeoea auea eeeaeaee?iaaia e eiioeo 1920-o a. a.,
ii aiiaue iiyaeeanue a 1990-a a. a., a ia?eiae ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i. Nae/an
aa o?iaaiue auno?i ?anoao, aeinoea 9,5 % e noae auoa, /ai ioeoeeaeueiue
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a no?aiao IYN? (oioy i?ionithcu yoeo no?ai aeatho
nouanoaaiii aieaa aunieea aeaiiua ia o?iaia aac?aaioeoeu, /ai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa), e aieioioth i?eaeeceeny e o?iaith aac?aaioeoeu a
neaai?acaeouo no?aiao.

Iaeiaei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, o/eouaaaiue iaoae
noaoenoeeie, ioeaieaaao oieueei yaioth aac?aaioeoeo, ia aeeth/ay
ne?uooth, a aa o?iaaiue a ?innee nae/an i/aiue aunie. I?iaeieaeaiea
e?eceniuo yaeaiee a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea iaecaaaeii aoaeao aanoe e
i?aa?auaieth ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu a ioe?uooth. A ?acoeueoaoa
ioeoeeaeueiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu aoaeao iiauoaoueny. Ii ioeaieai
niaoeeaeenoia, a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu ii iiaeao aic?anoe aei 15-20 %.
Aeaaiie i?e/eiie aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee yaeyaony ia?aoiae e
eaieoaeenoe/aneiio niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaaiui oaeoi?ii aa ?inoa –
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen.

19.3. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea caiyoinoe

A nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea nouanoaoao ?yae eiioeaioeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe a oneiaeyo eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieee. Iniiaiuie ec ieo yaeythony: iaieeanne/aneay e eaeineaineay.

Niaeanii iaieeanne/aneie eiioeaioeee, ainoaea?noai aeieaeii eeoue
iaania/eoue ionoonoaea iiiiiieecia ia ?uiea o?oaea e noaaeeueiinoue
aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu. Yoeo oneiaee aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii aeey oiai, /oiau
aac?aaioeoea iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue ia anoanoaaiiii o?iaia.
?aciiaeaeiinoueth iaieeanne/aneeo eiioeaioeee yaeyaony oai?ey yeiiiieee
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ay n/eoaao, /oi aeey iaania/aiey iieiie caiyoinoe
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii oaeaea anaia?ii noeioee?iaaoue ?ino
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ii oai?ee Eaeina, ainoaea?noai aeieaeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iieioth
caiyoinoue iooai iiaeaea?aeaiey yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina ia ?uiea, a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa iaecaaaeii iiauoaiea o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu.

Aac?aaioeoea yaeyaony iaeiie ec na?ueaciuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
i?iaeai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa. Aa iiauoaiea nii?iaiaeaeaaony
?inoii i?anooiiinoe, ia?eiiaiee, aeeiaieecia, naiioaeenoa e ae?oaeo
nioeeaeueiuo aieaciae. Iiyoiio a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao
ainoaea?noai i?eieiaao aeoeaiia o/anoea a ?aaoee?iaaiee caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey. Oeaeue ?aaoee?iaaiey – nie?aoeoue aac?aaioeoeo, iiauneoue
o?iaaiue caiyoinoe.

Ai anao ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao eiaaony ainoaea?noaaiiay
neoaeaa caiyoinoe. Iia caieiaaony nai?ii naaaeaiee i iaee/ee naiaiaeiuo
?aai/eo iano, eioi?ie?iaaieai i ieo aac?aaioiuo, ?aaeno?aoeeae
aac?aaioiuo, i?aaiecaoeeae eo ia?aiao/aiey. A ?yaea neo/aaa neoaeaa
caiyoinoe iiaeao i?einoaiaaeeaaoue ianniaua oaieueiaiey, noeioee?iaaoue
nicaeaiea iiauo ?aai/eo iano, i?aaieciauaaoue iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou n
oeaeueth nie?auaiey aac?aaioeoeu.

N oie aea oeaeueth ainoaea?noai iiiu?yao ?acaeoea iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia ia oieueei iiauoaao o?iaaiue caiyoinoe,
ii e i?eiineo aeiiieieoaeueiua aeioiaeu a athaeaeao. Ia nie?auaiea
o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu iai?aaeaiu e ia?u ii aioeoeeeee/aneiio
?aaoee?iaaieth yeiiiieee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea caiyoinoe iicaieyao ianeieueei nie?aoeoue
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu (ca n/ao onei?aiey iienea ?aaioieeaie naiaiaeiuo
?aai/eo iano, eo ia?aiao/aiey aeey ?aaiou ii iiaui niaoeeaeueiinoyi,
nicaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo iano, i?einoaiiaee ianniauo
oaieueiaiee e o.i.). Iaeiaei, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaiiua noaoenoeee,
iii ia a ninoiyiee iieiinoueth i?aiaeieaoue oaiaeaioeeth e iiauoaieth
o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu, eioi?ay iineo iauaeoeaii iaoneiaeaiiue oa?aeoa?.

Ia?yaeo n ?aaoee?iaaieai o?iaiy caiyoinoe, ainoaea?noai i?eieiaao ia?u e
ii iaeaa/aieth o/anoe aac?aaioiuo. Aac?aaioiua i?e oneiaee, /oi iie
?aaoey?ii ?aaeno?e?othony a neoaeaa caiyoinoe, iieo/atho a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea. ?acia? iiniaey caaeneo
io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea ionoonoaey ?aaiou, eaaeeoeeaoeee
?aaioieea, aai n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou, iieo/aaiie aei oaieueiaiey, e
ae?. oaeoi?ia. I?e yoii neoaeaa caiyoinoe inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue ca oai,
/oiau aac?aaioiua ia iaieiaeenue aoaeia io iaa ia ?aaioo (/oi neoaeeo
iniiaaieai aeey i?ae?auaiey auieaou iiniaee).

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. E aac?aaioiui ioiinyony:

1. Eeoea, ioi?ieaiiua ia ?aaioa, ii iaoiaeyueany a auioaeaeaiiii
ioionea.

2. O/aueany, aeinoeaoea 18 eao, ia caiyoua aeayoaeueiinoueth, aeathuae
aeioiae.

3. Eeoea o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa, ia caiyoua aeayoaeueiinoueth,
aeathuae aeioiae e ia euouea aa.

4. A?aaeaeaia o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa, ia eiathuea ?aaioo , euouea aa,
ii ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua a neoaeaa caiyoinoe.

5. Eeoea, ?aaioathuea iaiieioth ?aai/oth iaaeaeth aaeaeo oeiainiauo
o?oaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey.

A: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 2, 3, 4. A: 3, 4.
A: 4. Ae: 3.

2. Iaieeanne/aneay oai?ey auaeaeyao neaaeothuea oi?iu aac?aaioeoeu:

1. Ne?uoay.

2. *anoe/iay.

3. Canoieiay.

4. Oeeeee/aneay.

5. No?oeoo?iay.

A: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 5. A: 4, 5. A:
2, 4, 5. Ae: 1, 4, 5.

3. Oaiaeaioeey e iiauoaieth o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu, niaeanii ia?enenoneie
oai?ee, iaoneiaeaia:

1. Onei?aieai no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a yeiiiieea.

2. Iiauoaieai ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea.

3. ?inoii i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea.

4. Auoaniaieai iaeeiai oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e?oiiui
eaieoaeenoe/aneei.

5. Onoaiiaeaieai a yeiiiieea ainiiaenoaa iiiiiieee.

A: 5. A: 4, 5. A: 3, 4, 5. A: 3, 4. Ae: 1, 2, 3,
4. A: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

4. Niaeanii iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee, iieiay caiyoinoue icia/aao:

1. ?aaainoai /enea aaeainee e /enea aac?aaioiuo.

2. Iaee/ea oieueei o?eeoeeiiiie aac?aaioeoeu.

3. Iaee/ea oieueei no?oeoo?iie aac?aaioeoeu.

4. Iaee/ea o?eeoeeiiiie e no?oeoo?iie aac?aaioeoeu.

5. Ana ?aaioathuea caiyou iieioth ?aai/oth iaaeaeth.

A: 1. A: 1, 2. A: 1, 3. A: 1, 4.
Ae: 1, 5. A: 5.

5. E caiyoiio ianaeaieth ioiinyony:

1. I?aaei?eieiaoaee.

2. O/aueany oeie.

3. Eeoea, ?aaioathuea a ee/iii iiaeniaiii oicyenoaa.

4. ?aaioieee, iaoiaeyueany a auioaeaeaiiuo ioioneao ii ?aoaieth
aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

5. Aeiiioicyeee.

A: 1. A: 1, 2. A: 1, 2, 3. A: 1, 3, 4.
Ae: 1, 4. A: 1, 4, 5.

6. Ia?enenoneay oai?ey auaeaeyao neaaeothuea oi?iu aac?aaioeoeu:

1. O?eeoeeiiiay.

2. No?oeoo?iay.

3. Ne?uoay.

4. *anoe/iay.

5. Canoieiay.

A: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 2, 3, 4, 5. A: 2, 5.
A: 3, 5. Ae: 1, 2.

7. Anoanoaaiiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, niaeanii iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee,
icia/aao:

1. Oieueei o?eeoeeiiioth aac?aaioeoeo.

2. Oieueei o?eeoeeiiioth e no?oeoo?ioth aac?aaioeoeo.

3. O?eeoeeiiioth, no?oeoo?ioth e oeeeee/aneoth aac?aaioeoeo.

4. Oieueei /anoe/ioth e no?oeoo?ioth aac?aaioeoeo.

5. Oieueei canoieioth aac?aaioeoeo.

8. Oaiaeaioeey e iiauoaieth o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu, niaeanii
iaieeanne/aneie oai?ee, naycaia n:

1. ?inoii i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea.

2. Onei?aieai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

3. Oneeaieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee.

4. Oneeaieai i?ionithcia eae iiiiiieenoia ia ?uiea o?oaea.

5. Nieaeaieai i?aaeaeueiie ioaea/e o?oaea ii n?aaiaieth n eaieoaeii.

A: 1, 2. A: 3, 4, 5. A: 2, 3, 4.
A: 5. Ae: 1, 3, 4.

9. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iaieeanne/aneie e eaeineaineie oai?eyie a
iiieiaiee i?e/ei aac?aaioeoeu e caaea/ ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
caiyoinoe?

10. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ia?enenoneie e iaieeanne/aneie oai?eyie a
iiieiaiee i?e/ei aac?aaioeoeu e aa oi?i?

11. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ia?enenoneie e eaeineaineie oai?eyie a
iiieiaiee i?e/ei aac?aaioeoeu?

12. Eaeeie iaoiaeaie inouanoaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
caiyoinoe a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao?

13. Eaeiau iniiaiua ooieoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau caiyoinoe?

14. Ii/aio a nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa ionoonoaoao aac?aaioeoea?

15. I?aaeeiaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu ca iaeioi?ue ia?eiae aneaaenoaea ?inoa
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey e ?aci?aiey iaeeeo /anoiuo nianoaaiieeia
oaaee/eeinue n 40 aei 50 iei. /ae. Ca oio aea ia?eiae i?aaie/aneia
no?iaiea eaieoaea iiauneeinue n 5:1 aei 6:1, noieiinoue ?aai/ae neeu
oiaea a n?aaeiai ia 5 %, ?acia? eaieoaea oaaee/eeny ia 25 %.
Ii?aaeaeeoue: eaeei noae o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a eiioea ia?eiaea, anee a
aai ia/aea ii aue ?aaai 4 %.

Oaia 20. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino e yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu

20.1. Nouiinoue, iieacaoaee e oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – yoi ?ino ?acoeueoaoia iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa. Ii au?aaeaao ?acaeoea yeiiiieee, iiauoaiea o?iaiy
aeecie ianaeaiey. Iieacaoaeyie yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeythony oaiiu
?inoa iniiaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae – aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai
i?iaeoeoa, iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey e
ae?. Iiae oaiiaie ?inoa oiai eee ae?oaiai iieacaoaey iau/ii iiieiatho
i?ioeaioiia au?aaeaiea aai i?e?inoa ca eaeie-eeai ia?eiae. Ii oaiiai
?inoa iiaeii noaeeoue i oii, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a yeiiiieea: iaaaoeaiua eee
iiceoeaiua i?ioeannu. Iaaeaiea oaiiia ?inoa aiai?eo ia oneeaiee
iaaeaeaoaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee, a noaaeeueiua e aunieea oaiiu ?inoa – i
aeaaii?eyoiuo oaiaeaioeeyo.

N?aaiei n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu ?inoa aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa a
iaoae no?aia e a NOA ca ?yae ia?eiaeia: ni. oaaeeoeo 2.

Oaaeeoea 2. N?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu i?e?inoa AAI (a % )

Ia?eiae 1950-1965 1966- 1970 1971- 1975 1976- 1980 1981-

1985 1986- 1988 1989- 1990 1991- 1995 1996 1997

NNN? (?inney) 9,1 7,6 6,2 4,8 3,6 3,9 0,5 -14,0 -6,0 0,4

NOA 3,7 3,0 2,2 3,4 2,6 3,3 1,7 2,7 2,7 2,8

Ec oaaeeoeu 2 aeaeii, /oi a NOA a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea
(aieioue aei eiioea 1980-o aa.) oaiiu ?inoa auee ieaea, /ai a NNN?, ii
iie inoaaaeenue a oeaeii aieaa noaaeeueiuie, oioy e nieaeaeenue. A iaoae
aea no?aia i?iecioae ia?aoiae io aunieeo oaiiia ?inoa a 1950-65 aa. e eo
iinoaiaiiiio nieaeaieth aei o?iaiy oaiiia ?inoa NOA a 1980-a aa. e e
iaaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaa (io?eoeaoaeueiua oaiiu ?inoa) – a 1990-a a. a.
O?iaaiue AAI a ?innee a 1997 a. ninoaaee anaai 45 % io aai o?iaiy 1990
a. (nieaeaiea ia 55 %) e ieacaeny i?eia?ii ?aaiui iauaio AAI 1970 a., oi
anoue no?aia ieacaeanue ioa?ioaiiie ia 25 eao iacaae.

Ia aaee/eio oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa ieacuaatho aeeyiea neaaeothuea
iniiaiua oaeoi?u:

1) Naaeaine?iaaiiinoue iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Iia icia/aao
iiaeaea?aeaiea i?iii?oeee aini?iecaiaenoaa. *ai iieiaa iie
niaethaeathony, oai aeaaii?eyoiaa oneiaey aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. E
iaiai?io, ia?ooaiea i?iii?oeee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
cao?oaeiyao yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. E /ai neeueiaa yoi ia?ooaiea, oai, eae
i?aaeei, ieaea oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

A iaoae no?aia ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 1960-o aa. iiyaeeenue e noaee
ia?anoaoue yeiiiie/aneea aeeni?iii?oeee: iaaeaeo ?aai/eie ianoaie e
o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie (ecauoie ?aai/eo iano), iaaeaeo aeaiaaeiie e
oiaa?iie iannaie (aeaoeoeeo oiaa?ia), iaaeaeo oeaiaie e ecaea?aeeaie
i?iecaiaenoaa (ianiioaaonoaea oeai noieiinoe, oauoi/iinoue ?yaea
io?aneae) e ae?oaea. Yoe yaeaiey auee aucaaiu oicyenoaaiiie ?aoi?iie
1965-66 a. a., nicaeaaoae cao?aoiue oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci a yeiiiieea.
Eo ?acoeueoaoii noaei iaaeaiea oaiiia ?inoa yeiiiieee.

A oiaea ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu 1990-o a. a. aeeni?iii?oeee a yeiiiieea
ianoieueei oneeeeenue, /oi aueeeenue a iaauaaeue ii ianooaaai
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. Eae neaaenoaea – iaaaeueiue niaae i?iecaiaenoaa.

2) O?iaaiue iaeiieaiey. Ii ecia?yaony ioiioaieai /enoiai iaeiieaiey e
iaoeeiiaeueiiio aeioiaeo eee aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey e AII e iacuaaaony
ii?iie iaeiieaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey onoaiiaeea, /oi oaiiu ?inoa yeiiiieee i?yii caaenyo
io ii?iu iaeiieaiey. Aia?eeaineea yeiiiienou aeaaea auaaee oi?ioeo,
niaeanii eioi?ie oaaee/aiea ii?iu iaeiieaiey ia 1 % aeaao oaaee/aiea
oaiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa ia 0,1 %. I?aaaea a NNN? noaaeeueiue
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino ia o?iaia nauoa 9 % a aiae aue aeinoeaioo ia i?e
ii?ia iaeiieaiey a 90 %, eae yoi auoaeaao ec oiiiyiooie oi?ioeu, a i?e
aa o?iaia a n?aaeiai a 32 %. Iaeaieaa aunieay ii?ia iaeiieaiey eiaea
ianoi a ssiiiee (34 %), eioi?ay oaeaea ?acaeaaeanue a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea i/aiue auno?uie oaiiaie.

Cia/aiea iaeiieaiey a oii, /oi eiaiii aeaaiaea?y aio i?ienoiaeeo
iaiiaeaiea e ?anoe?aiea oaoie/aneie aacu i?iecaiaenoaa, a cia/eo,
nicaeathony iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaaiaea?y aunieie ii?ia iaeiieaiey a ssiiiee iaiiaeaiea
aeoeaiie /anoe iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia aeinoeaaeinue a
n?aaeiai ca 5-7 eao.

A iaoae aea no?aia a 1960-80 aa. a eniieueciaaiee iaeiieaiey, ianiio?y
ia aai aunieoth ii?io, iaaethaeaeenue, eae oaea aiai?eeinue a oaia 7,
iaaaoeaiua i?ioeannu (iai?aaeaiea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ia ia oaoie/aneia
ia?aaii?oaeaiea aeaenoaothuaai i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia nicaeaiea iiauo
?aai/eo iano). A 1990-a a. a. ia/aeinue iaaaeueiia nie?auaiea
iaeiieaiey, e nae/an aai o?iaaiue ia i?aauoaao 8 % iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea, /oi iaiiiai ieaea o?iaiy anao ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?ai.

Aeey aunieeo oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, oaeei ia?acii, o?aaoaony ia
oieueei iioeiaeueiay ii?ia iaeiieaiey (oi anoue iaania/eaathuay iaeaieaa
aunieea oaiiu ?inoa iio?aaeaiey ia aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao), ii e
iioeiaeueiay no?oeoo?a oiiaea iaeiieaiey, aai eniieueciaaiea n
iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoueth.

3) Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia au?aaeaaony iieacaoaeyie cao?ao
?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee (?ano?niaieinoue) eee auoiaeii
i?iaeoeoeee a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo ?ano?nia (?ano?niioaea/a). Onei?aiea
?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia iicaieyao oaaee/eoue oaiiu
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa i?e oao aea cao?aoao ?ano?nia (o?oaea, iniiaiuo e
iai?ioiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia). E iaiai?io, caiaaeeaiea ?inoa
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia eee aa iaaeaiea caiaaeeytho oaiiu
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

4) ?ino eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia, oeo/oaiea i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

?aaioieee – yoi aeaaiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiay neea iauanoaa. Eiaiii eo
o?oaeii nicaeaaony e inaaeaaaony iiaay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey. Iiyoiio
oaiiu ?inoa iai?yioth caaenyo io o?iaiy iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia. Oi aea
iiaeii neacaoue e i nayce oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa n o?iaiai
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

A 1950-a a. a. a NNN? auea eo/oay a ie?a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey.
Aia?eeaineea niaoeeaeenou, aiaeece?iaaaoea i?e/eiu aunieeo oaiiia ?inoa
niaaoneie yeiiiieee, i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi aeaaiie ec ieo yaeyaony
ia?aaeiaay nenoaia ia?aciaaiey. Yoio oaeo canoaaee i?aayuea e?oae
?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eoue
ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea ia?aciaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa aeiey cao?ao
ia ia?aciaaiea a AII auea iiauoaia a ianeieueei ?ac. O ian aea
iaaethaeaeenue ia?aoiua oaiaeaioeee. Oaea a 1970-a aa. iiiaea o/aaiua
caaaaeaiey ia iieo/aee nia?aiaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, o/eee ia onoa?aaoeo
iaoeiao e aiia?aoao. Auioneieee, i?eaey ia i?iecaiaenoai, ia oiaee
eniieueciaaoue ia?aaeiaoth oaoieeo. A a ia?eiae ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu a iaoae
no?aia ia/aeinue ?ac?ooaiea ia?aciaaiey a iieiii niunea neiaa.
Ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea ia?aciaaiey ?acei nie?aoeeinue. O/aaiua
caaaaeaiey ia a ninoiyiee ia oieueei a iaiaoiaeeiii iauaia iaiiaeyoue
iaoa?eaeueioth aaco o/aaiiai i?ioeanna, ii aeaaea iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aa
?aaioiniiniaiinoue, i?eia?aoaoue ioaeiua o/aaieee e o/aaiua iiniaey.

*oi aea eanaaony i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oi aiaae?aiea a 1960-a aa.
a yeiiiieeo NNN? cao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia iaoeaeeei
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu e i?aaei?eyoey ia eneonnoaaiiia oaei?iaeaiea
i?iaeoeoeee, iineieueeo /ai aei?iaea auea i?iaeoeoeey, oai auaiaeiaa
noaei aa i?iecaiaeeoue. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai noaei nieaeaiea oaiiia ?inoa
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. A ia?eiae ?uii/iie
?aoi?iu yeiiiieea aiiaua ieacaeanue aeaci?aaieciaaiiie, /oi e aucaaei
iaaaeueiue niaae i?iecaiaenoaa.

A iaeioi?uo yeiiiie/aneeo eiioeaioeeyo auaeaeaathony e ae?oaea oaeoi?u
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Oae, a eaeineaineie eiioeaioeee aeaaiui oaeoi?ii
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa n/eoaaony iaee/ea yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina ia ?uiea.
Iaaeaeo oai yoa eiioeaioeey ia a ninoiyiee iauynieoue i?e/eiu oaeiai
yaeaiey eae noaaoeyoeey, eiaaea ?ino oeai nii?iaiaeaeaaony yeiiiie/aneei
niaaeii.

A iiiaoa?enoneie eiioeaioeee aeaaiui oaeoi?ii noaaeeueiiai ?inoa
yeiiiieee n/eoaaony noaaeeueiinoue aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee. Iaeiaei
a iaoae no?aia naieeaoiea iiiuoee i?aaeoaeuenoaa noaaeeece?iaaoue
aeaiaaeioth ianno iaa?ioeenue ia?iiiui yeiiiie/aneei niaaeii.

N oi/ee c?aiey oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey, aeaaiui oaeoi?ii
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa yaeyaony noeioee?iaaiea ?inoa niaieoiiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia ca n/ao iioeiecaoeee iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, i /ai oaea
aiai?eeinue auoa.

20.2. Oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa

Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea oeiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa:

– Yenoaineaiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – ?ino ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa ca
n/ao ?anoe?aiey iauaia eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia, aac iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey. I?e yenoaineaiii yeiiiie/aneii ?inoa
ionoonoaoao ?ino iauanoaaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ia nieaeaaony
noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, ia oeo/oathony ae?oaea iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe
(iaoa?eaeiaieinoue, oiiaeiioaea/a). ?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaa ?anooo ia
auno?aa, /ai cao?aou.

– Eioaineaiue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – ?ino ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa ca
n/ao iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia, aac oaaee/aiey
iauaia eo eniieueciaaiey. A yoii neo/aa eiaao ianoi ?ino iauanoaaiiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, nieaeaiea noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, iiauoaiea
ae?oaeo iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

A /enoii aeaea ie yenoaineaiue, ie eioaineaiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa
iau/ii ia ano?a/aaony. Oaeoe/anee eiaao ianoi e oio, e ae?oaie oei
?inoa. Iiyoiio – a caaeneiinoe io oaiiia ?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa – aiai?yo i i?aiaeaaeaiee oiai eee ae?oaiai ec ieo.

Eae i?aaeei, iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai ?acaeaaaony auno?aa a oneiaeyo
i?aiaeaaeaiey eioaineaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, oi anoue iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia. I?e i?aiaeaaeaiee aea
yenoaineaiiai oa?aeoa?a yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa nei?inoue ?acaeoey
iauanoaa caiaaeeyaony.

Neacaiiia iaaeyaeii i?iyaeeinue a iineaaiaiiii ?acaeoee ioa/anoaaiiie
yeiiiieee. Aei na?aaeeiu 1960-o aa. a iae a iniiaiii i?aiaeaaeae
eioaineaiue oei ?inoa e oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa auee aunieeie; caoai,
aei ia/aea 1990-o a. a. oae a iniiaiii yenoaineaiue ?ino e oaiiu ?inoa
iaaeaee. A a 1990-a aiaeu ?ino aiiaua caeii/eeny e ia/aeny yeiiiie/aneee
niaae (eiiaaea niaae iacuaatho io?eoeaoaeueiui ?inoii).

Auaeaeytho oaeaea: ?ano?niaieee e ?ano?ninaa?aaathuee oeiu
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

?ano?niaieee ?ino eiaao ianoi i?e oaaee/aiee iieacaoaeae ?ano?niaieinoe.
Iai?eia?, anee oaaee/eaaaony o?oaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee, oi –
o?oaeiaieee ?ino; anee ?anoao iaoa?eaeiaieinoue – oi iaoa?eaeiaieee;
anee iiauoaaony eaieoaeiaieinoue – eaieoaeiaieee e o. ae.

?ano?ninaa?aaathuee ?ino eiaao ianoi i?e nieaeaiee iieacaoaeae
?ano?niaieinoe (nieaeaiea o?oaeiaieinoe – o?oaeinaa?aaathuee; nieaeaiea
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe – iaoa?eaeinaa?aaathuee e o. ae.).

A NNN? aei eiioea 1960-o a. a. yeiiiie/aneee ?ino aue
?ano?ninaa?aaathuei. N eiioea 1960-o a. a. ia/aeinue iiauoaiea
oiiaeiaieinoe i?iecaiaenoaa (nie?auaiea oiiaeiioaea/e), a oaiiu
nieaeaiey o?oaeiaieinoe e iaoa?eaeiaieinoe noaee oiaiueoaoueny. A 1990-a
a. a. eiaei ianoi oooaeoaiea anao iieacaoaeae yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe.

20.3. Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu e oeeeeu

Aeey eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ai oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?
?acaeoey. Yoi au?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a ?aaoey?iii iiaoi?aiee
yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia.

Ia?aue yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen i?iecioae a Aiaeee a 1825 a. A oi a?aiy
oieueei a yoie no?aia onoaiiaeeinue ainiiaenoai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii ia?a noaiiaeaiey yoiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa a
ae?oaeo no?aiao e iie aiaeaeaeenue a noa?o yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia.
Aoi?ie e?ecen a 1836-37 aa. ioaaoee oaea Aiaeeth e NOA. A 1847-48 aa. ii
?ani?ino?aieeny ia Aiaeeth, NOA, Aa?iaieth e O?aioeeth. N 1857 a.
yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu i?eia?aee oa?aeoa? ie?iauo. Iie iiaoi?yeenue
?aaoey?ii, /a?ac 10-11 eao.

Iaeaieaa neeueiui ca anth enoi?eth eaieoaeecia aue e?ecen 1929-33 aa.,
iacaaiiue “aaeeeie yeiiiie/aneie aeai?anneae”. Ii i?iaeieaeaeny 37
ianyoeaa. I?iecaiaenoai a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao oiaei ca
a?aiy e?ecena ia 46 %, /eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo oaaee/eeanue a 4,4 ?aca
(n 5,9 aei 26 iei. /ae.), ?aaeueiua aeioiaeu o?oaeyueony oiaee i?eia?ii
a 3 ?aca. Neaaeothuee ca iei yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1937-38 aa. aueeeny a
?acaycuaaiea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu.

Iinea i/a?aaeiiai e?ecena eaieoaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieea i?ioiaeeo ia?eiaeu
canoiy, iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia, eioi?ue ieai/eaaaony iiaui e?ecenii.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee iineo
oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?, oi anoue i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua
neaaeothuea ae?oa ca ae?oaii oacu. A eaaeaeii oeeeea auaeaeyaony /aou?a
oacu:

1) E?ecen – ia?aciaaiea iauaai i?aauoaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii,
eioi?ia aucuaaao nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey e?ecena oa?aeoa?ii
caoiaa?eaaiea i?iaeoeoeee, ?ino iaieaoaaeae, iaoaaoea aeaiaa e
oaei?iaeaiea e?aaeeoa, nieaeaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
oooaeoaiea oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae, iaaeaiea eo?na aeoeee, nieaeaiea
iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, oaieueiaiey ?aaioieeia, ?ino aac?aaioeoeu,
ianniaia aaie?ionoai oe?i, ?ino iaaeia?ocee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae,
nieaeaiea o?iaiy aeecie o?oaeyueony.

2) Canoie – ia?eiae, eiaaea niaae i?ae?auaaony, ii i?iecaiaenoai aua ia
oaaee/eaaaony. Oe?iu, noa?aynue auaeeoue, inouanoaeytho ianniaia
oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, oeo/oatho i?aaiecaoeeth
o?oaea, nie?auatho ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa (a oii /enea ca n/ao
ca?aaioiie ieaou), iaiiaeytho i?iaeoeoeeth. I?ienoiaeeo ?annanuaaiea
caiania ia?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. I?aaeeiaeaiea i?eoiaeeo a
niioaaonoaea ni ni?inii.

3) Iaeeaeaiea. Oe?iu, ia?aoaaeoea e i?iecaiaenoao aieaa aeaoaaie, aieaa
yooaeoeaiie i?iaeoeoeee, ?anoe?ytho aa nauo e ia?aueaatho i?eaueue.
Ia/eiaao ?anoe ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iiauoaaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa. Oaaee/eaathony iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa. ?anoao
eo?n aeoeee. Aeaiiay oaca ieai/eaaaony a oio iiiaio, eiaaea
i?iecaiaenoai auoiaeeo ia aeie?eceniue o?iaaiue.

4) Iiaeuai ia/eiaaony n oiai iiiaioa, eiaaea i?iecaiaenoai i?aauneo
aeie?eceniue o?iaaiue. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?ii: ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa,
?ino ni?ina ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu, ioiineoaeueii aunieee o?iaaiue
?aioaaaeueiinoe e eo?na aeoeee. Iiaeuai caaa?oaaony ia/aeii iiaiai
e?ecena.

I?iiuoeaiiue oeeee – yoi ia?eiae, a oa/aiea eioi?iai eaieoaeenoe/aneay
yeiiiieea i?ioiaeeo /aou?a oacu naiaai ?acaeoey e niiaa aica?auaaony e
enoiaeiie oaca. Oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieee iiaeii ecia?aceoue a aeaea a?aoeea (ni. ?en. 6). Ii
ai?eciioaeueiie ine ?aniieiaeaiu a?aiaiiua ia?eiaeu, ii aa?oeeaeueiie
(Y) – iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?eineeie oeeo?aie

iaicia/aiu oacu yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea: I – e?ecen e niaae, II – canoie,
III – iaeeaeaiea, IY – iiaeuai. Ioieoe?iay iaeeiiiay i?yiay,
iai?aaeaiiay aaa?o, iieacuaaao, /oi a oeaeii eaieoaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieea
?acaeaaaony, i?ioiaey /a?ac iaeei oeeee e ae?oaiio.

Iaeaieaa oaaaeeoaeueioth o?aeoiaeo oeeeee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ?inoa
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee i?eaae E. Ia?en. Ii n/eoae yeiiiie/aneea
e?ecenu iaecaaaeiuie a oneiaeyo eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iie
iaoneiaeaiu oaiaeaioeeae n?aaeiae ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth.

Aneaaenoaea aeaenoaey yoiai iauaeoeaiiai caeiia ianniaia iaiiaeaiea
oaoieee a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa aaaeao e nieaeaieth ii?iu i?eauee.
Ao?aeoacey aea iuoaaony nio?aieoue ii?io i?eauee ca n/ao ia?aueaaiey
iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei a neeo nieaeaiey i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey
eaieoaea e ?inoa ii?iu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, ia?aiaiiue eaieoae ?anoao
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. Yoi au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi
i?iecaiaenoai iaaiiyao ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in iniiaiie iannu ianaeaiey
(iaaiiiai o?oaea). Ia?acoaony “ia?ai?iecaiaenoai”, e iii oaaee/eaaaony
aei oao ii?, iiea ia iaino?yaony i?iaeaia nauoa oiaa?ia, oi anoue ia
aicieeaao e?ecen.

E. Ia?en n/eoae, /oi yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu ianeeuenoaaiii i?eaiaeyo
i?iecaiaenoai a niioaaonoaea n ieaoaaeaniiniaiuie iio?aaiinoyie
ianaeaiey e canoaaeytho eaieoaeenoia inouanoaeyoue ianniaia iaiiaeaiea
aeoeaiie /anoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea (?aai/ea iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea).

A ia?eiae e?ecena e canoiy nianathony e auaeeaatho i?aaeaea anaai oa
oe?iu, eioi?ua oniaee ia?aaii?oaeeoue i?iecaiaenoai e iiauneoue aai
yooaeoeaiinoue. Iineieueeo a ia?eiae e?ecena e canoiy i?ienoiaeeo
ianniaia iaiiaeaiea aeoeaiie /anoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea, oi
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiuo oeeeeia ii?aaeaeyaony n?aaeiei n?ieii
neoaeau ?aai/eo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey. Iinea e?ecena yeiiiieea auoiaeeo
aii?oaeaiiay iiaie oaoieeie e iiaeieiaaony ia aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue,
/ai auea aei e?ecena. A oeaeii i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, ii
iii inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao ia?iiiuo iioa?ue ?ano?nia e i?iaeoeoia,
nieaeaiey aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy o?oaeyueony e ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu a ia?eiae
e?ecenia.

Aeae. Eaein iieaaae, /oi aeaaiie i?e/eiie yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia
yaeyaony nieaeaiea i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoe e iio?aaeaieth, oi anoue
nie?auaiea aeiee i?e?inoa aeioiaeia ianaeaiey, eaeouae ia
iio?aaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu (e oaaee/aiea aeiee, eaeouae ia naa?aaeaiey).
Aneaaenoaea yoiai naa?aaeaiey ?anooo auno?aa, /ai eiaanoeoeee, e
i?ienoiaeeo nie?auaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina ii ioiioaieth e niaieoiiiio
i?aaeeiaeaieth.

Ii eaeineaineie oai?ee, e?ecen iiaeao auoue aucaai e ae?oaeie oaeoi?aie,
nie?auathueie niaieoiiue ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa (nieaeaiea ?aciinoe iaaeaeo yenii?oii e eiii?oii, iaaeaiea
eiaanoeoeee, oiaiueoaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo caeoiie oiaa?ia e oneoa).
Niaeanii yoie oai?ee, e?ecenu iiaoo auoue i?aaeioa?auaiu i?e i?aaeeueiii
ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee yeiiiieee: ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue yooaeoeaiue niaieoiiue ni?in ia ?uiea.

Niaeanii iiiaoa?enoneie oai?ee (I. O?eaeiai), i?e/eiu e?ecenia eaaeao a
iai?aaeeueiie iieeoeea oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea, a eiaiii – a eneonnoaaiiii
nie?auaiee aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee ii n?aaiaieth ni ni?inii ia iaa.
I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea iieo/aaony, /oi aaeeeay yeiiiie/aneay aeai?anney
1929-33 aa. auea i?aaieciaaia oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, eioi?ua ii/aio-oi iaeiia?aiaiii noaee naeeiaoue
aeaiaaeioth ianno.

A iineaaiaiiie enoi?ee auaeaeythony aeaa ia?eiaea, ?acee/iuo ii
oa?aeoa?o i?ioaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo oeeeeia: 1) 1940- 60-a aa., 2)
1970-80-a aa. Naie iniaaiiinoe eiae oaeaea e iineaaeiee ii a?aiaie
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1991-93 aa.

Aeey ia?aiai ia?eiaea auei oa?aeoa?ii: – aneio?iiiinoue
(?aciia?aiaiiinoue) yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia a ?aciuo no?aiao; – nie?auaiea
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe oeeeea; – nieaeaiea aeoaeiu e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
e?ecenia; – a oeaeii aieaa aunieea oaiiu ?inoa ii n?aaiaieth n
aeiaiaiiui ia?eiaeii. Ia?a/eneaiiua iniaaiiinoe auee iaoneiaeaiu
i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi iinea aieiu yeiiiieea no?ai iaoiaeeeanue a
?aciuo oneiaeyo. A iaeieo no?aiao (Aa?iaiey, ssiiiey e ae?.)
i?ienoiaeeei ainnoaiiaeaiea ?ac?ooaiiiai a aiaeu aieiu oicyenoaa; a
ae?oaeo (NOA), iai?ioea, ai a?aiy aieiu eiae ianoi cia/eoaeueiue i?e?ino
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa. E?iia oiai, a yoio ia?eiae i?ienoiaeeei
onei?aiiia ?acaeoea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, naycaiiia n oaeeie
io?aneyie, eae yeaeo?iieea, au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea, oeiey e ae?., /oi
au?aceeinue a nie?auaiee n?aaeieo n?ieia neoaeau aeoeaiie /anoe
iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

Ai aoi?ii ia?eiaea (1970-80-a aa.) iaaethaeaeenue i?ioeaiiieiaeiua
yaeaiey. Caeanue i?ioee aeaa yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecena: 1973-75 aa. e
1980-82 aa. E?ecenu aiiaue noaee neio?iiiuie, iiyaeeanue oaiaeaioeey e
oaeeeiaieth i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe oeeeeia, oaaee/eeenue aeoaeia e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. E?ecen 1973-75 aa. noae
aoi?ui ii naiei ianooaaai e?ecenii iinea aaeeeie yeiiiie/aneie
aeai?annee. I?iecioei nie?auaiea n?aaeiaaiaeiauo oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa. Iiyaeeinue oaeia iiaia yaeaiea, eae noaaoeyoeey – ?ino oeai a
ia?eiae niaaea e canoiy, /oi ?aiueoa ia iaaethaeaeinue.

Ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1991-93 a.a. oaeaea eiae ii?aaeaeaiiua
ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe(:

1) Iaeioi?ay aneio?iiiinoue i?ioaeaiey e?ecena. Naaa?iaia?eeaineee
?aaeii e Aaeeeia?eoaiey ?aiueoa ae?oaeo no?ai anooieee a iieino niaaea.
A NOA iaeaieueoaa nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?eoeinue ia 1991 a., a oi
a?aiy eae a Aa?iia e ssiiiee yoi i?iecioei a 1993 a. ?acaeoua no?aiu a
?aciie noaiaie auee cao?iioou e?ecenii. Iniaaiii neeueiuie e?eceniua
yaeaiey auee a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Eaiaaea, Oeieyiaeee, Oaaoeee. A a ?yaea
no?ai IYN? (E?eaiaeey, A?aoeey) iaaeaiey AAI a yoio ia?eiae ia
iaaethaeaeinue. Ioia/aiiay iniaaiiinoue iauyniyaony oai, /oi yeiiiieea
?aciuo no?ai iaoiaeeeanue iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaiaeeiaeiauo oaeoi?ia.
Iai?eia?, aieaa ?aiiaio ia/aeo e?ecena a NOA niinianoaiaaei nie?auaiea
iai?iiiuo caeacia. Ia caaea?aeeo ia/aea e?ecena a Aa?iia iiaeeyei
iauaaeeiaiea Aa?iaiee e eeaa?aeecaoeey aioo?aiieo ?uieia no?ai
Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, ?innee e NIA. A ia oa?aeoa?a ?acaeoey
yiiineie yeiiiieee io?aceeinue iaino?aiea eiieo?aioeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea
e i?aaeaea anaai a Aceaonei-Oeoiieaaineii ?aaeiia.

2) Nie?auaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii auei aieaa
aeeeoaeueiui, oioy e iaiaa aeoaieei, /ai a i?aaeuaeoueo aeaoo oeeeeao.
(Iaeiaei yoi ioiineony ia ei anai no?aiai. Oae, iai?eia?, a Oaaoeee
oaeiai aeoaieiai niaaea, eae a ia/aea 1990-o aa., ia iaaethaeaeinue n
1930-o aa.).

3) Oaca iaeeaeaiey i?ioaeaea aieaa ayei, /ai i?aaeaea, e oaea a 1996 a.
a ?yaea no?ai iaia?oaeeeinue caiaaeeaiea oaiiia ?inoa. A a NOA e
Aaeeeia?eoaiee caoiaa?eaaiea ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea iaaethaeaeinue oaea a
1995 a. A 1996 a. aeinoea iaeaieueoae aeoaeiu ie?iaie e?ecen ?uiea
oeaiiuo aoiaa, a 1997 a. – ia/aeny ie?iaie aaethoiue e?ecen, /oi ia
iiaei ia neacaoueny ia aeeiaieea yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea. A ?acoeueoaoa
n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu i?e?inoa AAI ii no?aiai IYN? a 1990-a aa. (1,9 %)
ieacaeenue i?eia?ii a 1,5 ?aca ieaea, /ai a 1980-a aa. (2,7 %).

4) Niaae i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acaeouo no?aiao i?ioiaeee ia oiia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai, eioi?ua ii
n?aaeiei oaiiai ?inoa nouanoaaiii (a 1,5-2 ?aca) iia?aaeaee ?acaeoua
no?aiu.

_______________________________________________________________________

( Iaoa?eae ia yeiiiie/aneii e?ecena 1991-93 aa. iiaeaioiaeai O.N.
Aiaeiia?iaie

5) A iaeioi?uo no?aiao (NOA, ssiiiey, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey e ae?.) a
ia?eiae niaaea eiaei ianoi aaniethoiia nieaeaiea o?iaiy oeai
i?iecaiaeeoaeae. A 1993 a. a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu iaaethaeaeny naiue
ieceee i?e?ino oeai (3,8 %) ca iineaaeiea 30 eao.

A ia?eiae e?ecena ai iiiaeo no?aiao ?acei oaaee/eeny o?iaaiue aeaoeoeeoa
athaeaeaoa. Oae, ii no?aiai AN ioiioaiea aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa e AAI a
1993 a. a n?aaeiai aic?inei ii n?aaiaieth n 1991 a. a 2 ?aca (aei 7 %).
Ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aioo?aiiaai aeieaa e AAI a yoeo no?aiao
aic?inei ca ia?eiae n 1989 aei 1993a. n 49 % aei 66 %. Iiauneeny e
o?iaaiue caaeieaeaiiinoe aeiiaoieo oicyenoa. Oae, a Ii?aaaee ioiioaiea
caaeieaeaiiinoe aeiiaoieo oicyenoa e eo ?aniieaaaaiui aeioiaeai a 1993
a. ninoaaeei 170 %, a Oeieyiaeee – 84 %, a Aa?iaiee – 75 %.

Iaaeaiea eo?nia oeaiiuo aoiaa, ia/aaoaany a oaca e?ecena,
i?iaeieaeaeinue e a ia?eiae iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia, aieioue aei 1997 a.

A 1990-a aa. iaaethaeaeinue oaaee/aiea a?aiaiiiai eaaa iaaeaeo iecoae
oi/eie e?ecena e oeo/oaieai neooaoeee ia ?uiea o?oaea aei 11 ianyoeaa. A
oacao iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia ia i?aaeiea ?aai/ea ianoa niiaee aa?iooueny
oieueei 13 % ?aaioieeia, eeoeaoeony ?aaiou, i?ioea 45 % a i?aaeuaeouai
yeiiiie/aneii oeeeea. A 1993 a. /eneaiiinoue aac?aaioiuo a no?aiao IYN?
ninoaaeea 35 ieeeeiia, oi anoue iaeaunoaai iineaaiaiiiai o?iaiy. A
1996-97 aa. o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu nouanoaaiii ia nieaeaeny, a a ?yaea
no?ai (iai?eia?, Aa?iaiey, ssiiiey) aeaaea aic?anoae. A ?acoeueoaoa
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a ia?eiae iineae?eceniiai iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia
ieacaeny cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai aei ia/aea e?ecena.

I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?acaeouo no?ai aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaee ia yeiiiie/aneoth
eiiuthieoo?o iaoiaeaie oeiainiaie e e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeee,
i?eiaiyy ?ac?aaioee ?acee/iuo o/aiee aeey i?aiaeieaiey e?ecenia
(eaeineaineiai, iiiaoa?ecia, oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey). Iaeiaei
i?aiaeieaoue oeeeee/iinoue ?acaeoey yeiiiieee ei ia oaeaeinue. Iniaaiii
yoi eanaaony nioeeaeueiie noa?u e caiyoinoe, aaea eiaee ianoi iaaaoeaiua
oaiaeaioeee.

Ia?anoaiea iaonoie/eainoe a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee a 1990-a aa. i?eaaei e
e?eoe/aneiio ia?aniio?o iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey ia o?iaia ainoaea?noaa e
oe?i. I?aaeeaaaaony, iai?eia?, oneeeoue eiio?ieue aeoeeiia?ia iaae
ei?ii?aoeeyie, eciaieoue nenoaio aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aunoeo oi?aaeythueo,
aieaa oe?iei eniieueciaaoue a?eaaaeioth nenoaio i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea,
ioeacaoueny io i?eioeeiia aeieain?i/iie caiyoinoe. A ssiiiee, iai?eia?,
cao/ao eaeae iooiaea io o?aaeeoeeiiiie eieeaeoeaenoneie iiaeaee oe?iu e
iiauoaiey ?iee /anoiiai eioa?ana e i?eauee. A NOA iaae?aao iiioey?iinoue
eiioeaioeey neeueiiai ainoaea?noaa n aai aeoeaiie i?iiuoeaiiie
iieeoeeie.

Oeeeee/aneea eieaaaiey ie?iaie yeiiiieee ieacaee iuooeiia aicaeaenoaea e
ia ninoiyiea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee. Iii au?aceeinue a neaaeothuai.

1) Aua?in ia aioo?aiiee ?inneeneee ?uiie ia?iiiuo iann oiaa?ia
ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, ia iaoiaeyueo nauoa a ?acaeouo no?aiao. A
oneiaeyo eeaa?aeecaoeee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae, oaeoe/aneie
ioe?uoinoe ?inneeneiai ?uiea yoi i?eaaei e aeoaieiio niaaeo e e?eceno a
eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee, /anoe iaoeiino?iaiey, aa?a?iii
eiiieaena, neaaeiaaoaeueii, onoaoaeei iauee e?ecen iaoae yeiiiieee.

2) Iaaeaiea ie?iauo oeai ia iniiaiua aeaeu yenii?oiuo ?inneeneeo oiaa?ia
(yia?aiiineoaee, nu?uea) oaeaea iaianei iuooeiue o?ii ioa/anoaaiiie
yeiiiieea.

3) Iaaeaiea eo?nia aeoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, ?aciauaaiuo ia
ie?iaii ?uiea, iaa?ioeinue iioa?yie ii?yaeea 20 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia
(ii ioeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee).

Ana yoi niya/eei iineaaenoaey oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee aeey ?acaeouo
no?ai, ii ca n/ao ?inneeneie yeiiiieee e a oua?a ae. A oii aea
iai?aaeaiee aeaenoaiaaee e oaeea oaeoi?u, eae iooie eaieoaea ec ?innee e
aeieea?ecaoeey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo ?inney noaea
oaeoe/aneei aeiii?ii ie?iaie yeiiiieee.

20.4. Iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a ?innee a 1990-a aa.

Niaae i?iecaiaenoaa a NNN? (?innee) ia/aeny oaea a 1991 a. Iaeiaei
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a oi/iii iao/iii iiieiaiee a oio ia?eiae aua ia
auei. Aeaei a oii, /oi oiaaea i?ienoiaeeee yaeaiey, aeeaiao?aeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua e?eceno: ni?in iaiiiai i?aauoae i?aaeeiaeaiea,
oneeeaaeny oiaa?iue aieiae. Niaae a oio ia?eiae aiciee ia ec-ca
i?aauoaiey i?iecaiaenoaa iaae ni?inii, a ec-ca ?ac?uaa oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae, aucaaiiiai ?acaaeii NYA, a caoai – ?ac?ooaieai NNN?.

E?ecen a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa ia/aeny a 1992 a., eiaaea iiyaeeenue
o?oaeiinoe ni nauoii i?iaeoeoeee e iaieaoaaee. Oaea aaniie 1992 a.
?acia? iaieaoaaeae ieacaeny noieue cia/eoaeueiui, /oi nicaeaeanue oa?ica
iieiie inoaiiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. I?aaeoaeuenoai auioaeaeaii auei iieoe ia
i?iaaaeaiea acaeiica/aoia ia iniiaa oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoia. N 1992
a. aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ninoiyiea ?inneeneie yeiiiieee ioaa/aao anai
e?eoa?eyi yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena: oneeeaathony o?oaeiinoe n ?aaeecaoeeae
i?iaeoeoeee, ?anooo iaieaoaaee (ia eiiaoe 1997 a. iie i?aauneee 700
o?ei. ?oa.), nieaeaaony ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, ?anoao /enei
oauoi/iuo i?aaei?eyoee, iiauoaaony o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu e o. ae.

E?ecen a ?innee eiaao nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey io iau/iuo e?ecenia,
naienoaaiiuo eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea:

– Ii ia/aeny ia a ?acoeueoaoa yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia e i?aauoaiey
?anoouaai i?iecaiaenoaa iaae iaoniaaathuei ca iei ni?inii, a a ia?eiae
iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi ni?in ?acei oiae, noae
iaiueoa i?aaeeiaeaiey e caoai nieaeaeny auno?aa iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

– Ii aiciee ia a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea, a a ia?aoiaeiie e
eaieoaeenoe/aneie.

– Ii naiei ianooaaai ?inneeneee e?ecen i?aacioae ana eiaaoea ianoi a
enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. Ii
i?iaeieaeaaony naaeueiie aiae, i?iecaiaenoai oiaei aieaa /ai a aeaa
?aca. Aeaaea ai a?aiy Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu iaeneiaeueiue niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa (a 1942 a.) aue ?aaai 32% (io o?iaiy 1940 a.) (A n 1943 a.
a niaaoneie yeiiiieea ia/aeinue oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa, ianiio?y ia
aiaiiia a?aiy).

– A yeiiiieea ?innee ia iaaethaeaaony ianniaiai iaiiaeaiey iniiaiiai
eaieoaea. Iai?ioea, eaeao iinoiyiiia nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
eiaanoeoeee, eioi?ua oiaiueoeeenue oaea aieaa /ai a 6 ?ac. Yoi aiai?eo i
oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee auoiaea no?aiu ec e?ecena ia
nicaeathony, /oi a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy ia noieo ?ann/eouaaoue ia
yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai e /oi auoiae ec yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea i?e
nio?aiaiee neiaeeaoeony oaiaeaioeee aoaeao i/aiue caoyaeiui.

Iniiaiie i?e/eiie, aucaaaoae yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, yaeyaony i?iaaaeaiiay
?uii/iay ?aoi?ia – ia oieueei o?iiieiae/anee, ia oieueei ii oi?ia, ii e
ii nouanoao. Aaaeue nouiinoue ?aoi?iu ninoiyea a ia?aoiaea e
eaieoaeenoe/aneiio iauanoao a naeaoua n?iee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a
n/eoaiiua aiaeu o?aaiaaeinue nicaeaoue eeann ao?aeoacee, eioi?ue
aeieaeai aue noaoue iiaui oicyeiii i?iecaiaenoaa. (Oi, /oi a caiaaeiuo
no?aiao i?ienoiaeeei a oa/aiea noieaoee). Yoi i?aaeiieaaaei ei?aiiia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa e iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea
a iieueco ao?aeoacee, ca n/ao anaai ia?iaea. ?acoeueoaoii aai noaei
?aceia nie?auaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe naa?aaeaiee e aeioiaeia
o?oaeyueony e iaaeaeaiiia iaiaauaiea (ca n/ao i?eaaoecaoeee, ?inoa oeai,
oaiaaie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?.) eeanna iiauo eaieoaeenoia.

Aeioiaeu aea o?oaeyueony oi?ie?otho ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia oiaa?u
ianniaiai iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina. A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?iu ii ?acei
nie?aoeeny e i?iaeieaeaao iaaeaoue, iineieueeo aeiey o?oaeyueony a iauae
noiia aeioiaeia ianaeaiey iinoiyiii nieaeaaony. (Oae, anee a 1992 a.
aeiey ca?aaioiie ieaou a noiia aeioiaeia ianaeaiey ninoaaeyea 70 %, a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeioiaea e aeioiaea io nianoaaiiinoe – 16 %; oi a
1996 a. yoe aaee/eiu niioaaonoaaiii ninoaaeee 34 % e 52 %)

Nieaeaiea iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe o?oaeyueony aaaeao e noaeaieth
aieinoe aioo?aiiaai ?uiea e aucuaaao “ia?ai?iecaiaenoai”. A yoii e
ninoieo nooue ia?aaeeaaaiiai ?inneae yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena.

Oaeoi?ii oaeoaeaiey e?ecena yaeyaony aunieee o?iaaiue iiiiiieecia a
?inneeneie yeiiiieea e ionoonoaea yooaeoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey oeai. Yoi ii?iaeaeaao o?iie/aneoth eioeyoeeth, eioi?ay
aaaeao e iaanoeaiaieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoee e aucuaaao
nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai iie au?inee
a 1992 a. aieaa /ai a 26 ?ac. Caoai oaiiu eioeyoeee nieaeaeenue. Oai ia
iaiaa a 1992-94 a. a. a ?innee eiaea ianoi aeia?eioeyoeey (?ino oeai
aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca a aiae), ?ac?ooaaoay ioa/anoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. A
1995-96 a. a. ianoi aeia?eioeyoeee caiyea aaeiie?othuay eioeyoeey: a
1995 a. – eiae ianoi ?ino oeai aieaa /ai a 1,5 ?aca; a 1996 a. – ia 23
%. A 1997 a. oeaiu au?inee i?eia?ii ia 12 %, /oi oioy e ieaea, /ai a
i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae, ii aiai?eo i aunieii o?iaia eioeyoeee,
nio?aiythuainy, ianiio?y ia ana oneeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii aa
i?aiaeieaieth.

I?e yoii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi n 1997 a. iniiaiie oi?iie nieaeaiey
?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia o?oaeyueony noaei ia iauaa iiauoaiea oeai, a
nieaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey ia?aciaaiey,
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa, o?ainii?oa e nayce,
/oi i?eaaei e eo cia/eoaeueiiio oaei?iaeaieth aeey anaai ianaeaiey.
Iineieueeo a 1997 a. aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou e
iainee iiauneeenue iacia/eoaeueii, oi eo ?aaeueiay aaee/eia a neeo
oaei?iaeaiey ia?a/eneaiiuo oneoa nie?aoeeanue o aieueoeinoaa
o?oaeaieeia.

O?iie/aneay eioeyoeey cao?oaeiyao ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e iiaeao
aucuaaoue aai nai?a/eaaiea. Iia ii?iaeaeaao iinoiyiiia iaanoeaiaiea
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee e, eae neaaenoaea – nie?auaiea ni?ina
iineaaeieo ia n?aaenoaa e i?aaeiaou o?oaea, oneeaiea eo caaeneiinoe io
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaeaea anaai – io aaieia.

Aeayoaeueiinoue oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, eioi?ua a ?acoeueoaoa
?uii/iie ?aoi?iu noaee /anoiuie, eiiia?/aneeie, iai?aaeaia i?aaeaea
anaai ia oaaee/aiea eo /anoiie i?eauee. Oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia
noaea aeaaioneei ianinii, ioea/eaathuei aeaiueae ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
noa?u ia niaeoeyoeaii-oeiainiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Aa aeioiaeu ?anooo
cia/eoaeueii auno?aa, /ai aeioiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa. Anee a 1992 a.
aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue, iieo/aiiay a iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a
ninoaaeyea 84 % io aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a; oi
a 1996 a. iia auea oaea ia 41 % aieueoa aa.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu ooieoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee auea ia?aaeaia i?aaeiei oicyeiii (ainoaea?noaii)
iiaiio – eeanno ao?aeoacee. Ainoaea?noaaiiua eiaanoeoeee ?acei
nie?aoeeenue. Iaeiaei e /anoiua eiaanoeoeee a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo
oaeaea ?acei nie?aoeeenue. Ao?aeoacey i?aaeii/eoaao o?aoeoue aeaiueae ia
ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia iieoieo i?aaeiaoia e oneoa ?ineioe,
i?aaeaea anaai – eiii?oiuo, ia iiacaeee ii i?anoeaeiui eo?i?oai,
i?eia?aoaiea iniaiyeia a eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noaao, iaeiiaoe – auaiceoue
eaieoae ca a?aieoeo. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ii ioeoeeaeueiui enoi/ieeai
auaic eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo ioeaieaaaony a 623 ie?ae. aeiee. [30, n.43].
A iniiaiii yoi aeaiueae, iaai?iaaiiua o iaoaai ia?iaea. Ao?aeoacey oae e
ia noaea ?a/eoaeueiui oicyeiii ?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. E yoi
iaoaeeaeoaeueii, aaaeue iniiaiay aa /anoue noi?ie?iaaeanue ec oaiaaeeia,
iioaiieeia, oaieiaieeia; aeey eioi?uo ia ia?aii ianoa noieo ee/iay
iaaeeaa, a ia eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa.

?acoiaaony, eaeea-oi n?aaenoaa ao?aeoacey aeeaaeuaaao e a ioa/anoaaiioth
yeiiiieeo. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai io?anee, ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth eioi?uo
?anoao. Nthaea ioiinyony, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, oa ec ieo, eioi?ua
oaeiaeaoai?ytho ?anoouea cai?inu e i?eoioe naiie ao?aeoacee, a oaeaea
io?anee, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia yenii?o. I?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee, eioi?ia, iaeiaei, ia icia/aao aa iiaeuaia,
iineieueeo iauee niaae ia?ae?uaaao iiauoaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa a
ioaeaeueiuo io?aneyo.

Oaeoi?ii oaeoaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena yaeeanue e ?aoi?ia
i?aaiecaoeee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae, i /ai ?a/ue aoaeao eaeoe a oaia
15. Caeanue eeoue ioiaoei, /oi ?ai?aaiecaoeey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee i?eaaea e iaaaeueiiio niaaeo i?iecaiaenoaa a ?yaea eeth/aauo
io?aneae ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (naeueneia oicyenoai, eaaeay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iaoeiino?iaiea), oo?aoa i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe no?aiu, i?aa?auaieth aa a oiieeaii-nu?ueaaie
i?eaeaoie ?acaeouo no?ai, yeiiiie/anee caaeneiia ainoaea?noai.

Oaeoaeaieth yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena niinianoaoao e aeanoeay
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea ?inneeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eneonnoaaiii
naeeiathuay ?uii/iue ni?in. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
yaeyaony e aai ianiiniaiinoue i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue ?inoo oaiaaie
yeiiiieee, aeiey eioi?ie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioeaieaaaony a 40-50 % e
eioi?ay oaeaea yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia oaeoaeaiey e?ecena
eaaaeueiie yeiiiieee, ?acaaea oeiainiaie nenoaiu no?aiu.

Aeey auoiaea ec e?ecena o?aaoaony i?aaeaea anaai ea?aeeiaeueii eciaieoue
yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa oae, /oiau iia iaania/eea ana
iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey ia/aea ianniaiai iaiiaeaiey oaoie/aneie aacu
i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiie?aoiuo e ?aciiia?aciuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii ?aaeecaoeee
oaeeo eciaiaiee ?ac?aaioaii aeinoaoi/ii. Ianiio?y ia eo na?ueaciua
?acee/ey iaaeaeo niaie, iie eiatho oi iauaa, /oi iai?aaeaiu ia oneeaiea
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ia/aea a yeiiiieea, iiauoaiea yeiiiie/aneie ?iee
ainoaea?noaa, aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiea ?acaeoeth ioa/anoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei iuiaoiaa ?oeiaiaenoai ?innee ioeacuaaaony iaiyoue
yeiiiie/aneee eo?n, iineieueeo iii acyei iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie oeiainiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie ii aai iaoeinieoaeueiiio
i?iaaaeaieth a aeeciue (a iaiai ia iieo/aiea e?aaeeoia). Iii oaeoe/anee
aeaenoaoao iiae aeeeoiaeo eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.

I?e nio?aiaiee ?innee a nenoaia ie?iaiai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oicyenoaa,
oi anoue a noa?a ainiiaenoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee,
eiiai iooe aeey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee iao, e?iia oo?aou ath yeiiiie/aneie
iacaaeneiinoe e i?aa?auaiey a oiieeaii-nu?ueaaie i?eaeaoie ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa. Ia yoii iooe aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny ?ino
aac?aaioeoeu e iaieuaiea o?oaeyueony. Yeiiiieea ?innee aoaeao
i?eia?aoaoue ana aieaa iaaeaaii?eyoioth, iaeiiaieoth no?oeoo?o. Iniiaiay
/anoue ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aa?a?iiai naeoi?a, o?ainii?oa,
yia?aaoeee aoaeao e aeaeueoa ?ac?ooaoueny. ?ino aiciiaeai eeoue a
aeiauaathueo e nu?ueaauo io?aneyo, aea e oi i?e iiae/eiaiee eiino?aiiiio
eaieoaeo, eioi?ue ii aeaoaaea i?eaa?ao yoe io?anee a naie ?oee.

Oaiiu iauaai niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa iiaoo nieceoueny, ii i?aaeiinueie
aeiey iiaeuaia yeiiiieee iao e a?yae ee iie aoaeoo nicaeaiu, anee
o/anoue iinoiyiiia nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.
Yeiiiieea aoaeao eae-oi iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny ia ieaao oieueei ca n/ao
eneeth/eoaeueii aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeu, oi anoue aeaa?aaeaoeee
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ethaeae o?oaea – aeaaiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeu
no?aiu.

Aeey auoiaea ec e?ecena iaiaoiaeeii ecaaaeaiea ?innee io aa
yeiiiie/aneie caaeneiinoe io iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee. Aeey
yoiai o?aaothony:

– iaoeeiiaeecaoeey aaieia e onoaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee a
e?aaeeoiie noa?a;

– iaoeeiiaeecaoeey aaaeiaeoeo i?aaei?eyoee-iiiiiieenoia a iniiaiuo
io?aneyo yeiiiieee;

– ia?aoiae e ainoaea?noaaiiiio ieaie?iaaieth yeiiiieee e
oeaiiia?aciaaieth;

– aaaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaethoiie e aiaoiaoi?aiaie iiiiiieee;

– ieaiiia?iay ?aeiino?oeoeey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia iniiaa aaeeiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia e oeaio?aeecaoeee ?ano?nia.

A caeeth/aiee aeaiiie oaiu ioiaoei, /oi ?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae auaeaeyao,
e?iia ?anniio?aiiuo auoa i?iiuoeaiiuo oeeeeia, oaeaea e aieaa
aeeeoaeueiua oeeeeu i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth a 48-55 eao, eioi?ua ninoiyo
ec oacu iiauoathueony oaiiia ?inoa yeiiiieee e oacu iiieaeathueony
oaiiia. Ia eo nouanoaiaaiee aia?aua aue naeaeai auaiae ?onneei
yeiiiienoii I. Ae. Aeieo?eaaui (1892-1938 a. a.). Ii naycuaae eo n
ia?eiaeaie ianniaiai iaiiaeaiey ianneaiie /anoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea, a
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue “aeeeiiuo aiei” n/eoae iaoneiaeaiiie n?aaeiei
n?ieii neoaeau yoie /anoe eaieoaea. Eiioeaioeeth I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa
iicaeiaa iuoaeny ?acaeoue iaiaoeeee yeiiiieno E. Ooiiaoa?. Iaeiaei aa
?acaeaeytho aeaeaei ia ana yeiiiienou.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. *oi iiieiaaony iiae yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii? *ai ii ecia?yaony e a /ai
aai cia/aiea aeey iauanoaa?

2. Eaeiau iniiaiua oaeoi?u yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa? Eaeei ia?acii iie
aeeytho ia iaai?

3. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo eaeineainoaii, iiiaoa?eciii e oai?eae
yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey a iiieiaiee oaeoi?ia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa?

4. I?e yenoaineaiii yeiiiie/aneii ?inoa:

1. I?ienoiaeeo oaeaoaaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey iauaiia
eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia.

2. Iauanoaaiiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ?anoao, ii yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia oaaee/eaaaony.

3. Iauanoaaiiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ia oaaee/eaaaony, a
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia iiaeao ?anoe.

4. ?acoeueoaou iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ?anooo ia auno?aa, /ai
cao?aou.

5. Iauai eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia ?anoe?yaony, a ?acoeueoao iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia ?anoao.

5. I?e eioaineaiii yeiiiie/aneii ?inoa:

1. Oaaee/eaaaony eioaineaiinoue o?oaea.

2. Eiaao ianoi ?anoouaa ?anoiaeiaaiea ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.

3. Eiatho ianoi aunieea oaiiu oaaee/aiey ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa.

4. ?acoeueoaou i?iecaiaenoaa ?anooo, a cao?aou ?ano?nia ia ?anooo.

5. Oaaee/eaaaony ?anoiae ?ano?nia e auoiae i?iaeoeoeee a aaeeieoeo
?aai/aai a?aiaie.

6. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae oaaee/eeny ia 5 %, /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa – ia 1,5 %, i?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo – ia 4
%, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu – ia 4,5 %. Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeei aue
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino: o?oaeiaieei eee o?oaeinaa?aaathuei; iaoa?eaeiaieei
eee iaoa?eaeinaa?aaathuei; eaieoaeiaieei eee eaieoaeinaa?aaathuei.

7. *eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?aoeeanue ia
1 %, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea oaaee/eeanue ia 2,5 %,
iaoa?eaeiaieinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea oiaiueoeeanue ia 1 %,
eaieoaeiaieinoue – aic?inea ia 1 %. Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeei aue
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino: o?oaeiaieei eee o?oaeinaa?aaathuei; iaoa?eaeiaieei
eee iaoa?eaeinaa?aaathuei; oiiaeiaieei eee oiiaeinaa?aaathuei.

8. *oi iiieiaaony iiae yeiiiie/aneei oeeeeii?

9. Yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen icia/aao:

1. Iaaeaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

2. Iaaeinoaoie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, aaaeouee e nieaeaieth o?iaiy
i?iecaiaenoaa.

3. I?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?a auoa ni?ina ia iaai, /oi aaaeao e ?aci?aieth
/anoe oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.

4. Iauaa ?uii/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea auoa iauaai ?uii/iiai ni?ina, /oi
aucuaaao iauaa ia?ai?iecaiaenoai.

5. Iaoaaoea oiaa?ia ia ?uiea, /oi aucuaaao aeaoeoeeo e ?ino oeai.

10. A /ai ioee/ea niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa io yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena?

11. Yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai eae oaca oeeeea icia/aao:

1. Iiauoaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa.

2. Auoiae ia o?iaaiue aeie?eceniiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

3. I?aauoaiea aeie?eceniiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa.

4. I?eaaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa a niioaaonoaea ni ni?inii.

5. I?aauoaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa iaae niaieoiiui ni?inii.

12. Niaeanii oai?ee Eaeina, yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen aucuaaaony:

1. Iiauoaieai oeai ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu.

2. Nie?auaieai niaieoiiiai ni?ina.

3. Nieaeaieai i?aaeaeueiie neeiiiinoe e iio?aaeaieth.

4. Oiaiueoaieai /enoiai yenii?oa.

5. Nieaeaieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ieaea o?iaiy iieiie caiyoinoe.

13. Niaeanii ia?enenoneie oai?ee, yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen aucuaaaony:

1. Ainiiaenoaii iiiiiieee a yeiiiieea.

2. Oaiaeaioeeae ii?iu i?eauee e iiieaeaieth.

3. Iiieaeaieai ?acia?a niaieoiiiai ni?ina.

4. Iiauoaieai ii?iu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

5. Ionoonoaeai ieaiiia?iinoe a yeiiiieea.

14. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea ii?aaeaeyaony:

1. N?aaeiei n?ieii neoaeau aeoeaiie /anoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

2. N?aaeiei n?ieii neoaeau n?aaenoa o?oaea.

3. N?aaeiei n?ieii neoaeau iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

4. A?aiaiai ianniaiai iaiiaeaiey aeoeaiie /anoe iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

5. A?aiaiai ianniaiai iaiiaeaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

6. A?aiaiai i?eaaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa a niioaaonoaea ni ni?inii.

15. Eaeoth ?ieue ea?atho yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu a ?acaeoee
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa?

16. Aeey yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia 1940-o – 1960-o aa. auei oa?aeoa?ii:

1. Neio?iiiinoue.

2. Noaaoeyoeey.

3. N?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoay aeoaeia iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

4. Oaeeeiaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea.

5. Aneio?iiiinoue.

A: 1, 2, 4. A: 3, 4, 5. A: 1, 3, 4. A:
3, 5. Ae: 2, 4, 5.

17. Aeey yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia 1970-90-o aa. auei oa?aeoa?ii:

1. Neio?iiiinoue.

2. Noaaoeyoeey.

3. N?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoay aeoaeia iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

4. Oaeeeiaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea.

5. Aneio?iiiinoue.

A: 1, 2, 4. A: 3, 4, 5. A: 1, 2, 4. A:
3, 5. Ae: 2, 4, 5.

18. Niaeanii eaeineaineie oai?ee, aioee?eceniay iieeoeea aeeth/aao a
naay:

1. Ia?aie/aiea aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee.

2. Ia?aie/aiea aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa.

3. Oaeanoi/aiea nai?a iaeiaia.

4. ?ino ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa.

19. A /ai nouiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a ?innee a 1990-a aa. e
eaeiau iniiaiua oaeoi?u aai oaeoaeaiey ?

20. *oi yaeyaony iniiaie auoiaea yeiiiieee ec e?ecena, a oii /enea –
i?eiaieoaeueii e e?eceno a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea ?

Oaia 21. Iniiau ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee

21.1. Oi?aaeaiea e ?aaoee?iaaiea a yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannao

Iiae oi?aaeaieai a yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannao iiieiaaony aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiie/aneee noauaeo, iai?aaeythuaa aai ia aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie
oeaee. Iiae ?aaoee?iaaieai – aicaeaenoaea ia oneiaey, a eioi?uo
yeiiiie/aneee noauaeo inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue, auioaeaeathuaa
aai aiineoue a iaa ii?aaeaeaiiua eciaiaiey. Iaa oeacaiiuo aeaea
aicaeaenoaey iaeaaeatho oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoueth e aeiaieueii aeecee ae?oa
e ae?oao ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth. Ia?aaeei a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a
oi?aaeaiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae /anoiue neo/ae ?aaoee?iaaiey e, iaiai?io,
?aaoee?iaaiea – eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue oi?aaeaiey.

E?iia ecaanoiiai niaiaaeaiey yoeo iiiyoee, iie niaea?aeao e ?acee/ea.
Eiaaea aiai?yo ia oi?aaeaiee a oceii niunea neiaa, oi eiatho a aeaeo
i?yiia (aee?aeoeaiia) oeacaiea oi?aaeyaiiio noauaeoo aeaenoaee, eioi?ua
ii aeieaeai auiieiyoue. A eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i ?aaoee?iaaiee a oceii
niunea, oi i?aaeiieaaaaony einaaiiia (iiin?aaenoaiaaiiia) aicaeaenoaea
ia noauaeo – ia a aeaea i?yiuo oeacaiee, a /a?ac aicaeaenoaea ia
oneiaey, a eioi?uo oicyenoaoao noauaeo.

A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa eiatho ianoi aeaa iniiaiua oi?iu nayce iaaeaeo
yeiiiie/aneeie noauaeoaie:

1) Oiaa?iay oi?ia nayce. Iia icia/aao, /oi yeiiiie/aneea noauaeou
i?ioeainoiyo ae?oa ae?oao eae iainiaeaiiua nianoaaiieee n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa e oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaee, eae i?iaeaaoeu e iieoiaoaee
oiaa?ia. A oneiaeyo oiaa?iie oi?iu nayce oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea
iaeiiai noauaeoa ia ae?oaiai aunooiaao aeaaiui ia?acii a oi?ia
einaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. ?aaoee?iaaiea iiaoo inouanoaeyoue: iiiiiieee –
ia ?uiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?ia, ainoaea?noai – ii ioiioaieth ei anai
i?aaei?eyoeyi.

2) Ieaiiia?iay (iaiin?aaenoaaiii iauanoaaiiay) oi?ia nayce. Iia
icia/aao niaeaniaaiiua aeaenoaey o/anoieeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna, iai?aaeaiiua ia aeinoeaeaiea iaeiie oeaee.

Ioioa ia iaiiioa a ia?aiauoiie iaueia oaea yaeyeanue ieaiiia?iie oi?iie
nayce: iaeie ?uee yio, ae?oaea nicaeaaaee ooi e aiaee iaiiioa, o?aouee
aai oaeaaee e o. i. Aiiaua iaiin?aaenoaaiii iauanoaaiiay oi?ia nayce
iiyaeeanue ?aiueoa oiaa?iie. Iia eiaea ianoi ia oieueei a iaueia, ii e
i?e ?aaiaeaaeaiee e oaiaeaeecia. Iai?eia?, no?ieoaeuenoai aaeiaoneeo
ie?aieae, eee ai?iaeneeo e?aiinoae, caieia, aeai?oeia, e??eaaoeeiiiuo
nii?oaeaiee e o. i.; ana yoi – ?aciiaeaeiinoe ieaiiia?iie oi?iu nayce.

Nicaeaa e?oiiia iaoeiiia i?iecaiaenoai, eaieoaeeci i?aa?aoee
ieaiiia?iinoue ai anaiauoth oi?io i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia
i?aaei?eyoee. Ia nia?aiaiiii i?aaei?eyoee ana ?aaioieee o?oaeyony
niaeaniaaiii aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeiie oeaee – naiaa?aiaiiiai auionea
i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai ea/anoaa. A i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa iie ia
iaiaieaathony oiaa?aie e ia ioiinyony ae?oa e ae?oao eae iainiaeaiiua
nianoaaiieee n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ieaiiia?iie oi?ia nayce niioaaonoaoao i?yiia oi?aaeaiea o/anoieeaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Iii iauaeoeaii iaiaoiaeeii aeey
iaania/aiey niaeaniaaiiinoe e aaeeiie oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoe aeaenoaee
?aaioieeia.

C ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia i?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiea ieaiiia?iie oi?iu nayce
(ia iniiaa eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaea), a oi aea a?aiy
ainiiaenoaothuae oi?iie inoaaony oiaa?iay oi?ia. Ia?aciaaiea iiiiiieee e
onoaiiaeaiea eo ainiiaenoaa a yeiiiieea i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ?uiie
noaiiaeony ?aaoee?oaiui. E yoiio aeiaaaeyaony ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. A ?acoeueoaoa a yeiiiieea iiyaeythony yeaiaiou
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie ieaiiia?iinoe, oioy ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o iia
inoaaony oiaa?iui oicyenoaii. A nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa
ieaiiia?iinoue ioaaouaaao yeiiiieeo a oeaeii, oioy a iae e nio?aiythony
yeaiaiou oiaa?iie oi?iu nayce. Iiyoiio a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea
ainoaea?noai ia ?aaoee?oao yeiiiieeo, a i?yii oi?aaeyao i?iecaiaenoaii.

Iniiaiui niaea?aeaieai i?yiiai oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony ieaie?iaaiea, a
einaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey – i?ia?aiie?iaaiea.

Ieai – yoi iaia/aiiue niinia iieo/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa. Ii
aeeth/aao a naay: – ieaie?oaiue ?acoeueoao (oeaeue); – n?ie aeinoeaeaiey
?acoeueoaoa; – iaiaoiaeeiua ?ano?nu e niiniau eo aeinoeaeaiey; –
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee, iaania/eaathueo iieo/aiea ?acoeueoaoa a
onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie; – oeacaiea eniieieoaeae eiie?aoiuo aeaenoaee e
caaeaiey ei. A ioee/ea io i?iaiica, eioi?ue au?aaeaao i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aoaeouai, ieai yaeyaony ?oeiaiaenoaii e aeaenoaeyi e iineo aee?aeoeaiue
(iaycaoaeueiue aeey auiieiaiey) oa?aeoa?.

I?ia?aiia ioee/aaony io ieaia oai, /oi, eae i?aaeei, ia iaeaaeaao anaie
/a?oaie ieaia: – ia iineo aee?aeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, a yaeyaony
?aeiiaiaeaoeeae; – eee au?aaeaao niinia ?aoaiey ioaeaeueiie i?iaeaiu, ia
ioaaouaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann a oeaeii, ana aai noi?iiu; – ia
niaea?aeeo eiie?aoiuo n?ieia e eniieieoaeae e o. i. Yoi neaaeoao ec
oiai, /oi i?ia?aiia yaeyaony eino?oiaioii ?aaoee?iaaiey, a ia
oi?aaeaiey. Oioy, ?acoiaaony, e a oi?aaeaiee iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny
i?ia?aiiu eae enoiaeiue iaoa?eae aeey ninoaaeaiey ieaia. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi ieai no?ieony ia iniiaa i?ia?aii, iooai eo acaeiiie
oaycee, niaeaniaaiey n aiciiaeiinoyie i?iecaiaenoaa, ii?aaeaeaiey n?ieia
auiieiaiey e eniieieoaeae e o. ae. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oa?iei
“ieaie?iaaiea” iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny e a ?aaoee?iaaiee. A yoii neo/aa
aiai?yo ia eiaeeeaoeaiii ieaie?iaaiee, eioi?ia iineo ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa? e ia i?eieiaao oi?iu i?yiuo caaeaiee.

Ieaie?iaaiea aeeth/aao a naay ninoaaeaiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea ieaia,
aeiaaaeaiea aai aei eniieieoaeae, i?aaiecaoeeth aai auiieiaiey,
eiio?ieue auiieiaiey e ei??aeoe?iaeo ieaia a i?ioeanna aai auiieiaiey.
Ieaie?iaaiea – yoi na?aeoeaaeia oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai eee yeiiiieeie
a oeaeii (a ieaiiaie yeiiiieea).

I?ia?aiie?iaaiea icia/aao ninoaaeaiea i?ia?aii, ?ac?aaioeo nenoaiu ia?
ii eo inouanoaeaieth (ia?u einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey), eiio?ieue ca
?aaeecaoeeae, ei??aeoe?iaeo a i?ioeanna auiieiaiey.

Ooieoeee, auiieiyaiua oi?aaeaieai (?aaoee?iaaieai), aeaeyony ia aeaa
aeaea: 1) ia caaenyuea io oa?aeoa?a nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa; 2) iaoneiaeaiiua oa?aeoa?ii yoie nianoaaiiinoe.

E ooieoeeyi ia?aiai aeaea ioiinyony:

– nai? eioi?iaoeee;

– ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee;

– i?iaiice?iaaiea;

– i?eiyoea ?aoaiee;

– i?aaiecaoeey auiieiaiey ?aoaiee;

– eiio?ieue auiieiaiey ?aoaiee.

E ooieoeeyi aoi?iai aeaea ioiinyony:

– iaania/aiea i?enaiaiey i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa nianoaaiieeii n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa (aeioiaea io nianoaaiiinoe);

– iaania/aiea i?ei?eoaoa eioa?ania nianoaaiieea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa
i?e i?eiyoee oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee;

– niaeaniaaiea eioa?ania ?aaioieeia n eioa?anaie nianoaaiieea n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa, noeioee?iaaiea eo e iaeaieaa iieiie ?aaeecaoeee
iineaaeieo.

Ia iniiaa oaeoaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, ?inoa
?aciiia?acey aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iecaiaeeiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa,
eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaea e ae?oaeo oi?i iaiauanoaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeoea e ioiioaiee oi?aaeaiey.

Aai iniiaiuie oaiaeaioeeyie yaeythony:

– ?ino iauaia oi?aaeai/aneeo iia?aoeee;

– ?ino aeiee caiyouo a noa?a oi?aaeaiey (a NOA, iai?eia?, aieaa iieiaeiu
anao caiyouo a yeiiiieea ioiinyony e ?aaioieeai oi?aaeaiey);

– ?acaeoea oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey, n?aaenoa nayce,
eioi?iaoecaoeey ioiioaiee, iiauoaiea aeinooiiinoe eioi?iaoeee e
aiciiaeiinoae aa ia?aaioee;

– ?acaeoea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, naiioi?aaeaiey, naii?aaoee?iaaiey
i?aaei?eyoee e eo iiae?acaeaeaiee; a n ae?oaie – yeaiaioia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ieaiiaiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie (ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneiai iaoaiecia).

21.2. Ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneee eaieoaeeci. ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a
nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea

Ainoaea?noai – yoi iniaue aiia?ao i?eioaeaeaiey. Ii iaania/eaaao
niaethaeaiea anaie /eaiaie iauanoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee, nooue eioi?uo
– ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe. Ainoaea?noai
io?aiyao nouanoaothuea a iauanoaa ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe e iiyoiio
neoaeeo eioa?anai yeiiiie/anee ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna – nianoaaiieea
iniiaiie /anoe n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia ?aciuo yoaiao ?acaeoey
iauanoaa ainoaea?noai ea?aei ?acioth ?ieue a yeiiiieea.

A nia?aiaiiie eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea iii yaeyaony iaeaieaa
iiaouanoaaiiui noauaeoii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai,
/oi nia?aiaiiia eaieoaeenoe/aneia iauanoai iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee
ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaeecia.

Ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneee eaieoaeeci icia/aao n?aueaaiea neeu
iiiiiieee n neeie ainoaea?noaa a aaeeiue oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci. Ii
i?aaeiieaaaao ia?aciaaiea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo iiiiiieee e onoaiiaeaiea eo
ainiiaenoaa a yeiiiieea, oi anoue i?aa?auaiea eaieoaeecia naiaiaeiie
eiieo?aioeee a iiiiiieenoe/aneee eaieoaeeci.

Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?ii:

– n?aueaaiea iiiiiieenoe/aneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai e iiiiiieenoe/aneiai
aaieianeiai eaieoaea e ia?aciaaiea oeiainiaiai eaieoaea e oeiainiaie
ieeaa?oee;

– aieaa auno?ia ?acaeoea auaica eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo ii n?aaiaieth n
?acaeoeai ie?iaie oi?aiaee;

– ia?aciaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo nithcia eaieoaeenoia (iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
iiiiiieee), aeaeyueo ie?iaua ?uiee;

– ai?ueaa ca ia?aaeae ie?a iaaeaeo a?oiiaie ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?ai.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie i?e/eiaie n?aueaaiey neeu iiiiiieee e neeu
ainoaea?noaa a aaeeiue iaoaieci yaeythony:

– auoiae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ca ?aiee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi au?aaeaaony a iaaiciiaeiinoe iaania/aiey
iniiaiuo oneiaee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?yaea
aeeciaiii aaaeiuo iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae oieueei ia iniiaa /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe;

– oneeaiea eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo iiiiiieeyie ?aciuo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa a ie?iaie yeiiiieea;

– iaino?aiea ai?ueau iaaeaeo a?oiiaie eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai ca ie?iaia
ainiiaenoai.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa a nia?aiaiiie eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieea:

– iaania/aiea iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee naaeaine?iaaiiiai iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa e yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa (caiyoinoe, ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a yeiiiieea,
?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney, iiaeaea?aeea ?yaea io?aneae e o. ae.);

– iaania/aiea oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?yaea iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae (a
ia?aciaaiee. cae?aaiio?aiaiee, ?acaeoee iaoee e eoeueoo?u, nioeeaeueiii
iaania/aiee e ae?.);

– caueoa eioa?ania iaoeeiiaeueiiai eaieoaea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
yeiiiie/aneii niia?ie/anoaa.

Iniiaiua oi?iu, a eioi?uo au?aaeaaony ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nia?aiaiiie
eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea:

1) Ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue. Iia aunooiaao a aeaea nianoaaiiinoe
ainoaea?noaa ia i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey e o/?aaeaeaiey iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie
noa?u), a oaeaea a aeaea aeiee ainoaea?noaa a eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoee.
Aeiey ainoaea?noaa a noiia?iii eaieoaea ?acee/ia aeey ?aciuo no?ai. A
oeaeii iia eieaaeaony io 10 aei 50 %. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea iia eiaao a
?yaea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai (Eoaeey, O?aioeey, Aiaeey). A
nianoaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny i?aaei?eyoey
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa, o?ainii?oa, nayce, yia?aaoeee,
aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaoeiino?iaiey e ae?.

2) Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaii aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa
/a?ac oeiainiaoth nenoaio. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue a oaia 11, a ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ainoaea?noai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao io 35 aei 61 % aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.
N?aaenoaa eaeoo ia oeiaine?iaaiea ?acee/iuo i?ia?aii, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae, iaania/aiea
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe e ?inoa yeiiiieee.

3) Iieoiea e i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noaii oiaa?ia (?ano?nia, i?iaeoeoeee,
oneoa, oeaiiuo aoiaa). Ainoaea?noai yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei iieoiaoaeai e
i?iaeaaoeii ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, n
iauaiii iia?aoeee eioi?iai ia iiaeao n?aaieoueny ie iaeia ec
i?iiuoeaiiuo iiiiiieee.

4) Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee, i /ai ?a/ue iieaeao ieaea.

?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea ioeaieaaaony ?aciuie
eiioeaioeeyie ii-?aciiio.

Iaieeanne/aneay oai?ey n/eoaao, /oi ainoaea?noai auiieiyao oa ooieoeee,
eioi?ua ia a ninoiyiee auiieieoue ?uiie, e iiyoiio nia?aiaiiay yeiiiieea
yaeyaony ia /enoi eaieoaeenoe/aneie, a niaoaiiie, nioeeaeueii
i?eaioe?iaaiiie. Aeeceia e oaeiio iiieiaiea ?iee ainoaea?noaa e a
eaeineaineie oai?ee.

N oi/ee c?aiey ia?enenoneie oai?ee, i?ienoiaeyuea a eaieoaeenoe/aneie
yeiiiieea i?ioeannu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi nia?aiaiiua
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu o?aaotho ia?aoiaea e ieaiiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee
yeiiiieee ia iniiaa iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa e nic?aee aeey oaeiai ia?aoiaea. Oaeie ia?aoiae aeaao
iauanoao aiciiaeiinoue niciaoaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo
caeiiia, iiae/eiaiey yeiiiieee iauanoaaiiui eioa?anai, ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia, iianaianoiiai aiaae?aiey ia?aaeiauo
aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee, oi anoue iicaieyao onei?eoue iauanoaaiiue
i?ia?ann. A. E. Eaiei n/eoae, /oi iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneei eaieoaeeciii e nioeeaeeciii ieeaeeo
ia?aoiaeiuo nooiaiae iao, iineieueeo eiathony ana iaoa?eaeueiua
i?aaeiinueee nioeeaeecia. Aeey ia?aoiaea e nioeeaeecio o?aaoaony oieueei
iaeii: ia?aoiae iiiiiieee a nianoaaiiinoue anaai ia?iaea e ia?auaiea eo
ia iieueco anaai ia?iaea (n iiiiuueth nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa).

A nioeeaeenoe/aneii iauanoaa ainoaea?noai i?eia?aoaao iiaoth
yeiiiie/aneoth ?ieue. Iii aunooiaao eae ?anii?yaeeoaeue iauaia?iaeiie
nianoaaiiinoe, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony iniiaiay /anoue n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ainoaea?noai ?ani?aaeaeyao iniiaioth ianno ?ano?nia e
i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeao iauanoao. Iii auiieiyao
ooieoeeth i?yiiai oi?aaeaiey a ieaiiia?ii i?aaieciaaiiie yeiiiieea.

21.3. Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee a nia?aiaiiuo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?aiao inouanoaeyaony a ?aciiia?aciuo oi?iao. Iniiaiuie ec ieo
yaeythony neaaeothuea:

1) Oeiainiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa – niaieoiiinoue ia? ii i?aaiecaoeee
oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeiainia. Iia aeeth/aao iaeiaiaoth, athaeaeaoioth iieeoeeo e iieeoeeo a
ioiioaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiathony ?aciua eiioeaioeee oeiainiaie iieeoeee.

Eaeineaineay eiioeaioeey n/eoaao iaeaieaa aaaeiui eino?oiaioii
aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieeo n oeaeueth iaania/aiey iieiie caiyoinoe e
noaaeeueiiai ?inoa. A ia?eiae e?ecena, niaeanii yoie eiioeaioeee,
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii oaaee/eaaoue naie ?anoiaeu aeey iaania/aiey
yooaeoeaiiai ?uii/iiai ni?ina, o?iaaiue iaeiaia aeieaeai nieaeaoueny,
nioeeaeueiuo auieao – ?anoe. Iaeaieaa noeioee?othuae ia?ie a
e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea yaeyaony oeiaine?iaaiea i?e?inoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia ca n/ao aeaiaaeiie yiennee. A ia?eiae ia?aa?aaa yeiiiieee
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii aeaenoaiaaoue a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee –
nie?auaoue ?anoiaeu e nioeeaeueiua auieaou, oaaee/eaaoue iaeiae,
ia?aie/eaaoue ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu. Eaeineaioeu n/eoatho, /oi aeey
iieiie caiyoinoe e yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iaiaoiaeei ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa, ?ino ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa e
oia?aiiay eioeyoeey.

N oi/ee c?aiey iiiaoa?enoneie eiioeaioeee, oeiainiaay iieeoeea
ainoaea?noaa eiaao iaiaa aaaeiia cia/aiea ii n?aaiaieth n
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie iieeoeeie. Aa aeaaiay caaea/a – naanoe e ieieioio
aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa (a iniiaiii ca n/ao o?acaiey nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii,
eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony eae eceeoiea, iineieueeo, caueuay a?aaeaeai,
nieaeatho eo yeiiiie/aneoth aeoeaiinoue), ia aeiioneaoue ecauoea aeaiaa
a ia?auaiee. Eaeineaineea iaoiaeu ?anniao?eaathony eae nicaeathuea
eioeyoeeth e ianoaaeeueiinoue a yeiiiieea.

Oai?ey yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey oniao?eaaao iniiaioth caaea/o oeiainiaie
iieeoeee a noeioee?iaaiee ?inoa niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey n iiiiuueth
iioeiecaoeee iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. E?iia nieaeaiey iauaai o?iaiy iaeiaiaiai
a?aiaie, eciaiaiey iauaeoia e noaaie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, iia i?aaeeaaaao
nie?aoeoue aei ieieioia nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu e ae?oaea ?anoiaeu
athaeaeaoa.

A ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea eniieuecothony iaoiaeu, ?aeiiaiaeoaiua ?aciuie
eiioeaioeeyie. A NOA, iai?eia?, aei eiioea 1970-o a. a. i?aiaeaaeae
eaeineaineee iiaeoiae, caoai – ia ei?ioeee n?ie – iiiaoa?enoneee, a
1980-a a. a. – iiaeoiae oai?ee yeiiiieee i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iicaeiaa aiiaue
noaea iiauoaoueny ?ieue eaeineaineie oai?ee.

2) E?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea – ?aaoee?iaaiea ainoaea?noaii iauaia e
no?oeoo?u aeaiaaeiie iannu e e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee. Iniiaiuie aa aeaeaie
yaeythony: iieeoeea aei?iaeo aeaiaa e iieeoeea aeaoaauo aeaiaa.

Ia?aay iai?aaeaia ia ia?aie/aiea e naeaoea aeaiaaeiie iannu. Aeey yoiai
nie?auaaony ainoaea?noaaiiia e?aaeeoiaaiea yeiiiieee e yienney aeaiaa,
iiauoaaony o/aoiay noaaea ii e?aaeeoai Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea (/oi
iiauoaao iauoth noaaeo i?ioeaioa), oaaee/eaaaony ii?ia iaycaoaeueiuo
?aca?aia aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa ?anoao ii
n?aaiaieth n eo iiaaoaieai e ae?.

Iieeoeea aeaoaauo aeaiaa iai?aaeaia, iaiai?io, ia ?anoe?aiea aeaiaaeiie
iannu e icia/aao i?eiaiaiea ia?, i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iieeoeea aei?iaeo
aeaiaa.

Iaeaieaa aaaeiie n/eoatho e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeioth iieeoeeo iiiaoa?enou.
Iie iieaaatho, /oi aa aeaaiie caaea/ae yaeyaony noaaeeecaoeey eiee/anoaa
aeaiaa a ia?auaiee (i?e?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu ia 2-5 % a aiae). A ae?oaeo
eiioeaioeeyo iia, oioy e n/eoaaony aaaeiie, ii ana aea ?anniao?eaaaony
ia eae ia?ainoaiaiiay.

3) I?ia?aiie?iaaiea yeiiiieee – ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii, ioaaouaathueo ?aoaiea eaeie-eeai i?iaeaiu, oo
eee eioth noa?o iauanoaaiiie aeecie eee yeiiiieeo a oeaeii.

A NOA, iai?eia?, aaeaaiaeii ooaa?aeaeaaony ieiei 300 ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?ia?aii, cao?aaeaathueo ia?aciaaiea, cae?aaiio?aiaiea, yeieiaeth,
iai?iio, iaoeo, nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea, iiiiuue naeueneiio oicyenoao e
ae?. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii auaeaeythony athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa,
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony nenoaia ?acee/iuo eueaio, ii?aaeaeythony oe?iu –
aaia?aeueiua iiae?yae/eee aeey auiieiaiey e?oiiuo aincaeacia e o. i.

A ssiiiee i?ia?aiie?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony a aeaea eiaeeeaoeaiiai
ieaie?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Iii aeeth/aao ooaa?aeaeaiea eiio?ieueiuo oeeo?
ieaia (ieaiu ?ac?aaaouaathony ia 10-15 eao, ia 5 eao e ia 1 aiae),
ninoaaeaiea iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina ii 2000 iaeiaiiaaieyi i?iaeoeoeee,
?an/ao ieaiiauo iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e o?iaiae oeai ii eaaeaeiio ec
ieo, ?ac?aaioeo nenoaiu yeiiiie/aneeo noeioeia, caeioa?aniauaathueo
iaainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey a auiieiaiee ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae.
Ieaiiaua caaeaiey yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie oieueei aeey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a, a aeey iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iie
iinyo ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Eiaeeeaoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea
i?eiaiyaony e a ae?oaeo no?aiao (O?aioeey, TH. Ei?ay).

4) I?iiuoeaiiay iieeoeea – oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaa, iai?aaeaiiay ia inouanoaeaiea no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia a
yeiiiieea, oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, iiauoaiea
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iia inouanoaeyaony
aeaaiui ia?acii n iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii.

5) ?aaoee?iaaiea iiiiiieee. Yoa oi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeeth/aao a naay eiio?ieue ca ia?aciaaieai iiiiiieee ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao
e ia?aie/aiea iiiiiieenoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A eaaeaeie no?aia
onoaiiaeaiu e?eoa?ee auyaeaiey iiiiiieee. Ca iniiao aa?aony aeiey
i?aaei?eyoee a iauai iauaia i?iaeaae oiaa?a ia aeaiiii ?uiea.
Ainoaea?noai iiaeao cai?aoeoue ia?aciaaiea iiiiiieee, anee yoi aaaeao e
oooaeoaieth neooaoeee ia ?uiea, oi anoue iaiineo oua?a ia?oia?ai
iiiiiieee. Anee aea i?aaei?eyoey, ia?acothuea iiiiiieeth, aeieaaeoo, /oi
iia ia aaaeao e io?eoeaoaeueiui iineaaenoaeyi, oi aa oi?ie?iaaiea ia
cai?auaaony (/oi, eae i?aaeei, e auaaao). A ea/anoaa ia? ii ai?ueaa n
iiiiiieenoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth eniieuecothony a iniiaiii
?aaoee?iaaiea oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth iiiiiieenoia e eiio?ieue ca
niaethaeaieai eie noaiaea?oia ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

6) ?aaoee?iaaiea o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee, aeioiaeia, caiyoinoe, nioeeaeueiia
?aaoee?iaaiea. Ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao ainoaea?noai, eae oaea
aiai?eeinue, ?aaoee?oao ieieiaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo. E?iia oiai, iii
onoaiaaeeaaao iaeneiaeueioth i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/ae iaaeaee,
ia?aie/aiey ia naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou, ieieiaeueioth i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
ioioneia, o?aaiaaiey e oaoieea aaciianiinoe e oneiaeyi o?oaea, i?aaeea
i?eaia e oaieueiaiey ?aaioieeia e ae?. aii?inu, ioiinyueany e o?oaeiaiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ainoaea?noai oi?ie?oao
nioeeaeueiua oiiaeu aeey ieacaiey iiiiue iaeieiouei e iao?oaeiniiniaiui
/eaiai iauanoaa. A NOA aeiey cao?ao ainoaea?noaa ia nioeeaeueiua
i?ia?aiiu aic?inea n 4 % AII a 1930-a aa. aei 18 % AII a eiioea 1980-o
aa.

Ai anao ?acaeouo ainoaea?noaao, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, eiaaony
ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe, caaea/aie eioi?ie yaeythony: –
?aaeno?aoeey aac?aaioiuo, ieacaiea ei iiiiue a o?oaeiono?ienoaa e
ia?aiiaeaioiaea; – nai? eioi?iaoeee i aaeaineyo, noeioee?iaaiea
nicaeaiey iiauo ?aai/eo iano, i?einoaiiaea ianniauo oaieueiaiee; –
auieaoa iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea.

7)?aaoee?iaaiea oeai. Aeiey ?aaoee?oaiuo oeai a ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao ninoaaeyao 25-40 %. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai oeaiu
?aaoee?othony ia oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu, i?iaeoeoeeth
iaoaeeo?aee e eaniiai eiiieaena, oneoae o?ainii?oa, eiiioiaeueiua
oneoae, naeueoici?iaeoeoeeth, aaciaoth i?iaeoeoeeth iaoeiino?iaiey. E?oa
?aaoee?oaiuo oeai iiaeao ?anoe?youeny a caaeneiinoe io neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeee. ?aaoee?iaaieai iiaeao auoue ioaa/aii e 100 % oeai.

Iai?eia?, a NOA a ia/aea 1970-o aa. ana oeaiu auee caii?iaeaiu i?eia?ii
ia o?e aiaea. Caii?aaeeaaiea oeai eniieueciaaeinue e ai O?aioeee a
eiioea 1980-o aa. Noaiaiue aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a
oeaiiia?aciaaiea ii?aaeaeyaony oaiiaie eioeyoeee. O?iaaiue eioeyoeee a
3-5 % a aiae n/eoaaony aeiionoeiui, a a 13-15 % a aiae – iianiui aeey
yeiiiieee, o?aaothuei /?acau/aeiuo ia?.

Iaoiaeu, eniieuecoaiua aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey oeai, ?aciiia?aciu. Eo iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu:

a) I?yiia ?aaoee?iaaiea – onoaiiaeaiea (eee ooaa?aeaeaiea) oeai
ainoaea?noaii, ii?yaeea ?an/aoa oeai, i?aaeaeueiuo o?iaiae oeai,
ia?aie/aiea /anoae oeaiu (i?eauee, oi?aiaie iaoeaiee) e o. i.

a) Ia iniiaa niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e oe?iaie (oeaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie e caeacia, aeiaiai?u iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e
oe?iaie ii iiaeaea?aeaieth o?iaiy oeai a iaiai ia ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou
(ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa)).

a) Einaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea – n iiiiuueth iaeiaia e aeioaoeee, oiaa?iuo
eioa?aaioeee, aiaoiaoi?aiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, noeioee?iaaiey nicaeaiey
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iecaiaenoa e o. i.

Ia aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeea ni. oaeaea oaio 16.

8) Eiio?ieue ca ea/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee e io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.
Ainoaea?noai onoaiaaeeaaao noaiaea?ou ea/anoaa iiiaeo oiaa?ia, i?aaeaea
anaai – i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, aeeiaieueiie i?iaeoeoeee, ae?oaeo
oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey; eiio?iee?oao niaea?aeaiea a?aaeiuo
aauanoa a ieo. Ainoaea?noai eeoeaice?oao i?iecaiaenoai e i?iaeaaeo
iaaeeeaiaioia, onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua eiioeaio?aoeee e
i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua aua?inu caa?yciythueo aauanoa a i?iiuoeaiiuo
iooiaeao. Ia?ooeoaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oia iiaeaa?aathony
iaeacaieth, aieioue aei cae?uoey i?aaei?eyoey. ?ac?aaaouaathony e
inouanoaeythony ?acee/iua yeieiae/aneea i?ia?aiiu, oeiaine?oaiua
ainoaea?noaii.

9) ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Aeaiiay oi?ia aoaeao
?anniio?aia a neaaeothuae oaia.

A nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ainoaea?noai
aeaaiui ia?acii auiieiyao ooieoeeth ia ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee, a
oi?aaeaiey ath. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio eiuie yaeythony e i?eiaiyaiua ei
iaoiaeu:

1) Ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea yeiiiieee (ia eiaeeeaoeaiia, a
aee?aeoeaiia). Iii neoaeeo oeaio?aeueiui caaiii oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie.
Ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea ia icia/aao, /oi naa?oo ieaie?oaony ana,
aieioue aei aaicaey. Ninoaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia – neiaeiay
i?ioeaaeo?a, a eioi?ie o/anoaotho ana i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey
?aciuo o?iaiae. Ieaie?iaaiea eaeao e “naa?oo-aiec” e “nieco-aaa?o”; /oi
iaiaoiaeeii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeey iaania/aiey niaeaniaaiiinoe e
aaeeiie oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoe aeaenoaee anao caaiueaa i?iecaiaenoaa, a n
ae?oaie, – aeey iouneaiey e aiaea/aiey anao ?aca?aia iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Ainoaea?noaaiiue ieai aeeth/aao oieueei
iaiauaiiua iieacaoaee, aeaoaee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie
niaeaniauaathony eie naieie i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?ia.

2) Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia e i?iaeoeoia. Iii aunooiaao
i?aaeaea anaai a oi?ia oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai
niaaaeaiey, cae?aieythuaai iio?aaeoaeae ?ano?nia e i?iaeoeoeee (ia
iniiaa eo cayaie) ca i?iecaiaeeoaeyie a oeaeyo iaania/aiey iaeaieaa
?aoeeiiaeueiuo naycae a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, a oaeaea a oi?ia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai niaaaeaiey oiaa?aie ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey ia iniiaa
cayaie oi?aiauo i?aaiecaoeee.

3) Ainoaea?noaaiiia oeaiiia?aciaaiea. Iii ia icia/aao, /oi ana oeaiu
onoaiaaeeaathony “iaaa?oo”. Oeaio?aeueiua i?aaiu oeaiiia?aciaaiey
onoaiaaeeaatho (ooaa?aeaeatho) oeaiu eeoue ii iaeaieaa aaaeiui aeaeai
?ano?nia e i?iaeoeoeee. Oeaiu ia iiiaea aeaeu oiaa?ia onoaiaaeeaathony
(ooaa?aeaeathony) io?aneaauie e oa??eoi?eaeueiuie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaa
e naieie i?aaei?eyoeyie. Ainoaea?noai eeoue ii?aaeaeyao ii?yaeie
onoaiiaeaiey oeai e eiio?iee?oao aai niaethaeaiea. Aei na?aaeeiu 1950-o
a. a. a NNN?, iai?eia?, ieaie?iaaeinue aaeaaiaeiia nieaeaiea oeai ia
iniiaa ieaiiaiai nie?auaiey cao?ao. N 1947 ii 1953 a. a. o?iaaiue oeai
aeaaiaea?y yoiio aue iiieaeai aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca. I?e yoii
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao aue aacaeaoeoeeoai, a aeaiaaeiay ianna auea
naaeaine?iaaia n oiaa?iie, oi anoue ionoonoaiaae aeaoeoeeo e oiaa?ia, e
aeaiaa. Iicaeiaa yoa iieeoeea auea caiaiaia iieeoeeie noaaeeueiuo oeai,
/oi i?eaaei e eo io?uao io noieiinoe; a n na?aaeeiu 1960-o a. a.
nicaeaiea cao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia ii?iaeeei oaiaeaioeeth e
?inoo oeai.

4) Ainoaea?noaaiiay noaiaea?oecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee e eiio?ieue ca
niaethaeaieai noaiaea?oia, i?e?iaeiio?aiiay iieeoeea.

5) Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeaiaioaoeey o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee, oeiaine?iaaiea
nioeeaeueiie noa?u e nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey, aa?aioey i?aaa ia o?oae.

6) Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey a e?aaeeoiie noa?a, i /ai aiai?eeinue a
oaia 12.

7) Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey aiaoiae oi?aiaee e aaethoiuo iia?aoeee n
oeaeueth iiae/eiaiey eo iauaainoaea?noaaiiui eioa?anai.

Ec ia?a/eneaiiuo ooieoeee aeaeii, /oi ?ieue nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea iaiiiai auoa, /ai eaieoaeenoe/aneiai, oioy a
auiieiyaiuo eie ooieoeeyo anoue iaiaei noiaeiiai.

I?e yoii aeiey i?ioanneiiaeueii caiyouo oi?aaeaieai a iauae /eneaiiinoe
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea iaiiiai
ieaea, /ai a eaieoaeenoe/aneie. Yoi aucaaii oai, /oi oeaio?aeecaoeey
ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea iicaieyao auiieiyoue
eo cia/eoaeueii iaiueoei /eneii ethaeae.

Oae, a 1988 a. aeiey ?aaioieeia oi?aaeaiey anao o?iaiae a NNN?
ninoaaeyea ieiei 12 % anao caiyouo a yeiiiieea, a a NOA – ieiei 55 %. (E
?aaioieeai oi?aaeaiey caeanue ioianaiu ia oieueei ?aaioieee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ii e oi?aaeaioeu ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, a
i?aaiecaoeeyo, o/?aaeaeaieyo). Ia neo/aeii, /oi i?e ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea aeiey caiyouo oi?aaeaieai a ?innee ?acei aic?inea e
i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ?aoi?iaoi?u iaauaee nie?aoeoue
/enei oi?aaeaioeaa.

21.4. Eciaiaiea ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea ?innee

Aei ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu a NNN? auea ieaiiaay nioeeaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieea. A
1940-60-a a. a. iia ?acaeaaeanue iaeaieaa aunieeie oaiiaie a ie?a.
Iaeiaei nicaeaiiue a na?aaeeia 1960-o a. a. cao?aoiue oicyenoaaiiue
iaoaieci i?eaae e ?acaeoeth iaaaoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ua iniaaiii
oneeeeenue e ia/aeo 1980-o a. a. Noaea ino?i iaiaoiaeeiie ?aoi?ia
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie.

Oiaaea auee aiciiaeiu aeaa aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioa aa ?aoi?ie?iaaiey:
1) caiaia cao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia nenoaiie ieaie?iaaiey e
noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiiee iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea (iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa) ia iniiaa iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa; 2) neii nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie e
ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie (eaieoaeenoe/aneie) yeiiiieea.

A yeiiiie/aneie iaoea ?acai?aeenue aeeneonnee. Noi?iiieee ia?aiai ec
oeacaiiuo iai?aaeaiey ?ac?aaioaee eiie?aoiua i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ii iaeaaeeaaieth aioecao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. Iie auee
ai?iae?iaaiu ia ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea – eaieia?aaeneii II
“Naaoeaia”, iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo caaiaeao Aa?iaoea. Eo i?aeoe/aneia
i?eiaiaiea aeaei aunieea ?acoeueoaou, iii iicaieeei aeiaeoueny
iaaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaea ?acoeueoaoia – noaaeeueiiai ?inoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea aieaa /ai ia 10 % aaeaaiaeii, cia/eoaeueiiai
oaeaoaaeaiey ecaeaeee aac oua?aa aeey eo ea/anoaa. Eacaeinue au, auei
ynii, /oi aeaeaoue aeaeueoa.

Iaeiaei a ia?oeeiii ?oeiaiaenoaa (Ai?aa/aa, ?uaeeia, Eoeueyiia, sseiaeaa
e ae?.) acyea aa?o eeiey ia ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Ia?ano?ieea
yaeeanue ia?aui yoaiii, ca eioi?ui iineaaeiaae ea?aeeiaeueiue ?uaie a
?uiie 1992 a. Nioeeaeeci aue caiaiai ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneei
eaieoaeeciii.

Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio eciaieeanue e yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa.
Iooai i?eaaoecaoeee aue ?ac?ooai iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa? nianoaaiiinoe.
Ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue a nia?aiaiiie ?innee caieiaao i?eia?ii
oaeie aea oaeaeueiue aan a eaieoaea, /oi e a n?aaeiai ii ?acaeoui
eaieoaeenoe/aneei no?aiai.

Ainoaea?noai ia?anoaei auoue ?anii?yaeeoaeai iauaia?iaeiie nianoaaiiinoe
e auiieiyoue ooieoeeth oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie. Auee oi?acaeiaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea, oeaiiia?aciaaiea, oeaio?aeeciaaiiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia e i?iaeoeoia, ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey aiaoiae
oi?aiaee e aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, iiiiiieey ainoaea?noaa a e?aaeeoiie
noa?a, ?acei nieaeaia aai ?ieue a o?oaeiauo ioiioaieyo, nioeeaeueiii
iaania/aiee e ae?oaeo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaia?ue ainoaea?noai auiieiyao eeoue ooieoeeth ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee
e, eae e a ae?oaeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao, i?iaeaao e iieoiaao oiaa?u
ia ?uiea, ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao /anoue AII /a?ac nenoaio oeiainia e o. ae.

A iniiaa yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa n 1992 a.
eaaeeo iiiaoa?enoneay eiioeaioeey. Niaeanii yoie eiioeaioeee, ?inneeneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaaioth caaea/o aeaeeo a noaaeeecaoeee aeaiaaeiie iannu
a ia?auaiee. Yoi aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth iieeoeee aei?iaeo aeaiaa e
aeanoeie oeiainiaie iieeoeee. I?e/ai i?aaeoaeuenoai a no?aieaiee
naea?aeaoue ?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia?aae iaauieaoie
ca?aaioiie ieaou athaeaeaoieeai, iaiieaoie auiieiaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia, iaauaea/ae i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii aeioaoeee
naeo e o. ae.

?acoeueoaoii oaeie iieeoeee oaea noaei nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiieiaeio, ?ac?ooaiea nioeeaeueiie noa?u e ae?oaea e?eceniua yaeaiey.
Oai ia iaiaa aeaiaaeiay ianna ?anoao auno?aa, /ai oioaeinue au
i?aaeoaeuenoao, e ieiei 40-50 % aa i?e?inoa ooiaeeo a oaiaaoth
yeiiiieeo. I?iaeieaeaaony eioeyoeey.

Oa?aeoa?iui yaeaieai ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony
iinoiyiiia ?acaooaiea /eneaiiinoe ainaiia?aoa. Oaea aaniie 1994 a. ii
i?eciaieth A. *a?iiiu?aeeia /eneaiiinoue aiia?aoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia ?innee auea ia 30% aieueoa /eneaiiinoe anaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa auaoaai NNN?. N oao ii? iia ia oiaiueoeeanue.

A ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa ?innee, ii i?eciaieth A. Aeueoeeia e ae?oaeo
aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo /eiiaieeia, nae/an oea?eo ei??oioeey, eioi?ie
iaiaeiie?aoii iauyaeyeanue aieia, ii – aac?acoeueoaoii. ?oeiaiaenoai NOA
iauyaeei ?ino ei??oioeee a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa ?innee oa?iaeathuei
iaoeeiiaeueiui eioa?anai NOA.

Yeiiiieea noaea iaoi?aaeyaiie. Yoi cia/eo, /oi ie iaeia ec iauyaeaiiuo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii oeaeae, (e?iia iaaaeueiie i?eaaoecaoeee), ia auea
aeinoeaiooa. ?inney iaoiaeeony a aeoaieii e?ecena, auoiae ec eioi?iai
o?aaoao ea?aeeiaeueiie niaiu yeiiiie/aneiai eo?na e iaiiaeaiey anaai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu

1. *ai ioee/aaony oi?aaeaiea io ?aaoee?iaaiey n oi/ee c?aiey
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e iniiaiiai niaea?aeaiey ?

2. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo oiaa?iie e ieaiiia?iie oi?iaie nayce ?

3. *oi i?ienoiaeeo n ieaiiia?iie oi?iie nayce n ?acaeoeai
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa?

4. *ai ioee/aaony ieai io i?ia?aiiu? i?iaiica?

5. *ai ioee/aaony ieaie?iaaiea io i?ia?aiie?iaaiey?

6. Eaeiau aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey a yeiiiie/aneeo
i?ioeannao? A /ai eo niaea?aeaiea?

7. Eaeiau oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey oi?aaeaiey?

8. *oi iiieiaaony iiae ainoaea?noaii? Eaeea ooieoeee a iauanoaa iii
auiieiyao?

9. *oi iiieiaaony iiae ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneei eaieoaeeciii?
Eaeiau aai oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou e eaeea oaeoi?u iaoneiaeeaatho aai
?acaeoea?

10. Eaeea iniiaiua ooieoeee auiieiyao ainoaea?noai a nia?aiaiiie
yeiiiieea?

11. A eaeeo oi?iao au?aaeaaony yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a
nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa?

12. Eaeiau iniiaiua oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee?

13. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo eaeineainoaii e iiiaoa?eciii a o?aeoiaea ?iee
ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea?

14. *ai ioee/aaony ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea io
aai ?iee a eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea?

15. Ii/aio aeiey ?aaioieeia oi?aaeaiey, a oii /enea e ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa, ieaea a nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea, /ai a eaieoaeenoe/aneie?

16. A /ai ioee/ea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee ?

17. *ai ioee/aaony aee?aeoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea io eiaeeeaoeaiiai?

18. A /ai ninoieo eciaiaiea ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea ?innee a
1990-a aa.?

19. *ai oa?aeoa?ecoaony nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee a ?innee?

20. Eaeiaa ?ieue yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ?inneeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
?acaeoee yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a 1990-o aa. ? Ioaao iainioeoa.

Oaia 22. Anaie?iia oicyenoai

22.1. Anaie?iia oicyenoai e aai ninoaa

Anaie?iia oicyenoai – yoi niaieoiiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa no?ai
ie?a e yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie a ninoaaa anaie?iiai oicyenoaa auaeaeyeenue o?e
iniiaiua a?oiiu ainoaea?noa: – ?acaeoua eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu; –
nioeeaeenoe/aneea no?aiu; – ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
ieie a 1987 a. oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaiiuie oaaeeoeu 3.

Iaeiaei a 1980-90-a aa. nioeeaeenoe/aneay nenoaia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
?aniaeanue, oioy e nio?aieeny ?yae nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa (EI?,
Eoaa, EIAe?, Aueaoiai). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiieie?oao eiie i?eioeei
eeanneoeeaoeee ainoaea?noa. Auaeaeytho: – ?acaeoua eaieoaeenoe/aneea
no?aiu; – no?aiu n ia?aoiaeiie

Oaaeeoe a 3. N?aaiaiea yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae a?oii no?ai a 1987 a.

Aeae ainoaea?noa Aeiey a ie?iaii i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a % Aeiey a
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ie?a, a % Aeiey a oa??eoi?ee, a %

?acaeoua

eaieoaeenoe/aneea

53

16,1

13,2

Nioeeaeenoe/aneea 40 31,8 26,2

?acaeaathueany 7 52,1 61,6

yeiiiieeie (auaoea nioeeaeenoe/aneea ainoaea?noaa Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e
?anioaeeee auaoaai NNN?); – ?acaeaathueany no?aiu (e eioi?ui ioiinyo e
nioeeaeenoe/aneea, a oaeaea Iiiaieeth).

Niioiioaiey iaaeaeo iniiaiuie a?oiiaie no?ai ii o?iaith ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ecothony neaaeothueie iieacaoaeyie: ni. oaaeeoeo 4.

A ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao i?iaeeaaao ieiei 832 iei. /ae., a
n?aaeiee AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey (a aeieea?ao NOA 1995 a.) – i?eia?ii
22490 (o NOA – 27202).

A no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie /enei aeeoaeae ninoaaeyao ieiei 400
iei. /ae., n?aaeiee AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey – ieiei 4000 (?inney a 1996
a. – ii?yaeea 3900, a a 1990 a. – 7200).

Iaeiiaoe, a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao (aeeth/ay EI?) i?iaeeaaao ieiei 4400
iei. aeeoaeae, n?aaeiee AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey – ii?yaeea 3400 aeiee.
Ioiaoei, /oi a /enei no?ai “o?aoueaai ie?a” iiiaaeatho no?aiu n
nouanoaaiii ?aciuie o?iaiyie ?acaeoey. Caeanue e “iieiaeua oea?u” oeia
Aiieiiaa (AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey ieiei 25000 aeiee.), Neiaaio?a (25000
aeiee.), TH. Ei?ae, Oaeaaiy; e Iaeneea, e THA?; e aianoa n oai
ainoaea?noaa n iniaaiii ieceei o?iaiai ?acaeoey
(Oeaio?aeueii-Ao?eeaineay ?anioaeeea e ae?. no?aiu Ao?eee, Aoaaienoai e
o. i.). A ianoiyuaa

Oaaeeoea 4. *eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey e AAI (anaai e ia aeooo) ii
e?oiiaeoei no?aiai e a?oiiai no?ai ie?a a 1995 a.[29, n.16]

No?aiu e a?oiiu no?ai AAI anaai

(ie?ae. aeiee.) Ianaeaiea

(iei. /ae.) AAI ia aeooo (aeiee.)

Aanue ie? 35475 5734 6187

NOA 7255 267 27202

ssiiiey 2855 125 22804

“Naia?ea” 15850 677 23421

“?acaeoua” 18710 832 22490

“?acaeaathueany” (aac EI?): 11026 3161 3488

a o. /.: “i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua”: 8007 1154 6942

– “oea?u” 1785 155 11407

– “iaooyieee” 1486 161 9202

– “canoieiua” 3019 2008 1504

EI? 3800 1221 3111

Ainoi/iay Aa?iia 765 123 6224

NIA 904 281 3216

I?eaaeoeea 39 7,8 5090

?inney 625 148 4219

a?aiy ian/eouaaaony 20 ainoaea?noa n o?iaiai AII ia aeooo ianaeaiey
iaiueoa 275 aeiee.

Iniiaiuie oi?iaie yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo no?aiaie yaeythony:

-ie?iaay oi?aiaey; – iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea; – aaethoiua
ioiioaiey; – iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu; – iao/ii-oaoie/aneia
nio?oaeie/anoai; – niaianoiia oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia e ae?.

22.2. Caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa

Aeaaiay oaiaeaioeey ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa – ?anoe?aiea e
oe?aieaiea yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo no?aiaie. Aa iauaeoeaiie iniiaie
yaeyaony oaeoaeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Iii
au?aaeaaony a ?acaeoee niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?e?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Niaoeeaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ?acaeaaaony io i?iaeoeoiaie e
iiaeaoaeueiie, iioceiaie e iiiia?aoeeiiiie. Iia iaoneiaeaia iaee/eai a
no?aia i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, iiaeaioiaeaiiuo eaae?ia, oaoiieiaee;
aieinoueth aioo?aiiaai ?uiea.

Iai?ioiie noi?iiie niaoeeaeecaoeee yaeyaony eiiia?e?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
– onoaiiaeaiea onoie/eauo oaoiieiae/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie
ii auioneo eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?e?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo
oieoeeaoeey aeaoaeae, oceia, noaiaea?oia ecaeaeee. Oi?ie?oaony
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiay noieiinoue oiaa?ia, au?aaeaiiay a oi?ia oeai
ie?iaiai ?uiea. Naaiaeiy i?aaei?eyoea, aeaeathuaa aueoe ia ie?iaie
?uiie, aeieaeii niaethaeaoue eiathueany noaiaea?ou e oeeaaeuaaoueny a
o?iaaiue ie?iauo oeai. Eia/a aai i?iaeoeoeey ieeiio ia aoaeao ioaeia.

Ia?a/eneaiiua i?ioeannu aiai?yo i oii, /oi ?acaeoea iaiauanoaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aoaaioei ?aiee ioaeaeueiuo no?ai e i?eiyei oi?io
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa – yoi iinoaiaiiia i?aa?auaiea
ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa a aaeeiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann ia iniiaa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Iia icia/aao, /oi a i?iecaiaenoaa
eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa i?yii eee einaaiii o/anoaotho ?aaioieee ?aciuo
no?ai, e acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ieie oneeeaathony e oneiaeiythony.

Ia iniiaa eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeoea
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oeiainia. Iia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a yeiiiieea
aieueoeinoaa no?ai ana oe?a eniieuecoaony eiino?aiiue eaieoae; a
iaoeeiiaeueiue eaieoae ana aieueoa i?eiaiyaony a yeiiiieea ae?oaeo
no?ai. Ana aieaa e?oiiua iauaiu eaieoaeia auoiaeyo ec ?aciuo no?ai e
ia?aiauathony a ie?iaie yeiiiieea.

?acaeaaaony oieoeoee?iaaiiay naoue o?ainii?oa e nayce, oi?ie?othony
aaeeiua noaiaea?ou ia?aciaaiey. Nicaeathony iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaoee?othuea ie?iaie ?uiie: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue
oiiae, Anaie?iue aaie, Aaia?aeueiay annioeeaoeey ii oi?aiaea e oa?eoai,
Anaie?iay oi?aiaay i?aaiecaoeey e ae?.

Aeey ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ie?iaay oi?aiaey
?anoao auno?aa, /ai ie?iaia i?iecaiaenoai. Yoi aiai?eo ia oneeaiee
aiaea/aiiinoe no?ai a ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo. Iieacaoaeai noaiaie aiaea/aiey
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a ie?iaoth yaeyaony ioiioaiea iauaia yenii?oa
no?aiu e aa AII (a i?ioeaioao). Ii iniaaiii aunie o iaaieueoeo no?ai
(Aieeaiaeey, Aeaiey e o. ae.) e aeioiaeeo aei 70 %. O e?oiiuo no?ai ii
iaiiiai ieaea (iai?eia?, a NOA – iaiaa 10 %), a neeo aieueoae aieinoe
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, ii a ethaii neo/aa eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e iiauoaieth. A
oeaeii a iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oi?aiaeth iinooiaao /aoaa?oue anaai, /oi
i?iecaiaeeony a ie?a.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?aeea eaieoaea ?anoao aieaa aunieeie oaiiaie, /ai
ie?iaay oi?aiaey.

Caeiiiia?iinoueth ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony ia?aciaaiea
niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo iiiiiieeyie ?aciuo no?ai i ?acaeaea ie?iauo ?uieia,
oi anoue ia?aciaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iiiiiieee.

Ia iniiaa auaica eaieoaea ?acaeaathony o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiua ei?ii?aoeee
(OIE) – ei?ii?aoeee, eioi?ua ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth ioiinyony e
iaeiie no?aia, ii eiatho naie oeeeaeu ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a, i?eia?aee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe e caieiatho aeiieie?othuaa
iieiaeaiea ia ie?iauo ?uieao. Oae, eiino?aiiua oeeeaeu aia?eeaineeo OIE
ia?acotho naiaai ?iaea “aoi?oth yeiiiieeo” NOA, eioi?ay ii naiei
ianooaaai i?aainoiaeeo ethaoth aa?iiaeneoth no?aio e i?eaeeaeaaony e
naiei NOA. Aioo?eoe?iaiiua, iaaeoeeeaeueiua iinoaaee OIE ninoaaeytho
ieiei iieiaeiu anae aiaoiae oi?aiaee NOA. A a oeaeii a ie?iaie oi?aiaea
aeiey aioo?eoe?iaiiuo iinoaaie OIE ?aaia ieiei 1/3.

I?eia?u e?oiiaeoeo OIE (aeaiiua ia 1996 a.):

Aiaeeeneay eiiiaiey “?ieye Aeao/ Oaee”, caieiathuayny aeiau/ae,
ia?a?aaioeie e i?iaeaaeae iaooe, aaca e oaey, eiaao ca?oaaaeiua aeoeau a
79,7 ie?ae. aeiee. i?e iaueo aeoeaao a 117,6 ie?ae . aeiee. Aa
ca?oaaaeiua i?iaeaaee ninoaaeytho 80,6 ie?ae. aeiee. (/ooue iaiueoa
anaai yenii?oa ?innee a 1997 a., eioi?ue ioeaieaaeny a 85 ie?ae. aeiee.)
i?e iaueo i?iaeaaeao a 109,9 ie?ae. aeiee. Ia ca?oaaaeiuo oeeeaeao
eiiiaiee caiyoi 81000 /aeiaae i?e iauae /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia a 104000
/ae.

Aia?eeaineay aaoiiiaeeueiay ei?ii?aoeey “Oi?ae iioi? eiiiaie” eiaao
aeoeau a 117,6 ie?ae. aeiee., ec ieo 69,2 ie?ae .aeiee. – ca?oaaaeiua.
Iauaiu i?iaeaae: iauea – 137,1 ie?ae. aeiee., ec ieo: ca?oaaaeiua – 41,9
ie?ae. aeiee. *eneaiiinoue caiyouo: iauay – 346990 /ae., ia ca?oaaaeiuo
oeeeaeao – 103334 /ae.

Aia?eeaineay eiiiaiey “Aeaeaia?ae yeaeo?ee eiiiaie”: aeoeau – 228 ie?ae.
aeiee., a oii /enea ca?oaaaeiua – 69,2 ie?ae. ?oa.; iauaiu i?iaeaaee:
iauea – 70 ie?ae. aeiee., ca?oaaaeiua – 17,1 ie?ae .aeiee.; /eneaiiinoue
caiyouo: iauay – 222000 /ae., ia ca?oaaaeiuo oeeeaeao – 72000 /ae. [32]

Yeiiiie/aneia ainiiaenoai OIE a ie?iaie yeiiiieea oneeeaaaony ia iniiaa
neoiee ii anaio ie?o eaeae, iaoaioia, iaeia oaeaioeeauo niaoeeaeenoia.
Iiiiiieece?oy iiaua oaoiieiaee, OIE oeaeaiai?aaeaiii iiaeaea?aeeaatho
naie io?ua io eiieo?aioia. Oae, aaeieieno?aoeey ?. ?aeaaia a ia/aea
1980-a a. a. a eioa?anao aia?eeaineeo OIE aeiaeeanue cai?aoa
i?aaeinoaaeaiey oaeei no?aiai, eae NNN?, EI? e Eiaeey, oaoiieiaee,
eiathueo aic?ano iaiaa 10 eao. Cai?ao ?ani?ino?aiyeny ia oieueei ia
oe?iu NOA, ii e ana oe?iu, caeoiaaoea aia?eeaineoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Ii
nio?aiyao neeo aei neo ii?.

Aaaeiie caeiiiia?iinoueth ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony
?aaeiiaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey. Iiae iae iiieiaaony i?ioeann
iinoaiaiiiai naeeaeaiey e neeyiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee ?yaea
ainoaea?noa ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?aaeiia. Ath ioaa/aiu iiiaea ?aaeiiu ie?a:
Caiaaeiay Aa?iia (AYN), Naaa?iay Aia?eea (NOA, Eaiaaea, Iaeneea),
Eaoeineay Aia?eea (no?aiu Aiaeneie a?oiiu), Naaa?iay Ao?eea (a?aaneea
no?aiu), THai-Ainoi/iay Acey (no?aiu aceaonei-oeoiieaaineiai ?aaeiia, e
eioi?ui i?eniaaeeieeenue NOA, Eaiaaea, Iaeneea, *eee). ?aaeiiaeueiay
eioaa?aoeey ?acaeaaeanue e a ?aieao NYA aei aai ?aniaaea.

?aaeiiaeueiay eioaa?aoeey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa i?ienoiaeeo a
oi?ia nicaeaiey iauaai ?uiea (aaeeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa):
nie?auathony, aieioue aei iieiiai niyoey, ia?aie/aiey ia aeaeaeaiea
iaaeaeo no?aiaie oiaa?ia, oneoa, eaieoaea, ?aai/ae neeu; naeeaeathony
aieioue aei oieoeeaoeee iaeiaiaua nenoaiu, i?aaiaua e yeieiae/aneea
ii?iu, oaoiieiae/aneea noaiaea?ou; nicaeathony iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua i?aaiu
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee; i?iaiaeeony niaeaniaaiiay iieeoeea a ioiioaiee
no?ai, ia aoiaeyueo a eioaa?e?oaioth a?oiie?iaeo; a ia?niaeoeaa
aioiaeony ia?aoiae e aaeeiie aaethoa e nicaeaieth aaeeiiai
oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea.

?aaeiiaeueiay eioaa?aoeey nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiua
ioee/ey ii naiae oi?ia, eioi?ua aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu iicaeiaa.

Caeiiiia?iinoueth ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony oaeaea
oaeoaeaiea ?ac?uaa a o?iaia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iaaeaeo ?acaeouie
eaieoaeenoe/aneeie no?aiaie e aieueoeinoaii ?acaeaathueony ainoaea?noa.
Aieueoeinoai iineaaeieo aei aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu auee eieiieyie e
iiaeaa?aaeenue eieiieaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee ni noi?iiu eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa. Iinea aieiu n iiiiuueth NNN? e ae?oaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneeo
no?ai iie aeiaeeenue inaiaiaeaeaiey io eieiieaeueiie caaeneiinoe.
Aieueoa anaai ainoaea?noa iieo/eei iieeoe/aneoth iacaaeneiinoue a
1950-60-a aa., a a oeaeii eieiieaeueiay nenoaia auea eeeaeaee?iaaia a
1980-a aa.

Iaeiaei eieiieaeueiay caaeneiinoue aeey aieueoeinoaa inaiaiaeeaoeony
no?ai niaieeanue yeiiiie/aneie caaeneiinoueth io ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa. Iia au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi /anoue
nicaeaiiiai ia?iaeaie yoeo no?ai i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa i?enaaeaaaony
iiiiiieenoe/aneei eaieoaeii ?acaeouo no?ai. Iaoaieci yenieoaoaoeee
ia?iaeia neaai?acaeouo no?ai aeeth/aao oeaiiaie iaoaieci (caieaeaiiua
oeaiu ia oiaa?u ec neaai?acaeouo no?ai), aeene?eieiaoeeth a oi?aiauo
ioiioaieyo; ieceoth iieaoo o?oaea e auaic /anoe i?eauee oeeeaeaie OIE;
i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia n oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey oeiainiaie
caaeneiinoe; iiaeaea?aeaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai ionoaaaiey ?acaeaathueony
no?ai e oaeie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee, eioi?ay aeaeaao eo caaeneiuie io
iinoaaie ec ?acaeouo no?ai. No?aiu “o?aoueaai ie?a” eniieuecothony e
aeey auaica yeieiae/anee a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa, nauoa ieceiea/anoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, eae enoi/ieee aeaoaaiai oiieeaa e nu?uey.

Aianoa n oai iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiay ia?aaiiia?iinoue a o?iaia e
oaiiao ?acaeoey no?ai “o?aoueaai ie?a”. ?yae ec ieo ioiineony e /eneo
“iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo ainoaea?noa” aaeaeo aunieie aeiee i?iiuoeaiiinoe
a AII.

A ia/aea 1990-o aa. 90 % anaai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
?acaeaathueony no?ai (117 no?ai) i?eoiaeeeinue ia aeieth 22 ec ieo,
i?e/ai 60 % – ia aeieth iyoe: A?aceeee, Iaeneee, Eiaeee, A?aaioeiu e TH.
Ei?ae. Anee e iei aeiaaaeoue aua Eiaeiiaceth, Aiieiia, Oaeaaiue e
Neiaaio?, oi aeiey yoeo aeaayoe no?ai ninoaaeo i?eia?ii 80 %
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa no?ai “o?aoueaai ie?a”. A oeaeii aea aeey
?acaeaathueony no?ai oa?aeoa?ia oaiaeaioeey e oooaeoaieth iieiaeaiey
aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey: ?ino aac?aaioeoeu, ieuaou, aieaciae, aunieay
aeiey iaa?aiioiiai ianaeaiey. ?anoao aiaoiyy caaeieaeaiiinoue
?acaeaathueony ainoaea?noa, eioi?ay i?aauneea 1, 7 o?ei. aeiee. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iia i?aauoaao 40 % noiia?iiai AII ?acaeaathueony no?ai e
a 1, 3 ?aca aieueoa eo noiia?iiai yenii?oa. Iiiaea no?aiu noaee
aaciaaeaaeiuie aeieaeieeaie, /oi a ?yaea neo/aaa canoaaeei e?aaeeoi?ia
(oeiainiaue eaieoae ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai) iieoe ia /anoe/iia
nienaiea aeieaa. Oae, NOA auee auioaeaeaiu a ia/aea 1990-o a. a.
nienaoue /anoue aeieaa iaeioi?ui eaoeiiaia?eeaineei no?aiai. (Ii aei
yoiai ca 10 eao iie iieo/eee n iiiiuueth naieo e?aaeeoia ec no?ai
Eaoeineie Aia?eee /enoie i?eauee ieiei 1 o?ei. aeiee.) ?acaeaathueany
no?aiu niiaua aeiaeaathony nie?auaiey aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe e
onoaiiaeaiey iiaiai, aieaa ni?aaaaeeeaiai ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai
ii?yaeea. Iaeiaei oeiainiaay ieeaa?oey eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?a ia
no?aieony auioneaoue eo ec noa?u naiae yenieoaoaoeee.

22.3. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea ?innee

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneii iieiaeaiee ?innee i?iecioee
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey. Yoi ?aniaae Niaaoa Yeiiiie/aneie Acaeiiiiiiue
(NYA), ?ac?ooaiea NNN?, ea?aeeiaeueiay ?ai?aaiecaoeey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, iiaeaeoay ca niaie iaaaoeaiua oaiaeaioeee
ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea, aeaeaeaiee eaieoaea, aaethoiuo ioiioaieyo.

NYA aue nicaeai a 1949 a. e i?inouanoaiaae ieiei 40 eao. *eaiaie NYA
auee 10 nioeeaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa. E?iia oiai, a aai ?aaioa
i?eieiaee o/anoea e ae?oaea no?aiu, ia yaeyaoeany /eaiaie NYA
(THaineaaey, Oeieyiaeey, Iaeneea e ae?.). A 1987 a. a no?aiao-/eaiao NYA
i?iaeeaaei 480 iei. /ae., iie i?iecaiaeeee ieiei 1/3 ie?iaie
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, i?eia?ii 1/4 ie?iaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea. NYA aue nicaeai aeey niaeaenoaey yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeee
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. Aai aeayoaeueiinoue no?ieeanue ia
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo i?eioeeiao. N?aaee ieo iiaeii ioiaoeoue oaeea eae
acaeiiiiiiuue, au?aaieaaiea o?iaiae yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iooai iaiaia
iiuoii e aiaae?aiey naiuo ia?aaeiauo aeinoeaeaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna.

Yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey a ?aieao NYA ioee/aeanue oai, /oi iia
no?ieeanue ia ieaiiaie iniiaa. No?aiu-/eaiu NYA i?eieiaee aeieain?i/iua
i?ia?aiiu nio?oaeie/anoaa (ia 15 eao), n o/aoii eo niaeaniauaaee naie
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiua ieaiu. Ana oi?iu yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
(oi?aiaey, ?an/aou, e?aaeeou, iaiai niaoeeaeenoaie, niaianoiia
oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia, iao/ii-oaoie/aneia nio?oaeie/anoai e o. ae.)
inouanoaeyeenue ia iniiaa iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo niaeaoaiee. Acyoua a
ieo iaycaoaeuenoaa ninoaaiie /anoueth aeeth/aeenue a ainoaea?noaaiiua
ieaiu. A ieo ii?aaeaeyeenue iauaiu ieaiiauo iinoaaie oiaa?ia e eo
iinooieaiey, i?aaeinoaaeaiea e iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia e o. ae. Auee
nicaeaiu ?oeiaiaeyuea i?aaiu NYA, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie yeiiiie/aneiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa (aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia e ieaoaaeae). Ana
?an/aou i?iecaiaeeeenue ii aioo?aiiei oeaiai NYA, ioee/aaoeiny io
ie?iauo oeai, iineieueeo iie iniiauaaeenue ia noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee a
no?aiao NYA. N?aaenoaii ?an/aoia auee ia?aaiaeiua ?oaee. Yoa aeaiaaeiay
aaeeieoea eiaea cieioia iaania/aiea (0,987412 a cieioa), a aeaea
iaee/iuo aeaiaa ia auioneaeanue, a eniieueciaaeanue oieueei aeey
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia e ieaoaaeae. Eia/a aiai?y, eioaa?aoeey a NYA eiaea
ieaiiia?iue oa?aeoa? e aaea e iinoaiaiiiio neeyieth iaoeeiiaeueiuo
yeiiiiee no?ai NYA a aaeeioth ieaiiia?ii i?aaieciaaiioth yeiiiieeo.
?acoeueoaoii eioaa?aoeee auei nicaeaiea aaeeiie yia?ainenoaiu, aaeeiiai
ia?ea aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo aaaiiia, nenoaiu nayce, aeoaieie eiiia?aoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa (ia aeieth iinoaaie aioo?e NYA i?eoiaeeeinue aieaa 2/3
anae aiaoiae oi?aiaee no?ai- aai o/anoieeia) e o. i.

I?e/eiie ?aniaaea NYA yaeeny aeaiiioaae nioeeaeecia nia/aea a
ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao, a caoai e a NNN?. Ieaiiia?iay i?aaiecaoeey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae i?aiyonoaiaaea eo ia?aoiaeo e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea. A 1990 a. auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i ea?aeeiaeueiii eciaiaiee
ioiioaiee a NYA: ?an/aou aeieaeiu auee i?iaiaeeoueny a naiaiaeii
eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethoa, a ie?iauo oeaiao, oi?aiaey e ae?oaea nayce –
onoaiaaeeaaoueny ia iniiaa aeiaiai?ia iaaeaeo naieie i?aaei?eyoeyie (a
ia i?aaeoaeuenoaaie) e o. ae. Iiyoiio oaea a 1991 a. NYA ia?anoae
nouanoaiaaoue, /oi i?eaaei e ?aceiio nie?auaieth yeiiiie/aneeo naycae
iaaeaeo aai auaoeie /eaiaie, ?ac?uao neiaeeaoeony ca aeanyoeeaoey
oicyenoaaiiuo naycae, cia/eoaeueiiio nie?auaieth iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa
ai anao no?aiao NYA, a oii /enea a NNN?.

Aeaaiie yeiiiie/aneie i?e/eiie ?aniaaea NNN? yaeeinue oaeoaeaiea
yeiiiie/aneeo aeeni?iii?oeee a aai ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, aucaaiiuo
aeaenoaeai cao?aoiiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia. Yoi au?aceeinue i?aaeaea
anaai a ia?anoaiee oiaa?iiai aeaoeoeeoa (ecauoea aeaiaaeiie iannu a
ia?auaiee), aaaaeaiee yeaiaioia ea?oi/iie nenoaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey a
1980-a aa. A ?acoeueoaoa ?inei ianniaia iaaeiaieuenoai ianaeaiey
neiaeeaoeiny iieiaeaieai, /ai e ainiieueciaaeenue iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea,
i?iao?aeoaciua iieeoe/aneea neeu. A NNN? aicieeee oeaio?iaaaeiua
oaiaeaioeee, eioi?ua i?eaaee aia/aea e oae iacuaaaiiio “?anioaeeeaineiio
oic?an/aoo”, caoai – e iauyaeaieth i?ei?eoaoa ?anioaeeeaineeo caeiiia
iaae nithciuie, i?iaicaeaoaieth iacaaeneiinoe e noaa?aiiinoe ?anioaeee
e, iaeiiaoe e iauyaeaieth i auoiaea ec NNN?.

?ac?ooaiea NNN? i?eaaei e eeeaeaeaoeee aaeeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa ia aai oa??eoi?ee: onoaiiaeaiee a?aieoe e ia?aie/aiee ia
aeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia, eaieoaea e ?aai/ae neeu; aaaaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aaetho; ana aieueoae aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e i?aaiauo ii?i
e o. ae.

?acoeueoaoii yaeeinue cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea yeiiiie/aneeo naycae, /oi
iaaaoeaii io?aceeinue ia yeiiiieea anao auaoeo ?anioaeee NNN?. Ca
ia?eiae n 1991 ii 1997 a. no?aiaie NIA i?eiyoi ia?iiiia iiiaeanoai
?aoaiee, cayaeaiee i ainnoaiiaeaiee ia eo oa??eoi?ee aaeeiiai
yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa ii oeio AYN, oi anoue iai?aaeaiiuo ia niyoea
ia?aie/aiee ia aeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia, eaieoaeia e ?aai/ae neeu, oieoeeaoeee
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e o. i. Iaeiaei i?ioeannu
aeaceioaa?aoeee oneeeaathony. Iaeioi?ua naeaeae ia iooe e eioaa?aoeee
aeinoeaioou oieueei a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ?inneae e Aaei?onneae.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa ?aniaaea NYA e NNN? ?inney auiaea ec
?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeee, oo?aoeea cia/eoaeueiue iauai
oicyenoaaiiuo naycae; e ia oa??eoi?ee, eioi?ay auea /anoueth aaeeiiai n
?inneae yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa, nae/an onoaiaaeeaaaony ainiiaenoai
caiaaeiiai eaieoaea. I?iecioae naiaai ?iaea yeiiiie/aneee ia?aaeae ie?a
ca n/ao ?innee e a oua?a ae.

Neaaenoaeai eeeaeaeaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee aiaoiae oi?aiaee e
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, eeaa?aeecaoeee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae yaeeenue:
– ?aceia oooaeoaiea no?oeoo?u aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?innee, i?aa?aoeaoaa aa a
oiieeaii-nu?ueaaie i?eaeaoie ?acaeouo no?ai; – oaeoaeaiea e?ecena a
aieueoeinoaa ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aa?a?iii
naeoi?a yeiiiieee; – aaanoai eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo e ?aceia nie?auaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee; – cia/eoaeueiue ?ino aiaoiae
caaeieaeaiiinoe, iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aai oeiainiaay
caaeneiinoue io eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea; – aeieea?ecaoeey ?inneeneie
yeiiiieee, iaiinyuay ia?iiiue oua?a ioa/anoaaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao (iia ii
nouanoao icia/aao, /oi ?inney aanieaoii auaiceo /anoue naieo ?ano?nia).

A oeaeii, oaeei ia?acii, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea ?innee ca
iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?acei oooaeoeeinue, iia ieacaeanue a iieiaeaiee
caaeneiiai ainoaea?noaa, aoyiooiai a noa?o yenieoaoaoeee ni noi?iiu
oeiainiaie ieeaa?oee ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. *oi iiieiaaony iiae anaie?iui oicyenoaii?

2. Ii eaeiio e?eoa?eth auaeaeythony a?oiiu no?ai a ninoaaa anaie?iiai
oicyenoaa?

3. *oi ia?acoao iniiao ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee
e a eaeeo oi?iao iia au?aaeaaony ?

4. Eaeiau iniiaiua oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee?

5. *oi iiieiaaony iiae eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa? A eaeeo
oi?iao iia inouanoaeyaony?

6. Eaeie iieacaoaeue eniieuecoaony aeey ioeaiee noaiaie aiaea/aiiinoe
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a ie?iaie oicyenoai?

7. *oi iiieiaaony iiae ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeeae? Eaeea
eioaa?aoeeiiiua a?oiie?iaee au ciaaoa?

8. *ai ioee/aeanue eioaa?aoeey a NYA io eioaa?aoeee a AYN ?

9. *oi iiieiaaony iiae o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuie eiiiaieyie? Eaeiau iniiaiua
iaoiaeu oneeaiey eo ainiiaenoaa a ie?iaie yeiiiieea?

10. Eaeiau iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee a yeiiiieea ?acaeaathueony no?ai?

11. Eaeiau niiniau auea/eaaiey i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa ec neaai?acaeouo
no?ai a ?acaeoua a iaoa a?aiy? E eaeei iineaaenoaeyi yoi i?eaiaeeo
yeiiiieeo ?acaeaathueony no?ai?

12. Eaeiau iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey anaie?iiai oicyenoaa a iaoa
a?aiy?

13. *oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey ?innee a 1990-97
aa. ?

14. *oi icia/aea au a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneay eioaa?aoeey
no?ai NIA?

15. Eae aeeyao aiaoiayeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea ?innee ia aioo?aiiea
i?ioeannu a aa yeiiiieea?

Oaia 23. Oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee

23.1. Ie?iaay oi?aiaey

?acaeoea ie?iaie oi?aiaee naycaii n oai, /oi o/anoea a iae aeaao no?aiai
iaiaeue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo. Nouiinoue aai caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai.
Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ninoieo a iaiaia yenii?oe?oaiuo oiaa?ia ia
eiii?oe?oaiua (aaethoa neoaeeo eeoue n?aaenoaii iaiaia oiaa?ia). Yooaeo
aicieeaao ec ?acee/ey iaoeeiiaeueiuo noieiinoae oiaa?ia e eo oeai ia
ie?iaii ?uiea. Aai aaee/eio iiaeii au?aceoue oi?ioeie:

Y = NE – NY ; aaea: Y – yooaeo io aiaoiae oi?aiaee, NE – noieiinoue
eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia, anee au iie i?iecaiaeeeenue aioo?e no?aiu; NY –
iaoeeiiaeueiay noieiinoue yenii?oe?oaiuo oiaa?ia.

Noieiinoue NE i?eia?aoaaony a iaiai ia noieiinoue NY. Anee iia auoa aa,
oi no?aia iieo/aao aeiiieieoaeueioth noieiinoue a ?acia?a Y (yeiiiieo
iauanoaaiiue o?oae ia aeaiioth aaee/eio). Eaeie au ionoathuae ii o?iaith
?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ie auea no?aia, iia iiaeao iieo/eoue
cia/eoaeueiue yooaeo io o/anoey a ie?iaie oi?aiaea ca n/ao oiai, /oi
aoaeao niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny ia i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia, aeey
eioi?uo ioiioaiea ie?iaie oeaiu e aioo?aiiae oeaia (eee e ecaea?aeeai
i?iecaiaenoaa) iaeaieaa auniei; e nie?auaoue i?iecaiaenoai e
i?eia?aoaoue ca ?oaaaeii oa oiaa?u, aeey eioi?uo yoi ioiioaiea iaeaieaa
iecei.

Aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa aaaeao
e ?acaeoeth niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa a ie?iaie yeiiiieea e
oaaee/aieth ianooaaia ie?iaie oi?aiaee.

O/anoea no?aiu a ie?iaie oi?aiaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie
iieacaoaeyie:

– Iauai yenii?oa e eiii?oa.

– Iai?io aiaoiae oi?aiaee = yenii?o + eiii?o.

– Naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina (eee: iauai /enoiai yenii?oa) = yenii?o –
eiii?o.

Anee yenii?o i?aauoaao eiii?o, oi aiai?yo ia aeoeaiii naeueaei oi?aiaiai
aaeaina; a i?ioeaiii neo/aa – i ianneaiii naeueaei. Aeoeaiia naeueaei
oi?aiaiai aaeaina niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
iineieueeo icia/aao ?anoe?aiea ni?ina ia aai i?iaeoeoeeth. A oneiaeyo
e?ecena iii yaeyaony oaeoi?ii i?aiaeieaiey yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea.
Ianneaiia naeueaei, anee iii nio?aiyaony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao,
nicaeaao iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
yaeyaony oaeoi?ii ia?aciaaiey e ?inoa aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe.

I?e ioeaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee no?aiu ?anniao?eaaaony oaeaea no?oeoo?a aa
yenii?oa e eiii?oa, eioi?ay io?aaeaao ninoiyiea yeiiiieee a oeaeii.
No?oeoo?a yenii?oa e eiii?oa ioeaieaaaony i?aaeaea anaai niioiioaieai
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e ia?ae/iuo ?ano?nia (oiieeai, nu?uea) a aa ninoaaa.
*ai auoa aeiey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a yenii?oa no?aiu, oai auoa o?iaaiue
?acaeoey aa ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a cia/eo, e yeiiiieee a
oeaeii. E iaiai?io, /ai auoa aeiey ia?ae/iuo ?ano?nia a yenii?oa, oai
ieaea o?iaaiue ?acaeoey yeiiiieee a oeaeii. (Oioy, ?acoiaaony,
iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue aua e anoanoaaiiua ?acee/ey a o?iaia
iaania/aiiinoe no?ai i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie e auoaeathuaa ionthaea
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iaaeaeo ieie). *oi eanaaony no?oeoo?u eiii?oa, oi
caeanue eiaao neeo ia?aoiay caaeneiinoue: iiauoaiea aeiee ia?ae/iuo
?ano?nia aiai?eo i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo ia ioiineoaeueiii ?inoa
o?iaiy ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, a iiauoaiea aeiee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee – i aai
nieaeaiee.

Ia ninoiyiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee no?aiu aeeytho i?aaeaea anaai neaaeothuea
oaeoi?u:

– Ninoiyiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (oaca i?iiuoeaiiiai oeeeea),
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue aai i?iaeoeoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea.

– Eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou e aai aeeiaieea. Caieaeaiiue eo?n aaethou
aeaaii?eyonoaoao ?inoo yenii?oa e naea?aeeaaao ?ino eiii?oa. Caauoaiiue
eo?n aeaenoaoao a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

– Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

Oeaeueth ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee yaeyaony
iiaeaea?aeea (caueoa) iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iaania/aiea
aeoeaiiai oi?aiaiai aaeaina. Aai iau/ii iacuaatho i?ioaeoeeiieciii (io
neiaa “i?ioaeoeey” – iie?iaeoaeuenoai). I?ioaeoeeiieci a aieueoae eee
iaiueoae noaiaie i?enou anai ?acaeoui no?aiai, oioy a ?yaea
yeiiiie/aneeo eiioeaioeee (eeanne/aneay e iaieeanne/aneay oeieu)
?acaeaaaony oacen i oii, /oi naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey (oi anoue ionoonoaea
i?ioaeoeeiiecia) yaeyaony iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee
aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee inouanoaeyaony
neaaeothueie iaoiaeaie:

1) Eaioe?iaaiea – onoaiiaeaiea eaio (i?aaeaeueiuo aaee/ei) aaica eee
auaica ii?aaeaeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Caaiceoue (eee auaiceoue) oiaa? eiatho
i?aai oieueei oa oe?iu, eioi?ui auaeaiu eaiou, i?e/ai a iauaia, ia
i?aauoathuai eaioo.

2) Eeoeaice?iaaiea – auaea/a ?ac?aoaiee ia aaic (auaic) oiaa?ia. Aac
iieo/aiey eeoeaicee oe?ia ia eiaao i?aai eiii?oe?iaaoue
(yenii?oe?iaaoue) oio eee ae?oaie oiaa?.

3) Oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu (eiii?oiua e yenii?oiua). Eiii?oiua iioeeiu
ia?aie/eaatho aaic oiaa?ia, iineieueeo aaaeoo e iiauoaieth eo oeai e
nieaeatho eo eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea. Eiii?oiua
iioeeiu, eae i?aaeei, oai auoa, /ai auoa noaiaiue ia?a?aaioee
i?iaeoeoeee. Iai?eia?, a NOA iioeeiu ia aaic oeiiea a n?aaeiai
ninoaaeytho 1,1 % oeaiu; oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo oeaiae – 8,7 %, a aioiaie
iaeaaeaeu – 22,7 %. A AN eiii?o ?yaea nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia inouanoaeyaony
aaniioeeiii, a, iai?eia?, oaeaaeci?ia – n iioeeiie a 20-22 %. Yenii?oiua
iioeeiu iau/ii onoaiaaeeaathony aeey ia?aie/aiey auaica iaeaieaa aaaeiuo
aeaeia ?ano?nia ec no?aiu.

4) Noaiaea?ou ea/anoaa oiaa?ia – neoaeao aeey ia?aie/aiey aaica a no?aio
aeaoaaie, ii ieceiea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei iie ia?aaeei
eniieuecothony e eae aeene?eieiaoeeiiiay ia?a, oi anoue niciaoaeueii
caauoathony, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue ia aioo?aiiee ?uiie ii?aaeaeaiiua
aeaeu eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia.

5) Aioeaeaiieiaiaua ia?u – oo?aoiua naieoeee ca eiii?o oiaa?ia ii
n?aaieoaeueii ieceei oeaiai (a n?aaiaiee n oeaiaie aioo?aiiaai ?uiea).
Eo iaeiaeaiea ?aaiineeueii aaaaeaieth aeiiieieoaeueiiai iaeiaa
(iioeeiu).

6) Noeioee?iaaiea yenii?oa ioa/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee n iiiiuueth
aeioaoeee a ?aciie oi?ia, iaeiaiauo e eiuo eueaio yenii?oa?ai.

7) Cai?ao aaica oao eee eiuo aeaeia oiaa?ia.

A iaoae no?aia a 1990-a a. a. i?iecioea ei?aiiay ?aoi?ia i?aaiecaoeee
aiaoiae oi?aiaee. A Niaaoneii Nithca aua a 1920-a aa. auea onoaiiaeaia
ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Iia icia/aea, /oi
aiaoiaoi?aiaua eiio?aeou caeeth/aeenue eeai niioaaonoaothueie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie eee n eo ?ac?aoaiey. Oeaeue iiiiiieee aiaoiae
oi?aiaee caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oiau a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie iiae/eieoue
aa iauaainoaea?noaaiiui eioa?anai, oi anoue i?iaeaaaoue e iieoiaoue ia
ie?iaii ?uiea oieueei oi, /oi auaiaeii ainoaea?noao a oeaeii, e oieueei
ii oeaiai, eioi?ua ioaa/atho aai eioa?anai. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey
aiaoiae oi?aiaee i?inouanoaiaaea aieioue aei ia/aea ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i.
Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io aiaoiae oi?aiaee NNN? ioeaieaaeny a eiioea
1980-o aa. aaee/eiie 60-70 ie?ae. ?oaeae a aiae.

A oiaea ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiiiieey aiaoiae oi?aiaee
auea ioiaiaia, e ana th?eaee/aneea eeoea, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee, iieo/eee i?aai caeeth/aoue aiaoiaoi?aiaua naeaeee.
?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?aaoee?iaaiee aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?acei nie?aoeeanue.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iii naiaeeony e neaaeothuei oi?iai:

1) Eaioe?iaaiea e eeoeaice?iaaiea yenii?oa ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa oiaa?ia,
i?eciaiiuo no?aoaae/anee aaaeiuie.

2) Eeoeaice?iaaiea eiii?oa ii ia?aie/aiiiio e?oao oiaa?ia (i?iiuoeaiiua
iooiaeu, yaeioeieeaou, aauanoaa, niaea?aeauea ia?eioeee, i?oaeea,
iaaeeeaiaiou).

3) Eiii?oiua iioeeiu ii ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeai oiaa?ia ( iaeioi?ua aeaeu
i?iaeiaieuenoaey, aeeiaieueiua iaieoee, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, o?ainii?oiua
n?aaenoaa, ecaeaeey eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?aaeiaou ?ineioe e ae?.).

4) Auai?i/iue eiio?ieue ea/anoaa i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia.

N oi/ee c?aiey ia?aie/aiee, iaeeaaeuaaaiuo ia eiii?o oiaa?ia, ?inneeneay
yeiiiieea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony aieaa ioe?uoie ii n?aaiaieth n
aieueoeinoaii caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai.

Iauai aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?innee ?acei nie?aoeeny a ia/aea 1990-o aa. ,
aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca: ni 151,2 ie?ae. aeiee. a 1989 a. aei 73,1 ie?ae.
aeiee. a 1992 a. e 70 ie?ae. aeiee. a 1993 a. Caoai ii iiauoaeny e
aeinoea a 1997 a.135 ie?ae. aeiee., oi anoue aua ia iiaeiyeny aei o?iaiy
1989 a. Iaeiaei no?oeoo?a oiaa?iiai?ioa nouanoaaiii eciaieeanue. ?acei
nieceeanue aeiey iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey a yenii?oa (n 22-25 % aei 4-5 %),
a aeiey oiieeaii-nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia cia/eoaeueii iiauneeanue.

Nie?auaiea yenii?oa ec ?innee i?iaeoeoeee iaoeiino?iaiey aeaeii ec
oaaee-

oeu 5. A oaaeeoea 6 iieacaii oaaee/aiea aeiee yenii?oe?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee
oiieeaii-nu?ueaaiai iacia/aiey a iauai iauaia aa i?iecaiaenoaa a ?innee.

Nae/an ia yenii?o eaeao aieaa 40 % aeiauaaaiie iaooe e aieaa o?aoe
aeiauaaaiiai aaca i?e nie?auaiee eo aeiau/e e iio?aaeaiey aioo?e no?aiu.
Aiaeiae/iua i?ioeannu, eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu 6, i?ienoiaeyo e n
ae?oaeie iniiaiuie nu?ueaauie oiaa?aie. No?oeoo?a yenii?oa ?innee a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa?aeoa?ecoao aa eae oiieeaii-nu?ueaaie i?eaeaoie
?acaeouo no?ai. Yoi – ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia niiniaii o/anoaiaaoue a
ie?iaie yeiiiieea a iniiaiii oieueei iooai auea/eaaiey ca ?oaaae naieo
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

A eiii?oa oaaee/eeanue aeiey i?iaeiaieuenoaey, aeeiaieueiie i?iaeoeoeee,
i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, /oi i?eaaei e auoaniaieth
ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e yaeeinue iaeiei ec
oaeoi?ia aeoaieiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a aa?a?iii naeoi?a e eaaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee.

Oaaeeoea 5. Yenii?o ec ?innee aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee
iaoeiino?iaiey

Aeae i?iaeoeoeee 1987 a. 1997 a.

Noaiee iaoaeei?aaeouea, oun. oo. 8,9 4,1

Aaoiiiaeee eaaeiaua, oun. oo. 339 130

Aaoiiiaeee a?ociaua, oun. oo. 41 10

O?aeoi?a, oun. oo. 41 4

Oieiaeeeueieee, oun. oo. 1300 40

Oioiaiia?aou, oun. oo. 900 200

Oaeaaeci?u, oun. oo. 1100 700

Oaaeeoea 6. Aeiey yenii?oa ii ioiioaieth e i?iecaiaenoao aaaeiaeoeo
oiaa?ia (a %)

Aeae i?iaeoeoeee 1992 a. 1994 a. 1997 a.

Iaooue nu?ay 35,4 40,2 42,7

Iaooai?iaeoeou 14,8 25,4 34,0

Aac i?e?iaeiue 30,2 30,4 36,0

Ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey 69,3 70,4 72,0

E?oaeue ean 6,8 11,9 23,1

Ieeiiaoa?eaeu 6,6 20,5 18,9

Oeaeetheica 40,8 79,1 85,2

?inneeneee ?uiie i?iaeiaieuenoaey nae/an iaiieiaeio caiieiai eiii?oiuie
oiaa?aie, a ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai iaeaaeaeu e iaoae caa?aie/iay
i?iaeoeoeey ninoaaeyao io 60 aei 80 %. No?aia noaea caaeneiie io
yenii?oa i?iaeiaieuenoaey. A oi aea a?aiy, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
aeaiiua auai?i/iiai eiio?iey, aieaa 60 % eiii?oiiai i?iaeiaieuenoaey
iai?eaiaeii aeey oiio?aaeaiey.

Aeey aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?innee a 1990-a aa. oa?aeoa?ii iieiaeeoaeueiia
naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina. Oae, a 1997 a. n o/aoii iai?aaieciaaiiie
oi?aiaee yenii?o ?innee ninoaaee ieiei 85 ie?ae. aeiee., a eiii?o –
ieiei 65 ie?ae. aeiee. I?e/ai aeey iai?aaieciaaiiie oi?aiaee (“/aeiiee”)
oa?aeoa?ii cia/eoaeueiia i?aauoaiea eiii?oa (14,7 ie?ae. aeiee.) iaae
yenii?oii (1,3 ie?ae. aeiee.).

Iaeiaei iieiaeeoaeueiia aiaoiaoi?aiaia naeueaei neaai aeeyao ia auoiae
no?aiu ec yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, iineieueeo nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?iiiie
ooa/eie eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo e io?eoeaoaeueiui naeueaei aaeaina oneoa.
Oae, oieueei ii ioeoeeaeueiui ioeaieai, a no?aio ia aica?auaaony
aaeaaiaeii ii?yaeea 7,5-8 ie?ae. aeiee. aaethoiie au?o/ee io
aiaoiaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee [33]. Oeaiu ia iniiaiua oiaa?u ?inneeneiai
yenii?oa a iineaaeiea aiaeu iaaeatho, /oi canoaaeyao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
o?iaaiue aaethoiie au?o/ee ca n/ao auaica ana aieueoeo eiee/anoa
oiaa?ia. Oae, a 1997 a. n?aaeiaa nieaeaiea oeai ia oiaa?u ?inneeneiai
yenii?oa ninoaaeei ieiei 7%, a oii /enea: ia nu?oth iaooue – ia 5 %, ia
iaooai?iaeoeou – ia 7 %, oa??inieaau – ia 18 %, oeaeetheico – ia 12 %,
aoiaao – ia 22 %, aethieiee – ia 7 %, ieeaeue – ia 8 %, iaaeue – ia 3 %,
acioiua oaeia?aiey – ia 24 %, neioaoe/aneee eao/oe – ia 12%. Oe?ieia
?acaeoea iieo/eea eiio?aaaiaea.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oaeaea, /oi naaiaeiy ie?iaua ?uiee ioe?uou aeey
?inneeneiai yenii?oa oieueei i?e aai nu?ueaaie iai?aaeaiiinoe. Ia?u ii
aeeth/aieth a yenii?o oiaa?ia aeoaieie ia?a?aaioee iaoaeeeaathony ia
eiee/anoaaiiua ia?aie/aiey ni noi?iiu caiaaeiuo no?ai (oaenoeeue, noaeue
e ae?.), ia aioeaeaiieiaiaua i?ioeaaeo?u e oaoie/aneea aa?uea?u,
i?eiaiyaiua ia aeene?eieiaoeeiiiie iniiaa. Oae, oniaoiia iiyaeaiea ia
Eaiaaeneii ?uiea oaenoeey ?inneeneeo ioaeneeo ni?i/ae, eioi?ua a
eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee ninoaaeee anaai iaeei i?ioeaio io anao
i?iaeaaaaiuo ?oaaoae, aucaaei oeaeoth ao?th i?ioanoia ianoiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Ai O?aioeee, iai?eia?, onoaiiaeaiu aeanoeea ia?aie/aiey
ia aaic i?iaeoeoeee ?inneeneie iaoaeeo?aee e oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Yoi ioiineony e e ae?oaei no?aiai [32].

A oeaeii, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea ?innee a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy i?aiaeaaeatho oaiaeaioeee, ieacuaathuea iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiieeo.

23.2. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea

?acaeoea auaica eaieoaea ca a?aieoeo naycaii ni anooieaieai eaieoaeecia
a noaaeeth iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaeecia. A oao no?aiao, a yeiiiieea
eioi?uo onoaiiaeeinue ainiiaenoai iiiiiieee, ia?aciaaeny naiaai ?iaea
ecauoie eaieoaea, iineieueeo aai i?eiaiaiea aioo?e no?aiu aaei e
nieaeaieth o?iaiy oeai e ii?iu i?eauee iiiiiieee. A oeaeyo oaaee/aiey
ii?iu i?eauee iiiiiieee noaee auaiceoue eaieoae a ae?oaea no?aiu.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea i?eia?aei aieaa aaaeiia cia/aiea,
/ai ie?iaay oi?aiaey.

Oi?iu auaica eaieoaea:

– i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay – nicaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee ia oa??eoi?ee ae?oaeo
no?ai;

– nnoaeiay – i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia;

– i?yiua eiaanoeoeee – eiaanoeoeee, aeinoaoi/iua aeey onoaiiaeaiey
eiio?iey iaae i?aaei?eyoeai;

– ii?ooaeueiua eiaanoeoeee – o/anoea a eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey, ii ia
aeinoaoi/iia aeey onoaiiaeaiey eiio?iey iaae iei;

– auaic ainoaea?noaaiiiai eaieoaea;

– /anoiua (iaainoaea?noaaiiua) eiaanoeoeee.

Oeaee yenii?oa eaieoaea:

– i?iieeiiaaiea ia aioo?aiiea ?uiee ae?oaeo no?ai (ieioy oaiiaeaiiua
aa?uea?u);

– auaic yeieiae/anee a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa;

– iieo/aiea aeinooia e aeaoaaui ia?ae/iui ?ano?nai (oiieeaiui,
nu?ueaaui);

– eniieueciaaiea aieaa aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeu;

– iieo/aiea aieaa aunieiai nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa;

– oe?uaaiea aeioiaeia e nieaeaiea iaeiaia.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, e no?aiu – eiii?oa?u eaieoaea iiaoo iieo/aoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo. Ii caeeth/aaony a: – iiauoaiee
caiyoinoe e ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa; – aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a
yeiiiieeo; – i?eia?aoaiee eiino?aiiie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee; – ?anoe?aiee
yenii?oa e caiauaiee eiii?oa; – iao/aiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaae?ia
eiino?aiiiio iiuoo. Iiyoiio iiiaea no?aiu iuoathony oaaee/eoue i?eoie
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a eo yeiiiieeo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeouoth ?ieue a yenii?oa e eiii?oa eaieoaea ea?atho
?acaeoua eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu. Ia ieo i?eoiaeeony aieaa 80 %
yenii?oa e aieaa 60 % eiii?oa eaieoaea. (Aei aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu eo
aeiey a yenii?oa eaieoaea auea ieiei 100 %, ii i?eia?ii 70 % eaieoaea
auaiceeinue a eieiieaeueiua no?aiu (iuiaoiea ?acaeaathueany)). I?aaaea,
a iineaaeiea aiaeu aeiey ?acaeaathueony no?ai a eiii?oa eaieoaea
iiauneeanue n 30 % a 1995 a. aei 37 % a 1996 a. A eo aeiey a yenii?oa
eiaanoeoeee iiaeiyeanue n 10 aei 15 %.

I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aaaeouea iiceoeee a yenii?oa
eaieoaea caieiatho e?oiiaeoea OIE. Ia aeieth 100 e?oiiaeoeo
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee i?eoiaeeony 1/5 /anoue anao ca?oaaaeiuo
aeoeaia. Anaai ia 1996 a. ca?oaaaeiua aeoeau OIE ninoaaeee ieiei 9
o?eeeeiiia aeiee.

Eeaee?otho a aaica e auaica eaieoaea NOA. I?e/ai iaeiieaiiua eiino?aiiua
eiaanoeoeee a NOA i?aauoatho noiia?iua ca?oaaaeiua aeoeau aia?eeaineeo
eiiiaiee ia ianeieueei nioai ieeeea?aeia aeiee. I?yiua eiino?aiiua
eiaanoeoeee aia?eeaineeo eiiiaiee a 1996 a. ninoaaeee 85 ie?ae. aeiee.
I?eia?ii oaeeie aea auee e i?yiua ca?oaaaeiua eiaanoeoeee a yeiiiieeo
NOA. Ieiei 40 % i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee auei auaacaii aia?eeaineeie
eiiiaieyie a Aa?iiaeneee Nithc e ieiei 33 % – a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu.

Aoi?ia ianoi ii auaico eaieoaea caieiaao Aaeeeia?eoaiey. Aa i?yiua
ca?oaaaeiua eiaanoeoeee a 1996 a. ninoaaeee 54 ie?ae. aeiee. A oeaeii
aea no?aiu AN naeaeaee i?yiuo ca?oaaaeiuo eiaanoeoeee a 1996 a ia noiio
a 105 ie?ae. aeiee., a aaacee eo ia noiio a 176 ie?ae. aeiee. [32].

Aeey ssiiiee oa?aeoa?ii iiiaie?aoiia i?aauoaiea auaica eaieoaea iaae aai
aaicii.

?acaeaathueany no?aiu a 1996 a. iieo/eee 129 ie?ae. aeiee. i?yiuo
eiaanoeoeee e aeiaeeee ca a?aieoeae 51 ie?ae. aeiee. Ii eiii?oo eaieoaea
n?aaee ieo eeaee?oao EI?, eioi?ay aaacea i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee a 1996 a. ia
noiio 42 ie?ae. aeiee. (aoi?ia ianoi a ie?a iinea NOA). A ii yenii?oo
eaieoaea ec ?acaeaathueony no?ai – TH. Ei?ay.

Ianooaau iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?aeeaa eaieoaea (i?yiua eiaanoeoeee) a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioeaieaathony noiiie 370-380 ie?ae. aeiee. a aiae.
I?e/ai a iineaaeiea aiaeu aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?uiea eaieoaea
oa?aeoa?ai aai aeaoeoeeo (i?aauoaiea ni?ina iaae i?aaeeiaeaieai) , e ii
iai?aaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai a oa no?aiu, aaea iaania/eaaaony iaeaieaa
aunieay ii?ia i?eauee.

Aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea ai iiiaeo no?aiao nicaeathony
naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu; oi anoue oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?uo
cia/eoaeueii ineaaeaii ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, ieaea o?iaaiue
iaeiaia, oiaiueoaiu aa?uea?u ia iooe aeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia, eaieoaea e
?aai/ae neeu. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ?aciiaeaeiinoae naiaiaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo cii, ?acee/athueony i?aaeaea anaai oeaeyie eo nicaeaiey
(naiaiaeiua ii?ou, neeaaeneea e o?aiceoiua, yenii?oii-i?iecaiaeyuea,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneea (oaoiieiae/aneea ia?ee), eiiieaeniua, aaieianeea,
oo?enoe/aneea e ae?.). Naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu nicaeathony eae
i?aaeei a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, ii iie anoue e a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo
ainoaea?noaao (iai?eia?, a NOA iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeenou ian/eouaatho ieiei
200 naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii. Naiaiaeiuie ii?oaie yaeythony oaeea
e?oiiaeoea ai?iaea Aia?eee, eae Iueth-Ei?e, Ainoii, Nai-O?aioeenei,
*eeaai).

A ia?eiae ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu ei?aiiia eciaiaiea i?aoa?iaei e o/anoea
iaoae no?aiu a ie?iaii ?uiea eaieoaea. Aei ?aoi?iu NNN? a?ae e?aaeeou e
i?aaeinoaaeye caeiu eiino?aiiui ia?oia?ai. Ia iiiaio aai ?acaaea aeiea
Niaaoneiio Nithco ninoaaeye 145 ie?ae. aeiee., a aeiea Niaaoneiai
Nithca – ieiei 80 ie?ae. aeiee. Aeieaeieeaie NNN? auee a iniiaiii
nioeeaeenoe/aneea e ?acaeaathueany no?aiu, a e?aaeeoi?aie – ?yae
?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai e ainoaea?noa-/eaiia NYA (Aaia?ey,
*aoineiaaeey). N iiiiuueth Niaaoneiai Nithca ca ?oaaaeii auei iino?iaii
aieaa 5 ouny/ i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ii ana iie auee ioaeaiu
iaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaeoaeuenoaai a iaiai ia iineaaeothuea iinoaaee
i?iaeoeoeee ec yoeo no?ai. N o/anoeai niaaoneiai eaieoaea ca ?oaaaeii
?aaioaei ieiei 170 i?aaei?eyoee, aeaaiie caaea/ae eioi?uo auei –
iaania/eoue ?acaeoea niaaoneiai yenii?oa a niioaaonoaothuea no?aiu.

Iinea ?acaaea NNN? ?inney acyea ia naay ana aai aiaoiea iaycaoaeuenoaa e
aeoeau. Ieaoaaee ii aeieaai Niaaoneiio Nithco aica?auathony ?innee, ii
ia ae?oaeo oneiaeyo, a iiyoiio a iaiueoeo iauaiao. Iaeiia?aiaiii ca
ia?eiae ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu ?acei oaaee/eeny aiaoiee aeiea ?innee e
i?aaunee 170 ie?ae. aeiee. aeeth/ay aeieae auaoaai NNN?. ?inneeneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai n 1991 a. noaei iaieaoaaeaniiniaiui e aaeaaiaeii aaaeao
ia?aaiai?u i ia?aianaiee n?ieia aica?aoa caeiia e i i?aaeinoaaeaiee
aeiiieieoaeueiuo e?aaeeoia. Oneeeaaaony aai oeiainiaay caaeneiinoue io
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eaieoaea e ianiiniaiinoue eciaieoue eo?n ?aoi?i a
eioa?anao ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

N na?aaeeiu 1980-o aa. a NNN?, a caoai a ?innee aue acyo eo?n ia
i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oi?ia, /aai ia
auei n eiioea 1920-o aa. Noaee nicaeaaaoueny niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey e
oeeeaeu eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee. *enei i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aauneei 13 ouny/. Iauay noiia
iaeiieaiiiai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a ieo ioeaieaaaony a 15-16 ie?ae.
aeiee.

A iauai iauaia iaeiieaiiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a ?innee eeaee?otho
eiaanoi?u ec NOA (27,5 %), Ieaea?eaiaeia (13,5 %), Oaaeoea?ee (13 %),
Aaeeeia?eoaiee (8,5 %) e Aa?iaiee (6 %).

Iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie io?aneyie ?inneeneie yeiiiieee aeey
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea yaeythony oeiainiaay noa?a (26 %), eiiia?/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ii iaania/aieth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea (14 %),
oiieeaiay (12 %) e ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue (12 %), oi?aiaey e
iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea (5 %), iaoeiino?iaiea e iaoaeeiia?aaioea (5 %).

A ?aaeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?a iniiaiay aeiey iaeiieaiiuo eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee i?eoiaeeony ia 5 noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee: a. Iineaa
(53,1 %), a.Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, Othiaineay, Iineianeay e A?oaiaaeueneay
iaeanoe. Eo aeiey ninoaaeyao 72,7 % (11,4 ie?ae. aeiee.) a iauai iauaia
iaeiieaiiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee [32].

Aeaaiay oeaeue, eioi?ay noaaeeanue ia?aae i?eaea/aieai eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea, – iieo/aiea iiaaeoae oaoiieiaee e cia/eoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a
oeaeii ia aeinoeaaaony.

Aianoa n oai iiiaea ?inneeneea i?aaei?eyoey (iaoaeeo?aey,
iaoeiino?iaiea, iaooaaeiau/a e o. i.) ia?aoiaeyo iiae eiio?ieue
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea /a?ac neoieo eo aeoeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?iu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae ia/aeinue naiia
ianoiyuaa aaanoai eaieoaea ec ?innee, ?acia?u eioi?iai ii ioeoeeaeueiui
aeaiiui i?aauneee oaea 623 ie?ae. aeiee. [30]. Iniiaiua oi?iu, a eioi?uo
yoi i?ienoiaeeo, neaaeothuea: – caieaeaiea oeai auaiceiie i?iaeoeoeee; –
aaainiaua ieaoaaee ca aoaeouea iinoaaee (eioi?ua ia i?eoiaeyo); –
iinoaaee oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo (eioi?ue ia aica?auaaony); – caauoaiiua oeaiu
ia eiii?oiua oiaa?u; – ia?aciaaiea ca a?aieoeae iacaeiiiuo n/aoia e
ia?aaiae ia ieo aeaiaa e ae?. Ianooaau auaica eaieoaea ec ?innee
iaiiiai i?aainoiaeyo aai ia?aoiia aeaeaeaiea. Iieo/aaony, /oi a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaiii ?inney oeiaine?oao caiaaeioth yeiiiieeo, a ia
iaiai?io. Yeiiiieea ?innee yoi, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, iaiineo ia?iiiue
yeiiiie/aneee oua?a.

Aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea ?inneeneia ?oeiaiaenoai i?eiyei
?aoaiea i nicaeaiee ia ?yaea oa??eoi?ee naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii:
Eaeeieia?aaeneay iaeanoue (“ssioa?ue”); ii?o Iaoiaeea; Aeaaiaauaine;
Caeaiia?aae; Auai?a e ae?., anaai 13. Iaeiaei aeey iaania/aiey
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoeo cii o?aaothony cia/eoaeueiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, eioi?uie ainoaea?noai a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ia ?aniieaaaao. Iiyoiio nicaeaiea naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii ia
aieueoeinoaa oa??eoi?ee eaeao iaaeeaiii. Eneeth/aieai yaeyaony
Eaeeieia?aaeneay iaeanoue.

23.3. Aaethoiua ioiioaiey

Aaethoiua ioiioaiey – yoi ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai
aeaiaa a ea/anoaa ie?iauo aeaiaa, oi anoue n eniieueciaaieai aeaiaa a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao e ieaoaaeao. Aaethoiua ioiioaiey aunooiatho a
oi?ia aaethoiuo iia?aoeee. Iauaeoii yoeo iia?aoeee yaeyaony aaethoa e
ae?oaea aaethoiua oeaiiinoe.

Iiae aaethoie iiieiatho iaoeeiiaeueiua e eiino?aiiua aeaiaaeiua ciaee. E
ae?oaei aaethoiui oeaiiinoyi ioiinyo: – ae?aaioeaiiua iaoaeeu (cieioi,
na?aa?i, iaoaeeu ieaoeiiaie a?oiiu); – iaia?aaioaiiua ae?aaioeaiiua
eaiie; – oeaiiua aoiaae, ii eioi?ui iiaoo auoue i?eia?aoaiu eiino?aiiay
aaethoa e ae?oaea aaethoiua oeaiiinoe.

Niaea?aeaieai aaethoiuo iia?aoeey yaeyaony: – ia?aoiae i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia aaethoiua oeaiiinoe; – ?an/aou e ieaoaaee ca oiaa?u,
oneoae, ii e?aaeeoai; – ia?aiauaiea aaethoiuo oeaiiinoae /a?ac a?aieoeo;
– iaiai aaetho.

N aaethoiuie ioiioaieyie naycaii iiiyoea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina no?aiu. Ii
au?aaeaao niaieoiiinoue anao iinooieaiee aaethou a no?aio e ieaoaaeae ca
a?aieoeo. A ieaoaaeiii aaeaina auaeaeythony: 1) aaeain oaeoueo iia?aoeee
(?an/aou ca oiaa?u e oneoae, ia?aaiaeu, e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou); 2)
aaeain aeaeaeaiey eaieoaea (eiaanoeoeee, aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou). Anee
iinooieaiey aaethou ii oaeouei iia?aoeeyi e aeaeaeaieth eaieoaea
i?aauoatho eo ieaoaaee ca a?aieoeo ii yoei noaoueyi, oi ieaoaaeiue
aaeain iieiaeeoaeai. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa (eiaaea ca a?aieoeo ooiaeeo
aaethou aieueoa, /ai iinooiaao a no?aio) eiaao ianoi aeaoeoeeo
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina.

Aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina icia/aao nie?auaiea (ia aaee/eio
aeaoeoeeoa) cieioiaaethoiuo ?aca?aia ainoaea?noaa. Iieiaeeoaeueiue
ieaoaaeiue aaeain, iai?ioea, icia/aao i?e?ino yoeo ?aca?aia ia aaee/eio
iieiaeeoaeueiiai naeueaei. Iineieueeo cieioiaaethoiua ?aca?au
ainoaea?noaa ia?aie/aiu e aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny ia o?iaia ia ieaea
ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiiai, o?iie/aneee aeaoeoeeo ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina
iaecaaaeii aaaeao e ?inoo aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe no?aiu. E iaiai?io,
iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina iicaieyao nie?auaoue
aiaoithth caaeieaeaiiinoue.

Iineieueeo eaaeaeia ainoaea?noai eiaao naith iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo, oi
aeey inouanoaeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia e ieaoaaeae iaiaoiaeei
iaiai aaetho. Iaiaieaaaiinoue aaetho ae?oa ia ae?oaa iacuaaaony eo
eiiaa?oe?oaiinoueth. Eiiaa?oe?oaiinoue aaetho auaaao iieiay (iaiai ia
ethaua aaethou aac ia?aie/aiey) e /anoe/iay (nouanoaotho aieueoea eee
iaiueoea ia?aie/aiey ia iaiai aaetho: iaiaieaaaiinoue ia ia ana aaethou,
ia aeey anao yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia). Auaeaeytho oaeaea aioo?aiia
eiiaa?oe?oaiua aaethou – iie iaiaieaathony ?aceaeaioai (a?aaeaeaiai
no?aiu e th?eaee/aneei eeoeai, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiui ia aa oa??eoi?ee) aac
ia?aie/aiee – aeey naeaeie n ia?aceaeaioaie (oi anoue eniieueciaaiey a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ieaoaaeao e ?an/aoao; i?e yoii naeaeee n ?aceaeaioaie a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa cai?auaiu, e?iia niaoeeaeueiuo neo/aaa).

Aaethoiue eo?n – yoi au?aaeaiea oeaiu aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu iaeiie no?aiu
a aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao ae?oaie no?aiu, eee i?iii?oeey iaiaia aaetho
ae?oa ia ae?oaa.

Naiue aeaaiue oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee eo?n aaetho, – yoi ia?eoao eo
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeia niioiioaiea
aaetho a eo iaiaia ae?oa ia ae?oaa, eioi?ia au?aaeaao ?aaainoai eo
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe. Iai?eia?, ia?eoao iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
aeieea?a e ?oaeth a eiioea 1980-o aa. au?aaeaeny niioiioaieai: 1 aeieea?
= 0.65 ?oaey. Yoi icia/aei, /oi ia iaeei aeieea? a n?aaeiai iiaeii auei
eoieoue noieueei aea oiaa?ia, neieueei ia 0,65 ?oaey. Ia?eoao
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ?ann/eouaaaony ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai
iaai?a oiaa?ia (iio?aaeoaeueneie ei?ceiu). Ii?aaeaeyaony noiia?iay oeaia
yoiai iaai?a a iaeiie aaethoa e a ae?oaie, a caoai iaoiaeeony
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ieie.

Ia ia?eoao iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ieacuaaao aeeyiea nei?inoue
iaanoeaiaiey aaetho (oaii eioeyoeee). Anee, iai?eia?, a ia/aeueiue
iiiaio ia?eoao iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeieea?a e ?oaeth au?aaeaeny
niioiioaieai 1 aeiee. = 0,65 ?oa., a ca iaeioi?ue ia?eiae oeaiu a ?innee
au?inee a 10000 ?ac, a a NOA a 1, 7 ?aca, oi ia?eoao iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe a ?acoeueoaoa noaiao ?aaiui 1,7 aeiee. = 6500 ?oa., eee 1
aeiee. = 3824 ?oa.

Ia aaethoiue eo?n aeeyao oaeaea ninoiyiea iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee. A
ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou iaaeaao ieaea
ia?eoaoa iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe. Yoi niinianoaoao ?inoo yenii?oa e
nie?auaieth eiii?oa, /oi iaeaa/aao auoiae no?aiu ec e?ecena. A ia?eiae
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia, iaiai?io, i?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiea eo?na naa?o
ia?eoaoa iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe.

Ia o?iaaiue aaethoiiai eo?na ieacuaaao aeeyiea e o?iaaiue nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa a no?aia. I?e aai iiauoaiee ni?in ia aaethoo ?anoao e aa eo?n
oaeaea oaaee/eaaaony. E iaiai?io, i?e nieaeaiee noaaee i?ioeaioa eo?n
aaethou, eae i?aaeei, iaaeaao.

Ainoaea?noai oaeaea iiaeao ieacuaaoue aeeyiea ia o?iaaiue eo?na
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou /a?ac nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

I?e yoii aiciiaeiu neaaeothuea iniiaiua aa?eaiou: 1) naiaiaeiia
onoaiiaeaiea eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou ia aaethoiii ?uiea; 2)
ainoaea?noai i?yii onoaiaaeeaaao eo?n iaiaia iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou,
iaycaoaeueiue a naeaeeao; 3) ni/aoaiea ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia n
ainoaea?noaaiiui ?aaoee?iaaieai a onoaiiaeaiee aaethoiiai eo?na
(“?aaoee?oaiia ieaaaiea”).

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue a oaia 3, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaeaeo ?acaeouie
no?aiaie caeeth/aiu niaeaoaiey i niaianoiii ?aaoee?iaaiee eo?nia iaiaia
naieo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho. Iaoaieci yoiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia yaeyaony
aeanoeei, a ni/aoaao a naaa eae ?uii/iia onoaiiaeaiea aaethoiuo eo?nia,
oae e “ei?eaei?u” eieaaaiee eo?nia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auaea?aeeaaoueny n
iiiiuueth ia? ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey (a iniiaiii a oi?ia
iia?aoeee ia aaethoiii ?uiea oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia ii neoiea eee
i?iaeaaea aaethou). Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, oaeei ia?acii, “?aaoee?oaiia
ieaaaiea”.

Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia eieaaaiey eo?na
aaetho iiaoo ieacuaaoue e?oiiua o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiua oeiainiaua
a?oiie?iaee, inouanoaeythuea niaeoeyoeaiua iia?aoeee n aaethoie. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaeaaeiaaii a aeaiaaeiuo niaeoeyoeeyo ia ae?aeao ie?a
eniieuecoaony i?eia?ii 1 o?eeeeii aeieea?ia, /oi a 29-30 ?ac i?aauoaao
noieiinoue i?iaeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa. Anee naiua iiuiua ainoaea?noaa
aeaenoaotho niaeaniaaiii, iie iiaoo iai?aaeoue a aeaiue aeey ai?ueau ni
niaeoeyoeeae 14 ie?ae. aeiee. Aanue iauaaeeiaiiue oiiae 23 ?acaeouo
no?ai (IYN?) ninoaaeyao 550 ie?ae. aeiee. – anaai eeoue iieiaeio
aaeaaeiaaiie noieiinoe iaiaiiuo naeaeie.

Ii ioeaiea aacaou “Aa?aa?ae aecian ?aaueth”, ia eaaeaeue aeieea?,
ia?auathueeny a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a ie?iaie yeiiiieee, i?eoiaeeony
20-50 aeieea?ia, ia?auathueony a /enoi oeiainiaie noa?a. Oeiainiaua
niaeoeyiou iiaoo ?acei iiieceoue eo?n ethaie aaethou e aeaaea
ni?iaioee?iaaoue yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen a oie eee ae?oaie no?aia, eae yoi
auei ceiie 1997-98 aa. a no?aiao THai-Ainoi/iie Acee.

A yoie nayce ioiaoei, /oi ?acaeoea niaeoeyoeaiiai oeiainiaiai eaieoaea
aucuaaao auno?ue ?ino ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa ai anao no?aiao, a oii
/enea – e ?acaeouo. Oae, ioeoeeaeueiue aeiea no?ai IYN? a 1978 a.
ninoaaee 40 % eo AII, a 1988 a. ii oaaee/eeny aei 54 %, a a 1994 a. –
aei 70 % AII. [34]. I?aaeoaeuenoaa ana a aieueoae ia?a eniieuecotho ?ino
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoa e iiaaoaiey
i?aaeuaeoueo caeiia.

A iaoae no?aia aei ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu eiaea ianoi ainoaea?noaaiiay
iiiiiieey ia aaethoiua iia?aoeee. Iaiai aaetho e ae?oaea aaethoiua
iia?aoeee niaa?oaeenue eneeth/eoaeueii ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie
(aaieaie). Eo?n iaiaia oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaeny Ainoaea?noaaiiui aaieii
NNN?, i?e/ai a ?acee/iuo aaethoiuo iia?aoeeyo iia i?eiaiyoueny ?aciue
iaiaiiue eo?n. Ana iinooieaiea eiino?aiiie aaethou a no?aio iiiaaeaei a
?anii?yaeaiea ainoaea?noaa e eniieueciaaeinue a iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo
eioa?anao, niaeanii aaeeiiio ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiio ieaio.

A oiaea ?uii/iie ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiay aaethoiay iiiiiieey auea
eeeaeaee?iaaia. Aue nicaeai aaethoiue ?uiie. Aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey
aaethoiiai eo?na noaei i?eiaiyoueny a iniiaiii einaaiiia
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea (aaethoiua iia?aoeee oeaio?aeueiiai
aaiea). N 1995 a. noae eniieueciaaoueny “aaethoiue ei?eaei?”, aaaaeaiiue
n oeaeueth ia?aie/aiey eieaaaiey eo?na iiae aicaeaenoaeai aaethoiuo
niaeoeyioia. Iieeoeea ?inneeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaoeaeaia ia
i?eaeeaeaiea eo?na ?oaey e ia?eoaoo aai iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii ieaea ia?eoaoa a 1,3-1,5 ?ac (a ia/aea 1992 a. ii aue
ieaea aai aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac). I?eaeeaeaiea eo?na ?oaey e ia?eoaoo aai
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi iaaeaiea eo?na ?oaey
eaeao iaaeeaiiaa, /ai ?ino aioo?aiieo oeai. I?aaaea, aaaaeaiea aeanoeiai
“aaethoiiai ei?eaei?a” a 1995 a. iaianei oaea? ii yenii?oa?ai (nieaeaiea
au?o/ee ii n?aaiaieth n ?anooueie cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee) e yaeeinue iaeiei ec oaeoi?ii oaeoaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai
e?ecena a no?aia. Iiyoiio a 1996 a. aue aaaaeai “iaeeiiiue ei?eaei?”,
o/eouaathuee iaanoeaiaiea ?oaey ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea ?innee.

?aoi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aaethoiuo ioiioaiee yaeeanue iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia
aeieea?ecaoeee ?inneeneie yeiiiieee. Aeiey cao?ao ianaeaiey ia
i?eia?aoaiea aaethou a iauae noiia aai aeioiaeia iinoiyiii ?anoao e
i?aauneea a ia/aea 1997 a. 20 % (ianaeaiea eoieei eiaaethou a 1 eaa?oaea
1997 a. ia noiio 13.8 ie?ae. aeiee.). Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ?ac?ooaiee ioa/anoaaiiie aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu e ?inoa
oaiaaie yeiiiieee. Iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ia aaethoiii ?uiea
ioaeaeatho ia?iiiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu io eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai,
/oi oaeaea onoaoaeyao e?eceniua yaeaiey a yeiiiieea.

23.4. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu

Iaeiie ec caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey ie?iaie yeiiiieee yaeyaony ?ino
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee ?aai/ae neeu. Ia ia/aei 1990-o aa. a ie?a
ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 25 ieeeeiiia o?oaeyueony-iea?aioia. N o/aoii /eaiia
eo naiae, iea?aioia-naciiieeia, iaeaaaeueiuo iea?aioia,
?aai/eo-o?iioaeuea?ia (aaeaaeiaaii acaeyo ia ?aaioo ca a?aieoeo) iauay
/eneaiiinoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee a 4-5 ?ac auoa. Aieaa iieiaeiu
anao iea?aioia – auoiaeoeu ec ?acaeaathueony no?ai. Iai?aaeaiey
iea?aoeee – eae a ?acaeoua no?aiu, oae e a ?acaeaathueany.

I?e/eiu iea?aoeee – ?acee/ey iaaeaeo no?aiaie a o?iaia aac?aaioeoeu,
o?iaia iieaou o?oaea, o?iaia iaania/aiiinoe ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuo
a?oii.

I?eacae ?aaioieeia-iea?aioia a no?aio iicaieyao yeiiiieoue ia cao?aoao
ii eo iao/aieth e iiaeaioiaea (anee ?a/ue eaeao i eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
?aaioieeao); nieceoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa (iea?aiou, eae i?aaeei,
niaeaoathony ia aieaa ieceoth iieaoo o?oaea, ia iaiueoea nioeeaeueiua
aa?aioee, /ai ianoiua ?aaioieee); iaania/eoue iio?aaiinoue a ?aai/ae
neea ia iai?eaeaeaoaeueiuo ?aaioao, a iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo o?oaea
(ia /oi ia?aaeei ia niaeaoathony ianoiua ?aai/ea), ia ?aaioao,
o?aaothueo niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e ia iaania/aiiuo eaae?aie ianoiuo
niaoeeaeenoia; oaaee/eaaoue ca n/ao o?oaea eiino?aioeaa oeiaine?iaaiea
nioeeaeueiuo e ae?oaeo i?ia?aii i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeey no?ai-yenii?oa?ia ?aai/ae neeu iea?aoeey
?aaioieeia aeaao: iinooieaiea aeaiaaeiuo ia?aaiaeia a eiino?aiiie
aaethoa; nieaeaiea o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu; iao/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaae?ia
eiino?aiiiio iiuoo ?aaiou, /oi eniieuecoaony i?e eo aica?auaiee iacaae
ia ?iaeeio.

Iniiaiuie oeaio?aie iea?aoeee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony NOA, Caiaaeiay
Aa?iia, Aano?aeey, no?aiu Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea – yenii?oa?u iaooe e ae?.
Eae i?aaeei, i?aaeoaeuenoaa no?ai-eiii?oa?ia ?aai/ae neeu ia?aie/eaatho
e ?aaoee?otho iea?aoeeth.

A ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iooie
?aai/ae neeu ca a?aieoeo; a n ae?oaie, – aa i?eoie ec auaoeo ?anioaeee
Niaaoneiai Nithca. A oeaeii naeueaei iea?aoeee iieiaeeoaeueiia (+200-300
ouny/ /aeiaae a aiae), /oi niinianoaoao iaeioi?iio nieaeaieth oaiiia
nie?auaiey ianaeaiey ?innee (anoanoaaiiay oaueue, oi anoue i?aauoaiea
nia?oiinoe iaae ?iaeaeaaiinoueth, ninoaaeyao 800-1000 oun. /ae. a aiae).
Aianoa n oai oaeay iai?aaeaiiinoue iea?aoeee io?aaeaao i?ioeann
aeaceioaa?aoeee ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN?. A ?inneth aaeao a iniiaiii
?onneiycu/iia ianaeaiea, nayce ?innee n yoeie ainoaea?noaaie
ineaaaaatho.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu, oanou, caaea/e

1. Eaeeie oaeoi?aie iaoneiaeeaaaony ?acaeoea ie?iaie oi?aiaee e a /ai
au?aaeaaony yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io o/anoey a iae oie eee ae?oaie
no?aiu?

2. Eaeeie iauaiiuie iieacaoaeyie oa?aeoa?ecoaony ninoiyiea aiaoiae
oi?aiaee?

3. Eaeea eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a e iauaia yenii?oa e eiii?oa no?aiu
ioiinyony e iiceoeaiui e eaeea – e iaaaoeaiui?

4. Eaeea oaeoi?u aeeytho ia ninoiyiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee?

5. Eaeiau oeaee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee? A /ai
ninoiyo aai iniiaiua iaoiaeu?

6. O?iaaiue aioo?aiieo oeai oiaa?ia (a oun. ?oa.): A – 140; A – 150; A –
160; A – 180. O?iaaiue oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea (a aeiee.): A – 2; A – 3; A
– 4; A – 5. Eae aeieaeia no?ieoueny aiaoiyy oi?aiaey no?aiu e a eaeii
iai?aaeaiee eciaiyoueny no?oeoo?a aa yeiiiieee ?

7. Anee au?aceoue a aaeeiie aaethoa caaeneiinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey
ia eiaeaiua ecaeaeey io o?iaiy eo oeaiu, oi aeey Aaeioa iie aoaeoo
eiaoue aeae: Qd = 100 – 2P e Qs = 40 + 2P ; a aeey Eoaeee: Qd = 50
– 2P e Qs = 20 + 2P ; aaea: Qd – ni?in, Qs – i?aaeeiaeaiea, ? –
o?iaaiue oeai. O?ainii?oiua ecaea?aeee iaaeaeo yoeie no?aiaie aoaeai
n/eoaoue iacia/eoaeueiuie. Ii?aaeaeeoue: eae eciaiyony oeaiu e iauai
i?iaeaae eiaeaiuo ecaeaeee a Aaeioa i?e onoaiiaeaiee naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee
eiaeaiuie ecaeaeeyie iaaeaeo Aaeioii e Eoaeeae.

8. A oneiaeyo i?aaeuaeouae caaea/e ii?aaeaeeoue: eaeay ec no?ai aoaeao
i?aaei?eieiaoue ia?u ii ia?aie/aieth eiii?oa iooai aaaaeaiey oi?aiaie
iioeeiu? Eae neaaeaony aaaaeaiea eiii?oiuo iioeei (ii n?aaiaieth n
ninoiyieai naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee) ia oeaiao, iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?iaeaae eiaeaiuo ecaeaeee a Aaeioa? a Eoaeee?

9. A /ai iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea ?aoi?iu i?aaiecaoeee aiaoiae oi?aiaee a
?innee a 1990-a aa.? Eae iia iiaeeyea ia ninoiyiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee
iaoae no?aiu?

10. Eaeea iaaaoeaiua oaiaeaioeee eiatho ianoi ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea ?innee
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy?

11. Eaeeie iauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie iaoneiaeai auaic eaieoaea a
nia?aiaiiii ie?a?

12. Eaeiau iniiaiua oi?iu e oeaee yenii?oa eaieoaea ?

13. Eaeiau iniiaiua oeaee eiii?oa eaieoaea ?

14. Eaeie aaee/eiie ioeaieaaaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaeaaiaeiue ia?aeea
eaieoaea iaaeaeo no?aiaie a oi?ia i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee; iauai iaeiieaiiuo
i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee eiino?aiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey a ie?iaie yeiiiieea?

15. Eaeiau iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?aeeaa eaieoaea?

16. Eaeiaa ?ieue iniiaiuo a?oii no?ai e OIE a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ia?aeeaa
eaieoaea?

17. *oi iiieiaaony iiae naiaiaeiuie yeiiiie/aneeie ciiaie e eaeiau
iniiaiua oeaee eo nicaeaiey ?

18. Eaeoth ?ieue ea?ae NNN? a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ia?aeeaa eaieoaea?

19. Eaeiau iniiaiua oi?iu yenii?oa eaieoaea ec ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
aai oaeoi?u e iineaaenoaey aeey yeiiiieee ?innee? *oi iiieiaaony iiae
“ooa/eie eaieoaea” e eaeiau aa ?acia?u?

20. Eaeiau oeaee e iniiaiua oi?iu eiii?oa eaieoaea a ?inneth a 1990-a
a.a.?

21. Eaeie aaee/eiie ioeaieaaaony iauai iaeiieaiiuo eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee a ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy? *oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey eo
io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u?

22. Ii/aio ?anoao aiaoiee aeiea ?innee? Eae yoi aeeyao ia ?inneeneoth
yeiiiieeo?

23. Eaeiau oeaee nicaeaiey naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii a ?innee? Aaea
iie nicaeathony e eaeiau eo iniaaiiinoe?

24. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie: “aaethoa” e “aeaiueae”?

25. *oi iiieiaaony iiae aaethoiuie oeaiiinoyie e aaethoiuie iia?aoeeyie?

26. *oi iiieiaaony iiae ieaoaaeiui aaeainii e aai naeueaei? Eae aeeyao
ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina ia yeiiiieeo no?aiu (eaeea i?ioeannu
au?aaeaao)?

27. *oi iiieiaaony iiae eiiaa?oe?oaiinoueth aaethou? Eaeie iia auaaao?

28. *oi iiieiaaony iiae aaethoiui eo?nii? Ia?eoaoii iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe aaetho?

29. Eaeiau iniiaiua oaeoi?u iiauoaiey eo?na aaethou ? e aai iiieaeaiey ?

30. Eaeea i?ioeannu a yeiiiieea no?aiu aucuaaao: a) iiauoaiea eo?na aa
aaethou? a) aai iiieaeaiea ?

31. N 1970 ii 1990 a. a. o?iaaiue oeai a no?aia, aaea aeaiaaeiay
aaeeieoea iani, au?in a 15 ?ac; a a no?aia, aaea aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea
o?aie, – a 5 ?ac. A 1970 a. ?aaiiaaniue iaiaiiue eo?n ninoaaeye 9 iani
ca 1 o?aie. Eaeei aeieaeai auoue iaiaiiue eo?n iani e o?aieo a 1990 a.
i?e ?aaiie iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe iaaeo aaetho ?

32. N eaeeie oeaeyie e eaeeie iaoiaeaie inouanoaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea eo?na aaetho?

33. Eaeiau yeiiiie/aneea i?e/eiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee ?aai/ae
neeu? Aai iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey?

34. Eaeiau iineaaenoaey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee ?aai/ae neeu aeey
no?ai-eiii?oa?ia e no?ai-yenii?oa?ia ?aai/ae neeu?

35. A /ai iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea ?aoi?iu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae a
?innee a 1990-a aa.?

36. Eaeiaa ?ieue ?aoi?iu i?aaiecaoeee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae a
?acaeoee yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a ?innee a 1990-a aa.? Ioaao iainioeoa.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Oeoeei A. O. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey: O/aaiee aeey nooaeaioia yeii. niaoe.
A 2 eieaao. – I.: Aeaaein, 1996. – Eieaa 1 – 656 n. – Eieaa 2 – 350 n.

Iinoiaay A.A. Iniiau yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee: Eo?n eaeoeee. – I.: EIO?A-I;
Iiaineae?ne: IAAYeO, 1997. – 496 n.

Ai?enia A. O. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey: Eo?n eaeoeee aeey nooaeaioia aocia –
I.: Iauanoai “Ciaiea” ?innee, 1996 – 476 n.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey: O/aaiee /Iiae ?aae. Aacueaaa I. E., Ao?ei N. I. –
Ieine.: AAYO, 1996. – 507 n.

O/aaiee ii iniiaai yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee /Eaiaaa A. Ae., Naiaiia A.O.,
Ni?ieei Ae.A e ae?. – I.: Aeaaein, 1994. – 384 n.

Eo?n yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee /Iiae iau. ?aae. *aio?eia I. I., Eenaeaaie A.
A. – Ee?ia: IAEII IEAe ?O, 1994 – 624 n.

Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey /Iiae ?aae. ?aaeaaaa A. A. – I.: IAO, 1992 – *.1.-
414n.

Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey: O/aaii-iaoiaee/aneia iiniaea aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae
/Iiae ?aae. Neaei?iae/a A.A., Aieeiaa O.I. – I.: IAO, 1993. – 407 n.

Iaeeiiiaee Eyiiaaee ?., A?th Noyiee E. Yeiiiieen: I?eioeeiu, i?iaeaiu e
iieeoeea. A 2 o.: Ia?. n aiae. /Iau. ?aae. Ii?ioianeiai A.A. – I.:
?anioaeeea, 1992. – O.1 – 399 n.- O. 2. – 400 n.

Neiaa?ue nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee Iaeieeeaia /Iauay ?aae. Ie?na
Ae. O.: Ia?. n aiae. /Iao/i. ?aae. ia?aaiaea Aaoiiiiia A.N. – I.:
Eio?a-I, 1997. -608 n.

Ia?en E. Eaieoae. O. 1-3. //Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Ni/. 2-a ecae. – O.
23- 907 n. -O. 24 -527 n. – O. 25 – *. 1 – 508 n., *.2- 570 n.

Yiaaeuen O. Aioe-Aeth?eia //Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O. Ni/. 2-a ecae. – O.20.
– N.150-161, 287-325.

Eaiei A.E. Ainoaea?noai e ?aaiethoeey //Iiei. nia?. ni/. 5-a ecae. –
O.33. – N.83-102.

Eaiei A.E. Eiia?eaeeci, eae aunoay noaaeey eaieoaeecia // Iiei. nia?.
ni/. 5-a ecae. – O. 27. – N.299-426.

Noaeei E.A. Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu nioeeaeecia a NNN?. – I.:
Ainiieeoecaeao, 1952. – 195 n.

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35) No?aiu IYN? a 1995-97 aa. //Yeiiiieea e aeeciue, 1998. – ? 2. –
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