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Экономическая теория

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1.I?aaeiao yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Yeiiiieea – yoi noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie
nicaeaaony aiaaonoai aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?aciiia?aciuo iio?aaiinoae,
eae eo naieo, oae e iauanoaa.

Nouanoaoao ?aaeueiay e oaiaaay Y(ooiae io iaeiaia).

Ia aeieth OY ii aeaiiui AEN i?eoiaeeony 25%, ii ae?oaei enoi/ieeai –
40-45%.

A ethaii iauanoaa ?aoaaony o?eaaeeiay i?iaeaia(Naioyeuenii): /oi
i?iecaiaeeoue, eae i?iecaiaeeoue, aeey eiai i?iecaiaeeoue.

Ethaia iauanoai ?aniieaaaao ia?aie/aiiui eiee/anoaii yeiiiie/aneeo
?ano?nia. Iio?aaiinoe ethaeae iinoiyiii aic?anoatho(ia?aie/aiu
eioaeueeii). A yoie nayce anoaao i?iaeaia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
yoeo ?ano?nia. I?aaeiaoii YO yae. a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ye. ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie, neeaaeuaathueany a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa,
?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey.

YO eco/aao noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeciaiiuo aeaa a
oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iauaeoii eco/aiey YO
yae. ?aoathuay iaeanoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, aac eioi?ie
iaaiciiaeia ie iaeia ae?oaay oi?ia ?aaeecaoeee ee/iinoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo
eioa?ania.

Aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno Eaeiai ?iaaein(1898-1984) aeae neaaeothuaa
ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaeiaoa yeiiiieen, eioi?ia oe?iei eniieuecoaony a
caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a: “Y – yoi iaoea, eioi?ay eco/aao iiaaaeaiea
/aeiaaean oi/ee c?aiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aai oeaeyie e ia?aie/aiiuie
n?aaenoaaie, aeiioneathueie aeueoa?iaoeaiia eniieueciaaiea(i?iaeaia
auai?a)”.

YO eco/aao aeaeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeecie – oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee
oeai, i?iecaiaenoaa, aac?aaioeoeu. Yeiiiie/aneea oeaee: yeiiiie/aneee
?ino, iieiay caiyoinoue, yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue (iaeneiaeueiay
ioaea/a i?e ieieioia ecaea?aeae), noaaeeueiue o?iaaiue oeai,
yeiiiie/aneay naiaiaea, ni?aaaaeeeaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia,
yeiiiie/aneay iaania/aiiinoue, oi?aiaue aaeain.

Ia?enenoneia ii?aaeaeaiea.

Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey eco/aao yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey i?iecaiaenoaa,
?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey ia ?acee/iuo nooiaiyo ?acaeoey
iauanoaa.

Naioyeuenii.

I?aaeiao yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee eco/aao, eae ethaee e iauanoai auae?atho
niinia eniieueciaaiey aeaoeoeeoiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue
iiiaioeaeaaua iacia/aiey, aeey oiai, /oiau i?iecaanoe ?aciiia?aciua
oiaa?u e ?ani?aaeaeeoue eo nae/an eee a aoaeouai aeey iio?aaeaiey
?acee/iuo eiaeeaeaeia eee a?oii iauanoaa.

Ii?aaeaeaiea yeiiiieee a o/aaieea Iaeeiiiaea e A?th.

Ai-ia?auo yeiiiieea – yoi enneaaeiaaiea iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oneoa a
ie?a ?aaeeeo ?ano?nia.

Ai-aoi?uo yeiiiieea enneaaeoao yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ia?aie/aiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia eee oi?aaeaiea eie n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey
iaeneiaeueiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaoa?eaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea.

2. Nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iiae?acaeaeythony ia 2 aeiea:
1.i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea 2. ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe e
niioaaonoaothuea ei nioe-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey.

1)Oi?iu I/Y ioiioaiee:

· ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, niaoeeaeecaoeey i?iecaiaeeoaey;

· Eiiia?aoeey o?oaea – oaeay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, i?e eioi?ie
ianeieueei eeoe o/anoaotho a iaeiii eee ?aciuo i?ioeannao, naycaiiuo i.
niaie. Eiiia?aoeey o?oaea ii?iaeaeaao iiaoth i?iecaiaenoaaiioth neeo.

· Eiioeaio?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e aai oeaio?aeecaoeey. E – yoi oaaee/aiea
ianooaaa i?aaei?eyoey ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia. Oe – iauaaeeiaiea
i?aaei?eyoee.

· I?aaiecaoeey iauanoaaiiiai oicyenoaa – yoi iaoo?aeueiia e oiaa?iia
oicyenoai.

· Oi?aaeaiea. Oi?iu oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie: noeoeeii-?uii/iay ieaiiaay.

2) N/Y ioiioaiey – ioiioaiey i.ethaeueie ii i?iecaiaenoao,
?ani?aaeaeaieth, iaiaio e iio?aaeaieth. Ii?aaeaeyaony oi?iaie
nianoaaiiinoe ia NI.

YO eco/aao caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, Y caeiiu e eo
eniieueciaaiea.

NYI – yoi ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a iauanoaa ii iiaiaeo
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oneoa, eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey iaaeaeo
eeannaie e nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie, iaaeaeo no?aiaie, i?aaei?eyoeyie eee
oe?iaie, aioo?e i?aaei?eyoee, iaaeaeo iaeeeie e e?oiiuie nianoaaiieeaie
a ai?iaea e aea?aaia; any nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee
?anniao?eaaaony ai acaeiinayce, a eo aaeeinoaa.

Nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue ninoiyieth
i?iecaiaenoaa, /oiau iaania/eaaoue aai ?acaeoea e yooaeoeaiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea.

Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai yaeyaony iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee.

I?aaeiao o?oaea – yoi oi, ia /oi /aeiaae aicaeaenoaoao naiei o?oaeii e
eciaiyao aai

N?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa – yoi oi, /oi /aeiaae iiiauaao iaaeaeo niaie e
i?aaeiaoii o?oaea, e /ai aicaeaenoaoao ia i?aaeiao o?oaea.

Aeaaiui oaeoi?ii i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony ?aaioiee.

N?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaioieee, i?eaiaeyuea eo a aeaeaeaiea
ia?acotho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu iauanoaa.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu e yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey ia?acotho niinia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii Ia?eno niinia i?iecaiaenoaa i?ioae 5 enoi?e/aneeo yoaiia a naiai
?acaeoee. Ca?oaaaeiua yeiiiienou ia?eiaeecaoeeth a ?acaeoee
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa no?iyo ia iniiaa oai?ee noaaeee yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa (?inoio).

Ii auaeaeyao 5 noaaeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa:

o?aaeeoeeiiiia iauanoai;

ia?aoiaeiia iauanoai (noaaeey iiaeaioiaee oneiaee aeey naeaeaa);

noaaeey naeaeaa e ia?aoiaea e eiaeono?eaeueiiio iauanoao;

iineaeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai;

noaaeey ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey.

3.Yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu, eo nenoaia e eniieueciaaiea.

YC au?aaeatho nouanoaaiiua e iaiaoiaeeiua nayce a iauanoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa, iinoiyiii iiaoi?ythueany acaeiiioiioaiey, acaeiiaeaenoaey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Iie io?aaeatho iaeaieaa onoie/eaua aioo?aiiea e
aiaoiea nayce iauaeoa.

YC aicieeatho e aeaenoaotho a ?acoeueoaoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. Aeaenoaotho iauaeoeaii(iacaaeneii io aiee e
niciaiey ethaeae).

Iaiaoiaeeii ?acee/aoue: yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu, caeiiu i?e?iaeu,
th?eaee/aneea caeiiu.

A iauanoaa aeaenoaoao nenoaia YC. Iie acaeiinaycaiu i niaie. ?acee/atho
neaae. YC:

1. Anaiauea – caeiiu, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho ia anao nooiaiyo ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, ai anao iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeeyo: a)
C. Aicauoathueony iio?aaiinoae; a)C iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea;
a)C iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e ae?.

2. Iauea YC – aeaenoaotho i?e iaee/ee iaueo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaee(oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey): a)C noieiinoe; a)C ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey; a)C aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e oae.

3. Iniaua (niaoeeoe/aneea) YC – au?aaeatho aioo?aiithth i?e?iaeo
eaaeaeiai iauanoaaiiiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii?aaeaeythony
nianoaaiiinoueth ia NI e naienoaaiiua ae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea
ioiioaiey.

YC iiciaaaaiu. Eo iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue a i?aeoeea oicyenoaiaaiey.

4.Iaoiaeeea yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

Iao/iua niiniau, i?eaiu iiciaiey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, enoeiiiai
iiieiaiey e inaauaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

A eieaa Aa? “Iieeo.Yeiiiiey” 2 oiia: “YO – yoi yuee n eino?oiaioaie”.
(Aiaeec, neioac e o.ae.)

Iaoiae iao/iie aano?aeoeee, o.a. inaiaiaeaeaiea iaoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i
i?aaeiaoao enneaaeiaaiey io /anoiiai, neo/aeiiai e?aoeia?aiaiiiai,
aaeeie/iiai e iaoiaeaeaiea a ieo nouiinoiiai, iinoiyiiiai oeie/iiai.

aeaeaeaiea io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio;

iaoiae eiaeoeoeee, o.a. ec aiaeeca /anoiiai auaiaeyony iauea iieiaeaiey
e i?eioeeiu;

iaoiae aeaaeoeoeee (aeiioaoe/aneee), ia iniiaa iaueo iieiaeaiee
iniiauaathony oa eee eiua /anoiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo iauaeoia e i?ioeannia.

aaeeinoai enoi?e/aneiai e eiae/aneiai, o.a. yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu
?anniao?eaathony a enoi?e/aneie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eo aicieeiiaaiey e
a eiae/aneie acaeiinayce;

yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, nicaeaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iiaeaeae oie eee eiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

Nouanoaotho ianeieueei ooieoeee yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee:

· iiciaaaoaeueiay ooieoeey;

· i?aeoe/aneay ooieoeey – iaania/eoue ia iniiaa oai?aoe/aneeo ?ac?aaioie
yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo;

· i?iaiicoe/aneay;

· iaoiaeieiae/aneay, o.a. yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey enneaaeoao iauaa (e
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu) e yaeyaony
iaoiaeieiae/aneie aacie aeey ae?oaeo iaoe, o.e. auyaeyao iauea
yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu, eioi?ua yaeythony enoiaeiie iaoiaeieiae/aneie
iinueeie aeey enneaaeiaaiey a ae?oaeo iaoeao.

· eaeaieiae/aneay.

Yeiiiieno Aaneeee Eaiioueaa(Iiaaeaaneay i?aiey):

?acaeoea IOI – no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea – iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea – nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey – eciaiaiea
aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy.

YO yae. iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaie aeey anao yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe.

Yeiiiieno Eaein: “Ethaie iieeoee iaoiaeeony a ieaio yeiiiienoia e
oeeinioia”.

5.Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e aai oaeoi?u

Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a naiii iauai aeaea iacaaeneii io oie eee
eiie oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeaniia?acioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae, iai?aaeaiioth ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea eo
iio?aaiinoae. I?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa aeeciaiiuo aeaa io?aaeaao e, aieaa
oiai, yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aeaoo aeaeia acaeiiaeaenoaee e acaeiinaycae:

1.*aeiaae e i?e?iaea;

2.Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a i?ioeanna eo oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai yae. iniiaie nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.

*aeiaae – aaiaoe i?e?iaeu – ia?a anao aauae.

Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai aeeth/aao: iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai e
iaiaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai.

A iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa: i?-ai i?iaeoeoia e i?-ai oneoa.
Iaiaoa?eaeueiia i?-ai: i?-ai iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oneoa, nicaeaiea
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

Noa?a oneoa e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a ia oiaeaeanoaaiiu.

Eio?ano?oeoo?a – niaieoiiinoue io?aneae, aeaeia oicyenoa, a ?acoeueoaoa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?uo nicaeathony iauea oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

Nouanoaoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiay eio?ano?oeoo?a e nioeeaeueiay E. IE –
o?ainii?o, naycue, yia?ainiaaaeaiea e o.ae. NE – ia?aciaaiea,
iaaeianeoaeeaaiea e o.ae.

Oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa.

A i?ioeanna oeaeaniia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae acaeiiaeaenoaotho
iniiaiua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, o.a. ?ano?nu, eniieuecoaiua a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa aeey nicaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ieacaiey oneoa:
o?oae, eaieoae, caiey(aee. i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu), i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai.

O?oae yaeyaony iniiaie aiaaonoaa ethaiai iauanoaa.

O?oae – yoi anoue oeaeaniia?aciay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, iai?aaeaiiay
ia eciaiaiea i?aaeiaoia e nee i?e?iaeu a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey aai
iio?aaiinoae. O?oae yaeyaony aeaaiui oaeoi?ii a ?acaeoee e
niaa?oainoaiaaiee /aeiaaea. A i?ioeanna o?oaea neeaaeuaathony
ii?aaeaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

Eaieoae – aeaai aunoaai ii?yaeea(n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa). Aeaai iecoaai
ii?yaeea – i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey.

OI a iaiauaiiii aeaea iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue: ee/iue oaeoi?(?aa.neea,
o?oae), aauanoaaiiue oaeoi?(n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa),
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee oaeoi? – ee/iue oaeoi?, iaania/eaaao niaaeeiaiea
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

N?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa – i?aaeiaou o?oaea e n?aaenoaa o?oaea.

I?aaeiao o?oaea – oi, ec /aai i?iecaiaeei, ia /oi aicaeaenoaoai. I. a.
aeai i?e?iaeie.

Nu?uea – i?aaeiao o?oaea ia eioi?ue cao?a/ai /aeiaa/aneee o?oae.

N?aaenoaa o?oaea – n iiiiuueth /aai iu i?iecaiaeei.

I?oaeey o?oaea – n iiiiuueth eioi?uo /aeiaae iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aicaeaenoaoao ia i?aaeiao o?oaea.

NO+IO=NI

Eaaeaeie yiioa niioaaonoaotho naie IO.

O?oae ?aaeecoaony a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, a iii i?aaeiieaaaao
acaeiiaeaenoaea o?ao oaeoi?ia:

o?oaea e ?aai/ae neeu;

i?aaeiaoia o?oaea;

n?aaenoa o?oaea.

Aini?iecaiaenoai – yoi iinoiyiii iiaoi?ythueeny i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai aeeth/aao a naay 2 iiiaioa:

aini?iecaiaenoai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee;

aini?iecaiaenoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

6. Iauanoaaiiue niinia i?iecaiaenoaa

Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a naiii iauai aeaea iacaaeneii io oie eee
eiie oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeaniia?acioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae, iai?aaeaiioth ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea eo
iio?aaiinoae. I?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa aeeciaiiuo aeaa io?aaeaao e, aieaa
oiai, yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aeaoo aeaeia acaeiiaeaenoaee e acaeiinaycae:

1.*aeiaae e i?e?iaea;

2.Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a i?ioeanna eo oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai yae. iniiaie nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.

*aeiaae – aaiaoe i?e?iaeu – ia?a anao aauae.

Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai aeeth/aao: iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai e
iaiaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai.

A iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa: i?-ai i?iaeoeoia e i?-ai oneoa.
Iaiaoa?eaeueiia i?-ai: i?-ai iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oneoa, nicaeaiea
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

Noa?a oneoa e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a ia oiaeaeanoaaiiu.

Eio?ano?oeoo?a – niaieoiiinoue io?aneae, aeaeia oicyenoa, a ?acoeueoaoa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?uo nicaeathony iauea oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

Nouanoaoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiay eio?ano?oeoo?a e nioeeaeueiay E. IE –
o?ainii?o, naycue, yia?ainiaaaeaiea e o.ae. NE – ia?aciaaiea,
iaaeianeoaeeaaiea e o.ae.

INI – aaeeinoai IN e II a eo acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaee.

1.I?iecaiaenoaaiiua neeu (ethaee e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa).

2.I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey.

Oaoie/aneee niinia i?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae niinia niaaeeiaiey
?aaioieeia ni n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa (?o/iie niinia i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaoeiiia i?iecaiaenoai, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia, eiiieaeniia,
iaoaiece?iaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai).

7. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu

– yoi niinia i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nia?aiaiiua nenoaiu:

1.O?aaeeoeeiiiay yeiiiieea – aace?oaony ia ?o/iii o?oaea (neaai?acaeoua
no?aiu);

2.Eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiay nenoaia (NNN?, EIAe?). I?enoonoaoao ai
anao no?aiao (eiaaea oi?aaeyaiay yeiiiieea):

a) ainoaea?noaaiiue oei (nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa);

a) anaiauay (?ieue ainoaea?noaa);

3.?uii/iay yeiiiieea:

a) /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa;

a) ?ieue ainoaea?noaa ieieiaeueiia.

Iia aace?oaony ia oeaiu, ni?in, i?aaeeiaeaiea, eiieo?aioeeth.

A /enoi ?uii/iie yeiiiieea i?iaeaiu /oi i?iecaiaeeoue? eae? e aeey eiai
i?iecaiaeeoue?, ?aaoee?iaaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia inouanoaeythony ia
iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae, i?iaeaaoeia e
iieoiaoaeae a niioaaonoaee ni ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai.

4.Niaoaiiay yeiiiieea:

a) nianoaaiiinoue – ainoaea?noaaiiay e /anoiay;

a) ainoaea?noai ia?aie/aiiua ?aiee (aaoiieeio), ?aaoee?othuay ?ieue
ainoaea?noaa. ?uii/iay yeiiiieea + ieaiiaay yeiiiieea. ?uii/iue iaoaieci
?aaoee?iaaiey n ainoaea?noaaiiui ?aaoee?iaaieai.

A aieueoeinoaa no?ai niaoaiiay yeiiiieea.

5.Nioeeaeueiay yeiiiieea. Caueoa /aeiaaea, naeeaeaiea aeeciaiiiai
o?iaiy, nieaeaiea aeeooa?aioeeaoeee a aeioiaeao.

Iiaeaee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee:

1.I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay iiaeaeue (NOA), 2.Nioeeaeueiay (Oaaaeneay
iiaeaeue), 3.ssiiineay iiaeaeue – i?ei?eoao iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo
eioa?ania.

8. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay nouiinoue nianoaaiiinoe

Noa?aeiaaui a nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoue ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Iia ii?aaeaeyao nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee no?ie
iauanoaa.

Nianoaaiiinoue- yoi i?enaiaiea, ia?aoaiea /aai-oi a naith aeanoue, a
naith i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue. Aeanoue iaoiaeeony o oiai, eoi yaeyaony
nianoaaiieeii.

Nianoaaiiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony n oi/ee c?aiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey:

1.I?enaiaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

2.Niinia niaaeeiaiey ?aaioieeia ni n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa
(i?iaeaaea(ia?i) ?aai/ae neeu).

3.Oicyenoaaiiia eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa: nianoaaiiee (nai)
naeaao a a?aiaeo, eeceia (ia?aaeaao).

4.Yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee nianoaaiiinoe – icia/aao: iieo/aiea
aeioiaea e aai eniieueciaaiea.

TH?eaee/aneia niaea?aeaiea nianoaaiiinoe (ioiineony ei anai aeaeai
nianoaaiiinoe):

1.Aeaaeaiea.

2.Iieueciaaiea.

3.?anii?yaeaiea.

Oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe:

N ?acaeoeai iauanoaa oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe iaiythony, iie noaiiayony aieaa
?aciiia?aciuie. N ?acaeoeai i?oaeee o?oaea, oaoiieiaee eciaiythony e
oi?iu eo eniieueciaaiey, naycaiiua n oaie eee eiuie aeaeaie
nianoaaiiinoe. ?o/iua i?oaeey o?oaea – /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea. Iaoeiiia i?iecaiaenoai – e?oiiay
/anoiay nianoaaiiinoue.

1.Ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue – eiaao ianoi i?aeoe/anee ai anao
no?aiao: 1% – NOA, 50-60% – Ii?ooaaeey, Eniaiey.

2.Eieeaeoeaiay nianoaaiiinoue: NOA – ia eieeaeoeaiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo 10%
?aai/ae neeu. O ian ia neiaeeeanue.

I?eaaoecaoeey icia/aao i?aa?auaiea ain. Nianoaaiiinoe a eiua oi?iu
nianoaaiiinoe. A 1995 a. i?eaaoecaoeey i?iaiaeeeanue a 150 no?aiao.
I?eaaoecaoeey – ae?aaiaa iiiyoea. Iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue
i?eaaoecaoeee caaeneo io iaoiaeia e n?ieia, yoaiia a? i?iaaaeaiey.
Yoaiu:

· Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue – aeiaieueii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue;

· Iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?ioeann i?eaaoecaoeee – naiue ei?ioeee ia?eiae;

· Iaeaaeeaaiea yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee –
iaeaieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue.

Aao/a?iay, aeaiaaeiay I.

9. Iniiaiua enoi?e/aneea e iauayeiiiie/aneea oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa

Iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai.

Oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai.

Iaoo?aeueiia i?iecaiaenoai – i?iecaiaenoai aeey aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey
oiai aea i?iecaiaeeoaey, aai naiuee (ia aeey i?iaeaaee). Oa?aeoa?ecoaony
oieaa?naeueiinoueth (/oi o?aaoaony) e caieiooinoueth (oicyenoaa
eciee?iaaiu).

Oi?iu:

1.Iao?ea?oaeueiia oicyenoai.

2.Iaueiiia oicyenoai.

Aaoa?eey – ainoaea?noai, eciee?iaaiiia io ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa, aac
aiaoieo naycae.

10. Oiaa?iay oi?ia oicyenoaa, iauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee aai aicieeiiaaiey
e iniiaiua /a?ou.

Oiaa?iia oicyenoai – i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee(oneoa) aeey ?uiea, aeey
i?iaeaaee.

A)Iauae iniiaie aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa
yaeyaony iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, niaoeeaeecaoeey
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, caoai iainiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iiyaeaiea /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Ia?aia e?oiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea – ?acaeaeaiea
neioiaiaenoaa e caieaaeaeey; aoi?ia – ioaeaeaiea ?aianea io caieaaeaeey,
aeaeaa iiyaeaiea io?aneae.

A)Iainiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iiyaeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe.

?acee/atho i?inoia e eaieoaeenoe/aneia oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai. I?inoia
aace?oaony ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e ee/iii o?oaea
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey. Eaieoaeenoe/aneia – ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e
eniieueciaaiee iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu.

Iaoo?aeueiia – oiaa?iia – eaieoaeenoe/aneia. Oiaa?iia oicyenoai eiaao
iiiaeanoai i?aeiouanoa ia?aae iaoo?aeueiui. Aeaeaeouea neeu aai
?acaeoey:

1.?acaeaeaiea e niaoeeaeecaoeey o?oaea;

2.eiiia?aoeey o?oaea e i?iecaiaenoaa;

3.caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a iiauoaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea;

4.ninoycaoaeueiinoue, eiieo?aioeey;

5. eniieueciaaiea aeinoeaeaiee IOI.

11.Oiaa? e aai naienoaa. Aaee/eia noieiinoe oiaa?a.

Enoiaeiuie yeiiiie/aneeie eaoaai?eyie oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ?uiea yaeyaony oiaa? e aeaiueae.

Oiaa? – aeaai (i?iaeoeoeey, oneoae), eioi?ia oaeiaeaoai?yao iio?aaiinoe
/aeiaaea e i?aaeiacia/aii aeey iaiaia, aeey ?aaeecaoeee ia ?uiea.

Oiaa? iaeaaeaao aeaoiy iniiaiuie naienoaaie: iio?aaeoaeueneie
noieiinoueth e noieiinoueth.

Iio?aaeoaeueneay noieiinoue – niaieoiiinoue naienoa oiaa?a, naycaiiuo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eae n naiei oiaa?ii, oae e niioonoaothueie oneoaaie,
ii?aaeaeythueo aai niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea.
Iia ninoaaeyao aauanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea aiaaonoaa.

IN ioiineony ei anai i?iaeoeoai(nu?ue? e o.ae.)

IN ninoaaeyao aauanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea aiaaonoaa.

Iio?aaeoaeueneay noieiinoue oiaa?a:

1.aeieaeia auoue nicaeaia o?oaeii;

2.aeieaeia oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe ia aa nicaeaoaey, a ae?oaeo
ethaeae;

3.aeieaeia iaiaieaaoueny ia ae?oaie oiaa?(iaoaieci eoiee-i?iaeaaee).
Oiaa? aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue niiniaiinoueth iaiaieaaoueny ia ae?oaea
oiaa?u.

Iaiiaay noieiinoue – eiee/anoaaiiia niioiioaiea, i?iii?oeey, a eioi?ie
iaiaieaaaony iaeei oiaa? ia ae?oaie.

O1 = O2; O1 = 2O3

Iaeei oiaa? eiaao iiiaeanoai iaiiauo noieiinoae.

Iniiaie iaiaia iaeiiai oiaa?a ia ae?oaie yaeyaony noieiinoue – oi iauaa,
/oi naienoaaiii anai oiaa?ai, a eiaiii cao?aou o?oaea. O?oae,
aiieiuaiiue eee iaauanoaeaiiue a oiaa?a, e i?aaenoaaeyao aai noieiinoue.
Yoi aioo?aiiaa naienoai oiaa?a. Iaiiaay noieiinoue yaeyaony oi?iie
au?aaeaiey yoie noieiinoe.

O?oae oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey aunooiaao a aeaea eiie?aoiiai o?oaea,
cao?a/eaaaiiai a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie, oeaeaniia?aciie oi?iu (o?oae
neana?y, iaea?y, naiiaeieea), e aano?aeoiiai o?oaea (iaua/aeiaa/aneiai).
Aano?aeoiue o?oae nicaeaao noieiinoue. ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey ia eiie?aoiue e aano?aeoiue o?oae iaoneiaeaii
i?ioeai?a/eai oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa, aunooiathuei a aeaea i?ioeai?a/ey
iaaeaeo /anoiui e iauanoaaiiui oa?aeoa?ii o?oaea.

Aaee/eia noieiinoe oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei cao?aoaie aeeaiai
o?oaea, ii e iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea. Ii?aaeaeyaony iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiuie cao?aoaie(nouanoaoao ?aciay eaaeeoeeaoeey i?ecaiaeeoaeae)
– n?aaeiea oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa, n?.
eaaeeoeeaoeey nio?oaeieeia, oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue. Iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiua cao?aou niaiaaeatho n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie cao?aoaie oao
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ua ?aaeecotho ia ?uiea iniiaioth aeieth
oiaa?ia oiai eee eiiai ?iaea

AN caaeneo io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea – yooaeoeaiinoue, ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue
o?oaea, ecia?yaony:

1.cao?aoaie o?oaea (?aai/aai a?aiaie) ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee;

2.eiee/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee ca aaeeieoeo ?aai/aai a?aiaie.

IO caaeneo io eaaeeoeeaoeee, niaoeeaeecaoeee e iiiaeo ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.
Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey IO yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea IOI. 2 –
eaaeeoeeaoeey, 3 – i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eioaineaiinoue o?oaea – cao?aou o?oaea a aaeeieoeo ?aai/aai a?aiaie.
I?inoie o?oae – ia eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue, neiaeiue – eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue,
o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaee.

12. Aeaiueae. Eo nouiinoue e ooieoeee a nenoaia oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa.

Aeaiueae aicieeee a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey iaiaia, oaeoaeaiey e
i?aiaeieaiey i?ioeai?a/ee oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa. Yoi aue iauaeoeaiue
i?ioeann.

(A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ec oiaa?iiai ie?a auaeaeeeny iaeei oiaa?, ia
eioi?ue noaee iaiaieaaoueny ana ae?oaea oiaa?u. Yoio oiaa? noae anaiauei
yeaeaaeaioii. Eiaaea anaiauee yeaeaaeaio n?anoaaony n iaeiei oiaa?ii, ii
noaiiaeony aeaiueaaie. Yoio oiaa? – cieioi.)

?onneee yeiiiieno Ceaa?: “Ae – yoi anaiauee yeaeaaeaio, oiaa?, ia
eioi?ue iaiaieaathony ae?oaea oiaa?u, yoi anaiauaa n?aaenoai ecia?aiey
noieiinoe anao ae?oaeo oiaa?ia.”

Iie noeoeeii auaeaeeeenue ec iannu oiaa?ia a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey
oiaa?iiaiaia Ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ?ieue aeaiaa
auiieiyee nia/aea oiaa?u, caoai aeaai?iaeiua iaoaeeu, /aio
niinianoaiaaee eo iaeii?iaeiinoue, aeaeeiinoue, nio?aiyaiinoue,
o?ainii?oaaaeueiinoue – ea/anoaa, naeaeaaoea eo iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiuie e
auiieiaieth ooieoeee aeaiaa.

Iiiaoa – ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iu, aana e aeinoieinoaa iaoaee.

Aoiaaeiua aeaiueae: aaieiioa -auioneaaony oeaio?aeueiui aaieii no?aiu;
eacia/aeneee aeeao – ainoaea?noaaiiui eacia/aenoaii.

Nouanoaotho iaee/iua, aaciaee/iua aeaiueae, aeaiaaeiua /aee, aei?iaeiua
/aee, yeaeo?iiiua aeaiueae.

Aeaiueae – yoi iniaue oiaa?, neoaeauee anaiauei yeaeaaeaioii.

Ooieoeee aeaiaa:

· ia?a noieiinoe

· n?aaenoai ia?auaiey;

· n?aaenoai iaeiieaiey;

· n?aaenoai ieaoaaea;

· ie?iaua aeaiueae.

IA?A NOIEIINOE. Noieiinoue oiaa?ia iaoiaeeo anaiauaa au?aaeaiea a
aeaiueaao, o.a. aaee/eia eo noieiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony iin?aaenoaii
i?e?aaieaaiey eo e ii?aaeaeaiiiio eiee/anoao aeaiaa. Aeaiueae neoaeao
anaiauei aiieiuaieai e ia?eeii noieiinoae. Iaeiaei iniiaie niecia?eiinoe
oiaa?ia yaeythony ia aeaiueae a caeeth/aiiue a ieo aano?aeoiue,
iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiue o?oae, aiieiuaieai eioi?iai e aunooiatho
aeaiueae.

Iniaaiiinoue ooieoeee aeaiaa eae ia?u noieiinoe caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
aa auiieiytho eaeaaeueiua, oi anoue iuneaiii i?aaenoaaeyaiua aeaiueae.
Oiaa?u iuneaiii i?e?aaieaathony e aeaiueaai aua aei eo iaiaia. A oiaea
a?aiy aeaiioth ooieoeeth auiieiytho ia oneiaiua ciaee, a iieiioeaiiua
aeaiueae, o.a. iaeaaeathuea naiinoiyoaeueiie noieiinoueth.

Oeaia – aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?a.

Iieo/eaoay aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoue oiaa?a i?iyaeyaony a aeaea
oeaiu. Ii oae eae ?acee/iua oiaa?u iaeaaeatho iaiaeeiaeiaie
noieiinoueth, aeey eo niiinoaaeaiey ioaeii i?eiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiia
eiee/anoai aeaiaaeiiai iaoaeea ca aaeeieoeo ecia?aiey, eee ca ianooaa
oeai.

Ianooaa oeai – aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea n a? aeaeaieyie, a iniiao eioi?ie
iieiaeaii ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aeaiaaeiiai iaoaeea.

Ianooaa oeai – yoi aaniaia eiee/anoai iaoaeea, i?eiyoia a no?aia ca
aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo e neoaeauaa aeey ecia?aiey oeai anao oiaa?ia.

N?AAeNOAI IA?AUAIEss. A i?ioeanna oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey, O-Ae-O, aeaiueae
ea?atho ?ieue iin?aaeieea a iaiaia oiaa?ia e auiieiytho ooieoeeth
n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey.

Ii n?aaiaieth n iaiaiii oiaa?a ia oiaa?, oiaa?iia ia?auaiea n
eniieueciaaieai aeaiaa ia o?aaoao:

acaeiiiai niioaaonoaey iio?aaiinoae aeaoo iaiaieaathueony
oiaa?iaeaaeaeueoeaa;

niaiaaeaiey ii a?aiaie aeoia i?iaeaaee e eoiee;

niaiaaeaiey aeoia eoiee-i?iaeaaee a i?ino?ainoaa.

N iiyaeaieai aeaiaa aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeae e
eoieae.

Ooieoeeth aeaiaa eae n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey auiieiytho ?aaeueiua, a ia
eaeaaeueiua aeaiueae, ia iaycaoaeueii yaeythueany iieiioeaiiuie.
ssaeyynue ieiieaoiui iin?aaeieeii i?e aeoao eoiee-i?iaeaaee,
iieiioeaiiua aeaiueae iiaoo auoue caiaiaiu ciaeaie noieiinoe. N
?acaeoeai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey ia?yaeo n iaoaeee/aneeie aeaiueaaie
iieo/eee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aoiaaeiua aeaiueae.

N?AAeNOAI IAEIIEAIEss. I?iaeaaea oiaa?a aac iineaaeothuae iieoiee aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue iaeaieeaaoue aiaaonoai, aiieiuaiiia a aeaiueaao. Aeaiueae
aunooiatho a ooieoeee ia?aciaaiey nie?iaeu, iaeiieaiee e naa?aaeaiee,
eiaaea iie a?aiaiii ecaeaeathony ec ia?auaiey e inaaeatho a ?oeao
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Aeey auiieiaiey ooieoeee nie?iaeu aeaiueae aeieaeiu auoue iaeiia?aiaiii
e iieiioeaiiuie e ?aaeueiuie. Iaeiieaiea aeaiaa iaiaoiaeeii aeey iieoiee
iai?oaeiaaiey, nu?uey, oiieeaa, i?eia?aoaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo oiaa?ia aeey
oece/aneeo eeoe.

Iaoaeee/aneea aeaiueae auiieiyee ?ieue noeoeeiiai ?aaoeyoi?a aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey. I?e nie?auaiee iio?aaiinoe a iaoaeee/aneeo aeaiueaao /anoue
eo ooiaeeea a nie?iaeua, a i?e oaaee/aiee – iinooiaea a ia?auaiea.

N?AAeNOAI IEAOAAEA. Aneaaenoaea iaiaeeiaeiaie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
ia?eiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia, e iiiaioo iiyaeaiey e/e
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey ia ?uiea, iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee iiaoo ia
eiaoue iaee/iuo aeaiaa. Aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue eoiee-i?iaeaaee a
e?aaeeo. N?aaenoaii ia?auaiey oiaaea neoaeao ia naie aeaiueae, a
au?aaeaiiua a ieo aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa. I?e eniieueciaaiee a oeaeyo
iiaaoaiey aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa aeaiueae auiieiytho ooieoeeth
n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea.

Eoiey-i?iaeaaea a e?aaeeo i.a. i?aaenoaaeaia: 1. I-O; 2. O-Ae; 3. Ae-I,
aaea I – aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai. A ooieoeee n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea
aeaiueae aunooiatho eae caaa?oathuaa caaii a i?ioeanna iaiaia e eae
naiinoiyoaeueiia aiieiuaiea naiie noieiinoe.

IE?IAUA AeAIUeAE. ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo
naycae (aiaoiaoi?aiauo, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee, o.ae.)
iaoneiaeeaaao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeaiaa ia ie?iaii ?uiea. Ie?iaua
aeaiueae aunooiatho a aeaea neeoeia aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia, a a oneiaeyo
?acaeoiai eaieoaeecia – a aeaea neeoeia cieioa, o.e. iaiieiioeaiiua
aeaiueae, eiathuea ia?auaiea aioo?e ioaeaeueiie no?aiu, ia ie?iaii ?uiea
oa?ytho neeo.

Ie?iaua aeaiueae iiaoo auiieiyoue ooieoeee:

iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa; iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iieoiaoaeueiiai n?aaenoaa; anaiauaai aiieiuaiey iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey oiaa?iiai iaiaia iieiioeaiiua aeaiueae i?aa?auathony a
ciaee noieiinoe. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu aoiaaeiua e
e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae, ooieoeeiie?othuea aioo?e no?aiu e auiieiythuea
ooieoeee n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey e ieaoaaea, ia?anoatho ?aciaieaaoueny ia
cieioi. A iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aiauo ioiioaieyo oaeaea aaethou aaaeoueo
no?ai ie?a, e, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aeieea? NOA, noaee ooieoeeiie?iaaoue
eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ieaoaaeiia, iieoiaoaeueiia e ?aca?aiia n?aaenoai.
Cieioua caianu i?e yoii auiieiytho ?ieue eeeaeaeiuo aeoeaia aeey
iieo/aiey ?aca?aiuo aaetho e ae?. N?aaenoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia.

Iooiae io iaoaeee/aneiai aacena – iaeia noi?iia yaiethoeee aeaiaa,
ae?oaay – oaiaeaioeey e nio?aiaieth n?inoaainy n cieioii anaiauaai
yeaeaaeaioa. Ae?aaioeaiiue iaoae i?iaeieaeaao ea?aoue ?ieue aeaiaa a
ooieoeee nie?iaeua a ea/anoaa no?aoiaiai oiiaea.

Neieueei aeaiaa ioaeii aeey ia?auaiey:

E = (noiia oeai oiaa?ia – i?iaeaaea a e?aaeeo – acaeiiiiaaoaaiua
ieaoaaee + aica?ao e?aaeeoa)/nei?inoue iai?ioa aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu.

A ?innee iauay ianna aeaiaa – 12% io AII.

13.Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e aai caeiiu.

Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea – yoi iai?a?uaiia aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa. A naiai
?acaeoee aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea i?ioei o?e enoi?e/aneeo yoaia:

cieioiiiiaoiue oei. Ia yoii yoaia aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea ethaie no?aiu
eiaea cieioia niaea?aeaiea eee iaania/aiea;

cieioiaoiaaeiue oei aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Aoiaaeiua aeaiueae i?eoee
aeaoiy iooyie: a) ii?/a iiiao. Eacia/aeneea aaenaey, oi anoue
iaycaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, eioi?ua naiaiaeii iaiaieaaeenue
ia na?aa?yiua e iaaeiua iiiaou; a) /a?ac eiiia?/aneee aaenaeue, oi anoue
iaycaoaeuenoaa ioaeaeueiiai i?iiuoeaiieea eee oi?aiaoea oieaoeoue a
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie aeaiueae ca iieo/aiiua a e?aaeeo oiaa?u. Iicaea
aaieiiou noaee auioneaoue aaiee. Aaieiioa iaania/eaaaony ainoaea?noaii
cieioii, ae?aaioeaiiuie iaoaeeaie e ae?oaeie aeoeaaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aaiea.

Aaieianeee oei aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi
aoiaaeiua aeaiueae, ieeae ia naycaiu n cieioii.

Naaiaeiy ooieoeeiie?otho oae iacuaaaiua aaieianeea aeaiueae, oi anoue
iniiaiay ianna iia?aoeee ii iieoiea e i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia niaa?oaaony aac
o/anoey aeaiaa (aaciaee/iue ?an/ao) eee n iiiiuueth e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae.

Eiee/anoai aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ia?auaiey, ii?aaeaeyaony
caeiiii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

Neieueei aeaiaa ioaeii aeey ia?auaiey:

E = (noiia oeai oiaa?ia – i?iaeaaea a e?aaeeo – acaeiiiiaaoaaiua
ieaoaaee + aica?ao e?aaeeoa)/nei?inoue iai?ioa aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu. A
oi?iuaiiii aeaea:

E = (ianna ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia * n?aaeiyy oeaia oiaa?a)/ nei?inoue
iai?ioa aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu.

I?e ecauoi/iii yieoe?iaaiee aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia i?ienoiaeeo eioeyoeey.

A ?innee iauay ianna aeaiaa – 12% io AII.

Aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa i?e auiieiaiee eie naieo ooieoeee a iaee/iie e
aaciaee/iie oi?iao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea. Aeaiaaeiia
ia?auaiea caaeneo io ia?auaiey aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu. O ian 6 iai?ioia ca
aiae. Caaeneo io oeai e eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia.

Eae=NOe-IE-AI+AE/ I

aaea Eae – eiee/anoai aeaiaa aeey ia?auaiey e ieaoaaea

NOe – noiia oeai ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa

IE – i?iaeaaea a e?aaeeo

AI – acaeiiiiaaoathuea ieaoaaee

AE – aica?ao e?aaeeoa

I – /enei iai?ioia aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu

Caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, ioe?uoue E.Ia?enii, onoaiaaeeaaao
eiee/anoai aeaiaa, ioaeiia aeey auiieiaiey eie ooieoeee n?aaenoaa
ia?auaiey e n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea.

Eiee/anoai aeaiaa caaeneo io eiee/anoaa i?iaeaiiuo ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e
oneoa, o?iaiy oeai e oa?eoia e nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa.

Nei?inoue ia?auaiey aeaiaa ii?aaeaeyaony /eneii iai?ioia aeaiaaeiie
aaeeieoeu ca ecaanoiue ia?eiae, o.e. iaeie e oa aea aeaiueae a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea iinoiyiii ia?aoiaeyo ec ?oe a ?oee, ianeoaeeaay
i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia e ieacaiey oneoa.

Aeaiaaeiay ianna – niaieoiiinoue iieoiaoaeueneeo, ieaoaaeiuo e
iaeiieaiiuo n?aaenoa, ianeoaeeaathuay yeiiiie/aneea nayce e
i?eiaaeeaaeauay oece/aneei e th?eaee/aneei eeoeai, a oaeaea
ainoaea?noao. Yoi aaaeiue eiee/anoaaiiue iieacaoaeue aeaeaeaiey aeaiaa.

14.Nouiinoue ?uiea e aai ooieoeee.

? – iaiai oiaa?aie e oneoaaie, i?aaieciaaiiue ii caeiiai oiaa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey. Yoi iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey iieoiaoaeae e
i?iaeaaoeia, ioiioaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

? – niaieoiiinoue naeaeie, aeoia eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e oneoa

Ooieoeee ?uiea:

· Oeaiiia?acothuay;

· Iin?aaeie/aneay;

· Eioi?iaoeeiiiay;

· ?aaoee?othuay;

· Naie?othuay (i/enoea ?uiea io iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae).

Naioyeuenii: “Ie iaeii i?aaeoaeuenoai ia iiaeao auoue ioae?aa ?uiea”.

?uiie – yoi anoue niaieoiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoaa e
iaiaia oiaa?ia i?e iiiiue aeaiaa.

Ia/aei o/aiey i ?uii/iie nenoaia oicyenoaiaaiey iieiaeee Aaeai Nieo a
?aaioa “I i?e?iaea e i?e/eia aiaaonoaa ia?iaea” a 1776 a. Nieo n/eoaao,
/oi iauaeoeaiie i?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey ?uiea yaeyaony anoanoaaiiay
ia?aie/aiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae /aeiaaea.

Aaeai Nieo iacuaae ?uiie iaaeaeeiie ?oeie. O/aiea Nieoa iaoei naia
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a o?oaeao Ia?ena “Eaieoae”, Eaieia “Ii iiaiaeo oae
iacuaaaiiai aii?ina i ?uiea” e aano?eeoea O.Oaeaea, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeye
?uiie, eae iaeio ec oi?i niiioaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea.

Ia?en e Eaiei ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi a iniiaa ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee eaaeeo
iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ?uiie noieo iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie, iiiiaaao ei iauaoueny ia ycuea oeai e
?aoaoue o?e aeaaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo aii?ina:

/oi i?iecaiaeeoue;

eae i?iecaiaeeoue;

aeey eiai i?iecaiaeeoue.

A eiiaiaeiie nenoaia oicyenoaa iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie
nicaeathony a?iiicaeeea iaiaueiiaaiii aei?iainoiyuea no?oeoo?u n
ia?iiiie /eneaiiinoueth ?aaioieeia, eioi?ua iuoathony ?aoaoue yoe o?e
aii?ina.

A niaoaiiie yeiiiieea iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e iio?aaeoaeai noieo ?uiie
n yeaiaioaie ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee.

Oiaa?iia i?iecaiaenoai ooieoeeiie?oao a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey
iauaeoeaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia:

caeii noieiinoe;

ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey;

caeii i aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee.

Caeii noieiinoe o?aaoao, /oiau iaiai oiaa?a inouanoaeyeny a niioaaonoaee
n ea/anoaii e eiee/anoaii o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia eo i?iecaiaenoai.

Caeii ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey – yoi iauaeoeaiue caeii, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeyao niioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie.

Caeii aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey ?aaoee?oao eiee/anoai aeaiaa, eioi?ia
iaiaoiaeeii iauanoao a aeaeueiaeoee enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae.

Ana yoe caeiiu niinianoaotho nicaeaieth ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia.

?uii/iue iaoaieci – yoi iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey oeai e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
?ano?nia, iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae oiaa?a.

15. Eeanneoeeaoeey ?uieia. No?oeoo?a e aeaeu iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea.
?uiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e ieaoiuo oneoa.

?uiie – yoi anoue niaieoiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoaa e
iaiaia oiaa?ia i?e iiiiue aeaiaa.

? – iaiai oiaa?aie e oneoaaie, i?aaieciaaiiue ii caeiiai oiaa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey. Yoi iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey iieoiaoaeae e
i?iaeaaoeia, ioiioaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

? – niaieoiiinoue naeaeie, aeoia eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e oneoa

Eeanneoeeaoeey ?:

?uiee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ii i?eciaeai: noaiaiue
iiiiiieece?iaaiiinoe(oi?iu eiieo?aioeee), ia?u ain. ?aaoee?iaaiey,
ianooaaiinoue oiaa?iiaiaiiuo i?ioeannia, ?aaeiiaeueiay
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue, eaaaeueiinoue, aeaeu ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Ii oi?ia eiieo?aioeee: aunieieiieo?aioiue, iaiiiiiieece?iaaiiue,
(eaeaaeueiue), iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee n aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae
i?iaeoeoa, ieeaiiieenoe/aneee, aeoiiieenoe/aneee,
iiiiiieece?iaaiiue(/enoay iiiiiieey).

Ii aeaeo oiaa?a: i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey e oneoa; aeeeie ieiuaaee,
caeaiee, iaaeaeaeeiinoe; n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa(aeeth/ay caieth),
eiouanoaa; eiaanoeoeee; aeaiaa e oeaiiuo aoiaa; ?aai/ae neeu(o?oaea,
?aai/eo iano); eiiiaaoeee, aeooiaiiai, eioaeeaeooaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.

ii oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eciaeo(ianoiua, iaoeeiiaeueiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua,
ie?iaie);

ooieoeeiiaeueiue i?eciae(iioiaue, iai?aaieciaaiiue);

ii iio?aaeoaeueneei oiaa?ai(aeaoeoeeoiue-iaaeaoeoeeoiue, iaoeeiiaeueiua
eee eiii?oiua oiaa?u).

Niaieoiiinoue ?uieia iaeiie no?aiu iac. Iaoeeiiaeueiui(aioo?aiiei)
?uieii. Ii ia?acoao noa?o ia?auaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee. Aioo?e
iaai iiaoo auaeaeyoueny ?aaeiiaeueiua ?uiee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ii oa??eoi?ee: 1. Ianoiue ?aaeiiaeueiue Iaoeeiiaeueiue
Iaaeno?aiiauo iauaaeeiaiee Ie?iaie.

Anoue i?aaieciaaiiue, iai?aaieciaaiiue eaaaeueiue – oaiaaie

Auaatho: – iio?aaeoaeueneee – aeaoeoeeoiue – ia?aianuuaiiue

Aeaeu ?uieia: ?uiie oiaa?ia e oneoa ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa ?uiie e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia ?uiie iaaeaeaeeiinoe ?uiie n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ?uiie
“iio-oao” e ae?oaie eioi?iaoeee ?uiie o?oaea Oeiainiaue ?uiie eee ?uiie
eaieoaea ?uiie nnoaeiiai eaieoaea Oiiaeiaua ae?aee

?acee/athony oa?aeoa?ii eiieo?aioeee: ?uiie naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee
/enoay iiiiiieey (aeanoue iaeiiai) iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey
(?aaoee?oaony ainoaea?noaii) ieeaiiieey (aeanoue iaiiiaeo)

Iaoeeiiaeueiua ?uiee ?acee/athony aaethoie, iaeiaaie, iaoeeiiaeueiuie
noaiaea?oaie.

?uiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia – yoi ?uiie oiaa?ia oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey.
Ii oi?ie?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa neaaeothueo ia?:

1.iooai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo e iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia.

2.iooai iiaeaea?aeaiey iaeuo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoee.

3.iaeiaiaia e e?aaeeoiia noeioee?iaaiea oiaa?ia oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey.

4.ia?aoiae e naiaiaeiiio oeaiiia?aciaaieth ia aieueoeinoai oiaa?ia.

5.iinoaiaiiay ioiaia aeioe?iaaiey oauoi/iuo i?aaei?eyoee.

6.?aaeeeaeueiue ia?aniio? eueaioiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia oe?ieiai
iio?aaeaiey.

Oi?ie?iaaiea yoiai ?uiea inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa 2-o caeiiia ?innee: “I
caueoa iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea” io 20.12.91a. “I caueoa iio?aaeoaeae” io
26.06.91a.

Eio?ano?oeoo?ie iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea yaeythony iaaaceiu, naeueneea
ai?iaeneea ?uiee, y?ia?ee, aoeoeeiiu.

?uiie oneoa aeeth/aao i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua oneoae:
o?ainii?oiua, nayce, ?aiiioiua, eeceiaiaua, aoaeeoi?neea, no?aoiaua,
th?eaee/aneea, auoiaua, eoeueoo?iua.

?uiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia i?aaeiacia/ai aeey i?iaeaaee iaoe?iie
a?oiiu oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, aeeth/ay iaeaaeaeo, iaoaue,
aieiaiua oai?u, ia?othia?eth, auoiaua oiaa?u, iaaaeue, , eaea?noaa,
ioaeaeueiua aeaeu no?ieiaoa?eaeia, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa ee/iiai e
naiaeiiai iieueciaaiey e ae?. oiaa?ia aiaeiae/iiai iacia/aiey.

?uiie auoiauo, eiiioiaeueiuo, eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa – yoi ieaoiua oneoae
ii auoiaiio ianeoaeeaaieth ianaeaiey(i?a/a/iua, oei/enoee,
ia?eeiaoa?neea, o?ainii?oiua oneoae, oneoae nayce, io?aia), ia
eiiioiaeueiua oneoae(aiaei-, oaiei-, yia?ai-, aaciniaaaeaiea aeeeeu,
ianeoaeeaaiea eeooiaiai oicyenoaa, iiaeaea?aeaiea ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeiiia e eaa?oe?), oneoae ii ?aiiioo aeeeuey, auoiaie
aiia?aoo?u e ia eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae(ni?aaee, ?aeeaia, ?aciiiaeaiea
eioi?iaoeee, eiinoeueoe?iaaiea, iioa?eao e o.ae.) e ae?.

16.?uiie eaieoaea.

I?iiuoeaiiue eaieoae – eaieoae, caiyoue a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea io
iaai ioaeaeythony nnoaeiue e oi?aiaue eaieoae.

Oi?aiaue eaieoae – yoi iainiaeaoayny /anoue i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea,
eioi?ay ooieoeeiie?oao a noa?a oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey. Enoi?e/aneei
i?aaeoanoaaiieeii oi?aiaiai eaieoaea aue eoia/aneee eaieoae. Nnoaeiue
eaieoae yoi iainiaeaoayny /anoue i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea, iacia/aiea
eioi?iai – aeeoioeyoeey nianoaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
i?aaeinoaaeaiea eo oai, eoi a ieo ioaeaeaaony.

?uiie eiaanoeoeee, aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea, anoue iniaay oi?ia aeaiaaeiiai
?uiea, ia eioi?ii iieoiathony n?aaenoaa, aeeaaeuaaaiua a aoaeouoth
yeiiiieeo, o.a. eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey. I?aaei?eieiaoaee ia eiathuea
aeinoaoi/iuo n?aaenoa aeey nicaeaiey naiaai aeaea, ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaeatho i?eia?anoe oaeea n?aaenoaa a iaiai ia aoaeouea
aeaiueae, oiaa?u, iinoaaee, eiouanoai eee ia ae?oaeo oneiaeyo. Iieai
aeaenoaey ?uiea eiaanoeoeee yaeythony i?aaeaea anaai eiaanoeoeeiiiua
aaiee, ii ?uii/iua ioiioaiey ia ii/aa eoiee-i?iaeaaee eiaanoeoeee iiaoo
aicieeaoue iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, aeaeathueie i?iaeaoue e eoieoue
eaieoae.

Aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae – yoi eaieoae aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa.

Aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai – yoi oaeia i?aaei?eyoea, a eaieoae eioi?iai
aeeaaeuaatho naith aeieth iiiaea o/anoieee iieoiay aai aeoeee.

Ethaie eaieoae ia/eiaao naia aeaeaeaiea n aeaiaa e iineaaeiaaoaeueii
i?ioiaeeo o?e noaaeee aeaeaeaiey. Ia eaaeaeie ec yoeo noaaeee ii
i?eieiaao niioaaonoaothuoth oi?io.

Oi?ioea aeaeaeaiey eaieoaea:

NI

/

Ae – O … I … O’ – Ae’

?N

L———+———-+——–

1 2 3

Ia ia?aie noaaeee eaieoae aunooiaao a oi?ia aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea.

Ia aoi?ie – a oi?ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai (i?iiuoeaiiiai) eaieoaea. Yoa
noaaeey yaeyaony aeaaiie a e?oaiiai?ioa eaieoaea, o.e. caeanue
i?ienoiaeeo nicaeaiea iiaie iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoe, iiaie noieiinoe
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa (i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe).

Ia o?aoueae – a oi?ia oiaa?iiai eee oi?aiaiai eaieoaea:

Ae’ = Ae – Ae~

I?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo iinea ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a aica?auaaony e
i?iecaiaeeoaeth a oi?ia i?eauee (?).

I?eaueue auaaao: eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay, io?aneaaay e n?aaeiyy (iauay).

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay i?eaueue – yoi i?eaueue, eioi?oth iieo/aao eaaeaeue
ioaeaeueiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue.

Io?aneaaay – yoi i?eaueue, ia?aciaaiiay aioo?e io?aneaaie eiieo?aioeee
ca aieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa oiaa?ia ca iieo/aiea
aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee.

Iauay i?eaueue ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeio?aneaaie eiieo?aioeee.

N?aaeiyy i?eaueue – yoi anoue ?aaiay i?eaueue ia ?aaiiaaeeeee eaieoae.

Oeaia i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaia aaaine?iaaiiiio eaieoaeo + n?aaeiyy i?eaueue.

Oi?aiaue eaieoae – yoi anoue iainiaeaoayny /anoue i?iiuoeaiiiai
eaieoaea, eioi?ay ianeoaeeaaao i?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a.

Ii eiaao naith oi?ioeo e?oaiiai?ioa: Ae – O – Ae’

Ia aaaine?iaaiiii oi?aiaii eaieoaea i?aaei?eieiaoaee iieo/atho i?eaueue,
iacuaaaioth oi?aiaie.

Oi?aiaue eaieoae aianoa n i?iiuoeaiiui o/anoaotho a ia?auaiee n?aaeiae
i?eauee.

Oi?aiaay i?eaueue – yoi /anoue i?eauee, eioi?oth i?iiuoeaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey onooiatho oi?aiaea.

17.Oiaa?iua ae?aee, eo ooieoeee e iaoaiecuei ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Ae?aea – yoi oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee, niinianoaothuee caeeth/aieth iioiauo
naeaeie iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie oiaa?ia, aaethou, oeaiiuo
aoiaa.

OA – naiinoiyoaeueiua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iaainoaea?noaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey aeey i?iaaaeaiey oi?aiauo iia?aoeee ii caeeth/aieth naeaeie
i e?oiiiianooaaiie i?iaeaaea e eoiea iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiuo oiaa?ia,
i?iaeathueony ii noaiaea?oai e ia?acoeai. Yoi ?aaoey?ii
ooieoeeiie?othuee, i?aaieciaaiiue, aeaenoaothuee ii ii?aaeaeaiiui
i?aaeeai e a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa iioiaue oiaa?iue ?uiie. Iniiaiie
i?aaeiao naeaeie ia oiaa?iie ae?aea – i?aaenoaaeaiiua ia iae oiaa?u e
eiio?aeou ia eoieth-i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia. OA i?ecaaiu: oii?yaei/eaaoue
oi?aiaeth oiaa?aie, ieacuaaoue iin?aaeie/aneea oneoae i?e caeeth/aiee
naeaeie, ?aaoee?iaaoue i?ioeann oi?aa iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e
iieoiaoaeyie oiaa?a, niae?aoue e ioaeeeiaaoue eioi?iaoeeth i oeaiao ia
ae?aeaaua oiaa?u.

A?iea?neea eiioi?u e oe?iu iaiieiytho oe?io oiaa?iuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie e
niinianoaotho eo i?iaeaeaeaieth e enoi/ieeai ni?ina, o.a. e caeeth/aieth
naeaeie. A?iea?u – iin?aaeieee iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai oiaa?a,
niaaeeiytho eo eioa?anu, .e iaeiia?aiaiii aunooiatho a ?iee aeiaa?aiiuo
eeoe eae aeaaeaeueoeaa oiaa?a, oae e aai iieoiaoaeae. A?iea? eiaao nai?
noaoeeiia?iia ianoi ia ae?aea. Eeoe, caieiathueony ae?aeaaui
iin?aaeie/anoaii ca naie n/ao e io naiaai eiaie iac. aeeea?aie eee
aeaeiaaa?aie. Yoi /aeiaae eee aeeea?neay oe?ia, i?iaiaeyuea ae?aeaaua
iia?aoeee a ?iee o/anoieeia naeaeie.

Iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Eeeaio, aeaeathuee eoieoue eee i?iaeaoue oiaa? /a?ac ae?aeo, aeieaeai
ia?aoeoueny a a?iea?neoth eiioi?o. Cayaeoaeue caiieiyao aeaie-i?eeac e
ia?aaea?o aai iieiiii/iiio a?iea?o. Yoe noa?oiaua iia?aoeee iiaoo
i?iecaiaeeoueny aaeaee i naiie ae?aee – a ia?eoa?eeiuo i?aaiao. Caoai
iieiiii/iue a?iea? ia?aaeaao cayaeo e ioaeaao oeacaiea
a?iea?o-eniieieoaeth n/aoia, iinea /aai iia iinooiaao a oeaio?aeueiua
i?aaiu ae?aee. A ia/aeueiie oaca eeeaio ieaoeo aa?aioeeiue aciin –
ia?aeo(10% io i?aaeiaoa naeaeee), yoi caeia, eioi?ue caoai aica?auaaony.
I?eiyoue caeac ia i?iaeaaeo(eoieth), iinooiaao a oi?aiaoth naeoeeth
iia?aoeeiiiiai caea, i?ioiaey /a?ac i?eaiiue ioeueo e ?aaeno?aoo?o, e
caoai ia?anueaaony a ae?aeaaia eieueoei, aaea e ?acai?a/eaathony aeaaiua
niauoey. Ia?yaeo n a?iea?aie a oi?aa i?eieiatho o/anoea a ea/anoaa
aaaeoueo e oeene?othueo naeaeee ae?aeaaua iaeea?u.

O/anoieee oi?aia eiatho ea?oi/ee ?aciiai oeaaoa: a?iea?u – neiea eee
e?aniua, iiiiuieee a?iea?ia – aeaeoua, iaeea?u – caeaiua. Iooai
iiaeiyoey ea?oi/ae eee ycueii aeanoia a?iea?u e iaeea?u iauathony a
oiaea oi?aia. Oi?a ia/eiaao aaaeouee iaeea? n niiauaiey i oiaa?ao,
aunoaaeaiiuo ia i?iaeaaeo. Anee niiauaiea aucaaei eioa?an o
a?iea?a-iieoiaoaey, ii iiaeieiaao ea?oi/eo. Iinea iaeaoaiey anaai nienea
e iaaieueoiai ia?a?uaa ia/eiaaony ianoaeaeaiea a?iea?ia-i?iaeaaoeia.
Anee a?iea?-iieoiaoaeue aa?ao anth ia?oeth oiaa?a, oi n?aco aea
oeene?oaony naeaeea. Anee oaeiai iieoiaoaey iao, oi ianoaeaeathony
ano?a/iua i?aaeeiaeaiey a?iea?ia-iieoiaoaeae ia oneiaeyo, ia eioi?uo iie
niaeaniu i?eia?anoe oiaa? eee aai /anoue. A neo/aa iiaoi?iie iaoaea/iie
iiiuoee caeeth/eoue naeaeeo iia ioeeaaeuaaaony e ?anniao?eaaaony
neaaeothuaa i?aaeeiaeaiea. I?e aeinoeaeaiee aeiaiai?aiiinoe iaaeaeo
A-i?iaeaaoeii e A-iieoiaoaeai – a aeaea eo onoiiai niaeaney i
acaeiii?eaieaiinoe oneiaee – iaeea? oeene?oao naeaeeo caienueth a
?aaeno?aoeeiiiie ea?oa. Oaeay ?aaeno?aoeey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
naeaeea caeeth/aia.

18. ?uiie nnoaeiiai eaieoaea.

Enoi?e/aneei i?aaeoanoaaiieeii nnoaeiiai eaieoaea aue ?inoiaue/aneee
eaieoae. Oi?iaie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NE yae. Eiiia?/aneee e aaieianeee
e?aaeeo. E?aaeeoiue eaieoae – e?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaiue
ooieoeeiie?othueie i?aaei?eyoeyie i?e eoiea-i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia(oneoa).
Eino?oiaioii EE yaeyaony aaenaeue(aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai). I?inoie
aaenaeue – ?aciaia ia?auaiea. Ia?aaiaeiie aaenaeue – iiiai iai?ioia. Aai
iiaeao auienuaaoue i?iaeaaaoe, /oiau aai aeieaeiee iieaoee Aai.
Nouanoaoao aei 15 aeaeia aaenaeae. Aaenaey noaee o/eouaaoue aaiee. E
aianoi o/oaiiuo(i?eiyouo aaenaeae) aaiee noaee auioneaoue naie aaenaey.
Aaenaeue ia aaiee?a iacuaaaony aaieiiou. Yoe aaieiiou noaee auiieiyoue
?ieue e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa.

Nnoaeiue eaieoae – yoi anoue iainiaeaoayny /anoue i?iiuoeaiiiai
eaieoaea, eioi?ay aunooiaao a oi?ia aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea, i?eiinyuaai
i?ioeaio.

Enoi/ieeii nnoaeiiai eaieoaea yaeythony a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa anaai eeanna i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Aeaiaaeiue eaieoae eiaao naith oi?ioeo e?oaiiai?ioa: Ae – Ae’

Nnoaeiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee eee aaiee?u iieo/atho naith aeieth i?eauee a
aeaea nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa.

Aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii e?aaeeoa.

Caieaaeaaeaeueoeu iieo/atho naie i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo a oi?ia caiaeueiie
?aiou.

Caiaeueiay ?aioa – yoi /anoue i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe naa?o n?aaeiae
i?eauee, eioi?oth iieo/aao nianoaaiiee caiee.

Caiaeueiay ?aioa auaaao aeaoo aeaeia: aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay e aaniethoiay.

I?e/eiie nouanoaiaaiey aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou yaeyaony iiiiiieey ia
caieth, eae ia iauaeo oicyenoaa e aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee eaieoaea a
caieth.

I?e/eiie aaniethoiie ?aiou yaeyaony /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth.

Oneiaeai nouanoaothuae aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou yaeyaony ?acee/ea a
ieiaei?iaeee e ianoiiieiaeaiee caiee, a oae aea aeiiieieoaeueiiai
aeiaeaiey eaieoaea a caieth.

Oneiaeai aaniethoiie ?aiou yaeyaony aieaa ieceia ia?aie/aiea no?iaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa (eaieoaea) a naeueneii oicyenoaa ii n?aaiaieth n
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth.

Enoi/ieeii ?aiou yaeyaony i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo.

Iniiao ?aiou ninoaaeyao ?acieoea iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiie noieiinoueth
i?iaeoeoa, ii?aaeaeyaiie oneiaeyie i?iecaiaenoaa ia ooaeoai ii
ieiaei?iaeeth e ianoiiieiaeaieth o/anoea, e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
noieiinoueth.

19. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa, eo eoiey-i?iaeaaea.

?OeA yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth oeiainiaiai ?uiea, eioi?ue aeaeeony ia
aeaiaaeiue ?uiie(ana eino?oiaiou oei., naycaiiua n e?aoein?i/iui
ia?auaieai) e ?uiie eaieoaeia(n?aaeia e aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou e oeaiiua
aoiaae – aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee e o.ae.)

Ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa eee oiiaeiaii ?uiea i?iaeathony e iieoiathony ca
aeaiueae oeaiiua aoiaae a aeaea aeoeee iaeeaaoeee, aaenaeae, eioa?aeiuo
aeeaoia e o.ae. ?acee/atho ia?ae/iue ?uiie i?iaeaaee iiauo auiouaiiuo
aoiaa iinea eo yiennee e aoi?e/iue ?uiie i?iaeaaee oaea ia?auathueony
aoiaa.

Oiiaeiaue ?uiie enoi?e/anee ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny ia iniiaa nnoaeiiai
eaieoaea, o.e. iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa icia/aao ia /oi eiia, eae ia?aaea/o
/anoe aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea a nnoaeo.

Eeth/aaie caaea/ae, eioi?oth aeieaeai auiieiyoue ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa
yaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai iaania/aiea oneiaee aeey i?eaea/aiey eiaanoeoeee
ia i?aaei?eyoey, aeinooi yoeo i?aaei?eyoee e aieaa aeaoaaiio, ii
n?aaiaieth n aaieianeeie e?aaeeoaie eaieoaeo.

Eae e ethaie ae?oaie ?uiie, ?OeA neeaaeuaaaony ec ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey
e o?aaiiaaoeaathuae eo oeaiu. Ni?in nicaeaaony eiiiaieyie e n iaeioi?uo
ii? ainoaea?noaii, eioi?ui ia oaaoaao nianoaaiiuo aeioiaeia aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey eiaanoeoeee. Aecian e i?aaeoaeuenoaa aunooiatho ia ?OeA
/enouie caaiueeaie (aieueoa caieiatho, /ai iaeaeaeeaatho), a /enouie
e?aaeeoi?ii yaeyaony ianaeaiea, ee/iue naeoi?, o eioi?iai ii ?aciui
i?e/eiai aeioiae i?aauoaao noiio ?anoiaeia ia oaeouaa iio?aaeaiea e
eiaanoeoeee a iaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau (aeaaiui ia?acii aeeeuea).

Iniiaiuie o/anoieeaie ?OeA yae. Oiiaeiaua ae?aee e eiaanoeoeeiiiua
oiiaeu.

Oeaiiie aoiaaie yaeyaony aeieoiaio onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu e iaycaoaeueiuo
?aeaeceoia oaeinoiaa?ythuee eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, inouanoaeaiea eee
ia?aaea/a eioi?uo aiciiaeiu oieueei i?e aai i?aaeuyaeaiee.

OeA – yoi oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey eaieoaea, ioee/iay io aai oiaa?iie,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie e aeaiaaeiie oi?iu, eioi?ay iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny
aianoi iaai naiiai, ia?auaoueny ia ?uiea e i?eiineoue aeioiae.

OeA – yoi oaeay oi?ia oeenaoeee aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie
?uiea, eioi?ay naia yaeyaony iauaeoii yoeo ioiioaiee, o.a. caeeth/aiea
naeaeee eee eaeiai-eeai niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo aai o/anoieeaie ninoieo a
ia?aaea/a, eee eoiea-i?iaeaaea OeA a iaiai ia aeaiueae eee oiaa?.

OeA – i?aaenoaaeoaeue eaieoaea, yae-ny oeeoeaiui eaieoaeii.

Aeaeu OeA

E oeaiiui aoiaaai ioiinyony ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae, oeaiiua
aoiaae noauaeoia ?O, i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, ei?ii?aoeaiua
iaeeaaoeee, aeoeee, aaenaey, /aee, aeeeeuiua na?oeoeeaou,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua iae, i?eaaoecaoeeiiiua oeaiiua aoiaae, aeaiiceoiua e
naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou, aaieianeea naa?aaaoaeueiua eieaeee ia
i?aaeuyaeoaey.

Eeeaeaeiinoue oeaiiie aoiaae – yoi aiciiaeiinoue aa auno?ie i?iaeaaee
aac nouanoaaiiuo iioa?ue noieiinoe.

Yienneiiiua oeaiiua aoiaae – aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee.

?uiie ia?ae/iue e aoi?e/iue.

Aeae ?ano?naOeACaieyEiioaeaIaaeaeaeeiinoueAeoeee,eiioaea,aeeeeuiue
na?oeoeeaoI?iaeoeoeeyEiiinaiaio(ia?auathuaany neeaaeneia naeae-ai),
ia?au-ny oiaa?iue oueth/a?niue eiio?aeo, oiaa?iue
iioeeiiaeaiueaeIaeeaaoeee, aaenaey, aeaiiceoiue na?oeoeeao,/ae,
aaieianeee e?aaeeo

Aeoeey – yienneiiiay OeA, cae?aieythuay i?aaa aa aea?aeaoaey(aeoeeiia?a)
ia iieo/aiea /anoe i?eauee AI a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, ia o/anoea a
oi?aaeaiee e ia /anoue eiouanoaa, inoathuaainy iinea aai eeeaeaeaoeee.

Iaeeaaoeey – aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai yieoaioa ia?aae eiaanoi?ii. Yoi
OeA n oeene?iaaiiui aeioiaeii, o.e. % ia caaeneo io ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou
yieoaioa e iaiaa?eaathony ca?aiaa.

I?iecaiaeiua OeA – oaeinoiaa?ytho i?aai aeaaeaeueoea ia iieoieo eee
i?iaeaaeo ia?ae/iuo OeA. Yoi aao/a?(aeae i?aai ia i?eia?aoaiea aeoeee
i?eaaoece?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee), iioeeii(ia?aaeaao i?aai ia iieoieo eee
i?iaeaaeo ae?oaie OeA ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia aei e(eee) ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth aoaeouoth aeaoo).

Aeaiiceoiua (aeey THE) e naa?aaaoaeueiua (aeey oec.eeoe) na?oeoeeaou –
naeaeaoaeuenoaa aaieia i aianaiee n?aaenoa, aeathuea i?aai ia iieo/aiea
aeeaaea e iaiai?aiiuo i?ioeaioia. Yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue n?i/iuo aeeaaeia,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ia?ai?iaeaiu. I?iaeathony ia oiiaeiauo ae?aeao.

Aaenaeue – aeieaiaia iayc-ai, ninoaaeaiiia ii ii?aaeaeaiiie c-iii oi?ia
e aeathuaa aai aeaaeaeueoeo aaconeiaiia i?aai o?aaiaaoue iaiai?aiioth
noiio ii enoa/aieth oeacaiiiai n?iea.

I?inoie A.- ninoaaeyaony aeieaeieeii (aaenaeaaeaoaeai) e niaea?aeeo aai
iaycaoaeuenoai auieaoeoue iaicia/aiioth noiio e?aaeeoi?o
(aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeth)

Ia?aaiaeiie. A. (o?aooa) – ninoaaeyaony e?aaeeoi?ii (o?annaioii) e
niaea?aeeo i?eeac aeieaeieeo (o?annaoo) ia oieaoa iaicia/aiiie noiiu
i?aaeuyaeoaeth aaenaey (?aieoaioo).

20.Oiiaeiaua ae?aee e iaoaieci eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

OA – iniiaiie yeaiaio e eino?oiaio ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aaenoaaeaiiue
naiinoiyoaeueiuie /anoiuie aeoeeiia?iuie eee ainoaea?noaaiiuie
o/?aaeaeaieyie, ?aaoee?othueie e eiio?iee?othueie eo eoieth-i?iaeaaeo.
OA ooieoeeiie?otho ia aoeoeeiiiie iniiaa, /oi iicaieyao ei iia?aoeaii
?aaoee?iaaoue ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia oeaiiua aoiaae e oi?ie?iaaoue eo
?uii/iue eo?n. A ioee/ee io i?iaeaaee OeA eo yieoaioaie ia ia?ae/iii
?uiea, OA ia?acotho e ianeoaeeaatho aoi?e/iue ?uiie OeA, ia eioi?ii
ia?auathony ?aiaa auiouaiiua OeA. Oaeei ia?acii, OA caieiathony ii nooe
ia?ai?iaeaaeae OeA. OA i?ecaaiu auoue n?aaenoaii iiaeeecaoeee naiaiaeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa iin?aaenoaii i?iaeaaee aeaaeaeueoeai yoeo n?aaenoa
OeA, onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu e ae?aeaaiai eo?na OeA, niinianoaiaaiey
aeaeaeaieth, ia?aeeao aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii,
i?aaei?eyoeyie, aeiiaoieie oicyenoaaie.

Oiiaeiaay ae?aea – yoi i?aaeaea anaai ianoi, aaea iaoiaeyo ae?oa ae?oaa
i?iaeaaaoe e iieoiaoaeue oeaiiuo aoiaa, aaea oeaiu ia yoe aoiaae
ii?aaeaeythony ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai ia ieo, a nai i?ioeann
eoiee-i?iaeaaee ?aaeaiaioe?oaony i?aaeeaie e ii?iaie, o.a. yoi
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii i?aaieciaaiiue ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa.

A ea/anoaa oiaa?a ia yoii ?uiea aunooiatho oeaiiua aoiaae – aeoeee,
iaeeaaoeee e o.i., a a ea/anoaa oeai yoeo oiaa?ia – eo?nu yoeo aoiaa.

A ioaeaeueii acyoie oiiaeiaie naeaeea caaeaenoaiaaiu o?e noi?iiu –
i?iaeaaaoe, iieoiaoaeue, iin?aaeiee. Ia ia/aeueiuo yoaiao iiaeaeue
i?aaeaeueii i?inoa – iaeei iin?aaeiee naiaeeo i?iaeaaoea n iieoiaoaeai.
I?e ?inoa ianooaaia oiiaeiauo iia?aoeee iiyaeyaony aoi?ay iiaeaeue, e
iin?aaeieeia oaea aeaia: iieoiaoaeue ia?auaaony e iaeiiio, i?iaeaaaoe –
e ae?oaiio e aa?iyoiinoue niaiaaeaiey iaea. I?e aua aieueoae
eioaineaiinoe oiiaeiauo iia?aoeee neeaaeuaaaony o?aouey iiaeaeue:
oaia?ue oaea naie iin?aaeieee ioaeaeathony a iiiiue, e iaaeaeo ieie
iiyaeyaony aua iaeei. Iaciaai aai oeaio?iaui, a aai eiio?aaaioia
oeaiaiauie iin?aaeieeaie.

A ia?aie e aoi?ie iiaeaeyo naeaeee iin?aaeiee iiaeao aunooiaoue eeai a
iaeiii ea/anoaa, eeai a ae?oaii. A o?aoueae iiaeaee niaethaeaaony
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea: oeaio?iaie iin?aaeiee ?aaioaao ca naie n/ao, a
oeaiaiaua – ia eiienneiiiuo ia/aeao. O?aouey iiaeaeue aeieaia a?aiy,
aieioue aei na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia, nouanoaiaaea ia ae?aea a Eiiaeiia, ii
iae aei neo ii? ooieoeeiie?oao Iueth-Ei?eneay oiiaeiaay ae?aea.
Oeaio?iaie iin?aaeiee a Eiiaeiia eiaiiaaeny aeaeiaaa?ii, a Iueth-Ei?ea –
niaoeeaeenoii. Oeaiaiaua iin?aaeieee e oai e oai eiaiothony a?iea?aie.

Ia ?acaeoii oiiaeiaii ?uiea aaeeiiia?acey a iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeeyo
iao, – ana o?e iiaeaee ninouanoaotho, naiy “oiiaeiaay ieoa” iaoiaeeony
aeey eaaeaeie. Iieiaeei, a?iea? n iaoe?iie eeeaioo?ie iieo/aao, iiieii
i?i/eo, aeaa ii?o/aiey, i?e/ai eo?n e ?acia? i?aaeeiaeaiey i?iaeaoue
niaiaaeaao n ia?aiao?aie caeaca ia iieoieo. A?iea?o inoaaony oieueei
ioi?ieoue naeaeeo, n /ai ii aeaaiiieo/ii ni?aaeyaony a iaeeii/eo, ia
ioaeaeaynue a oneoaao ae?oaeo iin?aaeieeia.

Ia?u “naiiauiieiythueony” caeacia iiaoo ia?aciauaaoueny a ae?aeaaie
oieia, eiaaea iaeei a?iea? iauyaeyao ia eiathuainy o iaai i?aaeeiaeaiee,
a ae?oaie ooo aea ioeeeeaaony – o iaai ia?iue caeac (iin?aaeie/anoai ii
aoi?ie iiaeaee). Ii iiiaea ii?o/aiey oi?ioee?othony eae oneiaiua.
Iai?eia?, “i?iaeaoue, anee eo?n iiaeieiaaony aei…” Oaeea caeacu n?aco
auiieieoue iaeuecy. Ooo e i?eoiaeeo ia iiiiuue oeaio?iaie iin?aaeiee, a
oneiaiua ii?o/aiey ia?aaeathony aio oeaiaiauie iin?aaeieeaie. Ioiaoei,
/oi oeaio?iaiai iin?aaeieea iiaeao caiaieoue eiiiuethoa?, e /anoe/ii yoi
oaea aeaeaaony.

Iiiuoaainy ia?eniaaoue aeaaiua i?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo iino?iai
nouanoaothuee iuia iaoaieci ioi?ieaiey ae?aeaauo naeaeie. I?aaeaea anaai
iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue iaycaoaeueiinoue iaee/ey eee?eiaiaie iaeaou e
oeaio?aeueiiai aeaiiceoa?ey, a eioi?ii o?aiyony iiiaea ec na?oeoeeaoia
aeoeee, eioe?othueony ia Iueth-Ei?eneie oiiaeiaie ae?aea.

Eee?eiaiaay iaeaoa ?aoaao aeaa aeaaiua caaea/e: naa?ea eioi?iaoeee,
iiaeaaaaiie /eaiaie ae?aee i caeeth/aiiuo eie ca aeaiue naeaeeao;
niueaiea ia/aeueiiai e eiia/iiai caaiueaa a oeaiyo, ii eioi?ui iaeie e
oa aea aeoeee ia?aoiaeeee ec ?oe a ?oee a oa/aiea ae?aeaaiai aeiy.
Ii?yaeie naa?ee neaaeothuee: ii eoiaai aeiy eaaeaeue ec ae?aeaaeeia
iiaeaao a eee?eiaiaoth iaeaoo iieiue ia?a/aiue anao caeeth/aiiuo ei
naeaeie. Ai anao neo/ayo eiio?aaaioaie yaeythony ae?oaea /eaiu ae?aee,
iineieueeo eiaanoi?u ia eiatho aeinooia a oi?aiaue cae e iaycaiu
niaa?oaoue iia?aoeee oieueei /a?ac ae?aeaaeeia. Eee?eiaiaay iaeaoa ia
neaaeothuee aeaiue aica?auaao eaaeaeiio /eaio ae?aee aai aea nienie, ii
oaea ?acaeaeaiiue ia aeaa /anoe. A ia?aie – naeaeee, naaaeaiey i eioi?uo
a oi/iinoe niaiaaeatho n oaie, eioi?ua auee iiaeaiu oeacaiiuie a nienea
eiio?aaaioaie. Ai aoi?ie – naeaeee, eioi?ua eiio?aaaiou, oeacaiiua
ae?aeaaeeii, a naieo nieneao ia i?eaaee. E?iia oiai, aeiaaaeyaony
o?aouey /anoue, ninoaaeaiiay eee?eiaiaie iaeaoie: naeaeee, ii eioi?ui
ae?oaea /eaiu ae?aee /eneyo aeaiiiai ae?aeaaeea naiei eiio?aaaioii, a ii
yoe naeaeee a naiai nienea ia i?eaae.

Naa?ea caeai/eaaaony oai, /oi ae?aeaaeee iai?aaeytho a eee?eiaiaoth
iaeaoo ooi/iaiiua nienee naeaeie, a iaeaoa i?iaa?yao, ana ee i?iaeaiu
niyou. Caoai eaeao ionaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaiueaa: anee iaeei e oio aea
iaeao aeoeee ca aeaiue iiauaae a ?oeao aeanyoe ae?aeaaeeia, oi iieiue
?an/ao iaiaoiaeei oieueei iaaeaeo ia?aui e aeanyoui.

Eoiaiaua aeaiiua eee?eiaiaay iaeaoa niiauaao a aeaiiceoa?ee. Aeaeueoa
aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa. Ia?aue: eeeaio oi/ao, /oiau eoieaiiua ei aeoeee
auee ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu “ia oee/iia eiy”, oi anoue ca a?iea?neie oe?iie,
auiieieaoee aai caeac. Yoi naiue i?inoie aa?eaio – iao ioaeaeu
auienuaaoue na?oeoeeao, i?inoi a o/aoa, eioi?ue aaaeaony a aeaiiceoa?ee,
aeaeaaony niioaaonoaothuay caienue. Aoi?ie aa?eaio: eeeaio oi/ao
iieo/eoue na?oeoeeao aeoeee ia ?oee. I?e yoii ec aeaiiceoa?ey
iai?aaeyaony eioi?iaoeey aaaioo ii o?ainoa?oo i oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
auienaoue na?oeoeeao e aeinoaaeoue aai aeaaeaeueoeo. Iineieueeo aeoeee a
NOA eiaiiua, noa?ue na?oeoeeao iiaaoaaony a ethaii aa?eaioa – eeai
oie/oiaeaaony, anee ii aue ia ?oeao o i?aaeiaai aeaaeaeueoea, eeai
aiinyony eciaiaiey a o/aoiua caiene, anee aeoeee cia/eeenue a
aeaiiceoa?ee ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuie ia “oee/iia eiy” e eae oaeiaie
na?oeoeeao ia auienuaaeny. ssnii, /oi ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aoeee aoiaa “ia
oee/iia eiy” oi?iuaao ioi?ieaiea naeaeie e oiaiueoaao iauai ?aaiou eae
aeey aeaiiceoa?ey, oae e aeey aaaioia ii o?ainoa?oo, aaaeue ae?aeaaeee
ia?aa?anuaathony aieueoei /eneii aeoeee. E oiio aea /anoue naeaeie
niaa?oaaony iaaeaeo eiaanoi?aie, iieuecothueieny oneoaaie iaeiie e oie
aea iin?aaeie/aneie oe?iu.

I?e ianeoaeeaaiee oiiaeiauo iia?aoeee iiiaea oneoae aniiiiaaoaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a, iaoeaeaiiua ia iaania/aiea aania?aaieiiai ioi?ieaiey naeaeie
n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, /aoeinoe a aeiaaaeaiee aeeaeaeaiaeiuo e i?ioeaioiuo
ieaoaaeae aei aae?anaoia e o.ae., auiieiytho eiiia?/aneea aaiee

21. ?uiie ?aai/ae neeu

?uiie ?aai/ae neeu aaaeiay noa?a yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/.
aeecie iauanoaa. Ia ?uiea o?oaea iieo/aao ioeaieo noieiinoue ?aa.neeu,
ii?aaeaeythony oneiaey aa iaeia, a o./. aaee/eia ca?.ieaou, oneiaey
o?oaea, aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey ia?aciaaiey, i?io.?inoa, aa?aioee
caiyoinoe.

?uiie o?oaea io?aaeaao iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee a aeeiaieea caiyoinoe, aa
iniiaiuo no?oeoo?ao (io?aneaaie, i?io.-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie, aeaiia?aoe/.),
o.a. a iauanoaaiiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, iiaeeueiinoue ?aa. neeu,
ianooaau e aeeiaieeo aac?aaioeoeu.

?uiie ?aai/ae neeu, iiae/eiyynue a oeaeii caeiiai ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eiaao ?yae ioee/ee io ae?. oiaa?i. ?uieia. ?aaoeyoi?aie
caeanue yae. oaeoi?u ia oieueei iae?i- e iee?iyeiiiieee, ii e
nioeeaeueiua e nioe.-ineoieiae/aneea.

Ia aeeiaieeo ?uiea o?oaea aeaenoaoao ?yae oaeoi?ia:

1. Aeaiia?aoe/aneee (o?iaaiue ?iaeaeaai-oe, oaiiu ?inoa /eneai-oe
o?oaeiniiniai. ianaeaiey);

2. Noaiaiue yeiiii.aeoeaiinoe ?ace. aeaiia?aoe/. e yoie/. a?oii
o?oaeiniiniai.ianaeaiey (iai?., auno?ia aiaea/aiea aeaiuei a ninoaa
?aa.neeu);

3. I?ioeannu eiea?aoeee;

4. Ninoiyiea yeiiii.eiiutheoo?u, oaca yeiiii.oeeeea;

5. Iao/ii-oaoie/. i?ia?ann.

Iniaaiiinoe ?inneeneiai ?uiea o?oaea: yoi iaee/ea aaeieieno?., i?aaiauo
e yeiiiie/. ia?aie/aiee, ana aua i?aiyonoa.naiaiaei.i?iaeaaea ?aa.neeu,
ia auaiaeiuo oneiaeyo aeey ?aaioieeia. Yoi e iaee/ea i?iienee. ?uiie
ianaaeaine?iaai, nouanoaotho o?oaeiecauoi/i. ?aaeiiu (tha ?O,
Naa.Eaaeac), e ?-iu eniuoua. iaoaaoeo ?aa.neeu (oeaio e naaa? ?O,
Aeaeuei.Ainoie).

?inn.?uiie o?oaea ioaeaeaaony a aeaenoaaiiie nenoaia ?aaoee?-iey, e
eia-/oi a yoie iae. oaea naeaeaii: i?eiyo Caeii i caiyoinoe, nicaeathony
ae?aee o?oaea, ia/aeanue ?aaenoaoe. aac?aa-iuo, i?ia?aiiu, iai?aaeai. ia
iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaio. eaae?ia.

22. Ae?aea o?oaea (AO) e aa ooieoeee.

Iniaia ianoi a nen-ia ?aaoee?-iey ?uiea o?oaea caieiaao AO. Iia
i?aaeno.niaie niaoe.o/?-iea, inouanoa-uaa iin?aaeie/. o-oeee ia ?uiea
?aa.neeu. Nouanoaoao, ia?yaeo n ain.neoaeaaie caiyo-oe, aieueoia /enei
/anoiuo iin?aaeie/.oe?i, yooaeoea-noue e-?uo i/aiue auniea.

Ini. o-oeeyie aeayoaeueiinoe AO yae.:

1. ?aaeno?aoeey aac?aaioiuo;

2. ?aaeno?aoeey aaeaioiuo iano;

3. O?oaeiono?ienoai aac?aaioiuo;

4. Eco/aiea eiiutheoo?u ?uiea o?oaea e i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?i. i iae;

5. Oanoe?iaaiea eeoe, aeaeathueo iieo/eoue ?aaioo;

6. I?io.i?eaioaoeey e i?io.ia?aiiaeaioiaea aac?aa-o;

7. Auieaoa iiniaee.

A iuiaoiae neooaoeee iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao ca?oaaaei.iiuo ii
nicaeaieth o.iac. aaieia ?aa.iano, iniauaiiuo YAI, aaea niae?aaony
eioi?i. i aaeaineyo ia ?aa. ianoa e i i?aaeeiae. ?aa.neeu. Nia?aiiua
naaaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeythony eae i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, oae e aac?aaioiui.

23. Acaeiiaeaenoaea ain. e ?uii/iiai ?aaoee?-y yeiiiieee.

A.?.Y. a oneiaeyo ?ui.oic-aa, i?aaenoaae. n?aie nenoaio oeiiauo ia?
caeiiiaeao., eniieieo. e eiio?ie.oa?-?a, inouanoaeyaiuo i?aaiauie
ain.o/?aaeaeaieyie.

A nia?.one. A?Y yae. ninoaaiie /anoueth i?ioeanna aini?iec-aa. Iii
?aoaao ?ace.caaea/e:

noeioee?.yeiiii. ?inoa;

?aaoee?.caiyoinoe;

iiiu?aiea i?ia?an.naeaeaia a io?ane.e ?aaeii.no?-?a;

iiaeaea?aeea yenii?oa.

Noauaeoaie yeiiii.iieeoeee yae.iineoaee, au?aceoaee e eniieieoaee
oic.eioa?ania. Iineoaee oic.eioa?ania yoi nioe.a?., ioee/athueany ae?oa
io ae?. ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia; eiouanoaiiiio, ii aeioiaeai, ii aeaeai
aeayo-oe, i?e aiaeia. aeioiaeao, ii i?ioanneyi, io?ane.e
?aaeii.eioa?anai. Iineoaee yeiiii. eioa?ania iauaaeeiaiu a ?acaeouo
no?aiao ?uii/i.oic-aa a iiiai/ene. nithcu, annioeeaoeee: yoi i?ionithcu,
nithcu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, oa?ia?ia oi?aiaoeaa nooaeaioia e o.ae. Anoue e
nianai iaeicia/auea iauaaeeiaiey, iai?., annioeeaoeey th?. e oece/.eeoe,
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a i?eaaoecaoeee eiie?aoi. caiaeuei.o/anoea, i?e-iaaee.
ioieoeeiaeeoaoo. Oaeea iauaae-iey yae. au?aceoaeyie oic.eioa?ania. Naiua
iiaouanoaaiiua au?aceoaee oic.eioa?ania – nithcu i?aaei?eieiao. e i?io
nithcu. O ieo anoue ia/aoi.ecae-iey, oei.?anoinu. Iie inouanoae. nianoa.
eiioeaioeee nioe.-yeiiii. iieeoeee, no?aiynue ieacaoue iaen.aicaeaenoaea
ia AYI. I?i-aiaeeoue a aeeciue i?ia?aiio A?Y eniieieoaee oic.eioa?ania.
Eie yae. i?aaiu o?ao aaoaae aeanoe, iino?iaiiua ii ea?a?oe/. i?eioeeio,
a oaeaea oeaio?. iaoe. aaie.

24. I?aaei?eyoea (oe?ia) e aai o-oeee.

Naiinoiyoaeueii oicyenoaothuee noauaeo iac.i?aaei?eyoeai, anee ii
nicaeai a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiui aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeao-aii e
inouanoaeyao i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiea ?aaio, ieacaiea oneoa
a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae e iieo/aiey i?eauee.

I?aaei?eyoea ia?acoao th?.eeoei, eiaao iac-iea e ia/aoue, ?/n/ao a
aaiea. TH?.eeoeii i?eiyoi n/eoaoue i?a-oeeth, i?aaenoaaeythuoth a
aaeeiii eeoea aoiaeyueo a iaa ioaeaeueiuo noauaeoia, eiathuoth a
?anii?yaeaiee iainiaeai.eiouanoai, ianouoth naiinoiyoaeueioth eiouanoa.
ioaaonoaaiiinoue, aunooi-th a ea/-aa naiinoiyo-ai noauaeoa i?aaa a ?iee
enooea, oae e ioaao/eea.

I?aaei?eyoea i.inouanoaeyoue i?iecaiaenoa., eiiia?/., iao/ii-enneaae.,
eiaanoeoeeiiioth e ae?. aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe a niioaao-aee n onoaaii
i?aaei?eyoey, a oaeaea ?aoaoue aii?inu,naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai
nioeeae.noa?u (no?-ai aeeeuey aeey ?aa., niaea?aeaiea ae/ioaeuoa,
ae/eaaa?ae, iaae.o/?-iee e o.ae.), i?iaiaeeoue i?e?iaeiio?aiiua
ia?ii?eyoey, iiaea?iecaoeeth i?iec-aa…

O-oeee i?aaei?eyoey: i?aaiecoao i?iecaiaenoa.i?ioeann, aaaeao aoo.o/ao,
i?iaiaeeo iieneiaua iao/ii-enneaae.e ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey, ieaoeo
iaeiae, caeeth/aao aeiaiai?a n ae?.i?aaei?eyoeyie e ae?.

25. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu i?aaei?eyoee (IIOI).

IIOI – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiua, onoaiiaeaiiua c-iii e ii?iaie oic-ai i?aaa
oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee e no?-?u oi?-iey. Iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue /ae-eo,
a?aaeaeaieio, eieeaeoeao, ia?anoe ioeoeeaeueiue, i?aaiaie noaoon
oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa.

Naiinoiyoaeueii oicyenoaothuee noauaeo iac.i?aaei?eyoeai, anee ii
nicaeai a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiui aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeao-aii e
inouanoaeyao i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiea ?aaio, ieacaiea oneoa
a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae e iieo/aiey i?eauee.

IIOI a oeaeii caaenyo io oi?i nianoa-noe ia eiouanoaaiiuo eiiieaen
i?aaei?eyoey. O.ia?., i?aaei?eyoey aeaeyony ia ain. (ioieoeeiaeueiua) e
/anoiua (aeoeeiia?iua, eiiia?aoeaiua). Iineaaeiea ?acee/athony a caaen.
io /enea aeaaeaeueoeaa i?aaei?-y, io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aeayo-oueth
i?aaei?-y, io niiniaia aee. eaieoaea a iauee eaieoae.

E*I iniiaaii ia ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeai (iaeii eeoei aeaaeaao e
iieo/aao aanue aeioiae e ianao anth ioaaonoaaiiinoue).

Iieiia oia-uanoai iniiaaii ia aeieaaie nianoa-noe /eaiia, e ia yaeyaony
th?. eeoeii. Ana /eaiu ianoo iieioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. I?eaueue aeaeaony
i?iii?oe-ii aeeaaeai.

Niaoai. oia-uanoai (eiiiaiaeeoiia) iniiaaii ia aeieaaie niano-noe. Iii
aee.aeaenoaeo. /eaiia (eiiieaiaioa?eaa), e-?ua ianoo iieioth
ioaaonoa-noue, e /eaiia-aeeaae/eeia (eiiiaiaeenoia), ianoueo
ioaaonoa-noue a i?aaeaeao naiaai aeeaaea. Niao oia-ai – th?. eeoei.

Oia-ai n ia?. ioaao-noueth (OII, aeoeeiia?iia iau-ai cae?.oeia) – aai
onaaiie eaieoae ia?ac. oieueei ca n/ao aeeaaeia o/?aaeeoaeae. Eaaeaeue
ioaa/aao a i?aaeaeao naiaai aeeaaea. I?eaueue ?ani?aae. i?iii?oe.
aeeaaeo. Ae. iniaaiiinoue – cai?ao ia i?iaeaaeo naieo iaaa ia ioe?uoii
?uiea.

Aeoeeiia?i. iau-ai ioe?uo. oeia – aeaiaaei. n?aaenoa ia?acoaony iooai
auionea e i?iaeaaee aeoeee. Aeaaeaeueoeaie aeoeee iiaoo auoue th?. e
oec. eeoea. Aeoeeiia?u ianoo ioaaonoa-noue a i?aaeaeao noiiu naieo
aeoeee. Iai?aaeaiey e oa?-? aeayo-oe AI i.a.?acee/iuie, iauae yae.
oeaeue – iieo/.i?eauee.

Iauaaeeiaiea i?aaei?-oee nicaeaaony ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a (iaaeoe?i-ai
niaeaoaiey) a oi?iao nithca, annioeeaoeee, eiioea?ia, iaaeio?ane. eee
oa??eoi?. iauaaeeiaiee.Oeaeue – a inouanoaeaiee aei?iainoiyueo
eiaanoeoe. i?iaeoao, acaeiiii ianeoaeeaaiee o/anoieeia annioeeaoeee.
Eiuanoai yae. niaianoi. aeey aa /eaiia.

Eiioea?iu – yoi oi?ia aeiaiai?iuo e?oiiuo naa?oiauaaeeiaiee iau/ii
iiiiiieueiiai oeia. Aaaeiaeoee i?eciae – aaeeinoai nianoa-noe aoiaeyueo
a ieo oe?i, i?aaei?-oey, aaieia. Aea?aeaoaeai eiio?.iaeaoia aeoeee anao
i?aaei?-oee eiioea?ia yae. oieaeeiaiaay eiiiaiey. Iao-ci i?eiyoey
?aoaiee a AI iicaieyao oieaeeiao aeeyoue ia oic., eiiia?/ ?aoaiey
i?aaei?-oee-/eaiia eiioea?ia. oieaeeia iai?aaeyao eo aeayoaeueiinoue a
eioa?anao eiioea?ia. Oieaeeia inouanoaeyao oeaio?aeecaoeeth e
iaa?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oei n?aaeno o/anoieeia eiioea?ia.

Eiini?oeeoiu – a?aiaiiia iauaeeiaiea i?aaei?eyoee ia?acoaiua aeey
?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo caaea/, inouanoaeaiea e?oiiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo,
iao/ii-oaoie/., nioeeae-o, yeieiae/. i?iaeoia. I?aaei?-oea i.a. /eaiii
iane. eiini?oeeoiia iaeiia?aiaiii.

Oicyenoa. annioeeaoeey – iauaaeeiaiea i?aaei?-oey a oeaeyo oaeoaeaiey
niaoeeaeecaoeee e ?acaeoey eiiia?aoe-o naycae, i?aaiecaoeey niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?iu iaiaa oaniua nayce iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie, aiciiaeiinoue iaeiia?aiaiii auoue /eaiii n?aco iane.
annioeeaoeee, oeaio?aeecaoeey iaiueoaai /enea oi?aaeai/aneeo o-oeee,
iinyueo na?aeniue oa?-?.

Annioeeaoeaiua i?aaiecaoe.no?-?u oa?aeoa?iuo aeey i?aaei?-oee eai.no?ai:

ea?oaeue – aeiaiai?iia iauaaeeiaiea i?aaei?eyoee, a iniiaa eaaeeo
niaeaoaiea i eaioe?iaaiee iauaiia i?iec-aa, oeaiao ?aaeecaoeee, oneiaeyo
i?iaeaaee, ?aca?aie/aiee ?uieia nauoa. Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea th?eaee/.
naiinoiyoaeueii;

neiaeeeao – oi?ia aeiaiai?iiai iauaaeeiaiey i?aaei?eyoee,
i?aaeiieaaathuay oeaio?aeecaoeeth niaaaeaiey /eaiia neiaeeeaoa e nauoa
i?iecaiaeeiiai eie i?iaeoeoa. O.ia?., ono?aiyaony eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo
aai o/anoieeaie a iae. nauoa e caeoiie nu?uey. Eiiia?/aneay
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue /eaiia neioeeaoa oo?a/eaaaony iieiinoueth,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay – /anoe/ii. I?aaei?eyoea th?eaee/. naiinoiyoaeueii.
O/anoieeaie neiaeeeaoa i.a. ia oieueei i?aaei?eyoey, ii e iauaaeeiaiey,
eiioea?iu, o?anou;

o?anou – oi?ia iauaaeeiaiey i?aaei?eyoee, i?e e-?ie iie iieiinoueth
oo?a/eaatho naith th?., eiiia?/ e i?ieca. naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e
iiae/eiythony aaeeiiio oi?aaeaieth.

I?aaei?eyoea, nicaeaiiia ia iniiaa a?aiaeu e aueoia eiouanoaa
o?oae.eieeaeoeaia. A ?ac-oa oi?ie?oaony niaoaiiay
ainoaea?noaaiii-eieeaeoeaiay nianoaaiiinoue.

26 A?aiaea e a?aiaeiua ioiioaiey

A?aiaea -aeiaiai? i i?aaeinoaaeaiee eiouanoaa ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea
ca ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo. A niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii a?aiaeaoi? iieo/aao
i?aaa aeaaeaiey, iieueciaaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey iaiyoui eiouanoaii. I?aai
aeaaeaiey e iieueciaaiey eiouanoaii o a?aiaeaoi?a onoaiaaeeaathony eae
iaiouaieaiay /anoue i?aaiii/ee a?aiaeaoi?a: i?iaeoeoeey, ieiaeu e eiua
aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua a?aiaeaoi?ii a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey
a?aiaeiaaiiiai eiouanoaa a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii, yaeythony aai
nianoaaiiinoueth. ?anii?yaeeoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeythony ia
iniiaa aeiaiai?a n a?aiaeiaeaoaeai. A?aiaeaoi? ai?aaa n niaeaney
a?aiaeiaeaoaey naeaaaoue eiouanoai a noaa?aiaeo.

Nae/an a?aiaeotho iaei, a iniiaiii einoeooou. Eeeeia.

A?aiaea e a?aiaeiua ioiioaiey au?aaeatho ioiioaiy nianoaaiiinoe.

A?aiaeiue iiae?yae – oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee e iieaou o?oaea ia
i?aaei?eyoee(oe?ia).

27. Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa e eo ?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

AI-iauanoai, onoaaiie eaieoae eioi?iai ?acaeaeai ia ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei
aeoeee. O/anoieee AI ia ioaa/atho ii aai iaycaoaeuenoaai e ia ianoo ?ene
oauoeia a i?aaeaeao noieiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei aeoeee.

A)AI ioe?uoiai oeia

O/anoieee iiaoo i?iaeaaaoue aeoeee aac niaeaney inoaeueiuo /eaiia
iauanoaa. AI ai?aaa i?iaiaeeoue ioe?uooth iiaeieneo ia auioneaaiua ei
aeoeee e eo naiaiaeioth i?iaeaaeo. AI iaycaii aaeaaiaeii ioaeeeiaaoue
aiaeiaie io/ao, aoo. Aaeain, n/ao i?eaueae e oauoeia.

A)IA cae?uoiai oeia

Aeoeee ?ani?aaeaeythony oieueei n?aaee o/anoieeia AI. AI ia ai?aaa
i?iaiaeeoue naiaiaeioth iiaeieneo

Aeoeeiia?u eiatho i?aeiouanoai i?e iieoiea aeoeee, i?iaeaaaaiuo ae?.

*eaiaie AI. *enei o/anoieeia ia?aie/aii, eia/a i?aia?aciaaiea a AI
ioe?uoiai oeia a oa/aiea aiaea eee eeeaeaeaoeey a noaeaaiii
ii?yaeea.AICO iiaeao auoue iaycaii ioaeeeiaaoue aeieoiaiou eae AIIO.

Ia?aciaaiea AI.

O/?aaeeoaee caeeth/atho aeiaiai?, ii?aaeaeythuee niaianoioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ii nicaeaieth. ?acia? eaieoaea, eaoaai?ee auioneaaiuo
aeoeee, iii. Noieiinoue ,?acia?u onoaaiiai eaieoaea, i?aaa aeoeeiia?ia,
ninoaa e eiiiaoaioeey i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey. AI iiaeao auoue nicaeaii
iaeiei eeoeii eee ninoiyoue ec iaeiiai eeoea a neo/aa i?eia?aoaiey ei
anao aeoeee.

Onoaaiie eaieoae AI

ninoaaeyaony ec iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe i?eia?aoaiiuo aeoeee e
i?aaenoaaeyao ieieiaeueiue ?acia? eiouanoaa AI.

Auione aeoeee.

Aeiey i?eaaeeae?iaaiiuo aeoeee 25%

AI ai?aaa auioneaoue aaeeaaoeee ia noiio = onoaaiiio eaieoaeo.

Oi?aaeaiea AI.

Aunoee i?aai- iauaa nia?aiea. Ii?aaeaeyao eciaiaiea onoaaa, eca?aiea
niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia, ?aaeceiiiie eiiennee, ooaa?aeaeaiea aiaeiauo
io/aoia, ?aoaiea i ?ai?aaiecaoeee eee eeeaeaeaoeee AI.

?ai?aaiecaoeey eee eeeaeaeaoeey AI.

Aeia?iaieueii ii ?aoaieth iauaai nia?aiey AI iiaeao eeeaeaee?iaaoueny
eee i?aia?aciaaoueny a IIIoa.eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eieeaeoea.

I?eioaeeoaeueii-niaeinii Eiaeaena.

28. Aeoeee e eo aeaeu.

Aeoeeae i?eciaaony oeaiiay aoiaaa, oaeinoiaa?ythuay i?aai aa aea?aeaoaey
ia iieo/aiea /anoe i?eauee AI a aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, ia o/anoea a
oi?aaeaiee aeaeaie AI e ia /anoue eiouanoaa , inoaaoaainy iinea aai
eeeaeaeaoeee. Aeoeee iiaoo auoue i?eaaeaae?iaaiiuie, aa?aioe?othueie
iieo/aiea aeeaeaeaiaeia ia ieaea, /ai oeene?iaaiiue i?ioeaio io
iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe, aia caaeneiinoe io ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe
AI, a oaeaea – aeathuea i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?aai o/anoey a ?ani?aaeaeaiee
eiouanoaa, inoaaoaainy iinea eeeaeaeaoeee iauanoaa (ia aeatho i?aaa
aieina).

Aeoeee iiaoo auoue eiaiiuie e i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeie. Auione e ia?auaiea
aeoeee ?aaoee?oaony “Iieiaeaieai i auionea e ia?auaiee oeaiiuo aoiaa e
oiiaeiauo ae?aeao, Iieiaeaieai ia AI, ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai
Niaaoa ieieno?ia ?NON? io 25.12.1990. ?601 e Iieiaeaieai i auieaoa
aeeaeaeaiaeia io 10.01.1992 aiaea. ?aeaeceou aeoeee onoaiiaeaiu
I?eeiaeaieai 5 e iieiaeaieth Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia ?O io 17 naioya?y
1992 aiaea. Aeoeey aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea AI, aai
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea , iaeiaiiaaiea “aeoeey”.ii?yaeeiaue iiia? , aeaoo
auionea, aeae aeoeee, iiieiaeueioth noieiinoue, ?acia? onoaaiiai
eaieoaea yieoaioa ia iiiaio yiennee, eiee/anoai auioneaaiuo aeoeee, n?ie
auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia, iiaeienue i?aaenaaeaoaey i?aaeaiey. Aeey
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee aeieaeai auoue i?aaeoniio?ai aeiiieieoaeueiue
?aeaeceo – ieieiaeueiay i?ioeaioiay noaaea aeey ia/eneaiey
aeeaeaeaiaeia. Aeey eiaiiuo aeoeee- iaeiaiiaaiea K e aiciiaeiinoue
ioi?ieaiey naeaeie ii ia?aoiaeo i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia oaeea aeoeee.

Eo?n aeoeee- aa i?iaeaaeiay oeaia , eioi?ay a oneiaeyo naiaiaeiiai ?uiea
ia yaeyaony aaee/eiie iinoiyiiie. A ia?eiae e?ecena eo?n iaaeaao, a
ia?eiae i?iiuoeaiiuo iiaeuaiia iiauoaaony. Eo?n aeoeee onoaiaaeeaaaony
ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea. Aeoeey i?iaeaaony ca oaeoth noiio, eioi?ay i?e
iiiauaiee a aaie aeano aeioiae ia ieaea aeeaeaeaiaea. Eo?n aeoeee ?aaai
noiia aiaeiaiai aeioiaea ?acaeaeaiiie ia o?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa a
no?aia e oiiiaeaiiia ia 100%.

Iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue- aaee/eia oeacaiiay a aeoeee.

29.Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea

?uii/iue iaoaieci-iaoaieci iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
?ano?nia, iaoaieci acaeiiaeaenoaey i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae oiaa?ia ii
iiaiaeo onoaiiaeaiey oeai e ea/anoaa, iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, JJ

J no?oeoo?u .?uii/iia ?aaiiaanea – yoi eiaaea ieaiu iieoiaoaeae (ni?in)
e i?iaeaaoeia (i?aaeeiaeaiea) niaiaaeatho oae , /oi i?e aeaiiie oeaia
aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aaia aaee/eia ni?ina.

I?aaeeiaeaiea – yoi ianna oiaa?ia e oneoa , eioi?ua i?aaeeaaathony aeey
?aaeecaoeee.

Naienoaa : niiniaiinoue e iaiaio , niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?eoue oa eee
eiua eiieo?aioiua iio?aaiinoe

Caeii i?aaeeiaeaiey : n iiauoaieai oeai niioaaonoaaiii au?anoaao e
aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey n iiieaeaieai oeai nie?auaaony oae – aea e
i?aaeeiaeaiea.

Ni?in – eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoa , eioi?ia iio?aaeoaee aioiau e a ninoiyiee
eoieoue ii iaeioi?ie oeaia ec aiciiaeiuo a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ia?eiaea oeai

Io /aai eciaiyaony ni?in ?

.eciaiaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai aeona

.eciaiaiea /enea iieoiaoaeae

.eciaiaiea aeioiaea iieoiaoaeae

.eciaiaiea oeaiu ia nii?yaeaiiua oiaa?u

Caeiiu iaaeathuaai ni?ina: anee oeaiu ia oiaa?u ?anooo, oi ni?in iaaeaao

30. yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey

Yeanoe/iinoue -aaaeiaeoay oa?aeoa?enoeea ni?ina, iieacuaathuay
caaeneiinoue eciaiaiey aaee/eiu ni?ina io eciaiaiey ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia (
oeaiu, aeioiaea e ae?.). Yoi iieacaoaeue noaiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe
(?aaeoeee) iio?aaeoaeae e eciaiaieyi oeaiu oiaa?a. Ni?in yeanoe/ai, anee
ii noi?ie?iaaeny i?e oneiaee, /oi eciaiaiea aai iauaia (a %) i?aauoaao
i?ioeaioiia ioiioaiea nieaeaiey oeai. E ye. Aieueoa 1. A neo/aa, eiaaea
noaiaiue nieaeaiey oeai i?aauoaao iieacaoaeue ni?ina ia oiaa?u e oneoae,
ni?in iayeanoe/ai. Eiyo-o yeanoe/iinoe iaiueoa 1. Anee iieacaoaee
iaaeaiey oeai e oaaee/aiey ni?ina, au?aaeaiiua a i?ioeaioao, ?aaiu,
oi-anoue ?ino iauaia ni?ina eeoue eiiiaine?oao nieaeaiea o?iaiy oeai,
yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina

?aaia 1.

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia yeanoe/iinoue:

· iaee/ea oi?ioeo caiaieoaeae oiaa?ia

· oaeaeueiue aan a athaeaeaoa iio?aaeoaey

· ?acia? aeioiaea

· ea/anoai oiaa?ia

· ?acia?u caiana

31. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iuo oeai ?aaiiaaney. Eiieo?aioiay ?uii/iay oeaia

?aaiiaanea ?uii/iuo oeai onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e oaeeo oeaiao e eiee/anoaao
oiaa?ia, i?e eioi?uo iieoiaoaee oioyo eoieoue, niioaaonoaoao eiee/anoao,
eioi?ia i?iaeaaoeu oioyo i?iaeaoue. Oeaia ?aaiiaaney -oeaia oaeiai
o?iaiy, i?e eioi?ii i?aaeeiaeaiea niioaaonoaoao ni?ino. ?anniio?ei
oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea, aaea aeaenoaoao caeii ni?ina e
caeii i?aaeeiaeaiey.

N (ni?in) I (i?aaeeiaeaiea)

ecauoie oiaa?a

aeaoeoeeo oiaa?a

ia a?aoeea ecia?aaeaiu e?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
oiaa?. Ia ?uiea aaoiiaoe/anee onoaiiaeony oeaia Oe?ui, i?e eioi?ie
aaee/eia ni?ina N? ?aaia aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey I?. Anee iieoiaoaee
caoioyo eoieoue oiaa? ii oeaia Oe 1, eioi?ay ieaea Oe?ui, oi ni?in N 1
ieaaeaony aieueoei, /ai i?aaeeiaeaiea I 1, aicieeiao aeaoeoeeo oiaa?a,
eciaiyaiue ?aciinoueth Oe1-I1, e oeaia aneaaenoaea yoiai aoaeao
aic?anoaoue, iiea i?aaeeiaeaiea ia o?aaiyaony ni ni?inii. Anee aea
i?iaeaaoeu iiaeaeatho i?iaeaaaoue oiaa? ii oeaia Oe2, eioi?ay auoa
?aaiiaaniie Oe?ui, oi i?aaeeiaeaiea I2 ieaaeaony auoa ni?ina N2,
ia?acoaony ecauoie oiaa?a, ?aaiue 1I-N2, e aneaaenoaea yoiai oeaia
noaiao oiaiueoaoueny aei oao ii?, iiea ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia
o?aaiiaanyony.

Niune ?aaiiaaney: a oi/ea ia?ana/aiey (a oi/ea ?aaiiaaney) niaiaaeaao
eiee/anoai, eioi?ia iio?aaeoaeue aeaeaao eoieoue, a i?iecaiaeeoaeue
i?iaeaoue. E oieueei i?e oaeie oeaia, eiaaea yoe ieaiu i?iaeaaee e
iieoiie niaiaaeatho, oeaia ia eiaao oaiaeaioeee e eciaiaieth.

Caeii ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney: oaeoi? oeaiu ia aeaiiue oiaa? a neooaoeee
?ui.?aaiiaaney ia aaaeao e aai ia?ooaieth, o.e. ecauoie i?aaeeiaeaiey e
aeaoeoeeo ?aaiu ioeth. Noaaeeueiia ?aaiiaanea – ninoiyiea, ioeeiiaiea io
eioi?iai i?eaiaeeo e aica?auaieth a yoi aea ninoiyiea. Eiieo?aioiay
oeaia – oeaia ?aaiiaaney, ia?aciaaiiay ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea.

Oaeei ia?acii ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea, i?e oneiaee caaeneiinoe ni?ina ia
oiaa? oieueei io aai oeaiu, onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaaniay ?uii/iay oeaia,
niioaaonoathuay au?aaieaaieth ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. ?uii/iay oeaia
iacuaaaony naiaiaeiie, oi anoue iia naiaiaeia io aiaoiaai aeeeoaoa, ii
ia naiaiaeia io caeiiia ?uiea.

32. EIIEO?AIOeEss, AA AEAeU E OOIEOeEE.

Neiai eiieo?aioeey a ia?aaiaea n eaoeineiai icia/aao noieeiiaaiea,
ninoycaiea. A ia?aaiaea ia yeiiiie/aneee ycue eiieo?aioeey-yoi ai?ueaa
iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee ca iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiiai
yooaeoa, ca auaiaeioth naeaeeo, o.a. yoi niia?ie/anoai iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, oe?iaie, i?aaiecaoeeyie oa??eoi?eyie, caeioa?aniaaiiuie a
aeinoeaeaiee iaeiie e oie aea oeaee.

I?aaeiao eiieo?aioeee- oiaa?, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai niia?ieee no?aiyony
caaiaaaoue iio?aaeoaey e aai aeaiueae.

Iauaeo eiieo?aioeee – yoi iio?aaeoaeue e iieoiaoaeue, ca ?aniieiaeaiea
eioi?iai ai?thony ia ?uiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noi?iiu.

A caaeneiinoe io nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, neiaeeaoaeny a oie
eee eiie no?aia, iiaeii auaeaeeoue iaiaeeiaeiaua oeiu e aeaeu
eiieo?aioeee. A oicyenoaao, iniiaaiiuo ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
?acaeaathony ianeieueei iniiaiuo aeaeia eiieo?aioeee:

· i?inouo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae;

· aaeeiiee/iuo eaieoaeia:

· iiiiiieee:

· iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaieoaeia;

· eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaieoaeia.

Aeey auaoeo nioe. no?ai n ?acaeouie ?uii/iuie ioiioaieyie oa?aeoa?iu
oaeea aeaeu:

iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie ecaioiaeoaeyie oiaa?ia:

iaaeaeo e?oiiuie oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie (ainoaea?noaaiiuie e
eieeaeoeaiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, aeoeeiia?iuie iauanoaaie, no?aiyueieny
iieo/eoue iiaieueoa i?eauee;

iaaeaeo ?aaeiiaeueiuie yeiiiie/aneeie ia?aciaaieyie;

iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie NIA;

n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii. Eiieo?aioeey a noa?a ia?eaoeiaa auaaao
-ianeieueeeo aeaeia:

ooieoeeiiaeueiay eiieo?aioeey (oiaa?u, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaeii
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoue, aunooiatho eiieo?aioiuie ae?oa ae?oao;

aeaeiaay eiieo?aioeey(?acoeueoao oiai ./oi eiathony oiaa?u
ianeoaeeaathuea iaeio e oo aea iio?aaiinoue, ii ?acee/athueany iaaeaeo
niaie ii eaeei oi nouanoaaiiui oa?aeoa?enoeeai:

i?aaeiaoiay eiieo?aioeey (aicieeaao ii oiio. /oi i?iecaiaeeoaee
nicaeatho iaeeiaeiaua oiaa?u, ?acee/athueany oieueei ea/anoaii, a
ia?aaeei iaeeiaeiaua ii ea/anoao). Ooieoeee:

auyaeaiea e onoaiiaeaiea ?uii/iie noieiinoe oiaa?a:

au?aaieaaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae e ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee a
caaeneiinoe io ?acee/iuo cao?ao o?oaea:

?aaoee?iaaiea ia?aeeaa n?aaenoa iaaeaeo io?aneyie e i?iecaiaenoaaie.

33. AICIEEIIAAIEA E NOUIINOUe IIIIIIEEE. ?ACIIAEAeIINOE IIIIIIEEE

1. Iiiiiieeci iaoae yeiiiieee eiaao enoi?e/aneea ei?ie. 0niiau
iiiiiieueiie no?oeoo?u a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey auee
noi?ioee?iaaiu aei 1917 aiaea. Iiiiiieecaoeey ?uiea inouanoaeyaony
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeie iiiiiieeyie. Iiae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
iiiiiieeae iiieiaaony i?aaei?eyoea, eiioeaio?e?othuaa oaeoth aeieth
niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ia niioaaonoaothuai ?uiea, eioi?ay iicaieyao
aio, iaieioee?oy iauaiii i?iaeaae, aeeyoue ia Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iuo
oeai. *ai auoa aeiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iiiiiieee ia oii eee eiii
?uiea e /ai auoa aeiey ia yoii ?uiea eaaeaeie ec ieo, oai niioaaonoaaiii
auoa noaiaiue aai iiiiiieecaoeee, oai iaiaa eiieo?aioiui yaeyaony
aeaiiue ?uiie. Eae i?aaeei, a no?aiao, yeiiiieea eioi?uo aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy ?acaeaaeanue a ?aieao ieaiiaie nenoaiu, noaiaiue iiiiiieecaoeee
?uiea auoa, /ai a ainoaea?noaao n enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeiny ?uii/iui
oicyenoaii. Yoi naycaii i?aaeaea anaai n ?acee/eyie iooae oi?ie?iaaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iiiiiieee. A ?uii/iii oicyenoaa iiiiiieenoe/aneea
iauaaeeiaiey oi?ie?iaaeenue “nieco”; iie yaeythony neaaenoaeai ?acaeoey
eiieo?aioeee, i?eaiaeyuae e ?inoo eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e eaieoaea. Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu iie?aynue ia
aioeiiiiiieueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, iuoaeenue i?aiyonoaiaaoue
cia/eoaeueiiio iiauoaieth noaiaie iiiiiieecaoeee. A ieaiiaie yeiiiieea
iiiiiie.-ea no?oeoo?u oi?ie?iaaeenue “naa?oo”‘. Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu
ia oieueei ia i?aiyonoaiaaee, a, iaiai?io, aeoeaii niinianoaiaaee
iiauoaieth noaiaie iiiiiieecaoeee oicyenoaa. Ecaanoii, /oi
yooaeoeaiinoue aeanoeiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaoiaeao, nieaeaaony ni cia/eoaeueiui oaaee/aieai
/enea oi?aaeai/aneeo naycae. Iiyoiio ainoaea?noaaiiua ieienoa?noaa e
aaaeiinoaa, no?aiynue ia?aie/eoue ?ino oaeeo naycae, iuoaeenue
neiioeaio?e?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai eaaeaeiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee a ?aieao
iaeneiaeueii oceiai e?oaa i?aaei?eyoee, niaaeeieoue a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iauaaeeiaieyo i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaeeiaeiaie e aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee. A
?acoeueoaoa neeaaeuaaeanue aunieiiiiiiieece?iaaiiay yeiiiieea. Iinea
i?eiyoey caeiia “I i?aaei?eyoeyo a NNN?” a 1987 a. iiiiiieeci ” ?anoeaae
iao?iaui oeaaoii” e i?aaei?eyoey noaee iieo/aoue ?aaeueioth
yeiiiie/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, o.e. aaeieieno?aoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
e oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea noaee iooiaeeoue a i?ioeia, a naie
iiiiiieee i?e yoii iieo/eee iieioth naiaiaeo. Anieane i?iyaeaiee
iiiiiieecia i?iecioae a 1992a., eiaaea i?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee iauyaeei ni
2-ai yiaa?y ia?aoiae ia ?uii/iua ioiioaiey.

Iiii – iaeei; iiiiiieey-ainiiaenoai ia ?uiea. 1/3 ?uiea caieiaao 1
oe?ia-?uiie iiiiiieueiue, 60%-aaniethoii iiiiiie. ?uiie. ?aano?
aioeiiiiiie. eiieoaoa. Anee >35%, oi i?aaei?eyoea iiiiiieeno.

2. ?ACIIAEAeIINOE IIIIIIEEE. Aeaeu: aaniethoiay e /enoay, Oi?iu:
anoanoaaiiay, oaoie/aneay, yeiiiie/aneay, aaeieieno?aoeaiay. Aeaeu
iii.iauaaeeiaiee: IOE, ?EIA, EA?OAEUe, NEIAeEEAO, O?ANO, EIIOeA?I.

34.ANOANOAAIIUA IIIIIIEEE E EO ?AAOEE?IAAIEA.

O?aaeeoeeiiiui noauaeoii ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony
aeayoaeueiinoue oae iacuaaaiuo anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee. Anoanoaaiiay
iiiiiieey eiaao ianoi oiaaea, eiaaea ana ?uii/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa nin?aaeioi/aii a ?oeao iaeiiai i?iaeaaoea
e nicaeaiea eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu yeiiiie/anee iayooaeoeaii. Yooaeo
ianooaaa ianoieueei aaeee, /oi iaeia oe?ia iiaeao iieiinoueth
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?uii/iue ni?in i?e aieaa ieceeo ecaea?aeeao
i?iecaiaenoaa, /ai eiaee au aeaa eee ianeieueei eiieo?e?othueo oe?i. Ia
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia e iaeanoe anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee iiaeii
ioianoe, iai?eia?, aeaeaciua aei?iae e iaooai?iaiaeu, ia ?aaeiiaeueiii
o?iaia – nenoaio aiaei- e aaciniaaaeaiey, oaeaoiiioth naycue,
iauanoaaiiue o?ainii?o e o.i. Ionoonoaea eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu aeaeaao
iayooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaiea ?uii/iuo iaoaieciia i ?aaoee?iaaiee
aeayoaeueiinoe anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee. Iiyoiio ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea yaeyaony caeanue iniiaiie oi?iie eii?aeeiaoeee. Oaeoe/anee
iii no?ieony ia oao aea i?eioeeiao, /oi e ?aaoee?iaaiea a ieaiiaie
yeiiiieea: ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey (iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua eee
?aaeiiaeueiua) ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue oeai e oa?eoia, a oaeaea iniiaiua
ia?aiao?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iauai e anni?oeiaio i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e
oneoa.

35. INIIAIUA IIIAIOU AIOEIIIIIIEUeIIAI CAEIIIAeAOAEUeNOAA E AAI
YOOAEOEAIINOUe.

A ?aieao aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iniiaiuo
iai?aaeaiey: aeaiiiiiieecaoeeth e ?aaoee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iiiiiieee. Iieeoeea aeaiiiiiieecaoeee iai?aaeaia
ia nieaeaiea (ia?aie/aiea ?inoa) noaiaie iiiiiieecaoeee ?uiea. Aa
yooaeoeaiia i?iaaaeaiea a ?aieao ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee i?aaeiieaaaao,
ai-ia?auo, ?ac?aaioeo nenoaiu ia?aie/aiee ia neeyiey e eiua
iaaeoe?iaiiua niaeaoaiey, aaaeouea e nouanoaaiiiio ?inoo o?iaiy
iiiiiieecaoeee e ia?aie/aieth eiieo?aioeee. Caeii ?O “I eiieo?aioeee e
ia?aie/aiee iiiiiieenoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao”
cai?auaao niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo eiieo?e?othueie oe?iaie, caieiathueie a
niaieoiiinoe aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea, anee eo ?acoeueoaoii
iiaeao auoue nouanoaaiiia ia?aie/aiea eiieo?aioeee. A oii /enea,
cai?auathony niaeaoaiey e niaeaniaaiiua aeaenoaey. iai?aaeaiiua ia
onoaiiaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea oeai, ?acaeae ?uieia nauoa, ia?aie/aiea
aeinooia ia ?uiie ae?oaeo oe?i e o.ae. Iieiaeaiea oe?i iiaeao auoue
i?eciaii aeiieie?othuei, anee aeiey ia ?uiea oiaa?a i?aauoaao 35%. Yoio
e?eoa?ee /?acia?ii aunie, /oi nieaeaao aeaenoaaiiinoue iieeoeee
aeaiiiiiieecaoeee.

Ai-aoi?uo, i?iaaaeaiea aeaeiioeaio?aoeee (?acoe?oiiaiey) neiaeeaoeony
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iiiiiieee. Aunieee o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee e
niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia?anoaao auoue yeiiiie/anee ii?aaaeaiiui.

A-o?aoueeo, niaeaenoaea eiieo?aioeee a iiiiiieece?iaaiiuo io?aneyo. Aa
i?iaaaeaiea caeeth/aaony a noeioee?iaaiee nicaeaiey iiauo i?aaei?eyoee a
yoeo io?aneyo, a iiiu?aiee aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee Ae?oaeo io?aneae e
i?iecaiaenoao iiiiiieece?iaaiiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, a iiiu?aiee eiii?oa
oaeie i?iaeoeoeee. N?aaenoaaie inouanoaeaiey oaeie iieeoeee yaeythony
iaeiaiaua e oaiiaeaiiua i?aoa?aioeee, eueaioiia e?aaeeoiaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee. 2. Iauaeoii ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony:

· aeayoaeueiinoue anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee;

· aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iiiiiieee;

· oeaiiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ii i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoee iiiiiieenoia.

Ionoonoaea eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu aeaeaao iayooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaiea
?uii/iuo iaoaieciia a ?aaoee?iaaiee aeayoaeueiinoe anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieee, iiyoiio ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeytho
o?iaaiue oeai e oa?eoia, a oaeaea iniiaiua ia?aiao?u, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
iauai e anni?oeiaio i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa.

?aaoee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iiiiiieee
aeaenoaothueo ia eiieo?aioiuo ?uieao ia caiaiyao, a caueuaao
eiieo?aioiue ?uii/iue iaoaieci. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?O cai?auaao
aeaenoaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iiiiiieee, caieiathueo aeiieie?othuaa
iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea, iai?aaeaiiua ia ia?aie/aiea eiieo?aioeee.

Oaeaea i?eiaiyaony oeaiiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ii i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoee
iiiiiieenoia. Iin?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey oaa?aeuo oeene?iaaiiuo oeai eee
oae iacuaaaiuo i?aaeaeueiuo oeai, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoeth onoaiiaeai
iaeneiaeueiue o?iaaiue, aei eioi?iai iii iiaeao iiauoaoue oeaio.

Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oeai aeiee?oao aeaenoaea eiieo?aioiiai
oeaiiaiai iaoaiecia, i?aiyonoaoao ii?iaeueiie ?aaioa ?uiea, o.a.
oeaiiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ia neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue eae oieaa?naeueiia
n?aaenoai aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee.

Oeaee aioeiiiiiieueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a iaoae no?aia noi?ioee?oai e?aoei
– ianuuaiea ?uiea oiaa?aie e oneoaaie .eeeaeaeaoeey aeaoeoeeoa:

· ?acaeoea eiieo?aioeee e i?ana/aiea iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee e
oai naiui oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee;

· ia?aie/aiea e i?ana/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe neiaeeaoeony iiiiiieee e
iaaeiiouaiea ia?aciaaiey iiauo;

· ai?ueaa n ia?ooaieyie caeiia, i?aiyonoaothueie ?acaeoeth ii?iaeueiiai
?uiea, a oii /enea n ei??oioeeae;

· iiaeaea?aeea iiauo, e i?aaeaea anaai iaainoaea?noaaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
no?oeoo?;

· caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

36.Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, eo aeaeu e no?oeoo?a

Iiiyoea ecaea?aeae iniiauaaaony ia oaeoa ?aaeeinoe ?ano?nia e
aiciiaeiinoe eo aeueoa?iaoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey. Ecaea?aeee ni noi?iiu
oe?iu – auieaou, eioi?ua oe?ia iaycaia naeaeaoue, eee aeioiaeu, eioi?ua
oe?ia aeieaeia iaania/eoue iinoaaueeo ?ano?nia aeey oiai, /oiau ioaea/ue
yoe ?ano?nu io eniieueciaaiey a aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iecaiaenoaao.
Ecaea?aeee auaatho aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea. Aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu, eioi?ua
oe?ia ianao a iieueco iinoaaueeia nu?uey, oiieeaa, yia?aeth e ae?.,
iacuaathony aiaoieie. Eo iacuaatho oaeaea yaiuie eee aooaaeoa?neeie
ecaea?aeeaie, iioiio /oi iie io?aaeathony a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa
i?aaei?eyoey e eiatho oi?io aeaiaaeiuo ieaoaaeae iinoaaueeai oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iiaaeooi/iuo ecaeaeee. Ecaea?aeee ia nianoaaiiue
?ano?n (iai?oaeiaaiea), iacuaathony aioo?aiieie eee iayaiuie. Noaouee
aooaaeoa?neeo ecaea?aeae – yoi noaouee cao?ao, ia?acothueo
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. Noaouee neaaeothuea: iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou,
cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea, io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu,
aii?oecaoeey e i?i/ea cao?aou. Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa caaenyo io oeai
iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia, io oaoiieiaee, o.a. io eiee/anoaa ?ano?nia,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Yeiiiienou n/eoatho ecaea?aeeaie ana
ieaoaaee – aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ecaioiaeaiey
i?iaeoeoa (oneoae). Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa – oaeea
ecaea?aeee, aaee/eia eioi?uo ia iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee naycaiu n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey oe?iu, aeaaea anee oe?ia ie/aai ia
i?iecaiaeeo. E iinoiyiiui ecaea?aeeai ioiineony iieaoa iaycaoaeuenoa ii
iaeeaaoeeiiiui caeiai, ?aioiua ieaoaaee, io/eneaiey ia aii?oecaoeeth,
no?aoiaua aciinu, ca?ieaoo. Ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee – oaeea ecaea?aeee,
aaee/eia eioi?uo iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa. E iei ioiinyony cao?aou ia nu?uea, oiieeai, yia?aeth,
o?ainii?o, o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu. I?e?ino noiiu ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae,
naycaiiuo n oaaee/aieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ia iaeio aaeeieoeo, ia
yaeyaony iinoiyiiui. Iauay noiia ecaea?aeae – yoi noiia iinoiyiiuo e
ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae i?e aeaiiii iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iia aoaeao
oiaiueoaoueny i?e oaaee/aiee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?anoaoue i?e
oiaiueoaiee i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Ia?aiaiiuie ecaea?aeeaie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiaeao oi?aaeyoue, iinoiyiiua – iaoiaeyony aia
eiio?iey oe?iu. N?aaeiea ecaea?aeee – ecaea?aeee a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee. Iie eniieuecothony aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu. N?aaeiea
iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee ii?aaeaeythony iooai aeaeaiey noiia?iuo iinoiyiiuo
ecaea?aeae ia eiee/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. N?aaeiea ia?aiaiiua
ecaea?aeee ii?aaeaeythony iooai aeaeaiey noiia?iuo ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae
ia eie-ai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. N?aaeiea iauea ecaea?aeee iiaeii
?ann/eoaoue iooai aeaeaiey noiiu iaueo ecaea?aeae ia eie-ai i?iaeoeoeee.
I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee – aeiiieieoaeueiua eee aeiaaai/iua ecaea?aeee,
naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii aua iaeiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.
I?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee iiiiaatho ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaeaeueioth
caa?oaeaiiinoue, auoa eioi?ie i?iecaiaenoai ia yooaeoeaii. N iiiiuueth
i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ieieiaeueiue yooaeoeaiue
?acia? i?aaei?eyoey.

Ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey – cao?aou, naycaiiua n aeinoaaeie i?iaeoeoeee
iio?aaeoaeth. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua – o?ainii?o, o?aiaiea, iiae?aaioea.
*enoua – cao?aou, iaoneiaeaiiua niaiie oi?i noieiinoe.

37.I?eaueue e oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia aa ?acia?

I?eaueue – /enoue aeioiae i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. /anoue iauae au?o/ee,
iieo/aiiie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa, eioi?ay inoaaony iinea
au/aoa ec iaa anao cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai. A yeiiiie/aneie i?aeoeea
i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue:

1)aaeainiaoth (iauay) i?eaueue, iieo/aiioth io anao aeaeia oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe n o/aoii aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia e iioa?ue.
Aaeainiaay i?eaueue – yoi iauay au?o/ea ca au/aoii aiaoieo ecaea?aeae.
Aiaoiea eee yaiua ecaea?aeee – ieaoaaee iinoaaueeai oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iiaaeooi/iuo ecaeaeee.

2)yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue – ?aciinoue iaaeaeo iieo/aiiie au?o/eie e
yeiiiie/aneeie ecaea?aeeaie (aiaoieie e aioo?aiieie).

I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo
noieiinoueth i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a iioiauo oeaiao i?aaei?eyoey e
aa iieiie naaanoieiinoueth. ?an/aoiay i?eaueue – /anoue i?eauee, eioi?ay
inoaaony iinea auieaou ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao e aaiee e auoanoiyuea
i?aaiu.

Nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey iiauoaao i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoey. Ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey – cao?aou, naycaiiua n aeiaaaeaieai
i?iaeoeoeee aei iio?aaeoaey. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua – o?ainii?o, o?aiaiea,
iiae?aaioea, /enoua – cao?aou, iaoneiaeaiiua niaiie oi?i noieiinoe –
iieaoa i?iaeaaoeia, eanne?ia e ae?. Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa –
iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou, cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea, aii?oecaoeey.

Iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie, ii?aaeaeythueie aaee/eio i?eauee e o?iaaiue
?aioaaaeueiinoe yaeyaony auai? iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaathueo nieaeaiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e
o?oaeiaieinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, e inouanoaeaiea ?aaeeia yeiiiiee ai anao
caaiueyo i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae, yeiiiiey
?ano?nia, onei?aiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe.

?aioaaaeueiinoue iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
oa?aeoa?ecothuee niioiioaiea aeioiaea e cao?ao ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae
a?aiaie. ?ann/eouaaaony eae ioiioaiea i?eauee e cao?aoai.

38.Oeaia e oeaiiia?aciaaiea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Ooieoeee e aeaeu oeai.

Oeaiu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oiieee eino?oiaio e iaeiia?aiaiii iiuiue
?u/aa oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie. Oeaia – aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe
oiaa?a. A ?aieao ?uii/iiai iiaeoiaea oeaia – yoi oi?ia au?aaeaiey
oeaiiinoe aeaa, i?iyaeythueony a i?ioeanna eo iaiaia. I?ineaaeeaaaony
naycue oeaiu oiaa?a n oeaiiinoueth, iieaciinoueth eae iauaeoa
iio?aaeaiey. Oeaia oiaa?a i?iyaeyaony oieueei a oneiaeyo aai iaiaia ia
aeaiueae eee ia ae?oaie oiaa?. Iioiio /oi aia ?uiea, aac eoiee-i?iaeaaee
iao oeaiu. No?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey neaaeothuay – iaeoe oaeoth oeaio,
/oiau iauay ianna i?eauee auea iaeneiaeueiie. Iaoaieci oeaiiia?aciaaiey
2-o aeaeia: ?uii/iue e i?iecaiaenoaaiiue cao?aoiue.

?uii/iue iaoaieci oeaiiia?aciaaiey caaeneo io aeaea ?uiea, iiyoiio iiae
?uii/iui iaoaieciii iiieiaaony iiiaeanoai iaoaieciia. Ii n?aaee ieo
anoue iaeaieaa oeie/iua iaoaieciu. ?anniio?ei oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia
eiieo?aioiii ?uiea, aaea aeaenoaoao caeii ni?ina e caeii i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ia a?aoeea ecia?aaeaiu e?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
oiaa?. Ia ?uiea aaoiiaoe/anee onoaiiaeony oeaia Oe?ui, i?e eioi?ie
aaee/eia ni?ina N? ?aaia aaee/eia i?aaeeiaeaiey I?. Anee iieoiaoaee
caoioyo eoieoue oiaa? ii oeaia Oe1, eioi?ay ieaea Oe?ui, oi ni?in N1
ieaaeaony aieueoei, /ai i?aaeeiaeaiea I1, aicieeiao aeaoeoeeo oiaa?a,
eciaiyaiue ?aciinoueth Oe1-I1, e oeaia aneaaenoaea yoiai aoaeao
aic?anoaoue, iiea i?aaeeiaeaiea ia o?aaiyaony ni ni?inii. Anee aea
i?iaeaaoeu iiaeaeatho i?iaeaaaoue oiaa? ii oeaia Oe2, eioi?ay auoa
?aaiiaaniie Oe?ui, oi i?aaeeiaeaiea I2 ieaaeaony auoa ni?ina N2,
ia?acoaony ecauoie oiaa?a, ?aaiue I2-N2, e aneaaenoaea yoiai oeaia
noaiao oiaiueoaoueny aei oao ii?, iiea ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia
o?aaiiaanyony.

Oaeei ia?acii ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea, i?e oneiaee caaeneiinoe ni?ina ia
oiaa? oieueei io aai oeaiu, onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaaniay ?uii/iay oeaia,
niioaaonoathuay au?aaieaaieth ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. ?uii/iay oeaia
iacuaaaony naiaiaeiie, oi anoue iia naiaiaeia io aiaoiaai aeeeoaoa, ii
ia naiaiaeia io caeiiia ?uiea.

Ooieoeee oeai: 1) ecia?eoaeueiay – aeaaiaea?y oeaia iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue, neieueei aeaiaa iieoiaoaeue aeieaeai caieaoeoue, a
i?iaeaaaoe iieo/eoue ca oiaa?; 2) niecia?eoaeueiay – caeeth/aaony a
niiinoaaeaiee oeaiiinoae ?aciuo oiaa?ia. Anee oeaia aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaao
iieaciinoue, iia iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny i?e niiinoaaeaiee iieaciinoe;
3) o/aoiay – oeaia noaiiaeony aniiiiaaoaeueiui eino?oiaioii o/aoa,
iai?eia?, a eiouanoaaiiii eiiieaena i?aaei?eyoey 5 eiiiuethoa?ia ii
oaeie-oi oeaia (oeaio oeaaeeoa naie) ia iauoth noiio oaeoth-oi. 4)
eino?oiaio aiaeeca, i?iaiice?iaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey; 5) nioeeaeueiay
ooieoeey – n oeaiaie e eo eciaiaieai naycaiu no?oeoo?a e iauai
iio?aaeaiey, o?iaaiue aeecie, i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi, iio?aaeoaeueneee
athaeaeao naiuee; 6) aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee – eae eino?oiaio
oi?aiauo naeaeie, aiaoieo ieaoaaeae, acaeiiuo ?an/aoia iaaeaeo no?aiaie;
7) noeioee?othuay ooieoeey – aeeyao ia iiauoaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e
oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeaeu oeai. 1) a caaeneiinoe io noa? oi?aiaee. Iioiaua – oeaiu, ii
eioi?ui i?iaeoeoeey ?aaeecoaony e?oiiuie ia?oeyie. ?icie/iua – oeaiu, ii
eioi?ui oiaa? i?iaeaaony a ?icie/iie oi?aiaie naoe. Caeoii/iua oeaiu –
oeaiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie i?iaeoeoeee o i?aaei?eyoee. Oeaiu ia
oneoae.

2) aeaeu oeai, ?acee/athueany ii noaiaie e niiniaai ?aaoee?iaaiey.
AEanoei oeene?iaaiiua, oaa?aeua oeaiu – iacia/athony ain.i?aaiaie
oeaiiia?aciaaiey. ?aaoee?oaiua oeaiu – ?aaoee?othony ain.i?aaiaie –
ooaa?aeaeaiea ain.i?aaiaie i?aaeaeueiiai o?iaiy ?aioaaaeueiinoe.
Aeiaiai?iua oeaiu – ii?aaeaeythony aeieoiaioaeueiui niaeaoaieai iaaeaeo
i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai. Naiaiaeiua ?uii/iua oeaiu.

Ie?iaua oeaiu – oeaiu ie?iaiai ?uiea Niiinoaaeiua eee iaeciaiiua oeaiu –
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eiaeaena oeai. I?iaeoiua, Oeaiu naciiiua – eciaiythony
a ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?eiaeu aiaea, oeie/iu aeey naeueoic.i?iaeoeoeee.
Iaeciaiiua eee niiinoaaeiua oeaiu – iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?an/aoiua oeaiu.
Ae?aeaaua, aoeoeeiiiua, eiienneiiiua.

39.Aeeyiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa ia aeioiaeu

Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a naiii iauai aeaea iacaaeneii io
oicyenoaaiiii nenoaiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeaniia?acioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae, iai?aaeaiioth ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea eo
iio?aaiinoae. I?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa aeeciaiiuo aeaa io?aaeaao e
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aeaoo aeaeia acaeiiaeaenoaee e acaeiinaycae.

1).*aeiaae e i?e?iaea; 2) Ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie a i?ioeanna eo
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai yaeyaony
iniiaie nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. Iauanoaaiiia
i?-ai aeeth/aao: iaoa?eaeueiia i?-ai e iaiaoa?eaeueiia i?-ai. 1)I?-ai
i?iaeoeoia e oneoa; 2)I?-ai iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oneoa e i?-ai
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

Eio?ano?oeoo?a – niaieoiiinoue io?aneae, aeaeia oicyenoa, a ?acoeueoaoa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?uo nicaeathony iauea oneiaey i?-aa e
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. ?acee/atho i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
eio?ano?oeoo?o e nioeeaeueioth. E i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eio?ano?oeoo?a
ioiinyony o?ainii?o, naycue, yia?ainiaaaeaiea e ae?. E nioeeaeueiie –
ia?aciaaiea, iaae. ianeoaeeaaiea, iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia e o.ae.
Eio?ano?oeoo?a ?uiea – aaiee, ae?aee.

A i?ioeanna oeaeaniia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae acaeiiaeaenoaotho
iniiaiua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, o.a. ?ano?nu, eniieuecoaiua a i?ioeanna
i?-aa aeey nicaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ieacaiey oneoa. E iei
ioiinyony o?oae, eaieoae (aeeth/ay n?aaenoaa i?-aa), caiey (aeeth/ay
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu), i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. Oaeoi?u i?-aa a iaiauaiiii
aeaea iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue: ee/iue oaeoi? (?aai/ay neea), aauanoaaiiue
oaeoi? (n?aaenoaa i?-aa), i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee oaeoi? – ee/iue oaeoi?.

N?aaenoaa i?-aa – i?aaeiaou o?oaea e n?aaenoaa o?oaea (i?oaeey o?oaea,
n iiiiuueth eioi?uo /aeiaae aicaeaenoaoao ia i?aaeiao o?oaea). I?aaeiaou
o?oaea – i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu e oa, e eioi?ui i?eeiaeai o?oae). Aeaaiui
oaeoi?ii yaeyaony /aeiaa/aneee. Aeioiae – io aeaea oaeoi?a.

Oeaia, auiea/aiiay ca iieueciaaiea caieae, iacuaaaony ?aioie. ?aioa
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeioiae oiai, eoi aeaaeaao caieae. ?aioa iiaeao
auoue aaniethoiie e aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie. Aaniethoiay caaeneo io
ia?aie/aiiinoe caiee e yaeyaony ?acieoeae iaaeaeo noieiinoueth n/o
i?iaeoeoeee e oeaiie i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay caiaeueiay ?aioa
ia?acoaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo o?iaiai aeioiaea ia ooaeoeo e eo/oeo
caieyo. Aeeo. ?aioa naycaia n anoanoaaiiui ieiaei?iaeeai caiee,
?aniieiaeaieai caiaeueiuo o/anoeia ioiineoaeueii ?uieia nauoa, a oaeaea
n eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyie a oeo/oaiea caiee, aa?ioaoieee.

Oeaia, auiea/aiiay ca o?oae, iacuaaaony ca?aaioiie ieaoie. Aaee/eia
ca?aaioiie ieaou caaeneo io iauaia o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e
yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea. ?uiie iicaieyao ?aaioieeo iio?aaiaaoue ieaoo ca
oaeaio, niiniaiinoe, eaaeeoeeaoeeth, o?oaeiethaea, oiaiea.

Ieaoa ca eniieueciaaiea eaieoaea iacuaaaony i?ioeaioii eee nnoaeiui
i?ioeaioii – yoi ieaoa, iieo/aaiay e?aaeeoi?ii io caaiueea ca
iieueciaaiea nnoaeaiiuie aeaiueaaie eee iaiaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie.
Aaee/eia i?ioeaioa caaeneo io yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee ia ?uiea nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia (o.a. a caaeneiinoe io i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiaa ia ?uiea eaieoaeia
e ia ni?in ia ieo oi?ie?oaony noaaea i?ioeaioa. Anee i?aaeeiaeaiea
i?aauoaao ni?in – i?ioeaio aoaeao iaaunieei – yoi iacuaatho aeaoaaua
aeaiueae e iaiai?io) e io n?iea e?aaeeoa.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai – oi?aaeai/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua niiniaiinoe,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue
naiaeeo aianoa o?e auoa iacaaiiuo oaeoi?a e a neo/aa oniaoiiai
eniieueciaaiey iieo/aao i?eaueue. Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca ?ene, iiaua eaeae
e oneeey, eioi?ua ii aeeaaeuaaao a ?aaioo – yoi i?eaueue, eioi?ay
inoaaony iinea oiai, eae aoaeoo naeaeaiu auieaou nianoaaiieeai caiee,
o?oaea e eaieoaea.

40.Ia?eaoeia e ?ieue eiiiaaoeee a iaania/aiee onoie/eainoe aeioiaeia.

Ia?eaoeia a oe?ieii niunea – yoi eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey aeciana,
i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia i?ei?eoao iio?aaeoaey, o.a. eiioeaioeey
i?ei?eoaoiinoe ?uii/iiai ni?ina.

Ia?eaoeia – ia i?inoi eco/aiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ioaaouaaao anth
aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu, i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia?eaoeia – neoaeaa. Eco/aiea aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a, aeey
onoie/eainoe oe?iu aeieaeiu auoue ?aciuie. Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey.

Nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaa: “Iaeoe iio?aaiinoue e oaeiaeaoai?eoue aa”.

Ii Eioea?o: “Ia?eaoeia – aeae /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie
ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae e iio?aaiinoae iin?aaenoaii iaiaia”.

Ioiioaiea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiiai iaiaia iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai,
oaiaeaioeee e caeiiiia?iinoe, ii?aaeaeythuea onoie/eainoue e
iiaoi?yaiinoue ioiioaiee ?uii/iiai iaiaia ninoaaeytho i?aaeiao
ia?eaoeiaa.

Ia?eaoeia- iai?a?uaiue, ananoi?iiiee aiaeec, niinia aaia?e?iaaiey eaeae
e ?aoaiee.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey iai?aaeaiu ia iiene iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai
ni/aoaiey o?aaeeoeeiiiie, iiaie e iiaaeoae i?iaeoeoeee. Iie neoaeao
iniiaaieai aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ia inaiaiee iiaiai oiaa?a.

Ia?eaoeia aeeth/aao a naay:

– eco/aiea ?uiea e aiaeec iio?aaiinoae iieoiaoaeae;

– i?iaeoe?iaaiea oiaa?a, niioaaonoaothuaai eca?aiiiio naaiaioo ?uiea;

– i?eniiniaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iiae auyaeaiea o?aaiaaiey ?uiea iiae
aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa;

– ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie oeaiu, io?aaeathuae oa?aeoa? oiaa?a e ni?ina
ia iaai;

– auai? iooae e iaoiaeia nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, oa?aeoa? ?aeeaiu.

Ii?aaeaeaiea I. Yaaina-Aa?iaia: I. Yoi i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia iio?aaeoaey
oeaeaaay oeeinioey oe?iu. I?iecaiaeeoue, oi /oi i?iaeaaony, a ia
iaiai?io – iniiaa ia?eaoeiaiaiai iiaeoiaea. I. iiaeoiae: ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey, nicaeaiea i?iaeoeoa, i?ioeann oeaiiia?aciaaiey, nauo,
i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a. A caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee ia ?uiea oe?ia auae?aao
iaeio ec no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa: eiioeaio?e?iaaiiue (i?eaioaoeey ia iaeei
oceee naeoi? ?uiea, iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea aaeineiaaeia) eee
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue (i?eaioaoeey oe?iu ia oe?ieee eee ianeieueei
oe?ieeo naeoi?ia ). A caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey ni?ina ?acee/atho aeaeu
ia?eaoeiaa: eiiaa?neiiiue (niinianoaoao i?aiaeieaieth io?eoeaoaeueiiai
ni?ina), noeioee?othuee (aicaoaeaeaao ionoonoaothuee eee iaaeinoaoi/iue
ni?in), ?acaeaathuee (auyaeyao ne?uoue ni?in e i?aa?auaao aai a
?aaeueiue), ?aia?eaoeia (iaeeaeyao iaaeathuee ni?in), neio?iia?eaoeia
(noaaeeece?oao eieaaethueeny ni?in), iiaeaea?aeeaathuee (nio?aiyao
o?iaaiue ni?ina, i?aaeioa?auaao aai niaae), aeaia?eaoeia (nieaeaao
/?acia?iue ni?in), i?ioeaiaeaenoaothuee (oiaiueoaao ni?in ia
ia?aoeeiiaeueiua iio?aaiinoe). A I. Anoue no?aoaaee ?inoa oe?i.
No?aoaaey ?inoa e?oiiuo oe?i ninoieo a neaaeothuai: 1)no?aoaaey
ianniaiai noaiaea?oece?iaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; 2) no?aoaaey ?anoe?aiey
noa?u naiae aeayoaeueiinoe (aeeaa?neoeeaoeey).

Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey – ?anoe?aiea iiiaieeaoo?u oiaa?ia, i?iecaiaeeiuo
ioaeaeueiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, oe?iaie. Naycaia n eniieueciaaieai
i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiieaiee ia oieueei ia oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa
iniiaiie i?iaeoeoeee, ii e iaania/aiea iiauo aeaeia i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?iieeiiaaiea a ae?oaea io?anee e noa?u oicyenoaiaaiey. Ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie i?aeoeea aeeaa?neoeeaoeey cao?aaeaaao yenii?o, /oi
icia/aao oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
yenii?oe?iaaiey, /oi nicaeaao eo/oea oneiaey aeey i?aiaeieaiey
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaee eciaiaiey ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u, ?anoe?yao
aiciiaeiinoe oicyenoaaiiiai iaiaa?e?iaaiey..

Eaaeaeue oiaa? eiaao aeeciaiiue oeeee: enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee
oiaa?a, aiaae?aiea, ?ino, c?aeinoue, niaaea. Iiaeii i?iaeeeoue
aeeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a – i?iecaiaeeoue iiaua aai iiaeeoeeaoeee. Ii
iiaeii iaeiia?aiaiii i?iecaiaeeoue ianeieueei oiaa?ia oae, /oiau eo
aeeciaiiua oeeeeu ia?anaeaeenue a iaeaunoeo oi/eao, /oi iicaieeo
nio?aiyoue aunieoth e onoie/eaoth i?eaueue. Aeey ?ac?aaioee iiauo
oiaa?ia eniieuecothony iiaaeoea aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee –
iiaiaaaaeaiey eee eiiiaaoeee. Aiaoiea i?e/eiu iiaiaaaaeaiee – IOI,
eciaiaiea iio?aaiinoe ethaeae, ianuuaiea ?uiea oiaa?aie, oa?ica
i?iea?uoa a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa. Aioo?aiiea i?e/eiu iiaiaaaaeaiee –
no?aieaiea i?iecaiaeeoaey oaaee/eoue nauo oiaa?a, ?anoe?eoue naie ?uiie,
oiaiueoeoue caaeneiinoue io ?aaeecaoeee oieueei iaeiiai oiaa?a,
nicaeaoue i?aaei?eyoea-iiaaoi?. Iiaiaaaaeaiey aeieaeiu auoue
iai?a?uaiuie e iineaaeiaaoaeueiuie: a oi a?aiy, eiaaea iaeia iiaeiea
iaoiaeeony a i?iecaiaenoaa e ianniai i?iaeaaony, ae ia niaio aeieaeiu
oaea nicaeaaaoueny ae?oaea. Oe?iu, caieiathueany eiiiaaoeeiiiuie
?ac?aaioeaie, /anoi ?aciauatho enneaaeiaaoaeueneea oeaio?u aaeece
oieaa?neoaoia, iao/iuo oeaio?ia. Eeaea?u a eniieueciaaiee eiiiaaoeee –
ssiiiey e NOA.

41. Iniaaiiinoe ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a AIE

AIE – n/o i?iecaiaenoai + io?anee ianeoaeeaathuea n/o i?iecaiaenoai.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea AIE:

Caiey – ?aoi?ia a n/o, iae. Caiaeueiue eiaeaen ia iiaeienaee.

Ii?iaoeaiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai (i?e i?iaeaaea caiee).

?aioa, aa ?ani?aaeaeaiea:

?aioa – yeiiiie/aneay oi?ia ?aaeecaoeee nianoaaiiinoe.

Nouanoaoao aeaa aeaea iiiiiieee ia caieth:

1)iiiiiieey ia caieth eae ia iauaeo oicyenoaa. N yoei naycaii
ia?aciaaiea aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ?aiou.

2)iiiiiieey nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth (/anoiay, ainoaea?noaaiiay,
ia/anoiay nianoaaiiinoue).

Ia?aciaaiea aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie (?aciinoiay) ?aiou:

Caiee ?acee/athony ii naiaio ieiaei?iaeeth, ea/anoao, ?aniieiaeaieth ia
eo/oea, n?aaeiea, ooaeoea caiee. Oeaiu ia n/o i?iaeoeoeeth a ioee/ea io
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii?aaeaeythony ooaeoeie oneiaeyie i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi
iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi eiee/anoai eo/oeo e n?aaeieo caiaeue ia?aie/aii e
iauanoai auioaeaeaii ia?aaaouaaoue e ooaeoea caiee. Ia n?aaeieo e eo/oeo
caieyo ii?aaeaeyaony ?aciinoiue aeioiae. Eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo?

1 o/anoie caiee – eo/oee

2 o/anoie caiee – n?aaeiee

3 o/anoie caiee – ooaeoee ( ecaea?aeee naiua aunieea)

Cao?aou iaeeiaeiaua.

1 o/anoie – aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae

2 o/anoie – aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae a iaiueoai ?acia?a

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay ?aioa 1 ?acee/aaony ea/anoaii caiee, iieo/atho n
eo/oeo e n?aaeieo caiaeue.

Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay ?aioa 2 ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa ?acee/iie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, aeiaaai/iuo aeiaeaiee eaieoaea.

O?e o/anoea – iaeeiaeiaua ii ?acia?o e ieiaei?iaeeth:

3 – aniaoaee + oaeia?eee + i?ioaiea

2 – aniaoaee + oaeia?eee (aeiaaai/iue eaieoae – i?e?ino aeioiaea)

1 – aniaoaee

Aeaeu ?aiou:

Aaniethoiay ?aioa – iieo/atho ni anao caiaeueiuo o/anoeia (iaoneiaeaia
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoueth ia caieth). Iiiiiieueiay ?aioa – ia?acoaony ia
caieyo eneeth/eoaeueiiai ieiaei?iaeey. Oieueei ia ieo iiaeii
i?iecaiaeeoue iniaua i?iaeoeou (iniaia aeii, oeeo?oniaua e o.i.)
Iieo/aiea iiiiiieueiie ?aiou e aa ?acia? caaeneo io iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe ( io ?acia?a “eioaeueea”).

A?aiaeiay ieaoa, eae ieaoa ca eniieueciaaiea caiee aeeth/aao a naay e
?aioo. A?aiaeiay ieaoa iiaeao oaeaea aeeth/aoue i?ioeaiou ia eaieoae,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea nianoaaiieeo caiee (eoi naeaao – auaiaeiaa ia ei?ioeee
n?ie, eoi a?aiaeoao – ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie).

Oeaia caiee:

Iia caaeneo io ea/anoaa caiee, ?aniieiaeaiey, o?iaiy aaieianeiai %,
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia caieth).

Oeaia caiee = ?aioa/ Aaieianeee % o 100

2 neo/ay:

?aioa = A?aiaeiie ieaoa

?aioa iaiueoa a?aiaeiie ieaou

Oeaiu ia caieth ?anooo.

I?iaeaiu n/o i?iecaiaeeoaeae:

1.Aeioaoeee n/o i?iecaiaeeoaeae

2.Iiaeieoeu oeai

3.Yeaeaaeaioiinoue iaiaia n/o ia i?iiuoeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth (?ac?ua a
oeaiao ?anoao).

42. Iiiyoea iee?iyeiiiieee e iae?iyeiiiieee. Iieacaoaee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee ia iae?io?iaia.

Iee?iyeiiiie/aneee aiaeec ?anniao?eaaaony eae /anoue yeiiiieee,
enneaaeothuay:

1)iainiaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea aaeeieoeu, oaeea eae io?anee, oe?iu e
aeiiaoiea oicyenoaa;

2)ioaeaeueiua ?uiee, eiie?aoiua oeaiu e eiie?aoiua oiaa?u e oneoae.

1.Iee?iyeiiiieea eco/aao i?ioeannu i?eiyoey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee
ioaeaeueiuie yeiiiie/aneeie noauaeoaie – oe?iaie, iio?aaeoaeyie e ae?.

2.Caaea/ae iee?iyeiiiieee yaeyaony aiaeec acaeiiaeaenoaey yeiiiie/aneeo
noauaeoia ia ioaeaeueiuo ?uieao.

Iae?i – aieueoie ( a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai). ?acaeae iaoee i oicyenoaa
eae oeaeii, i i?iaeaiao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e caiyoinoe, i
aiciiaeiinoyo e ?aaioa oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, i ooieoeeyo
ainoaea?noaa e yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee iacuaaaony iae?iyeiiiieeie.
Iae?iyeiiiieea ioaaouaaao ana iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoai, iicaieyao
auyaeoue aioo?aiiea yeiiiie/aneea nayce, naienoaaiiua aio, eae aaeeiiio
oeaeiio.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoai – niaieoiiinoue anao io?aneae e noa? yeiiiieee
?acee/iuo ?aaeiiia no?aiu, iauaaeeiaiiuo ?aciiia?aciuie yeiiiie/aneeie
naycyie.

Aaeeiue ia?iaeioicyenoaaiiue eiiieaen.

Iee?iyeiiiieea – acaeyae ia yeiiiieeo nieco.

Iae?iyeiiiieea – acaeyae ia yeiiiieeo naa?oo.

Iieacaoaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee:

1.Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino yeiiiieee.

2.I?iecaiaenoai AII, AAI.

3.I?iecaiaenoai, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea (eniieueciaaiea e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea).

4.I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

5.Caiyoinoue ianaeaiey.

6.O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu.

7.AEeciaiiue o?iaaiue ianaeaiey.

8.Aeioiaeu, c/ieaoa.

9.Iiieiaeueiay e ?aaeueiay c/ieaoa.

10.Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea.

11.Eioeyoeey.

12Oi?aiaue e ieaoaaeiue aaeain.

13.Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

43. AAEIAIE IAOeEIIAEUeIUE I?IAeOEO (AII), (AAI)

AII e AAI io?aaeatho ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe a aeaoo noa?ao
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa: iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e oneoa. Iaa
ii?aaeaeythony eae noieiinoue anaai iauaia eiia/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa
oiaa?ia e oneoa a yeiiiieea ca iaeei aiae (eaa?oae, ianyoe). Yoe
iieacaoaee iiaen/eouaathony a oeaiao eae oaeoueo (aeaenoaothueo), oae e
iinoiyiiuo (oeaiao eaeiai-eeai aaciaiai aiaea).

?acee/ey iaaeaeo AII e AAI:

– AAI iiaen/eouaaaony ii oae iacuaaaiiio oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eciaeo. Yoi
niaieoiiay noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee noa?u iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
noa?u oneoa iacaaeneii io iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe i?aaei?eyoee,
?aniieiaeaiiuo ia oa??eoi?ee aeaiiie no?aiu;

– AII – yoi niaieoiiay noieiinoue anaai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa a
iaaeo noa?ao iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee iacaaeneii io ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee (a naiae no?aia eee ca ?oaaaeii).

Oaeei ia?acii, AII ioee/aaony io AAI ia noiio oae iacuaaaiuo oaeoi?iuo
aeioiaeia (aeioiaeu iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, ?aioiue aeioiae, nnoaeiue %,
i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee) io eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia aeaiiie no?aiu ca
?oaaaeii ca ieionii aiaeiae/iuo auaacaiiuo ec no?aiu aeioiaeia
eiino?aioeaa.

Iau/ii, /oiau ?ann/eoaoue AII, e iieacaoaeth AAI aeiaaaeytho ?aciinoue
iaaeaeo i?eaueyie e aeioiaeaie, iieo/aiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie e oece/aneeie
eeoeaie aeaiiie no?aiu ca ?oaaaeii, n iaeiie noi?iiu e i?eaueyie e
aeioiaeaie, iieo/aiiuie eiino?aiiuie eiaanoi?aie e eiino?aiiuie
?aaioieeaie a aeaiiie no?aia, n ae?oaie noi?iiu.

Yoa ?aciinoue aeey aaaeoueo no?ai Caiaaea – +- 1% io AAI. A iaoae no?aia
AII e AAI -ia/aeny n 1988a.

I?iecaaaeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey aeeth/aao i?iiaaeooi/iue e eiia/iue i?iaeoeo
(aeaieiie o/ao). I?iiaaeooi/iue i?iaeoeo – oa /anoue AII (aaeiaie
iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo), eioi?ue eniieuecoaony ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea ia
oaeouea iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai, yia?aey,
i/oaa?eeaou e o.ae.), o.a. oaeea i?aaeiaou o?oaea, eioi?ua ia auoiaeyo
ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea. Eiia/iue i?iaeoeo – yoi oiaa?u e oneoae,
eioi?ua iieoiathony iio?aaeoaeyie aeey eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey, a ia
aeey ia?ai?iaeaaee.

Iaoiaeu iiaen/aoa: Eaaeaeay no?aia ?aoaao ii ?an/aoai e iaoiaeai NIN.

AAI iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai iaeiei ec o?ao iaoiaeia, iooai noiie?iaaiey:

– aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe ii anai io?aneyi, iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee (AAI
ii i?iecaiaenoao, io?aneyi);

– anao ?anoiaeia ia iieoieo iauaai iauaia i?iecaaaeaiiie a aeaiiii aiaeo
i?iaeoeoeee (AAI ii ?anoiaeai);

– anao aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo a no?aia io i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee a
aeaiiii aiaeo (AAI ii aeioiaeai).

Ia iniiaa AAI iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ae?oaea aaaeiua iieacaoaee: /enoue
iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (*II) e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae (IAe). *II
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie AII ca au/aoii aii?oecaoeee. IAe ?ann/eouaaaony
iooai au/aoa ec *II einaaiiuo iaeiaia. AII ?ann/eouaaaony iooai
noiie?iaaiey i?iaeoeoeee (aeaae e oneoae), i?eiinyuea aeioiae, caoai ec
yoie aaee/eiu au/eoaai oaeouea iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou e au/eoaai ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo eiii?oii e yenii?oii.

AII?=AIIi/Oioe, aaea AIIi – iiieiaeueiue (a oaeoueo oeaiao), AII? –
?aaeueiue (a oeene?iaaiiuo oeaiao), Oioe – eiaeaen oeai.

44. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, aai ?ani?aaeaeaiea e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea.
Oiiae iaeiieaiey e oiiae iio?aaeaiey.

Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae (IAe) – yoi aiiaue nicaeaiiay ca aiae noieiinoue,
oa?aeoa?ecothuay, /oi i?eaaaeei i?iecaiaenoai a aeaiiii aiaeo e
aeaaininoiyieth iauanoaa. I?e aai iiaen/aoa ia aeeth/aaony noiia
aii?oecaoeee, einaaiiuo iaeiaia, ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaneaeee.

IAe – yoi /enoue “Ca?aaioiue aeioiae” iauanoaa (c/ieaoa, aeioiaeu
ianaeaiey, i?eaueue).

?acee/atho i?iecaaaeaiiue e eniieueciaaiiue IAe.

I?iecaaaeaiiue IAe – yoi aanue iauai aiiaue nicaeaiiie noieiinoe oiaa?ia
e oneoa.

Eniieueciaaiiue IAe – yoi i?iecaaaeaiiue IAe ca ieionii iioa?ue (io
noeoeeiuo iioa?ue, oua?aa e o.ae.) e aiaoiaoi?aiaiai naeueaei.

Oiiae iio?aaeaiey – yoi /anoue IAe, iaania/eaathuay oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo e eoeueoo?iuo iio?aaiinoae ethaeae e iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa
a oeaeii (ia ia?aciaaiea, iai?iio e o.ae.).

Oiiae iaeiieaiey – yoi /anoue IAe, iaania/eaathuay ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ?acaeouo no?aiao OI – 90% io IAe; OI – 10%. A 90 aa. ?inney OI – 80%
OI>OI.

45. Nouiinoue e ?ieue iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey

A oeaio?a aieiaiey iae?iyeiiiieee – ?ac?aaioea oaeeo i?iaeai, eae
i?aaiecaoeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

N iiiiuueth yeiiiie/aneeo iaoiaeia iiaeii:

1.i?eoi?iiceoue e noaaeeece?iaaoue eioeyoeeth;

2.onei?eoue i?iaeaeaeaiea e iiaiio ea/anoao yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa;

3.iaeoe oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua ?aoaiey ae?oaeo e?oiiuo
ia?iaeioicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeai;

4.nio?aieoue i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu;

5.iiaeaea?aeaoue iioeiaeueiua oaiiu i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa.

46. Ainoaea?noai e aai ?ieue a yeiiiie/aneii ?aaoee?iaaiee
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee (A?Y) a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio oeiiauo ia? caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai,
eniieieoaeueiiai e eiio?iee?othuaai oa?aeoa?a, inouanoaeyaiuo
i?aaiii/iuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie i iauanoaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie a oeaeyo noaaeeecaoeee e i?eniiniaeaiey nouanoaothuae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo A?Y yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth i?ioeanna
aini?iecaiaenoaa. Iii ?aoaao ?acee/iua caaea/e:

– noeioee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa;

– ?aaoee?iaaiea caiyoinoe;

– iiiu?aiey i?ia?anneaiuo naeaeaia a io?aneaaie e ?aaeiiaeueiuo
no?oeoo?ao;

– iiaeaea?aeea yenii?oa e o.ae.

Aaaeia ?ieue A?Y a auaoeo nioe. no?aiao, i?e ia?aoiaea io ieaiiaiai
oicyenoaa ia aaca ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e ?uii/iiio oicyenoao
ia aaca /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Noauaeoaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee yaeythony iineoaee, au?aceoaee e
eniieieoaee oicyenoaaiiuo eioa?ania. Iauaeou A?Y – yoi noa?u, io?anee,
?aaeiiu, a oaeaea neooaoeee, yaeaiey e oneiaey nioe. yeiiiie/aneie
aeecie no?aiu, aaea aicieeee eee iiaoo aicieeiooue o?oaeiinoe, i?iaeaiu,
ia ?ac?aoaaiua aaoiiaoe/anee eee ?ac?aoaaiua a ioaeaeueiii aoaeouai.

Iniiaiua iauaeou A?Y:

– yeiiiie/aneee oeeee;

– naeoi?iay, io?aneaaay e ?aaeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?u oicyenoaa;

– oneiaey iaeiieaiey eaieoaea;

– caiyoinoue;

– aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea;

– ieaoaaeiue aaeain;

– oeaiu;

– IEIE?;

– oneiaey eiieo?aioeee;

– nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey, aeeth/ay ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aaioiaeaoaeai e
?aaioieeaie ii iaeio, a oaeaea nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea;

– iiaeaioiaea e ia?aiiaeaioiaea eaae?ia;

– ie?oaeathuay n?aaea;

– aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea nayce.

Nooue ainoaea?noaaiiie aioeoeeeee/aneie iieeoeee, eee ?aaoee?iaaiey
oicyenoaaiiie eiiuthieoo?u, ninoieo a oii, /oiau ai a?aiy e?ecenia e
aeai?annee noeioee?iaaoue ni?in ia oiaa?u e oneoae, eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey e
caiyoinoue. Aeey yoiai /anoiiio eaieoaeo i?aaeinoaaeythony
aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua eueaiou, oaaee/eaathony ainoaea?noaaiiua
?anoiaeu e eiaanoeoeee. A oneiaeyo aeeeoaeueiiai e ao?iiai iiaeuaia a
yeiiiieea no?aiu iiaoo aicieeiooue iianiua yaeaiey: ?annanuaaiea
oiaa?iuo caiania, ?ino eiii?oa e oooaeoaiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina,
i?aauoaiea ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo iaae i?aaeeiaeaieai e ionthaea
iaiainiiaaiiue ?ino c/ieaou e oeai. A oaeie neooaoeee caaea/a A?Y –
i?eoi?iiceoue ?ino ni?ina, eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e i?iecaiaenoaa, /oiau
nie?aoeoue ia?ai?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e ia?aiaeiieaiea eaieoaea e oaeei
ia?acii oiaiueoeoue aeoaeio e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aiciiaeiiai niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa, eiaanoeoeee e caiyoinoe a aoaeouai.

Oeaee A?Y:

Aaia?aeueiie oeaeueth A?Y yaeyaony yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay
noaaeeueiinoue, oe?aieaiea nouanoaothuaai no?iy aioo?e no?aiu e ca
?oaaaeii, aaeaioaoeey aai e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi.

N?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee:

1.Aaeieieno?aoeaiua. Ia naycaiu n nicaeaieai aeiiieieoaeueiiai
iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioea eee iianiinoueth oeiainiaiai oua?aa. Iie
aace?othony ia neea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e aeeth/atho ia?u cai?aoa,
?ac?aoaiey e i?eioaeaeaiey.

2.Yeiiiie/aneea n?aaenoaa A?Y, iiae?acaeaeytho ia:

1)N?aaenoaa aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee:

– ?aaoee?iaaiea o/aoiie noaaee;

– onoaiiaeaiea e eciaiaiea ?acia?ia ieieiaeueiuo ?aca?aia;

– iia?aoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ia ?uiea OeA, oaeea eae
yienney ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa, oi?aiaey eie e iiaaoaiea.

2)N?aaenoaa athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee: yoi aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu
oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ianoiuo aeanoae.

Aeaaiui eino?oiaioii iiaeeecaoeee oeiainiauo n?aaenoa aeey iie?uoey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia yaeyaony iaeiae. Eciaiaiea iaeiaiauo nenoai,
iaeiaiaua neeaeee, onei?aiiia aii?oecaoeeiiiia nienaiea iniiaiiai
eaieoaea, eueaiou i?e ?aaeecaoeee ne?uouo ?aca?aia.

Aunoae oi?iie A?Y yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiia yeiiiie/aneia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea. Io ninoaaeaiey /?acau/aeiuo e oeaeaauo i?ia?aii
inouanoaeyaony ia?aoiae e ainoaea?noaaiiiio n?aaeian?i/iiio
iauayeiiiie/aneiio i?ia?aiie?iaaieth.

47. Niaieoiiue ni?in e niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea a iaoeeiiaeueiii
ianooaaa.

Niaieoiiue ni?in – yoi ni?in ia iauee iauai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ue
iiaeao auoue i?aaeuyaeai i?e aeaiiii o?iaia oeai.

Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea – yoi iauaa eiee/anoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ia
iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii e i?aaeeiaeaii a niioaaonoaee ni neiaeeaoeiny
o?iaiai oeai.

Niaieoiiue ni?in – ni?in ia iio?aaeoaeueneea e eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u (e
oneoae). Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea niioaaonoaoao aaeiaiio aioo?aiiaio
i?iaeoeoo (AAI).

Niaieoiiue ni?in e niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaoo auoue ecia?aiu a
oaeoueo eee iaeciaiiuo oeaiao, ecia?aaeaiu a aeaea e?eaie ia a?aoeea.
Iinoiyiiia aeaeaeaiea oeai nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe n iienaieai
yoeo eaoaai?ee, iiyoiio aeey ecia?aiey iauaia e aeeiaieee niaieoiiinoae
eniieuecothony eiaeaenu.

Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo niaieoiiui ni?inii e o?iaiai oeai – ia?aoiay,
iaaeaeo niaieoiiui i?aaeeiaeaieai e o?iaiai oeai – i?yiay: n ?inoii oeai
?anoao e i?aaeeiaeaiea. Niaieoiiue ni?in ?anoao aianoa n ?inoii
aeioiaeia. Niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea ?anoao aianoa n ?inoii
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa.

? Sc

Po

Dc

Q

Acaeiiaeaenoaea niaieoiiiai ni?ina Dc e i?aaeeiaeaiey Sc.

48. Aeaiueae e eo nia?aiaiiay i?e?iaea. Aeaiaaeiue ?uiie e no?oeoo?a
aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yaiethoeey e aeaeu aeaiaa.

Aeaiueae – yoi ia oiaa?, a yeaeaaeaio, eioi?ue ecia?yao oeaio oiaa?a.
?aiueoa aeaiueae auee oiaa?ii. Iaoo?aeueiue iaiai. Nouiinoue aeaiaa
i?iyaeyaony a eo ooieoeeyo:

1.Aeaiueae eae ia?a noieiinoe. Yoi i?e?aaieaaiea oiaa?a e ii?aaeaeaiiie
noiia aeaiaa, /oi aeaao eiee/anoaaiiia niecia?aiea aaee/eiu noieiinoe
oiaa?a. Noieiinoue oiaa?a, au?aaeaiiay a aeaiueaao, yaeyaony aai oeaiie.

a) Aeaiueae aunooiatho a eaeaaeueiii aeaea (yoi aiia?aaeaaiua
aeaiueae). I?eaueue, oauoie, oeaiu.

a) Ianooaa oeai – eiee/anoai cieioa.

1 ?oaeue 1961a.=0,9981217. N 1 yiaa?y 1991a. aue ioiaiai cieioie
ia?eoao ?oaey. Nae/an ?ieue ?oaey auiieiyao aeieea?.

2.Aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai ia?auaiey. Iie inouanoaeytho iaiai oiaa?aie e
oneoaaie iaaeaeo ethaeueie, i?aaei?eyoeyie, no?aiaie. Aeaiueae
iicaieytho ecaaaeaoue iaoaeianoaa aa?oa?iiai iaiaia. Iaeiiiiiaioiia
?annoaaaiea n aeaiueaaie.

3.Aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai ieaoaaea – aaciaee/iua aeaiueae.

1)Iaee/iua aeaiueae – ooiae io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

2)Iaee/iua ieaoaaee niinianoaotho eioeyoeee.

Aeaiueae yaeythony caaa?oathuei yoaiii a i?ioeanna iaiaia e aunooiatho
eae naiinoiyoaeueiia aiieiuaiea oiaa?iie noieiinoe. Aeey ian – yoi
iaee/iua e aaciaee/iua aeaiueae.

4.Aeaiueae eae n?aaenoai iaeiieaiey, naa?aaeaiey e ia?aciaaiey nie?iaeu.

5.Ie?iaua aeaiueae.

Aeaiaaeiay nenoaia – yoi oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey a
no?aia, o.a. aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa a iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie oi?iao. Iia
aeeth/aao yeaiaiou: aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo, ianooaa oeai, aeaeu aeaiaa a
no?aia, ii?yaeie yiennee e ia?auaiey aeaiaa, a oaeaea ainoaea?noaaiiue
aiia?ao, inouanoaeythuee ?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

Aeaeu aeaiaa:

1.Iaee/iua aeaiueae:

1)Iiiaou. Neoaeao a ea/anoaa ?aciaiiuo aeaiaa. Aaiaeeo Oeaio?aeueiue
Aaie.

2)Aaieianeea aeeaou (aaieiiou) – iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaiueae. Eo yienneth
inouanoaeyao Oeaio?iaaie.

3)Eacia/aeneea aeeaou – oa aea aoiaaeiua aeaiueae, ii auioneaaiua
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ainoaea?noaaiiui eacia/aenoaii -ieienoa?noaii oeiainia.

2.Aaciaee/iua aeaiueae – yoi n?aaenoaa ia n/aoao a aaieao, ?acee/iua
aeaiiceou (aeeaaeu) a aaieao, aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou, ainoaea?noaaiiua
oeaiiua aoiaae. Yoe aeeaaeu iacuaathony aaieianeeie aeaiueaaie. *ae
-ia?aaiaeiie aaenaeue, aunoaaeaiiue ia aaie e iiea/eaaaiue ii
i?aaeuyaeaieth.

3.Yeaeo?iiiua aeaiueae. Ieaoaaeiua ieanoeeiaua ea?oi/ee – yoi aeaiaaeiue
aeieoiaio, oaeinoiaa?ythuee iaee/ea n/aoa aa aea?aeaoaey a e?aaeeoiii
o/?aaeaeaiee.

Neieueei ioaeii aeaiaa?

Eiee/anoai, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey ia?auaiey aeaiaa I yaeyaony noiiie oeai
?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia ? aeaeaiiie ia /enei iai?ioia aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu
V:

I=?/V

49. E?aaeeo e aai iniiaiua oi?iu

E?aaeeo [kredo] – aeiaa?yth.

Nnoaeiui eaieoaeii iacuaaaony eaieoae a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiue a nnoaeo aai nianoaaiieeaie ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe ca
ieaoo a aeaea i?ioeaioa. Aeaeaeaiea yoiai eaieoaea iacuaaaony e?aaeeoii.
E?aaeeo – yoi aeaeaeaiea noieiinoe ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe.

Aaaeiua enoi/ieee nnoaeiiai eaieoaea:

1.Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey iniiaiiai
eaieoaea e iaeaieeaaaiua ii ia?a ia?aianaiey aai noieiinoe ii /anoyi ia
nicaeaaaaiua oiaa?u a aeaea aii?oecaoeee;

2.*anoue iai?ioiiai eaieoaea, aunaiaiaeaeaaiay a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia a
nayce n ianiaiaaeaieai ai a?aiaie i?iaeaaee ecaioiaeaiiuo oiaa?ia e
iieoiee nu?uey, oiieeaa e iaoa?eaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iaeieaeaiey
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa;

3.Eaieoae, a?aiaiii naiaiaeiue a i?iiaaeooeao iaaeaeo iinooieaieai
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e auieaou c/ieaou;

4.I?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey eaieoaeecaoeee noieiinoue, iaeaieeaaaiay i?e
?anoe?aiiii aini?iecaiaenoaa aei ii?aaeaeaiiie aaee/eiu, caaenyuae io
ianooaaia i?aaei?eyoee e eo oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy;

5.Aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu e naa?aaeaiey /anoiuo eeoe aeeth/ay ana
iauanoaaiiua neie ianaeaiey. Aaaeiui enoi/ieeii nnoaeiiai eaieoaea
yaeythony aeaiaaeiua iaeiieaiey ainoaea?noaa.

E?aaeeoiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ooieoeeiiaeueioth iiaenenoaio
?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, iiin?aaenoaothuoth i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey eaieoaea
a yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia e aai aeaeaeaiea iaaeaeo noauaeoaie e naeoi?aie
yeiiiieee.

E?aaeeoiua aeaiueae – yoi aoiaaeiua ciaee noieiinoe, aicieeoea acaiai
cieioa ia iniiaa e?aaeeoa. Aeaeu e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa: aaenaeue, aaieiiou e
/ae. Aeaiiceoiua aeaiueae -nenoaia niaoeeaeueiuo ?an/aoia iaaeaeo
aaieaie ia iniiaa aaieianeeo aeeaaeia iooai ia?aiina noiiu n iaeiiai
n/aoa ia ae?oaie.

Oi?iu e?aaeeoa:

1.Eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo – yoi e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue iaeieie
i?aaei?eyoeyie ae?oaei a aeaea i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea.
I?oaeeai eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa neoaeeo aaenaeue. I?inoie aaenaeue –
aaenaeueiia iaycaoaeuenoai, auaeaaaaiia caaiueeii ia eiy e?aaeeoi?a, n
oeacaieai ianoa e a?aiaie auaea/e aeieaiaiai iaycaoaeuenoaa, noiiu
iineaaeiaai, ianoa e a?aiaie ieaoaaea. Ia?aaiaeiie aaenaeue (o?aooa) –
ienueiaiiue i?eeac iaeiiai eeoea ae?oaiio ia iieaoa ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu
o?aoueaio eeoeo eee i?aaeuyaeoaeth. Iauaeo ia?aaiaeiiai aaenaey –
oiaa?iue eaieoae. Oeaeue eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa – onei?eoue ?aaeecaoeeth
oiaa?ia e caeeth/aiiie a ieo i?eauee.

2.Aaieianeee e?aaeeo – i?aaeinoaaeyaony aeaaeaeueoeaie aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, aaieaie, niaoeeaeueiuie e?aaeeoiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie caaiueeai a
aeaea aeaiaaeiuo nnoae. Iauaeo – aeaiaaeiue eaieoae. Oeaeue – iieo/aiea
i?eauee ii nnoaeai (caeiai, e?aaeeoai).

3.Iio?aaeoaeueneee e?aaeeo – i?aaeinoaaeyaony /anoiui eeoeai. Aai
iauaeoaie yaeythony oiaa?u aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey (iaaaeue,
aaoiiiaeee, oaeaaeci?), ?aciiia?aciua oneoae.

4.Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo – niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee, a
eioi?uo caaiueeaie eee e?aaeeoi?aie aunooiatho ainoaea?noai e ianoiua
i?aaiu aeanoe.

5.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo – aeaeaeaiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nnoaeiiai
eaieoaea iaaeaeo no?aiaie

6.?inoiaue/anee e?aaeeo – iao eeoeaicee.

Ooieoeee e?aaeeoa:

1.Ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay, i?e aai iiiiue naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu
e aeioiaeu aeeoioee?othony e i?aa?auathony a nnoaeiue eaieoae, eioi?ue
ia?aaeaaony ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea.

2.Yienneiiiay (/anoe/ii caiauay iaee/iua aeaiueae e?aaeeoiuie aeaiueaaie
e onei?aiea ia?auaiey aeaiaa). Yeiiiiey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa.

3.Eiio?ieueiay ooieoeey – aaie aeanoei eiio?iee?oao yoio e?aaeeo.

4.Onei?aiea IOI.

5.Ianeoaeeaaiea oiaa?iiai?ioa.

I?eioeeiu e?aaeeoa:

1.N?i/iinoue.

2.I?eioeei aica?aoiinoe.

3.Ieaoiinoue – oeaia e?aaeeoa caaeneo io ni?ina ia e?aaeeo. Nnoaeiue
i?ioeaio.

4.Oeaeaaie oa?aeoa? – i?aaeiieaaaao aoaeouoth i?eaueue.

5.Iaoa?eaeueiay iaania/aiiinoue (o.a. caeia eiouanoaa).

A ?innee aeaenoaoao aeaooo?iaiaaay e?aaeeoiay nenoaia: Oeaio?aeueiue
Aaie – aaieianeea einoeooou e iaaaieianeea e?aaeeoiua i?aaiecaoeee.

50. Aaieianeay nenoaia, aa no?oeoo?a e ooieoeee.

Aaieianeay nenoaia – iaeii ec aunoeo aeinoeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneie
oeeaeeecaoeee.

A ?innee ooieoeeiie?oao aeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia.

1 o?iaaiue – Oeaio?aeueiue (yienneiiiue) aaie. “Aaie aaieia”.

Ooieoeee Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaiea:

1.Aeaiaaeiay yienney.

2.?aaoee?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

3.?aaeecaoeey ioeoeeaeueiie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie e aaethoiie iieeoeee.

Aeaiaaeiay eee aaieianeay yienney – ooieoeey iaania/aiey iio?aaiinoe
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a iaee/iuo aeaiueaao.

Iniiaiua caaea/e OeA:

I?iaaaeaiea iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey,
e?aaeeoa e ?an/aoia, iaania/aiea onoie/eaie iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe
aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu, ?aaoee?iaaiea e eiio?ieue aeayoaeueiinoe
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

Aaaeiuie ?aaoeyoi?aie iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?iii?oeee e iiaaaeaiey
oeiainiauo iin?aaeieeia yaeythony iaoiaeu aicaeaenoaey ia aaieianeoth
eeeaeaeiinoue (aeoeaiua n?aaenoaa aaiea): o/aoiay iieeoeea OeA, iieeoeea
ioe?uoiai ?uiea e iieeoeea ieieiaeueiuo ?aca?aia.

2 o?iaaiue ninoaaeytho /anoiua e ainoaea?noaaiiua aaieianeea einoeooou
eee eiiia?/aneea aaiee. E iei ioiinyo:

– nianoaaiii eiiia?/aneea (aeaiiceoiua) aaie, iniiaiay aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?uo naycaia n i?eaiii aeaiiceoia e auaea/ae e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia;

– eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee, eioi?ua caieiathony iiiauaieai nianoaaiiuo e
caaiiuo n?aaenoa a OeA, aunooiatho iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, ioaeaeathueieny a n?aaenoaao aeey aeieain?i/iuo
aeiaeaiee e aeeaae/eeaie n?aaenoa ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie;

– eiioa/iua aaiee, i?aaeinoaaeythuea aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou iiae caeia
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa;

– naa?aaaoaeueiua eannu e e?aaeeoiua iauanoaa;

– no?aoiaua e iaineiiiua oiiaeu.

A ?innee 6 niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaieia:

1.Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oeaio?aeueiue Aaie (Ainaaie).

2.I?iiuoeaiii-no?ieoaeueiue aaie (I?iino?ieaaie).

3.Aaie aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena (Aa?ii?iiaaie).

4.Aaie aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
(AEeenioeaaie).

5.Aaie o?oaeiauo naa?aaeaiee e e?aaeeoiaaiey ianaeaiey (Naa?aaie).

6.Aaie aiaoaiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae (Aiaoyeiiiiaaie).

51. OA?AEOA?ENOEEA NIA?AIAIIIE E?AAeEOII-AeAIAAEIIE NENOAIU ?O.

E?aaeeo a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea ?innee e ?uieo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io
aeaeaeaiey nnoaeiiai eaieoaea, o.a. aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai a nnoaeo. ?acee/atho 2 iiiyoey e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu:
1)niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee, oi?i e iaoiaeia e?aaeeoiaaiey
(ooieoeeiiaeueiay oi?ia); 2) niaieoiiinoue e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo
o/?aaeaeaiee, aeeoioee?othueo naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua n?-aa e
i?aaeinoaaeythueo eo a nnoaeo (einoeoooeeiiaeueiay oi?ia). A ia?aii
aniaeoa e?aaeeoiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeaia aaieianeei, iio?aaeoaeueneei,
eiiia?/aneei, ainoaea?noaaiiui, iaaeaeoia?iaeiui e?aaeeoii. Anai yoei
aeaeai e?aaeeoa naienoaaiiu niaoeeoe/aneea oi?iu ioiioaiee e iaoiaeu
e?aaeeoiaaiey. ?aaeecotho e i?aaiecotho yoe ioiioaiey
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, ia?acothuea e?aaeeoioth nenoaio ai
aoi?ii (einoeoooeeiiaeueiii) iiieiaiee. Aaaeouei caaiii eino. no?oeoo?u
e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu yaeythony aaiee. E?aaeeoiay nenoaia aieaa oe?ieia e
aieia iiiyoea, /ai aaieianeay nenoaia. Aaie- eiiia?/. o/?aaeaeaiea,
eioi?ia i?eaeaeaao aeai. n?aaenoaa th?. e oec. eeoe e io naiaai eiaie
?aciauaao eo ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe, ieaoiinoe e n?i/iinoe, a oaeaea
inouanoaeyao ?an/aoiua, eiienneiiii-iin?aaeie/aneea e eiua iia?aoeee. A
?innee i?aeoe/anee noi?ie?iaaeanue aeaooo?iaiaaay aaieianeay nenoaia:
1-OeA?, 2 o?iaaiue – eiiia?/aneea aaiee e ae?oaea oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua
o/?aaeae., inouanoaeythuea ioaeaeueiua aaieianeea iia?aoeee. OeA?
yaeyaony aeaaiui aaieii ainoaea?noaa, ii iacaaenei io ?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo
e eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe. OeA? – yeiiiie/anee naiinoiyoaeueiia
o/?aaeae., ii inouanoaeyao naie ?anoiaeu ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo aeioiaeia.
Iniiaiuie caaea/aie OeA? yaeythony:

?aaoee?iaaiea aeai. ia?auaiey, iaania/aiea onoie/eainoe ?oaey,
i?iaaaeaiea aaeeiie aeai.-e?aae. iieeoeee, i?aaiecaoeey ?an/aoia e
eanniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey, caueoa eioa?ania aeeaae/eeia. aaieia, iaaeci?
ca aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiia?/. a. e ae?oaeo e?. o/?aaeae. inouanoaeaiea
iia?aoeee ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. OeA? inouanoaeyao
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee ain-aa iooai onoaiiaeaiey
ii?i iaycaoaeueiiai ?aca?ae?iaaiey eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie naieo
i?eaea/aiiuo ?ano?nia, o?iaiy o/aoiuo noaaie ii e?aaeeoai eiiia?/.
aaieai, aeiaaaeaiey aei ieo yeiiiie/aneeo ii?iaoeaia, i?iaaaeaiea
iia?aoeee n oe/a. OeA? inouanoaeyao ?aoeiaine?iaaiea eiiia?/. a.,
i?aaeinoaaeyy ei e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou e aunooiay e?aaeeoi?ii
iineaaeiae einoaioeee. Aoi?ie o?iaaiue aaieianeie nenoaiu – oe?ieay
naoue eiiia?/. a, iaania/eaathueo e?aaeeoii-?an/aoiia ianeoaeeaaiea,
niaoeeaeueiua aaiee (eiioa/iua – e?aaeeoothuea iiae caeia
iaaeaeaeeiinoe, caiaeueiua – iiae caeia caiaeueiuo o/-eia,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua – inouanoaeythuea iia?aoeee ii auioneo e ?aciauaieth
ei?ii?aoeaiuo oe/a. Iniaia ianoi a e?. n. caieiaao Aiaoyeiiiiaaie,
i?aia?aciaaiiue a aaie ii ianeoaeeaaieth aiaoiaai aeieaa ?O, a oaeaea
Aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey, nicaeaiiue ain-aii aeey oeiaine?iaaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo oeaeaauo i?ia?aii n eniieueciaaieai athaeaeaoiuo
?ano?nia ia auaea/o eueaioiuo e?aaeeoia. Oaeaea aoi-aeyo nithcu,
annioeeaoeee, eiini?oeeoiu, niaoeeaeueiua oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua einoeooou
(e?aaeeoiua nithcu e eiiia?aoeau, oeiainiaua e o?anoiaua eiiiaiee,
no?aoiaua eiiiaiee, /anoiua iaineiiiua oiiaeu e ae?. Oaeei ia?acii, a ?O
iinoaiaiii oi?ne?oaony e?aaeeoiay nenoaia, eioi?ay no?ieony ia oao aea
i?eioeeiao, /oi e a no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?ui.y.

52. Iiiyoea oeiainia. Oeiainiaay nenoaia e aa yeaiaiou.

Oeiainiaay nenoaia – niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Oeiainiaay nenoaia aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea iniiaiua oeiainiaua
einoeooou: ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu; oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee; oeiainiaue ?uiie.

Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee iaania/eaatho i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
e eniieueciaaiey aeioiaeia ia?ae/iie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u, a
oaeaea ?aaoee?otho ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua ioiioaiey ia o?iaia
iee?iyeiiiieee.

Oeiainu ainoaea?noaa iaania/eaatho oi?ie?iaaiea e eniieueciaaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia e ooieoeeiie?otho ia iniiaa nicaeaiey
?acee/iuo oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oiiaeia.

Ninoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia: ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao;
ainoaea?noaaiiia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea; iaineiiiue oiiae e oiiae
nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey; eiouanoaaiiia e ee/iia no?aoiaaiea /a?ac
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee; ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo;

oiiaeu oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noa?o ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
?aciiia?aciuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, auioneaaiuo ainoaea?noaii e i?aaei?eyoeyie
n oeaeueth i?eaea/aiey ?????????

?ieue oeiainiaie nenoaiu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau n iiiiuueth
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee aeeyoue ia oaiiu e i?iii?oeee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu.

Oaeia aeeyiea inouanoaeyaony /a?ac oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiue iaoaieci aeaoiy
iaoiaeaie:

oeiainiaia iaania/aiea (ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao);

oeiainiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea (nenoaia iaeiaia).

53. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e ianoiua athaeaeaou.

2. Athaeaeaoiay iieeoeea inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth athaeaeaoiie
nenoaiu.

Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia ainoaea?noaa – niaieoiiinoue anao athaeaeaoia,
nicaeaiiuo a ainoaea?noaa ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo?
aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey.

Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia iniiauaaaony ia athaeaeaoiii ono?ienoaa, eioi?ia
onoaiaaeeaaao:

aeaeu athaeaeaoia; acaeiiioiioaiea athaeaeaoia; ?aca?aie/aiea aeioiaeia
e ?anoiaeia a athaeaeaoa; ii?aaeaeyao i?eioeeiu e iniiau iino?iaiey
athaeaeaoiuo nenoai; caeiiiaeaoaeueiia inouanoaeaiea e cae?aieaiea
athaeaeaoiiai i?aaa.

A iniiaa athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu ethaie no?aiu eaaeeo
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea.

Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea aeaeu athaeaeaoa:
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao; ?anioaeeeaineea athaeaeaou; ianoiue
athaeaeao.

Athaeaeao (ainoaea?noaaiiue) – nenoaia yeiiiie/anee ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo
ioiioaiee, eioi?ay ioaaouaaao ana iauanoai.

Athaeaeao eiaao oaeea no?oeoo?u: aeioiaeioth; ?anoiaeioth.

Athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo – neiaeiia yeiiiie/aneia yaeaiea. Iii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi no?aia oi/ao o?aoeoue aieueoa, /ai iiaeao.

Athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo ia icia/aao ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe athaeaeaoa. Yoi
icia/aao oieueei ianiioaaonoaea iinoiyiiuo nianoaaiiuo aeioiaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeioiaea aai ?anoiaeai.

54.EIOEssOeEss., OI?IU AA I?IssAEAIEss.INIIAIUA OEIU NIA?AIAIIIE
EIOEssOeEE

Eioeyoeey – e?eceniia ninoiyiea aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu, iaoneiaeaiiia
aeeni?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoueth ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?iyaeythuaany, i?aaeaea anaai a iauai e ia?aaiiia?iii ?inoa oeai ia
oiaa?u e oneoae, /oi aaaeao e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea a iieueco ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. OI?IU I?IssAEAIEss.

1. ia?aaiiia?iue ?ino oeai ia oiaa?u e oneoae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
iaanoeaieaaieth aeaiaa, nieaeaieth eo iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe.

2. iiieaeaiea eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu ii ioiioaieth e
eiino?aiiui.

3. oaaee/aiea oeaiu cieioa, au?aaeaiiie a iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaiaaeiie
aaeeieoea.

I?e?iaea aicieeiiaaiey – ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo ia?auaieai oiaa?iie e
aeaiaaeiie iannu, ii?iaeaeaaiia /aua anaai auioneii a ia?auaiea
ecauoi/iuo iaee/iuo e aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa, ia iaania/aiiuo oiaa?aie. A
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?eiaiyaony niaoeeaeueiue oa?iei eioeyoeeiiiay
yeiiiieea, /oiau iiae/a?eiooue iiiaia?aiiinoue eioeyoeeiiiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ?acee/iua noi?iiu e noa?u ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e
naiiiiaeaea?aeeaathueeny oa?aeoa? eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

AIAOIEA I?E*EIU: ?ino oeai ia ie?iaii ?uiea ia oiieeai e aeaai?iaeiua
iaoaeeu, iaaeaaii?eyoiay eiiuthieoo?a ia ca?iiaii ?uiea a oneiaeyo
cia/eoaeueiiai eiii?oa ca?iiauo.

AIOO?AIIEA I?E*EIU: aeaoi?iaoeey ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u,
aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa, yienney e oaaee/aiea nei?inoe ia?auaiey aeaiaa.

OEIU EIOEssOeEE:

1).”eioeyoeey iieoiaoaeae” (eioeyoeey ni?ina) Ecauoi/iue ni?in i?eaiaeeo
e aceaoo oeai.

2).”eioeyoeey i?iaeaaoeia” (eioeyoeey i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioeyoeey
ecaea?aeae. A yoii neo/aa iaoaieci eioeyoeee ia/eiaao ?ane?o/eaaoueny a
neeo oiai, /oi ?anooo ecaea?aeee (a neeo iiauoaiey ca?aaioeia,
oaei?iaeaiey nu?uey e oiieeaa e ae?.).

A ?aaeueiii ie?a neooaoeey ai?acaei neiaeiaa, e ?acaeaeeoue aeaa aeaea
eioeyoeee aanueia neiaeii. Eioeyoeey ni?ina i?iaeieaeaaony aei oao ii?,
iiea nouanoaotho /?acia?iua iauea ?anoiaeu, a eioeyoeey ecaea?aeae naia
naay ia?aie/eaaao: ec-ca oiaiueoaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aaeueiue iauai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa e caiyoinoe nie?auaaony, e yoi ia?aie/eaaao
aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea ecaea?aeae.

AEAeU EIOEssOeEE.

1. Iieco/ay eioeyoeey, aeey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?iu ioiineoaeueii iaaunieea
oaiiu ?inoa oeai, i?eia?ii aei aeanyoe eee ianeieueei aieaa i?ioeaioia a
aiae. Oaeiai ?iaea eioeyoeey i?enoua aieueoeinoao no?ai n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. E iia ia i?aaenoaaeyaony /ai-oi iaiau/iui. N?aaeiee
o?iaaiue eioeyoeee ii no?aiai Aa?iiaeneiai niiauanoaa ninoaaee ca
iineaaeiea aiaeu ieiei 3 – 3.5%.

2.Aieiie?othuay eioeyoeey a ioee/ea io iieco/ae noaiiaeony
o?oaeiioi?aaeyaiie. Oaii aa ?inoa au?aaeaaony, eae i?aaeei, aeaocia/iuie
oeeo?aie (aei 100% a aiae).

3. Aeia?eioeyoeey – aaeaaiaeiue oaii i?e?inoa oeai nauoa 100%.
Iniaaiiinoue aeia?eioeyoeee a oii, /oi iia ieacuaaaony i?aeoe/anee
iaoi?aaeyaiie; iau/iua ooieoeeiiaeueiua acaeiinayce e i?eau/iua ?u/aae
oi?aaeaiey oeaiaie ia aeaenoaotho. Ia iieioth iiuiinoue ?aaioaao
ia/aoiue noaiie, ?acaeaaaony iaaa?iyoiay niaeoeyoeey. I?iecaiaenoai
aeaci?aaiecoaony. *oiau inoaiiaeoue eee i?eoi?iiceoue aeia?eioeyoeeth,
i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaaoue e /?acau/aeiui ia?ai. Ii iaeiicia/iuo iaoiaeia
ai?ueau n aeia?eioeyoeeae iao.

55.NIOeEAEUeII-YEIIIIE*ANEEA IINEAAeNOAEss EIOEssOeEE.

1.Oooaeoaaony yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea:

· nieaeaaony iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, iineieueeo eieaaaiea e ?ino oeai
aeaeatho iaoaa?aiiuie ia?niaeoeau aai ?acaeoey;

· ia?aeea eaieoaea ec i?iecaiaenoaa a oi?aiaeth e iin?aaeie/aneea
iia?aoeee, aaea auno?aa aai iai?io, aieueoa i?eaueue e eaa/a oeeiiyoueny
io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey;

· ?ino niaeoeyoeee a ?acoeueoaoa ?aceiai eciaiaiey oeai;

· oiaiueoaiea e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee;

· iaanoeaieaaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ainoaea?noaa.

2. Aicieeaao nioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue:

nieaeathony ?aaeueiua aeioiaeu (eiee/anoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua
iiaeii eoieoue ia noiio iiieiaeueiiai aeioiaea).

ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a oua?a iaeiaiaa
iaania/aiiuo neiaa;

iniaaiii no?aaeatho io eioeyoeee ethaee, aeeaouea ia oeene?iaaiiua
aeioiaeu: iainee, ca?ieaoa ainneoaeaueo, iiniaey. Aeey eo caueou
iaiaoiaeeia nenoaia eiaeaenaoeee iiniaee; ethaee, aeeaouea ia
iaoeene?iaaiiua aeioiaeu iiaoo e auea?aoue io eioeyoeee;

iaanoeaieaaiea naa?aaeaiee.

iai?aaeaeaeaiiay eioeyoeey i?eiineo auaiaeo aeaaeoi?ai ca n/ao
e?aaeeoi?ia. Iieo/aoaeue nnoaeu aa?ao a aeiea “aei?iaea” ?oaee, a
aica?auaao – “aeaoaaua”.

iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee a noa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey auee au ia oaeeie
oyaeaeuie, anee au ethaee iiaee i?aaeaeaeaoue eioeyoeeth e eiaee au
aiciiaeiinoue ei??aeoe?iaaoue naie iiieiaeueiua aeioiaeu.

3.Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou n/eoatho, /oi eioeyoeey naycaia ia?aoiie
caaeneiinoueth n aac?aaioeoeae: /ai auoa o?iaaiue eioeyoeee oai ieaea
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, e /oi iiaeii aeinoe/ue iieiie caiyoinoe i?e
aeiaieueii ne?iiiii o?iaia eioeyoeee, o.i. oia?aiiay iieco/ay eioeyoeey
iiaeao niaeaenoaiaaoue iaeeaeaieth yeiiiieee.

56. AIOEEIOEssOeEIIIAss IIEEOEEA AINOAeA?NOAA, IA?U ?AAOEE?IAAIEss
EIOEssOeEE.

Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea – eiiieaen ia? ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio
?aaoee?iaaieth yeiiiieee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ai?ueao n eioeyoeeae.

Aeaa iooe:

1. Aeaoeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea – iai?aaeaia ia nie?auaiea athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa,

ia?aie/aiea e?aaeeoiie yeniainee, naea?aeeaaiea aeaiaaeiie yiennee. A
niioaaonoaee n iiiaoa?enoneeie ?aoeaioaie i?eiaiyaony oa?aaoe?iaaiea –
?aaoee?iaaiea oaiia i?e?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao
a niioaaonoaee n oaiiii ?inoa AII.

2.Iieeoeea ?aaoee?iaaiey oeai e aeioiaeia, eiathuay oeaeueth oaycaoue
?ino ca?aaioeia n ?inoii oeai. Iaeiei ec n?aaenoa neoaeeo eiaeaenaoeey
aeioiaeia, ii?aaeaeyaiay o?iaiai i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia eee noieiinoueth
noaiaea?oiie iio?aaeoaeueneie ei?ceiu e niaeanoaiay n aeeiaieeie
eiaeaena oeai. Aeey naea?aeeaaiey iaaeaeaoaeueiuo yaeaiee iiaoo
onoaiaaeeaaoueny i?aaeaeu iiauoaiey oeai eee caii?aaeeaaiea ca?aaioiie
ieaou, ia?aie/eaaoueny auaea/a e?aaeeoia e o.ae. IA?U ?AAOEE?IAAIEss:

noaaeeecaoeey e noeioee?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa,

niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu,

nicaeaiea ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u,

iiauoaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee ca ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe,

?aaoee?iaaieth eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou,

i?iaaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ia? ii ?aaoee?iaaieth oeai e ?anoiaeia,

aeinoeaeaiea iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe,

no?oeoo?iay ?aoi?ia, iai?aaeaiiay ia i?aiaeieaiea aicieeoeo a yeiiiieea
aeeni?iii?oeee.

57. AeAIAAEIUA ?AOI?IU.

Aeaoeyoeey-ecuyoea ec ia?auaiey eceeoieo aeaiaa. Ioeeoeeaoeey – ecuiaiea
noa?uo aeaiaa ec ia?auaiey. Aeaiiieiaoeey – eciaiaiea ianooaaa oeai a
ii?aaeaeaiiii niioiioaiee. 61a. – 1/10, 98a. – 1/1000. A oaeii aea
niioiioaiee eciaiythony oeaiu, oa?eou, c/i, n?ie aeey iaiaia ei?ioeee.
Aeaaaeueaaoeey – eciaiaiea eo?na iaoe. aaethou ii ioiioaieth e
eiino?aiiie eee eciaiaiea iaoaeee/. niaea?aeaiey aeai. aaeeieoeu.
?aaaeueaaoeey – iiauoaiea eo?na aeai. aae. ii ioiioaieth e eiino?.
?aoi?iu – ea?aeeiaeueiia eciaiaiea ianooaaa oeai. Aeaaiui oneiaeai
i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu yaeyaony iiaeuai i?iecaiaenoaa. 1922 – ?aoi?ia
aeaiaa 1? e 10000, 1 /a?aiiaoe: 0,75a. cieioa. 23a. – 1 e 1000 auea
eiiaa?oe?oaiay aaethoa aei 26a. 24 – 1 e 100, auaiceee, aei 28 a.-
aaiceee. 29 – aaaee ea?oi/iua iaianoiyuea aeaiueae 46 – ia o?iaeae –
?aoi?iu iao 47-?aoi?ia ca 10 aeiae, aeaiiieiaoeey 1/10. O i?aaei?eyoee
aeaiueae inoae 1/1. Oeaiu inoaeenue ia o?iaia ea?oi/ae 50 – iiaia
niioiioaiea ?oaey e aeieea?o, 1?oaeue: 0.222 a cieio. 61-aeaaaeueaaoeey
1/10, ii ioiioaiea 1 ?oaey: 0,987 a. cieioa, o.a. iioea ne?uoay
eioeyoeey, o.e. noa?ua aeaiueae eo/oa iiauo. Aaethoiay eioa?aaioeey –
aaaaeaiea a ia?auaiea ia?aeeaeueiie oaa?aeie aaethou

58.Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, aai nouiinoue, oeaee e iniiaiua oeiu.

Aini?iecaiaenoai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee yoi anoue iinoiyiiia
aiciaiiaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu, n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia.

Aini?iecaiaenoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee yoi anoue aini?iecaiaenoai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?i i?iecaiaenoaa e aini?iecaiaenoai
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

Aini?iecaiaenoai auaaao i?inoia e ?anoe?aiiia.

I?inoui aini?iecaiaenoaii yaeyaony oaeia aini?iecaiaenoai, eiaaea
?acia?u i?iecaaaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e aai ea/anoai inoaaony ieceei ec
aiaea a aiae.

?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai – yoi oaeia aini?iecaiaenoai, eiaaea
?acia?u i?iecaaaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e aai ea/anoai ec aiaea a aiae
aic?anoaao e niaa?oainoaoaony.

?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai aiieiuaii a yeiiiie/aneii ?inoa.
Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino – yoi aeeiaieea iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e oaeoi?ia
aai i?iecaiaenoaa. Auaaao aeaoo oeiia: yenoaineaiue e eioaineaiue.

I?e yenoaineaiii oeia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino aeinoeaaaony eiee/anoaaiiui
oaaee/aieai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa i?e nio?aiaiee i?aaeiae oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?e eioaineaiii oeia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino aeinoeaaaony iooai ea/anoaaiiiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

IOI e IO? iaoneaaeeaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue e aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea e
iiaiio oeio yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

Nia?aiaiiue oei yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa – yoi ?acaeoea eioaineoeeaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa IO?.

Iieacaoaee nia?aiaiiiai oeia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa:

· iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee;

· iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea;

· ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey, o.a. oiaiueoaiea oaeaeueiiai ?anoiaea ?ano?nia ia
aaeeieoeo iieaciiai yooaeoa;

· aeeiaieea oiiaeiioaea/e;

· nieaeaiea oaeoueo cao?ao aeeaiai e iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee;

· eioaa?e?iaaiiue iieacaoaeue iiaiai oeia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa – ?ino
yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iauee iieacaoaeue – aunieea eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou.

59. Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu e oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? aini?iecaiaenoaa.

1.Aini?iecaiaenoai iauanoaaiiiai eaieoaea iineo oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee aeeth/aao: e?ecen; aeai?anney; iaeeaeaiea;
iiaeuai.

E?ecen oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie /a?oaie:

· iaaeaao i?iecaiaenoai;

· ia?ai?iecaiaenoai (ia?aiaeiieaiea) i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea ai anao aai
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oi?iao: oiaa?iay; aeaiaaeiay; i?iecaiaeeoaeueiay;

· aaie?ionoai i?iiuoeaiiuo e oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeaea anaai
n?aaeieo e iaeeeo;

· ?ino aac?aaioeoeu;

· nieaeaiea aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy.

Aeai?anney oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie /a?oaie:

· iiauoaaony noaiaiue yenieoaoaoeee;

· naiiaic?anoaao eaieoae iaaeeaiii e iinoaiaiii;

· i?iecaiaenoai ?anoe?yaony, ii i/aiue iacia/eoaeueii;

· iinoaiaiii ?annanuaathony oiaa?iua caianu;

· eiaanoeoeeiiiue eaieoae i?eniinaaeeaaaony e iiaui oeaiiaui i?iii?oeeyi
e iiaie no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieea.

Iaeeaeaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie /a?oaie:

aieaa eee iaiaa onoie/eaui ?anoe?aieai i?iecaiaenoaa;

· iiauoaaony caa?ocea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa;

· auno?i oaaee/eaathony i?eauee.

Iiaeuai oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi enoiaeiui ioieoii oeeeee/aneiai
iiaeuaia n/eoaaony ainnoaiiaeaiea aeie?eceniiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeoeaiinoe:

· ?anoe?yaony ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo;

· ?annanuaaaony aac?aaioeoea;

· ?anoao ca?aaioiay ieaoa;

· iiauoaaony ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey;

· ?anoe?yaony ?uiie aeey io?aneae ia?aiai iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie oeeeee/aneiai aini?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iaiiaeaiea
iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

2. Oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea aii?inu ?acaeoey eiiuthieoo?u ????

Eiiae?aoueaa ioe?ue eiioeaioeeth aeeeiiuo aiei iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Yoa eiioeaioeey ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai
?acaeaaaony oeeeee/anee.

Oeeeeu auaatho:

aieueoea (40-55 eao) – ninoiyo ec aeaoo oac eee aeaoo aiei:
iiauoaoaeueiie; iiieaeaoaeueiie;

iaeua (8-10 eao).

Eiiae?aoueaa au/eaiee 2.5 aieueoeo oeeeea ca 140 eao oicyenoaaiiie
enoi?ee:

1) n 1787-1792 ii 1810-1817 aa. – iiauoaoaeueiay aieia; n 1810-1817 ii
1844-1851 aa. – iiieaeaoaeueiay aieia;

2) n 1844-1851 ii 1870-1875 aa. – iiauoaoaeueiay aieia; n 1870-1875 ii
1890-1896 aa. – iiieaeaoaeueiay aieia;

3) n 1890-1896 ii 1914-1920 aa. – iiauoaoaeueiay aieia; n 1920 aei 40-o
aa. – iiieaeaoaeueiay aieia;

4) n eiioea 40-o aei ia/aea 70-o aa. – iiauoaoaeueiay aieia; n 70-o aa.
– ana 80-a aiaeu – iiieaeaoaeueiay aieia.

Yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie aeeeiiuo aiei yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiue
oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi a oa/aiea
i?eaeeceoaeueii aeaoo aeanyoeeaoee ia?aae ia/aeii iiauoaoaeueiie oacu
iaaethaeaaony iaeeaeaiea a noa?a oaoie/aneeo ecia?aoaiee, a caoai a
aiaeu oicyenoaaiiiai iiaeuaia eo oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea.

3.Nia?aiaiiue oeeee ?acaeoey oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi e?iia iau/iuo
oeeeee/aneeo e?ecenia iauaai ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa nouanoaotho oae
iacuaaaiua no?oeoo?iua e?ecenu, eioi?ua ia oeeaaeuaathony a ?aiee
iaeiiai aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea. No?oeoo?iue e?ecen ii?aaeaao ni?in
ia i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ue ?anoao iaaeeaiiaa, /ai yeiiiieea a oeaeii, a
eiiaaea e aaniethoii nie?auaaony. E oaeei io?aneyi ioiinyony: /a?iay e
oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey; oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

E no?oeoo?iui e?ecenai ioiinyony: yia?aaoe/aneee e?ecen; nu?ueaaie
e?ecen.

60. O?IAAIUe AEECIE IANAEAIEss E AAI IIEaCAOAeE.

Iiiyoea OAE oa?aeoa?ecoao eiee/anoaaiioth ia?o aeaaininoiyiey ethaeae e
/aua anaai oa?aeoa?ecoaony eiee/anoaaiiuie e /eneiauie iieacaoaeyie.
Iniiaiua ecia?eoaee o?iaiy aeecie:

No?oeoo?a e o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey iniiaiuo aeaeia aeaa e oneoa a
iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee a ?an/aoa ia 1 /ae. eee 1 naiuee ec 4 /ae.aaiae;

ia?a iaania/aiiinoe /aeiaaea e naiuee iio?aaeoaeueneeie aeaaaie:
iieacaoaee aiaeiaiai iio?aaeaiey ieue, iaeaaeaeu, iaoae, iaania/aiiinoe
aeeeie ieiuaaeueth, iaaaeueth, oiaa?aie aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey,
i?aaeiaoaie eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai iacia/aiey e oicyenoaaiiiai iaeoiaea,

iaania/aiiinoue ianaeaiey oeieaie, ae/n, a?a/aaiui ianeoaeeaaieai,
ia?eeiao., aaiyie, noieiauie.

*oiau iiiyoue, ianeieueei oaeie o?iaaiue niioaaonoaoao iio?aaiinoyi
ethaeae, aai n?aaieaatho n ii?iaoeaaie iio?aaeaiey, au?aaioaiiuie n
o/aoii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iaoee i ieoaiee. E /eneo oiio?aaeyaiuo iieacaoaeae
o?iaiy aeecie ioiinyo – aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu ianaeaiey, a ?an/aoa ia 1
/ae eee naiueth. Aaaeii /oiau iany/iue aeioiae i?aauoae i?iaeeoi/iue
ieieioi (iio?aaeoaeueneay ei?ceia). I?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi nouanoaaiii
caaeneo io oeai, iiyoiio a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee ii iai?a?uaii iaiyaony.
Ethaee eioi?ua oiio?aaeytho ieaea i?aaeoniio?aiiiai i?iae. ieieioia
aeeaoo ca /a?oie aaaeiinoe. – iauanoaaiiua oiiaeu iio?aaeaiey (aeaaa e
oneoae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ainoaea?noaii ianaeaieth aanieaoii eee ca
ia?aie/aiioth ieaoo). – eiouanoaaiiua e aeaiaaeiua iaeiieaiey. –
n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie, aeaoneay e iauay nia?oiinoue,
o?iaaiue caaieaaaaiinoe. – eie-ai naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie. Anee noaeeoue ia
o?iaia aeecie ethaeae ii eo oaeouaio iio?aaeaieth, oi naiia nouanoaaiiia
aeeyiea ea?atho aeioiaeu e oeaiu.

61. No?oeoo?a aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ianaeaiey. Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
ianaeaiey ii o?iaith aeioiaeia.

Iio?aaeoaeueneee athaeaeao(IA) – oaaeeoea, a eioi?ie niiinoaaeythony
aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu /aeiaaea eee naiuee. ?aaeueiua athaeaeaou
no?iyony ia iniiaa ii?ina, eco/aiey aiaeeca, noaoenoeee aeioiaeia e
iio?aaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo, iaeaieaa i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo a?oii ianaeaiey.

?aoeeiiaeueiue IA – oai?aoe/aneee A, iino?iai enoiaey ec ?aoeeiiaeueiuo
ii?i iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo aeaa, oneoa a ii?aaeaeaiiii
oeaeaniia?aciii iaai?a.

Athaeaeao iio?aaeoaeueneiai ieieioia ninoaaeyaony ia iniiaa iaai?a
ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiuo iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, oneoa, ?anoiaeia.

Aeioiaeu: C/I, iainee, noeiaiaeee, iiniaey, aeiiieieoaeueiua auieaou,
aeioiaeu io ee/iiai oicyenoaa, aeaaioai?eoaeueiay iiiiuue.

?anoiaeu: i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, iaeaaeaea e iaoaue, iaaaeue, i?aaeiaou
eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai iacia/aiey e oicyenoaaiiiai iaeoiaea, eaa?oieaoa e
auoiaua oneoae, eoeueoo?iua ioaeaeu, oaaa/iua e aeii-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey,
o?ainii?o, oieaoa iaeiaia, a oaeaea ia?aciaaiea naa?aaeaiee. Ia?yaeo n
aaeainii aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ia ia?ac e o?iaaiue aeecie aeeytho
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e iio?aaeaieai e aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
aeioiaeia. Niaeanii caeiio Yiaaey i?e ?inoa aeioiaeia iio?aaeaiea
niauaaony a iaeanoue aieaa aei?iaeo e oeaiiuo oiaa?ia.

Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo o?iaiai iio?aaeaiey e aaee/eiie aeioiaea iac.
ooieoeeae iio?aaeaiey.

Iau/ii naycue i. iio?aaeaieai e aeioiaeaie aeecea e eeiaeiie. Anee au
naiuee o?aoeee ana naie aeioiaeu ia iio?aaeaiea, oi ooieoeey iio?aaeaiey
eiaea au aeae i?yiie, ?aniieiaeaiiie iiae oaeii 45 a?aae e inyi
eii?aeeiao. Ii ia ana aeioiaeu o?aoyony ia oaeouaa iio?aaeaiea, /anoue
ec ieo ioeeaaeuaaaony ia iaeiieaiea e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?anoiaeu
aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia.

I?yiay eiaao aeae: Y = k * X (X – aeioiaeu,Y – iio?aaeaiea). k < 1. k - oa?aeoa?ecoao neeiiiinoue e iio?aaeaieth.Aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu ?ani?aaeaeythony ia ?aaiiia?ii iaaeaeo ethaeueie, o.a. eiaao ianoi aeeooa?aioeeaoeey aeioiaeia. Noaiaiue ia?aaainoaa onoaiaaeeaaaony iooai niiinoaaeaiey aaee/eiu aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia, iieo/aaiuo 10% a?oiiie ethaeae n naiuie ieceeie aeioiaeaie e n naiuie aunieeie. Aieaa ianoiyoaeueiue iiaeoiae e ioeaiea noaiaie ia?aaiiia?iinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia caeeth/aaony a iino?iaiee e?eaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia(e?eaay Ei?aioea). X - i?ioeaio aeioiaea, Y - i?ioeaio ianaeaiey. Ec a?aoeea aeaeii: 60% ianaeaiey iieo/atho 40% iauaai aeioiaea. Anee au aeioiaeu anao naiae auee iaeeiaeiau, oi yoi auea au i?yiay iiae oaeii 45 a?aae.62.Aac?aaioeoea, aa i?e/eiu e oi?iu, iaoiaeu i?aiaeieaiey.Aac?aaioeoea - nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia yaeaiea, i?e eioi?ii /anoue aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey ia iiaeao i?eeiaeeoue naith ?aai/oth neeo. Aac?aaioiui a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eciathony a?aaeaeaia, eioi?ua ia eiatho ?aaiou e ca?aaioea ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a neoaeaa caiyoinoe a oeaeyo iiaeoiaeyuae ?aaiou e aioiau i?enooieoue e iae.Ii?iaeaeaaony aac?aaioeoea a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iiae aeaenoaeai eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea o?oaea, oneeeaaaony a ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneeo e?ecenia e iineaaeothuaai ?aceiai nie?auaiey ni?ina ia ?aai/oth neeo.Iniiaiie eiioeiaaio aac?aaioiuo a ?innee - ethaee iiaeeeiai aic?anoa, aeaiueiu, iieiaeaaeue.?acee/atho o?e aeaea aac?aaioeoeu: o?eeoeeiiioth, no?oeoo?ioth, oeeeee/aneoth. O?eeoeeiiiay aac?aaioeoea nouanoaiaaea anaaaea, oae eae naycaia n ia?aiaiie ianoa ?aaiou, e a?aaeaeaia a iieneao eo/oae ?aaiou eaeoo ia yoi aeia?iaieueii.No?oeoo?iay aac?aaioeoea naycaia n eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa e, eae ?acoeueoao, ianiaiaaeaieai i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu e ni?ina ia iaa.Oeeeee/aneay aac?aaioeoea aicieeaao a ii?aaeaeaiiua iiiaiou a aeecie iauanoaa: ai a?aiy niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa, aeai?annee e o. ae., eiaaea ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo i/aiue iecie.Aac?aaioeoea i?eieiaao naiua ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu: a?aiaiioth, naciiioth, ?aaeiiaeueioth, iieiaeaaeioth e o.ae.Iaeeaeaaony, /oi e 2000a. i?iaeaiu aac?aaioeoeu aua aieaa iaino?yony, iiyoiio ainoaea?noai, no?aiynue ia aeiionoeoue eee ieieiece?iaaoue aac?aaioeoeo, aeieaeii aeoeaii auiieiyoue nioeeaeueii-caueoiua, ?aaoee?othuea ooieoeee. I?e/eiu aac?aaioeoeu a ?innee:no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee, aeeni?iii?oeee aa ?acaeoey;cae?uoea iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiuo, oauoi/iuo e iioa?iaaoeo aaie?ionoai i?aaei?eyoee;aunaiaiaeaeaiea ?aaioieeia a ?acoeueoaoa aianaiey i?ia?anneaiuo iaoiaeia oicyenoaiaaiey (a?aiaea, eiiia?aoeey e o.ae.) e i?eaaoecaoeey i?aaei?eyoey;aiaae?aiea a i?iecaiaenoai iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee;no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea i?aaei?eyoee, ionoonoaea ?aaiou ii niaoeeaeueiinoe;eeeaeaeaoeey yeieiae/anee a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa iiae aeeyieai iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu ieieiaeai a no?aiao iieeoe/anee noaaeeueiuo, yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo, n ioeaaeaiiie nenoaiie nioeeaeueiie caueou.Aaaeiui aeey eeeaeaeaoeee aac?aaioeoeu, niaoeeoe/aneei aeey ninoiyiey a ?innee yaeyaony niyoea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, i?aaiauo e yeiiiie/aneeo ia?aie/aiee, i?aiyonoaothuae naiaiaeiie i?iaeaaea ?aai/ae neeu, a eiaiii: ioiaia einoeoooa i?iienee, ?acaeoea ?uiea aeeeuey, i?aiaeieaiea iiiiiieecia ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, ?acaeoea iaoaiecia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe ianaeaiey. Ia?u ii nie?auaieth aac?aaioeoeu neaaeothuea:1.O?oaeiono?ienoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia i?aaei?eyoee iooai nicaeaiey iiauo ?aai/eo iano (?anoe?aiea eee nicaeaiea iiae?acaeaeaiee, ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeey ia ae?. niaoeeaeueiinoe e o.ae.);2.I?aaiecaoeey iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio (aeaaiono?ienoai oa??eoi?ee, eaniuo ianneaia e ai?iaeneeo oeeoe, ?aaioa ia iaiuiuo aacao, ii oai?ea nae./oic. i?iaeoeoeee);3.Iiiu?aiea /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e noeioee?iaaiea naiicaiyoinoe ianaeaiey, ?acaeoea iaeiai aeciana (oiaa?euanoaa, eiiia?aoeau, oa?ia?neea oicyenoaa);4. Ia?aiiaeaioiaea e i?ioanneiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea ii aeaoeoeeoiui niaoeeaeueiinoyi e i?ioanneyi5. Eniieueciaaiea aeaeeo oi?i caiyoinoe ( iaaeiiiue o?oae, iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue, iaaeaey);6. Oe?ieay eioi?iaoeey ianaeaiey i aiciiaeiinoe o?oaeiono?ienoaa, i?iaaaeaiea y?ia?ie aaeainee, aeiae ioe?uouo aeaa?ae e o.ae.63.Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea ii nioeeaeueiie caueoa aac?aaioiuo.A Caeiia ?O “I caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a ?O” ii?aaeaeaia iieeoeea ainoae-aa a iaeanoe caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, i?aaa a?aaeaeai a iaeanoe caiyoinoe, a oaeaea aii?inu ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee caiyoinoe e nicaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau caiyoinoe ianaeaiey.Caeii ii?aaeaeyao i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, i?aaiaua e nioe.-yeiiiie/aneea aa?aioee ?aaeecaoeee i?aa /aeiaaea ia iieo/aiea ?aaiou a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, ?aaiii?aaey oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. Ii nicaeaao oneiaey, iaania/eaathuea caiyoinoue ianaeaiey n o/aoii ii?i Eiinoeoooeee ?innee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa. A iaaeaeoia?iaeioth i?aaiecaoeeth o?oaea iaoa no?aia anooieea a 1954a. IIO inouanoaeyao Anaie?ioth i?ia?aiio caiyoinoe, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie ieacuaaao no?aiai ie?a i?aeoe/aneoth iiiiuue a auai?a iieeoeee, i?ecaaiiie i?eaanoe e nicaeaieth aieueoaai /enea iano a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a nae/oic., ia iauanoaaiiuo ?aaioao e a ae?oaeo naeoi?ao, a oaeaea a auai?a oaoiieiaee e i?ia?aii iiaeaioiaee, eioi?ua aoaeoo iieiinoueth eniieueciaaoue o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu a oeaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai i?ia?anna.Aeey niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe a?aaeaeai a ?aaioa, i?aaeioa?auaiey aac?aaioeoeu e nioeeaeueiie caueou io aa iineaaenoaee ia ?anioaeeeaineii e ianoiii o?iaiyo ?ac?aaioaia Ainoaea?noaaiiay i?ia?aiia niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe. Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anioaeeeaineay e ?aaeiiaeueiay i?ia?aiiu caiyoinoe i?aaeoniao?eaatho:1.Oaaee/aiea /enea ?aai/eo iano, iiauoaiea yeiiiie/aneie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee a i?iaeoeoeaiuo e aeaeeo oi?iao caiyoinoe ianaeaiey;2. Ia?u niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a naeueneie ianoiinoe;3.Iaania/aiea caiyoinoe ioaeaeathueony a nioeeaeueiie caueoa a?aaeaeai iaineiiiiai aic?anoa;4. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/ae neeu a oaycea n ?acaeoeai ?aai/eo iano, iiaeaioiaeie e ia?aiiaeaioiaeie, iiauoaieai eaaeeoeeaoeee, i?ioanneiiaeueiie ia?ai?eaioaoeeae ianaeaiey, iiauoaieai yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia;5. Nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey iai?aaeaiey aunaiaiaeaeaaiuo ?aaioieeia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a ?acaeaathueany io?anee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa;6. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoe-e no?oeoo?u ainoae-e neoaeau caiyoinoe, oi?ie?iaaiea aa iaoa?eaeueiie, eaae?iaie, eioi?iaoe-e, noaoenoe/-e, oeiainiaie e iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie aacu;7. Niaeaenoaea aeia?iaieueiiio ia?aianaeaieth a?aaeaeai n auaeaeaieai niioaaonoaothueo iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo n?aaenoa.Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea a iaeanoe caiyoinoe ianaeaiey iai?aaeaia oaeaea ia iiiu?aiea ?aaioiaeaoaeae, nicaeathueo iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa, ia eii?aeeiaoeeth aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia caiyoinoe, i?ioanneiiaeueiuo nithcia, annioeeaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a ?ac?aaioea, ?aaeecaoeee e eiio?iea ca auiieiaieai ia? ii iaania/aieth caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai a ?aoaiee i?iaeai caiyoinoe ianaeaiey.Aeey ?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a ?O nicaeaiu neoaeaa caiyoinoe. A ?anioaeeeao a ninoaaa ?O oaeaea nicaeaiu neoaeau caiyoinoe ianaeaiey: a e?ayo, iaeanoyo, aaoiiiiiuo ie?oaao, ai?iaeao. Nouanoaotho e eiiia?/aneea ath?i, aaaionoaa, ieacuaathuea ieaoiua oneoae a o?oaeiono?ienoaa a?aaeaeai ca ?oaaaeii, aeiioneaaony oieueei ii eeoeaiceyi. Eeoeaicee auaeathony i?e iaee/ee na?oeoeeaoa, iieo/aiiiai io Oaaea?aeueiie ainoae-e neoaeau caiyoinoe. A iaycaiiinoe neoaeau caiyoinoe aoiaeyo: aiaeec e i?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?aai/oth neeo; eioi?iaoeey i ninoiyiee ?uiea o?oaea; o/ao naiaiaeiuo iano, ?aaeno?aoeey aac?aaioiuo; auieaoa iiniaee e o ae.64.Nouiinoue e iniiaiua /a?ou anaie?iiai oicyenoaa.Aaeeiiai iiieiaiey n?aaee enneaaeiaaoaeae iao. Nouanoaoao 3 iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea e ii?aaeaeaieth iiiyoey ie?iaie yeiiiieee eee ie?iaiai oicyenoaa.1)Ie?iaia oicyenoai - niaieoiiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa, enoiee a aano?i-aaiaa?neie oeiea 19 a. Niaieoiiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa, naycaiiuo iieeoe/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie.2)Ie?iaay yeiiiieea - nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Aaeeiay naycue iaaeaeo iaoeeiiaeueiuie oicyenoaaie.3)Ie?iaay yeiiiieea - yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia, naiiaini?iecaiaeyuayny ia o?iaia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Iauaaeeiaiu yeiiiie/aneea neeu, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, i?aaiaua ii?iu.Iniiaa nouanoaiaaiey ie?iaiai oicyenoaa - oeaeinoiinoue e onoie/eainoue. Oieueei oae aiciiaeia oee?eoeyoeey i?iaeoeoia a ieaiaoa?iii ianooaaa.Neiaeiinoue e ea?a?oe/iinoue ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Ia?aaiiia?iinoue a ?acaeoee. 1/3 iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe o NOA, ssiiiee e Aa?iaiee i?e 9% ianaeaiey. Oeaeue ie?iaiai oicyenoaa - oaeiaeaoai?aiea ni?ina e /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae. Ii?yaeie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ie?iaiai oicyenoaa aace?oaony ia ii?iao /anoiiai e ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaa.Ie?iaia oicyenoai - enoi?e/aneay e iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey. Aeiaaeueiia ie?iaia oicyenoai neiaeeeinue e i. 20 a. Ie?iaie ?uiie ia?aciaaeny n ia?eiaea Aaeeeeo Aaia?aoe/aneeo Ioe?uoee. Ia/aei ie?iaiio oicyenoao iieiaeeei ie?iaia i?iecaiaenoai. *oi iiaeaeei ia?aieaoaiea ie?iaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai e nnoaeiiai eaieoaea. Ie? iiaeaeai ia noa?u aeeyiey, i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iiiiiieee. A i. 20 a. ie?iaia oicyenoai ninoiyei ec: eieiiee e iao?iiieee.Eiioeaioeee aeiaaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu:Eiia?eaeecia e iaieiia?eaeecia. Iauyniyao ie?iaia oicyenoai eae ai?ueao iaaeaeo aaaeoueie no?aiaie ca ?uiee. Eiia?eaeeci - noaaeey a ?acaeoee i?e ainiiaenoaa oeiainiaiai eaieoaea e iiiiiieee, aieueoia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao auaic eaieoaea, i?ioeann ?acaeaea ie?a o?anoaie e iiiiiieeyie a yeiiiie/aneii ieaia e oa??eoi?eaeueii iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie.Eaiei, Aooa?ei, Ethenaiao?a. Nioeeaeueii-eeaa?aeueiia iai?aaeaiea Aiaana.Iiaea?iecaoeee e iaiyaiethoeee.1) Ia?aoiae e nia?aiaiiiio yeiiiie/aneiio iauanoao, a eioi?ii ainiiaenoaotho aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe. O?aaeeoeeiiiua iauanoaa oi?aaeythony ii-noa?iio, ia i?eieiay iiaiaaaaeaiee. Aaaa? aeaeae a iniiaa naycaiii-?acaeaathueany ?uii/iua oicyenoaa, i?ioaeoeeiieci. Oai?ey iieo/eea iaaieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.2) I?aia?aciaaiea ec o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iauanoa /a?ac i?ioeann nioeeaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee. Aeiieie?iaaea a ia?aie iieiaeia 20 a.Caaeneiinoe.Iniiaae a?aaioeineee yeiiiieno O?aeoia?. Nouanoaoao 3 iai?aaeaiey: eiioeaioeey caaeneiinoe e ia?acaeoinoe, caaeneiiai ?acaeoey, aini?iecaiaenoaa caaeneiinoe. Eaieoaeenoe/aneee ?uiie oicyenoa iaeiia?aiaiii ii?iaeaeaao yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea e ia?acaeoinoue.Ie?iaie nenoaiu.Iniiaae Aaea?ooaei. Aeaeeo ie? ia o?e oeaio?a: ie?iaua yae?a, ia?eoa?eeiua no?aiu, iieoia?eoa?eeiua no?aiu. Nouanoaoao caaeneiinoue a eo ?acaeoee ae?oa io ae?oaa e io oeaio?a.A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey aicieeea oai?ey, naycaiiay n aeaeaeaieai eaieoaea, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae oicyenoaa ?acaeouo no?ai. I?ioeainoieo anai ae?oaei eiioeaioeeyi. Acaeiiioiioaiey ia io a caaeneiinoe, a io acaeiicaaeneiinoe e ia?oia?noaa.65. Oi?iu e oaiaeaioeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey (IYI) - nenoaia oicyenoaaiiuo naycae iaaeaeo iaoeeiiaeueiuie yeiiiieeaie ioaeaeueiuo no?ai, niioaaonoaothueie noauaeoaie oicyenoaiaaiey. IYI - iniaay noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, iniiaaiiay ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. IYI iaoiaeyo i?aeoe/aneia au?aaeaiea a iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie, i?aaenoaaeythueie eo i?aaei?eyoeyie, oe?iaie e i?aaiecaoeeyie i?iaeoeoeeae (oiaa?aie e oneoaaie) iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo, aaethoii-oeiainiauo e e?aaeeoiuo, eioi?iaoeeiiiuo eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo naycyo, ia?aiauaiee iaaeaeo ieie o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. IYI iauaeoeaii auoaeatho ec i?ioeanna ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoee, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. Noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea IYI ii?aaeaeythony oneeaieai acaeiinayce acaeiicaaeneiinoe yeiiiiee ioaeaeueiuo no?ai. Oaeoaeaiea e ?acaeoea I?O, a cia/eo IYI, caaenyo io anoanoaaiiuo (i?e?iaeiuo, aaia?aoe/aneeo, aeaiia?aoe/aneeo e o.i.) e i?eia?aoaiiuo (i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, oaoiieiae/aneeo) oaeoi?ia, a oaeaea nioeeaeueiuo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo, yoie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo e i?aanoaaiii-i?aaiauo oneiaee. Oeacaiiua auoa i?aeoe/aneea ninoaaiua iai?aaeaiey e oi?iu IYI ioaaouaatho ?yae noa? ie?ioicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe:· iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey;· iaaeaeoia?iaeiay niaoeeaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?aaio;· iaiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie ?acoeueoaoaie;· eioi?iaoeeiiiua, aaethoii-oeiainiaua e e?aaeeoiua nayce iaaeaeo no?aiaie;· aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia e ?aai/ae neeu;· aeayoaeueiinoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, oicyenoaaiiia nio?oaeie/anoai a ?aoaiee aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai.IYI, yaeythueany iieai e ?acoeueoaoii i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea, eaieoaea, i?e?iaeiuo e ae?oaeo ?ano?nia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeio ec noa? ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa ni naienoaaiiuie aio iniiaiuie i?eciaeaie. A yoie noa?a ?uii/iua ioiioaiey i?aaeiieaaatho:· iiiaeanoaaiiinoue eo iauaeoia e noauaeoia;· ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey;· eo acaeiinaycue n oeaiaie i?e iaiaoiaeeiie aeaeinoe e iiaeaeaeiinoe iineaaeieo;· eiieo?aioeeth.Yoi aeiiieiyaony naiaiaeie i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.66. Naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu.A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iieo/eea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiaay oi?ia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a aeaea nicaeaiey ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu naiaiaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo cii.NYC i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aie/aiiue ?aeii, /anoue oa??eoi?ee no?aiu, a i?aaeaeao eioi?ie aeaenoaoao eueaioiue ?aaeei oicyenoaiaaiey e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaei?eyoeyi i?aaeinoaaeaia aieaa oe?ieay naiaiaea yeiiiie/aneeo aeaenoaee.I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo no?ai, nicaeaaay NYC, i?aneaaeotho naiua ?aciiia?aciua oeaee. E oaeei ioiinyony: aeoeaecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia eo oa??eoi?ee; iiaea?iecaoeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe; ianuuaiea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea aunieiea/anoaaiiuie oiaa?aie; ?acaeoea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae; ?anoe?aiea yenii?oa e eiii?oa; i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee; inaiaiea iiauo oaoiieiaee; ?acaeoea yeiiiie/anee ionoaeuo ?aeiiia; iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/ae neeu e o.ae.Aeey NYC onoaiaaeeaathony niaoeeaeueiua, iaeaa/aiiua oaiiaeaiiua, oi?aiaua ?aaeeiu, i?aaeinoaaeyaony oe?ieay naiaiaea ia?aiauaiey eaieoaea, oiaa?ia e niaoeeaeenoia, i?eiaiyaony eueaioiue ?aaeei iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee.NYC iiaoo ?aniieaaaoueny eae ia iaaieueoie ieiuaaee, oae e ioaaouaaoue oa??eoi?eth oeaeuo iaeanoae.A caaeneiinoe io i?ioeey aeayoaeueiinoe, oeaeae nicaeaiey cii e oa?aeoa?a i?aaeinoaaeaiey naiaiaeu ?acee/atho neaaeothuea ciiu:naiaiaeiua oaiiaeaiiua oa??eoi?ee (inaiaiaeaeathony io oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei ia aaic e auaic oiaa?ia);yenii?oiua i?iiuoeaiiua ciiu (nicaeathony aeey ?acaeoey a ieo i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iecaiaeyuae i?iaeoeoeeth ia yenii?o);ciiu naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee (oa?aeoa?ecothony niyoeai ia?aie/aiee ia oi?aiaeth);ciiu niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa (i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey inouanoaeaiey aeciana n o/anoeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ec ?aciuo no?ai);naiaiaeiua “ioe?uoua” ciiu (oa?aeoa?ecothony aunieie noaiaiueth aeinooia a ieo a?aaeaeai ae?oaeo no?ai aeey aaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe);oaoiieiae/aneea ciiu (noaayo naiae oeaeueth ?acaeoea i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaee);eiiieaeniua ciiu (ni/aoatho naienoaa inoaeueiuo).Aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee eiatho iaaieueoea ciiu yenii?oiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e oaiiaeaiiua ciiu, iaeaaeathuea auaiaeiuie yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneeie oneiaeyie. A oaeeo ciiao i?aaeinoaaeythony eueaiou aeey aaaeaiey oicyenoaa eiino?aiiui e ioa/anoaaiiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, nicaeaaony iaiaoiaeeiay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e nioeeaeueiay eio?ano?oeoo?a, niioaaonoaothuay ie?iaui noaiaea?oai. Ciiu yoiai aeaea nicaeathony, eae i?aaeei, a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io e?oiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ii?neeo ii?oia, ay?iii?oia, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo oceia. Oaeea ciiu ia o?aaotho e?oiiuo oeiainiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Iie niinianoaotho iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoieo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae.E?oiiua NYC aaeaeo cia/eoaeueiinoe eo oa??eoi?ee o?aaotho eiioeaio?aoeee aieueoiai iauaia n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey nicaeaiey oai niioaaonoaothuae eio?ano?oeoo?u. Iiyoiio ?aaeueiay ioaea/a eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a oaeea ciiu iiaeao eiaoue ianoi /a?ac i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy.  A ia/aea 70-o aiaeia NYC nouanoaiaaee oaea a 10 no?aiao. A ia/aea 90-o aiaeia NYC nouanoaiaaee i?eia?ii a 70 no?aiao, a iauaa /enei eo ninoaaeei i?eia?ii 600 cii. Oi?aiaue iai?io NYC aanueia cia/eoaeai e ioaaoee ieiei 8 i?ioeaioia iauaia ie?iaie oi?aiaee.Iaaeinoaoie i?eiaiyaiie a ?innee no?aoaaee oi?ie?iaaiey naiaiaeiuo cii caeeth/aaony a no?aieaiee e ?anoe?aieth eo oa??eoi?ee, /oi aaaeao e nieaeaieth yooaeoeaiinoe ?aoaiey caaea/.67.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia.Nooue auaica eaieoaea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ca ?oaaae ia?aiineony oaea ia aeo ?aaeecaoeee i?eauee, caeeth/aiiie a oeaia yenii?oe?oaiuo oiaa?ia, a nai i?ioeann aa nicaeaiey. Yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeyao yeiiiie/aneee eioa?an noi?iiu, auaicyuae eaieoae, /oi, iaeiaei, ni/aoaaony n caeioa?aniaaiiinoueth i?eieiathuae noi?iiu a i?eaea/aiee eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea. A iineaaeiea aiaeu iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiue ?ino auaica eaieoaea. Yoi iauyniyaony ?yaeii i?e/ei.1.Onei?aiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa e iao/ii - oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna o?aaotho aeey naiae ?aaeecaoeee ana iiauo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. 2.Ia?aiin i?iecaiaenoaa o?oaeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu iicaieyao noaeaoue ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao aieaa aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeu.3.Aeiaeaiea eaieoaea a aeiauaathuea io?anee ca ?oaaaeii iaania/eaaao iinoiyiiua enoi/ieee nu?uey.4.Aeiaeaiea eaieoaea a ia?aaaouaathuoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?acaeouo no?ai iicaieyao i?aiaeieaaaoue oaiiaeaiiua aa?uea?u, noiyuea ia iooe ?anoe?aiey yenii?oa.5.Iaaeinoaoie eaieoaea a i?eieiathueo no?aiao a oeaeii eee a ioaeaeueiuo naeoi?ao, io?aneyo, eio?ano?oeoo?a i?e iaee/ee ae?oaeo aeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia.Aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho yeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u - ia?aiin a?aaeiuo aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu i?iecaiaenoa a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu.N 70-o aiaeia iauai ca?oaaaeiie i?iaeoeoeee OIE noae i?aauoaoue iauai ie?iaie oi?aiaee. Ia ca?oaaaeiia i?iecaiaenoai i?eoiaeeony /aoaa?oue AII i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai.A yenii?oa i?yiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeiieie?otho NOA, AN e ssiiiey (i?eia?ii 4/5 iauaai iauaia auaica e aaica eaieoaea. Aeaaiui iieai i?eeiaeaiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea noaee naie i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu. Ia ?acaeaathueany no?aiu i?eoiaeeony 30-33% iiauo i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee. Yoi ia?aie/eaaao ianooaau aiaea/aiey ?acaeaathueony no?ai a i?ioeann eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa nia?aiaiiuo o?aaiaaiee IO?.Iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey eaieoaea iioa?yei naith aueoth iaeiinoi?iiiinoue (ec i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai a ?acaeaathueany). Nae/an aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea eaeao a iaieo iai?aaeaieyo. Iiiaea ec no?ai yaeythony iaeiia?aiaiii yenii?oa?aie e eiii?oa?aie eaieoaea. Iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey aia?eeaineeo e caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo eaieoaeia.Oaaee/eeanue aeiey i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee ii n?aaiaieth n ii?ooaeueiuie. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i no?aieaiee iiiiiieee acyoue iieiinoueth iiae naie eiio?ieue ca?oaaaeiua i?aaei?eyoey.Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 60-o aiaeia i?aeiouanoaaiiie noa?ie noaea iiaaeoay oaoiieiaey e noa?a oneoa.Yenii?o eaieoaea inouanoaeyaony ia oieueei /anoiuie iiiiiieeyie n oeaeueth ecaea/aiey i?eauee, ii e i?aaeoaeuenoaaie e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aaethoii-oeiainiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie enoiaey ec aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo eioa?ania. Ainoaea?noaaiiue eaieoae aeeaaeuaaaony ca ?oaaaeii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a eio?ano?oeoo?o: no?ieoaeuenoai ii?oia, o?ainii?oa, nenoai nayce, oai naiui nicaeaaay aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aeiaeaiey /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee.Ainoaea?noaaiiue eaieoae yenii?oe?oaony a ?acee/iuo oi?iao:aacaiciacaeiua noaneaeee e aeioaoeee i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeiaiaa ?acaeoui no?aiai;ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou ia ?acaeoea (ia 25-40 eao);ainoaea?noaaiiua aa?aioee /anoiuo e?aaeeoia.Aeey no?aiu - yenii?oa?a oooaeoaaony ieaoaaeiue aaeain, oioy aiineaaenoaee (eiaaea ia/ioo iinooiaoue i?eauee io yoeo aeiaeaiee) ieaoaaeiue aaeain aoaeao oeo/oaoueny. Yenii?o eaieoaea ?anoe?yao ?uiee nauoa aeey no?aiu - yenii?oa?a. Ii a oi aea a?aiy noaeaao ?uiie o?oaea, oae eae ?aai/ea ianoa ooiaeyo ca ?oaaae.Aeey eiii?oa?a eaieoaea aai aaic icia/aao i?eoie aaethou, iiauoaiea caiyoinoe, aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiaee. Ii a oi aea a?aiy oa?yaony eiio?ieue iaae ioaeaeueiuie naeoi?aie iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.Auoiae ?innee ec yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena iaiuneei aac i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.68. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey ?anoao e ?acaeaaaony a nayce n auaiaeiinoueth e oeaeaniia?aciinoueth iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea (I?O). I?O - yoi nin?aaeioi/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia a yeiiiieea ioaeaeueiuo no?ai n oeaeueth iineaaeothuae auaiaeiie i?iaeaaee ia ie?iaii ?uiea e oaeiaeaoai?aiey oai naiui iio?aaiinoae ae?oaeo no?ai, a eioi?uo nouanoaoao ni?in ia yoio i?iaeoeo.A iniiaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee eaaeeo i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa. Iaee/ea iniauo oneiaee (auaiaeiia aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea, iaee/ea ?aaeeeo i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, eaaeeoeeaoeey niaoeeaeenoia, aunieee o?iaaiue oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey oicyenoaa e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea) aeaao no?aia ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa i?e i?iecaiaenoaa iaeioi?uo oiaa?ia e oneoa.?acee/ey a ioiineoaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciuo oiaa?ia a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao, iicaieytho ecaeaeaoue auaiaeu io niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia oiaa?ia. Oi?aoy iaaeaeo niaie, no?aiu eiatho aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue iin?aaenoaii eiii?oa oa oiaa?u, eioi?ua ia i?iecaiaeyony a no?aia, i?eia?aoaoue eo i?e aieaa ieceeo aeaiaaeiuo ?anoiaeao, /ai anee au no?aia naiinoiyoaeueii i?iecaiaeeea aeaiiue aeae i?iaeoeoeee.Anoue ?yae no?ai, eioi?ua oi?aotho nu?ueai e ianeiaeiuie aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee (e oaeei a iniiaiii ioiinyony ?acaeaathueany no?aiu), /oi oi?iiceo eo yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea. Iaeiaei e oaeea no?aiu ia eeoaiu aiciiaeiinoe a oneiaeyo I?O aueoe ia ia?aaeiaua ?oaaaee, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iiuo Oaeaaiy Aiieiiaa, THaeiie Ei?ae.I?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu iaoiaeyony a eo/oai iieiaeaiee a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa eaieoaeiaieeo e aunieioaoiieiae/aneeo oiaa?ia. Eciaiaiea io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u, oaoiieiaee, oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann i?eaiaeyo e ?inoo yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia a ?acee/iuo no?aiao. A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey i?iecioee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a aaia?aoe/aneie e io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a yenii?oa. A yenii?oa ana aieueoa oaaee/eaaaony aeiey oneoa e i?iaeoeoeee ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A aaia?aoe/aneie no?oeoo?a yenii?oa oaaee/eaaaony aeiey acaeiiiai yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nieaeaiee aeiee ?acaeaathueony no?ai.Aioo?aiiea oeaiu ia anaaaea niiniaiu neoaeeoue ia?eeii yeaeaaeaioiinoe iaiaia i?e eoiea-i?iaeaaea ia ie?iaii ?uiea. Ie?iaie ?uiie, aaeaine?oy ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea, oi?ie?oao naie oeaiu, iau/ii a iaeaieaa i?eciaiiie, oaa?aei eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethoa.A iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey ie?iauo oeai eaaeeo eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiay noieiinoue. Ie?iaua oeaiu ?aaoee?othony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, oneiaeyie i?iecaiaenoaa a no?aiao, a eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeony iniiaiay ianna oiaa?ia, iinoaaeyaiuo ia ie?iaie ?uiie, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai oiaa?ia ia yoii ?uiea.A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ioaeaeueiay no?aia i?aeoe/anee ia a ninoiyiee i?iecaiaeeoue anth iaiaoiaeeioth ae i?iaeoeoeeth ia aunieii oaoie/aneii o?iaia, o?aaoaiiai ea/anoaa.Ai iiiaeo no?aiao 20-30 i?ioeaioia i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee eaeao ia yenii?o. A ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao, eiathueo iaaeinoaoi/iua ?ano?nu, yoio iieacaoaeue iiaeao aeinoeaaoue aua aieueoae aaee/eiu. Iai?eia?, a Aieeaiaeee, Aaeueaee 60-70 i?ioeaioia i?iaeoeoeee yenii?oe?oaony. Ie?iaie yenii?o au?in aieaa /ai aaeaia, oaaee/eaoenue n 2 o?eeeeiiia aeieea?ia a 1980 aiaeo aei aieaa /ai 4 o?eeeeiiia aeieea?ia a 1994 aiaeo. Yoi icia/aao oaaee/aiea iauaia yenii?oa ia 69% ca ainueieaeanyoua aiaeu e 23% - ?ino ca ia?aoth iieiaeio aeaayiinouo aiaeia. I/aiue aeecee e yoei oeeo?ai e iieacaoaee eiii?oa.A oiaa?iii iaiaia i/aaeaeia oaiaeaioeey ?inoa aeiee aioiauo ecaeaeee, ia eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony aieaa 70% ie?iaie oi?aiaee. Inoaaoayny aeiey aeaeeony i?eaeeceoaeueii ii?iaio iaaeaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiui yenii?oii e aeiauaathueie io?aneyie. Aeey n?aaiaiey iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a na?aaeeia yoiai noieaoey ia aeieth nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia i?eoiaeeony ieiei aeaoo o?aoae yenii?oa. Oneoae ninoaaeytho ii/oe /aoaa?oue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oi?aiaiai iaiaia.69.Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea.Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea nayce ioaeaeathony a ?aaoee?iaaiee ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa. Iniiaiie oeaeueth aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony iaania/aiea yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo eioa?ania no?aiu. A oi aea a?aiy ainoaea?noai naii neeiiii i?eieiaoue ia naay inouanoaeaiea ?yaea aeaeia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo aeaenoaee, i?eiinyueo aeioiaeu eee o?aaothueo ainoaea?noaaiiiai o/anoey.A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ethaia ainoaea?noai oai eee eiui ia?acii ?aaoee?oao, noeioee?oao eee ia?aie/eaaao i?aeoe/anee ana noa?u iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae.Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea - yoi niaieoiiinoue eniieuecoaiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie e neoaeaaie oi?i, iaoiaeia e eino?oiaioia aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo no?aiaie a niioaaonoaee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie e iaoeeiiaeueiuie eioa?anaie, oeaeyie, caaea/aie. ?aaoee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ainoaea?noaa inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii i?eiyoey caeiiia e eiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeoia, iinoaiiaeaiee e ?aoaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa.Ecaanoiu aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa - i?ioaeoeeiieci (iai?aaeaia ia caueoo nianoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneiai oicyenoaa io eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee) e o?eo?aaea?noai (iieeoeea naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee).A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea eniieuecotho oaeea eino?oiaiou e niiniau aicaeaenoaey, eae oaiiaeaiiua oa?eou (nenoaiaoece?iaaiiue ia?a/aiue iioeei, eioi?uie iaeaaatho iaeioi?ua oiaa?u), iaeiae, ia?aie/eoaeueiua oneiaey, iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua aeiaiai?u e niaeaoaiey, ia?ii?eyoey ii noeioee?iaaieth yenii?oa e eiii?oa.Oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu - yoi iaeiae, aceiaaiua ainoaea?noaii ca i?iaic /a?ac a?aieoeo no?aiu oiaa?ia, eiouanoaa, oeaiiinoae. Iaoa?eoiua ia?aie/aiey i?aaenoaaeytho onoaiaaeeaaaiua i?yiua aaeieieno?aoeaiua ii?iu, ii?aaeaeythuea eiee/anoai e iiiaieeaoo?o oiaa?ia, ?ac?aoaiiuo e auaico eee aaico.Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeaeia eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee: eiioeiaaioe?iaaiea (ia?aie/aiea yenii?oa e eiii?oa ii?aaeaeaiiui eiee/anoaii eee noiiie ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie), eaioe?iaaiea (ia?aie/aiea eiee/anoaa yenii?oa eee eiii?oa ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaeiaiiaaiey), eeoeaice?iaaiea (cai?ao ia naiaiaeiue aaic eee auaic aac iaee/ey eeoeaicee).Eiiieaeniay nenoaia oi?ne?iaaiey nauoa oiaa?ia ia ie?iaii ?uiea aeeth/aao yeiiiie/aneia noeioee?iaaiea yenii?oa, aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u ii aicaeaenoaeth ia auaic, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa ii?aeueiiai iiiu?aiey yenii?oa?ia(e?aaeeoiua e oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou).I?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ia ?uieao ae?oaeo no?ai ii aieaa ieceei oeaiai, /ai ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea, iacuaaaony aeaiieiaii, i?e yoii oiaa?u /anoi ?aaeecothony ii oeaia ieaea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa.70. OI?AIAUE E IEAOAAEIUE AAEAINU NO?AIU.Oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea no?aiu ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea iau/ii ioeaieaatho ii aa ieaoaaeiiio aaeaino. Aaeain yaeyaony aaaeiui iieacaoaeai e eino?oiaioii, iicaieythuei i?aaeaeaeaoue noaiaiue aiciiaeiiai o/anoey no?aiu a ie?iaie oi?aiaea, a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo naycyo, onoaiiaeoue aa ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue. Ieaoaaeiue aaeain - yoi aeieoiaio, oaaeeoea niioaaonoaey aiaoieo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, a eioi?ie caoeene?iaaiu ana n?aaenoaa: aaethoiua iinooieaiey, iieo/aiiua aeaiiie no?aiie io ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa, a oaeaea ana n?aaenoaa, auiea/aiiua no?aiie ae?oaei no?aiai a oa/aiea aeaiiiai ia?eiaea. Oaeei ia?acii, ieao. A iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue, eae aiaoia yeiiiie/aneee eee aaethoiue athaeaeao no?aiu, en/eneaiiue a niioaaonoaee n aa ?aaeueiuie aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie, iaoneiaeaiiuie aiaoiayeii. naycyie. Ieaoaaeiue A. ninoaaeyaony ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae (/aua anaai aiaeiaie e iieoaiae.) A ieao. A. aeeth/athony ana noaouee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iinooieaiea e ?anoiaeiaaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ii eeiee aiaoyeii. naycae, eiathueo ianoi a oa/aiea aiaea, a eiaiii: yenii?o e eiii?o oiaa?ia e oneoa; caeiu, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua ae?oaei no?aiai eee iieo/aiiua io ieo; aeaeaeaiea cieioa; ?anoiaeu oo?enoia; i?ioeaiou e aeeaeaeaiaeu, iieo/aiiua ec-ca a?aieoeu eee ia?aaaaeaiiua a ae?oaea no?aiu; aeioiaeu io o?aooa e o.ae.Ieaoaaeiue aaeain ninoieo ec o?ao ?acaeaeia: oaeouea iia?aoeee, aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia e aeaeaeaiea cieioa. Ninoaaiie /anoueth ?acaeaea "oaeouea iia?aoeee" yaeyaony oi?aiaue aaeain, ii?aaeaeyaiue a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo noieiinoueth yenii?oa e eiii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa. Yenii?oiua oiaa?u, no?aia iieo/aao iooai eo i?iaeaaee aaethoioth au?o/eo, a eiii?oe?oy, cao?a/eaaao aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ia caeoieo. Oi?aiaey oneoaaie aeeth/aao iieaoo caa?ai. ia?aaicie, oo?eci, eoieth e i?iaeaaeo iaoaioia e eeoeaicee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiia no?aoiaaiea. Ii eaaeaeie ec oeacaiiuo iiceoeee no?aia iiaeao eiaoue aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu a caaeneiinoe io oiai, i?iaeaao iia eee caeoiaao oneoae. Iiieii oi?aiaiai aaeaina a ?acaeae oaeoueo iia?aoeee aeeth/athony eiino?aiiua aeaiaaeiua ia?aaiaeu, aeaeaeaiea aeioiaeia ia nianoaaiiinoue ca a?aieoeae, o.a. %, i?eaueue, aeeaeaeaiaeu. Aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioaeaeueiue ?acaeae ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, ninoiyuee ec ia?aaiaeia oeiainiauo n?aaenoa aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey a i?aaei?eyoey, iieoiee aeoeee ca a?aieoeae. Aua iaeia aaaeiay noaouey ie. A. no?aiu - iieaoa % ii eiino?aiiui caeiai e e?aaeeoai. Anee no?aia aa?ao aaethoo a aeiea io ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa, oi iia iaycaia ieaoeoue %. oiaaea eae no?aia i?aaeinoaaeythuay e?aaeeo, iaiai?io, iieo/aao yoe % a aeaea aeioiaea. ?inney auioaeaeaia oiea/eaaoue aaeaaiaeii % ca aaethoiua e?aaeeou a noiia 10-15 ie?ae. aeieea?ia, /oi eiaeeony oyaeaeui a?aiaiai ia aa ieaoaaeiue aaeain. ieao A no?aiu iacuaatho aeoeaiui, eiaaea noiia iieo/aiiuo n?aaenoa io ae?oaeo no?ai aieueoa, /ai noiia auieao. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ieaoaaeiue aaeain aoaeao ianneaiui. Oeaio?aeueiua aaiee ?acee/iuo no?ai eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiia eie-ai eiino?aiiie aaethou, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey au?aaieaaiey ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina.71. AAETHOIUA IOIIoaiey. O?IAIE EIIAA?OE?OAIINOE Aaetho.Aaethoa - aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea aeaiiie no?aiu(iaoeeiiaeueiay aaethoa), oaeaea yoi aeaiaaeiua ciaee eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa e eiua ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa, eniieuecoaiua a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao (eiino?aiiay aaethoa). Oniao eee iaoniao oie eee eiie aaethou ai iiiaii aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny aa ea/anoaii. Ea/anoai aaethou ii?aaeaeyao, yaeyaony ee aaethoa aaethoie, o.a. iiaeao ee iaoeeiiaeueiay aaethoa aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa eiino?aiiie. Naiaiaeii eiiaa?o. Aaethoa - iaoeeiiaeueiay aaethoa, eioi?ay naiaiaeii e iaia?aie/aiii iaiaieaaaony ia ae?oaea eiino?aiiua aaethou. *anoe/ii eiiaa?oe?oaiay aaethoa - iaoe. a., eioi?ay iaiaieaaaony ia ia ana, a ia iaeioi?ua eiino?aiiua a., eniieuecoaony eae ieaoaaeiia n?aaenoai ia ii anai iia?aoeeyi. Iaeiiaa?oe?oaiay (caieiooay) a. - iaoe. a., eioi?ay ooieoeeiie?oao oieueei a i?aaeaeao iaeiie no?aiu e ia iaiaieaaaony ia eiino?aiioth a. Ea/anoai a. ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei aa eiiaa?oe?oaiinoueth, ii e oi?ioi ee aeaiiay a. auiieiyao naith ooieoeeth n?aaenoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia .o.a. eaeiaa aa ?ieue a aaethoiie nenoaia, eaeia iia caieiaao a aeaiiie nenoaia ianoi. Ooieoeeth ?aca?aiie a., o.a. aaethou eniieuecoaiie aeey ianeoaeeaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia ii aiaoiaoi?aiaui iia?aoeeyi, eiino?aiiui eiaanoeoeeyi e i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ie?iauo oeai, auiieiytho a ianoiyuaa a?aiy: aeieea? NOA, ooio noa?eeiaia Aaeeeia?., ia?ea Aa?iaiee, oaaeoea?neee o?aie e yiiineay eaia - eiaiii yoe aaethou yaeythony iaeaieaa eiiaa?oe?oaiuie aaethoaie ie?a. Aaethoiua ioiioaiey - ye. ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai iaoe.-uo a. ia ie?iaii ?uiea, aeaiaaeiui ianeoaeeaaieai oiaa?iiaiaia e ae?oaeo oic-uo naycae iaaeaeo no?aiaie, eniieueciaaieai aaethou eae ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa e e?aaeeoa. Aae. ioi. oae eee eia/a nii?iaiaeaeatho oi?aiaeth, auaic eaieoaea, iao/ii-oaoi. iaiai, iea?aoeeth ?aai/ae neeu, oo?eci, eoeueoo?iua nayce, i?aaeinoaaeaiea yeiiiie/aneie iiiiue, e?aaeeoiaaiea. Aaethoiua ioi.-y iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae aeaiaaeioth noi?iio aiaoyeiiiie/. nayce. Oa?aeoa? aaethoiuo ioiioaiee caaeneo io eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaethou no?aiu. ?inneeneee ?oaeue i?ioae iooue io iaeiiaa?oe?oaiie a. e ?ac?yaeo aaetho n aioo?aiiae eiiaa?oe?oaiinoueth. Aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe iaiaoiaeeia noaaeeecaoeey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey aioo?e no?aiu, i?eaaaeaiea aioo?aiieo oeai a niioaaonoaea n ie?iauie, i?aiaeieaiea aeaoeoeeoa aiaoiaai ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, ionoonoaea aeaoeoeeoa oiaa?ia ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea, ia?aie/aiea eioeyoeee.72. AAEthOIUE EO?N, AAI OOIEOeEE E ?AAEEIU.IAOIAeU IIAeAeA?AEAIEss AAEthOIIAI EO?NA.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey oiaa?aie e oneoaaie, aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia ia?ac?uaii naycaii n iaiaiii aaetho. Iau/ii yenii?oa? iaiaieaaao eiino?aiioth a., iieo/aaioth i?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?a, ia Iaiaoeeiiaeueioth, i?aaeinoaaeythuoth ieaoaaeiia n?aaenoai ia oa??eoi?ee aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. Eiii?oa? iaiaieaaao iaoe. a. ia eiino?aiioth aeey iieaou oiaa?ia, eoieaiiuo ca ?oaaaeii. Aeey iaania/aiey yeaeaaeaioiinoe iaiaia iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aaethoiue eo?n a aeaea niioiioaiey iaaeaeo iaoeeiiaeueiie e eiino?aiiie aaethoaie. Aae. e. - yoi oeaia aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu iaeiie no?aiu, au?aaeaiiay a aeaiaaeiuo aae-oeao ae?oaie. A.e. iiaoo eiaoue ?aciua ?aaeeiu: ieaaathuea e oeene?iaaiiua. Oeene?iaaiiua a.e. i?aaeiieaaatho inouanoaeaiea iaiaia iaeiie aaethou ia ae?oaoth ia iniiaa cieioiai ia?eoaoa. Cieioie ia?eoao ii?aaeaeyaony ?aaainoaii cieioiai niaea?aeaiey aaetho. O.a.e. eieaaeaony aie?oa cieioiai ia?eoaoa a caaeneiinoe io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iaeiaei yoe ia?aie/aiey ia i?aauoatho 1% ia?eoaoa. Eia/a ainoaea?noai aoaeao auioaeaeaii iiauneoue eee iiieceoue cieioia niaea?aeaiea naiae aaethou. Ieaaathuee a.e. i?aaeiieaaaao iaiai iaeiie a. ia ae?oaoth a caaeneiinoe io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Aeaeu i.a.e.: naiaiaeii ieaaaoue a.e.(eneeth/eoaeueii iiae aicaeaenoaeai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia aaethoiii ?uiea - aeieea?) - iiaoo ieaaaoue niaianoii(no?aiu eniieuecothuea yoio aeae a.e. a ?an/aoao ae?oa n ae?oaii oeene?otho eieaaaiey eo?nia, a n ae?oaeie no?aiaie eniieuecotho ?aaeei naiaiaeiiai ieaaaiey- no?aiu "Iauaai ?uiea", e?iia Aaeeeia?.) -iiaoo ieaaaoue naycaiii n ae?oaeie aaethoaie.(no?aiu eniieuecothuea aeaiiue aeae onoaiaaeeaatho aeanoeoth oeenaoeeth naiaai aaethoiiai eo?na ii ioiioaieth e aaethoa iaeiie ec aaaeoueo no?ai e aeieea?o NOA). O.A. Aae. e. ii?aaeaeyaony:· iieoiaoaeueneie niiniaiinoueth eaaeaeie ec aaetho, eioi?ay caaeneo io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a;· eo ea/anoaaiiuo i?eciaeia;· ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou ia aaethoiii ?uiea;· i6ania/aiiinoe aaethou iaoeeiiaeueiui aiaaonoaii no?aiu;· onoie/eainoe aaethou;· aeiaa?eai e iae.Iiieii iiieiaeueiiai eo?na nouanoaoao e ?aaeueiue aaethoiue eo?n, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony ioiineoaeueii oeai oiaa?ia ec ?aciuo no?ai a iaeiie aaethoa. Eioe?iaeo aaetho inouanoaeytho ainoaea?noaaiiua eee e?oiiua eiiia?/aneea aaiee. Oi?aiaey eiino?aiiuie a. aaaeaony ia aaethoiuo 6e?aeao (Eiiaeiineay ae?aea).6 yia.1992 iniiaaia IIAA(ia ainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, oioy OeA? yaeyaony o/?aaeeoaeai e i?iaiaeeo aeoeaioth iieeoeeo ia aaethoiii ?uiea, aeeyy ia eo?n ?oaey.(iaoiae iiaeaea?aeaiey).73.Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu ie?iaiai oicyenoaa.E?eoa?ee, eioi?ua iicaieytho auaeaeeoue aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu e iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo, noiyueo ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii: iauaie?iaie oa?aeoa? i?iaeaiu (cao?aaeaaao eioa?anu anao no?ai eee aieueoeinoaa); a neo/aa ia?aoaiiinoe oaeie i?iaeaiu aicieeaao oa?ica anaio /aeiaa/anoao, ?aa?ann a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee; ioaeaea a aacioeaaaoaeueiuo e ?aoeoaeueiuo aeaenoaeyo ia iniiaa eieeaeoeaiuo e neii?aeeie?iaaiiuo oneeee anaai ie?iaiai niiauanoaa. Aeiaaeueiinoue icia/aao, /oi i?iaeaia iiaeiaiiai ?iaea cao?aaeaaao eioa?anu anao eeannia e neiaa iauanoaa, anao no?ai e ia?iaeia ieaiaou; yoa i?iaeaia aeeyao ia ana noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie e neacuaaaony ia iieiaeaiee aeae ai anao ?aeiiao ieaiaou, oioy e n ?aciie noaiaiueth ino?iou. Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue ii o?ai noa?ai aeaenoaey: i?iaeaiu, aicieeathuea a noa?a acaeiiaeaenoaey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa: iaaeaaeiia iaania/aiea /aeiaa/anoaa nu?ueai, yia?aeae i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. I?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay i?iaeaia nio?aiaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu; yia?aaoe/aneee e?ecen; iea?aoeey ianaeaiey; eiiaa?ney; i?iaeaiu aiei, ?ac?ooaiee; nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu; i?iaeaiu au?aaieaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey no?ai; inaiaiea ?ano?nia ie?iaiai ieaaia; iaeaaeaiea einie/aneei i?ino?ainoaii; i?iaeaiu iauanoaaiiuo acaeiiioiioaiee: ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie; i?aiaeieaiea ionoaeinoe ?acaeaathueony no?ai; eieaeueiua e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?ecenu e iio?ynaiey; i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey /aeiaaea e iaania/aiey aai aoaeouaai: i?iaeaiu i?eniiniaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi i?e?iaeiie e nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu iiae aeeyieai i?ienoiaeyuae a ie?a IO?; aii?inu nia?aiaiiie o?aaiecaoeee; ai?ueaa n yieaeaieyie e iaeaieaa oyaeaeuie caaieaaaieyie; aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe /aeiaaea.74. ?UII*Iay YEIIIIEEa E AA INIIAIUA *A?OU.?.Y.-nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee oic-aa a ianooaaa, o.a. yoi oaeay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee oic-aa, i?e eioi?ie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?iecaiaeeoaee e iio?aaeoaee acaeiiaeaenoaotho iin?aaenoaii ?uiea, ioaa/ay ia aii?in "*oi, eae, aeey eiai i?iecaiaeeoue" n iiiiuueth nenoaiu oeai, i?eaueae e oauoeia, ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. ?uiie-ianoi, aaea niaa?oathony naeaeee(aa ca?, aoeoeeii, ae?aea), aaea oiaa?u ?aaeecothony ii oi?ioea O-Ae-O. ?uiie-yoi iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, iaeaaeathuee a iaiauaiiii aeaea neaaeothueie i?eciaeaie:· ioai? iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo nenoai;· iiiaiia?acea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe (/anoiie, eieeaeoeaiie, ainoaea?noa.);· iieiay aaeieieno?aoeaiay iacaaeneiinoue e naiinoiyoaeueiinoue oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey - oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai auoue nianoaaiieeii ?acoeueoaoia naiaai o?oaea;· naiaiaeiue auai? iinoaaueeia nu?uey e iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee;· i?ia?anneaiay iaeiaiaay iieeoeea.Iniaia ianoi a ?. y. caieiaao aioeiiiii. caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, iniiaie aai yaeyaony - iaania/aiea aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee e noeioeia aeey ?acaeoey eiieo?aioeee a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, niyoea anao i?aa?aae ia iooe aa aeoeaecaoeee ia i?aaiaie iniiaa, iicaieythuae eneeth/eoue iiiiiieenoe/aneea aeaenoaey oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey, aeeeoao o/anoieeia oic-ai iai?ioa, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaiaie ?aaeei ?aaoee?iaaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iiiiiieenoe/aneea aeaenoaey e ia?ooaiea i?aaee /anoiie eiieo?aioeee.Eiieo?aioeey ii?iaeaeaao iiuiua iioeaaoeeiiiua noeioeu:· iaania/aiea eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaethou(ia?aoeiinoue iaoe. aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu);· nicaeaiea nenoaiu ae?aeaauo o/?aaeaeaiee, aaieia, iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee).A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?uiie a ?acee/iuo no?aiao ie?a iaoiaeeony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?aieoeao e ?aaoee?oaony ainoaea?noaii. Iii no?aieony:· iaania/eoue noaaeeueiinoue ?uiea;· iaania/aiea ni?aaaaeeeainoe;· neaaeeo ca yooaeoeaiinoueth ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia(ia aeiioneay eee ia?aie/eaay iiiiiieee).75. I?EAaOECaOeEss AINOaea?NOaAIIIE NIANOAAIIINOE.Oa?iei "I?eaaoecaoeey" a ia/aea 90-o i?aa?aoeeny a eeth/aaoth yeiiiie/aneoth eaoaai?eth i?e ?aoaiee i?iaeai auaiaea ec e?ecena yeiiiieee iinooioaeeoa?iuo no?ai. A ?innee auee aua?aiu 3 iiaeaee i?eaaoecaoeee(iiiaieeaoo?iay, aeaiie?aoe/aneay, iaeay), i?e yoii 2 ec ieo aieaa iiioey?iu a 1992 a., i?aaeiieaaaee ia?aoiae e aeoeeiia?iie oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe, i?e eioi?ie a ?oeao ain-aa eii oeaio?e?iaaeanue aieueoay /anoue aeoeee, a ca eiie?aoiuie ain. no?oeoo?aie (eae i?aaeei oiiaeaie ain. eiouanoaa) cae?aieyeanue aiciiaeiinoue ii/oe aan eiio?ieueiiai eniieueciaaiey yoeo aeoeee aeey nicaeaiey oieaeeiaia eee i?iaeaaee eo o?aouee eeoeii. Ana yoi nicaeaaaei aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey n?aueaaiey iiiaieeaoo?u ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoee(a iia ca/anooth iieo/aea nouanoaaiiua i?eaeeaaee a i?eia?aoaiee aeoeee) n ainoaea?noaaiiie e oeiainiaie iiiaieeaoo?ie ("iiiaieeaoo?iay i?eaaoecaoeey"). A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?eaaoecaoeey ieacaeanue anaai eeoue oi?iie aeey nicaeaiey aeoe. iauanoa, ne?uaathueo ei?ii?aoeaioth nenoaio ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe, eiaaea ain. athaeaeao, aaiee e aaeieieno?aoeey i?-ee oaeoe/anee noaee aac?acaeaeueiuie oicyaaaie auaoae ain. nianoaaiiinoe. O?oaeiaie eieeaeoea anee e iieo/ae a naie ?oee ii?aaeaeaiioth aeieth aeoeee, oi iie eeai yaeyeenue "aacaieinuie" eeai i?ee?uaaee aani?aaea o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa, eai ca oi?iie eieeaeoeaiiai aeaaeaiey aeoeeyie ia ne?uaaeinue ?aaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey - eieeaeoeaiiai i?enaiaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeay i?eaaoecaoeey, aaea iniiaiay /anoue i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeia auea i?iaeaaaoueny ii eiieo?no eee ia aoeoeeiia, ia?acoy a iniiaiii oiaa?euanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth eee AI cae?. oeia. Caeanue eaieoae ain. i?aaei?eyoee ia i?iaeaaony, a ?ani?aaeaeyaony eneonnoaaiiui ia?acii ii oneiaiui, e?aeia caieaeaiiui oeaiai. Caieaeaiiay oeaia aeaenoaeoaeueii iaeaa/aao o/anoea a i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee aeey oao eoi a ninoiyiee neoieoue aeoeee e iae i?aae-ee. Aeaiie?aoe/aneay i?ea. (ia?iaeiay). Ia i?aeoeea iia auea inouanoaeaia a iacia/eoaeueiuo ianooaaao e eeoue o?aaiaioaeueii iia i?aaeiieaaaea i?eia?aoaiea eaaeaeui a?aaeaeaieiii ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiee ain. nianoaaiiinoe i?e iiiiue aao/a?a, eioi?ue nicaeaaae ?aaiua noa?oiaua aiciiaeiinoe a ?acainoaea?noaeaiee .i?eia?aoaiee ain. nianoaaiiinoe aeey anao /eaiia iauanoaa. Yoa iiaeaeue oaeaea i?aaeiieaaaea aieaa oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?eia?aoaiey i?aaei?eyoee ia aoeoeeiiao, iiaeaea?aeeo /anoiiai aeciana. Iaeiaei a i?ioeanna aao/a?ecaoeee a ?innee i?enaiaiea auaoeo ain. n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa inouanoaeyeinue a iniiaiii oaie, o eiai ia ?oeao auee eeeaeaeiua ?ano?nu (eiino?aiiua oaiaaua eaieoaeu, iiaua eiiia?/. no?oeoo?u. auaoea ain. no?oeoo?u). Eoae, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe i?eaiaeeo e iinoaiaiiiio nin?aaeioi/aieth iaeeiai i?-aa a ?oeao /anoiiai eaieoaea, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?aaenoaaeaiiiai ia iacaaeneiuie /anoiuie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, a aaieaie e ae?oaeie oeiainiauie einoeoooaie.76. I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNOAI E AAI ?IEUe A ?ACAEOEE ?UII*IIE YEIIIIEEE.A 18 a. yoi iiiyoea annioeee?iaaeinue n iiiyoeai "nianoaaiiee". A. Nieo oa?aeoa?eciaae i?aaei?eieiaoaey, eae nianoaaiieea, eaeouaai ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ene ?aaee ?aaeecaoeee eaeie-oi eiiia?/aneie eaeae e iieo/aiey i?eauee. Ii nai ieaie?oao, i?aaiecoao i?i-ai, ?anii?yaeaaony ?acoeueoaoaie i?i-aa. Iicaeiaa, eiaaea a oic. aeecie i?ienoiaeeo ioaeaeaiea eaieoaea-ooieoeee io eaieoaea-nianoaaiiinoe, iiiyoea "i?aaei?" ia niaiaaeaao n iiiyoeai "nianoaaiiee" o?aeooaony ai?acaei oe?a. Nia?aiaiiay caiaaeiay eeoa?aoo?a oaeaea ?anniao?eaaao "I" eae yeiiiie/aneia i?aaiecaoeeiiiia oai?/anoai, naiaiaeiia i?iyaeaiea eieoeeaoeau, iiaaoi?noaa, aioiaiinoe e ?eneo ?aaee iieo/aiey i?eauee. A caeiia ?NON? "0 i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?. aeayoaeueiinoe" "I" o?aeooaony eae eieoeeaoeaiay naiinoiyoaeueiay aeayo-noue a?aaeaeai e eo iauaaeeiaiee, iai?aaeaiiay ia iieo/aiea i?eauee e inouanoaeyaiay ia eo ?ene e iiae eo eiouanoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. ?acaeoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea ?yaea oneiaee:1.i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneia oic-ai icia/aao iaee/ea noauaeoa ii?aaeaeaiiie niaieoiiinoe naiaiae e i?aa ii auai?o aeaea oic-ie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii oi?ie?iaaieth i?ieca-ie i?ia?aiiu, ii auai?o enoi/ieea oeiaine?iaaiey, aeinooio e ?ano?nai, ii nauoo i?iaeoeoeee, onoaiiaeaiee ia iaa oeai, ?aii?yaeaieth i?eaueueth.2. I?aaei?-noai icia/aao iaee/ea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iecaaaeaiiue i?iaeoeo e aeioiae.3.Iaiaoiaeeiu: ii?aaeaeaiiay yeiiiie/aneay n?aaea e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee eeeiao, eioi?ua au ?aaeueii iaania/eaaee, a ia i?inoi aeaeea?e?iaaee naiioi?aaeaiea, naiaiaeo oicyenoaaiiiai auai?a, aiciiaeiinoue eiaanoe?iaaiey aeioiaea. Aiai?y oe?a -iaiaoiaeei ?uii/ii eiieo?aioiue ?aaeei oicyenoaiaaiey.4. Naiaiaeiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai i?aaeiieaaaao iiiaiia?acea oi?i, aeaeia e oeiia nianoaaiiinoe, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e i?enaiaiey (Eieeaeoeaiay, ainoaea?noaaiiay, eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-/anoiay, /anoii-ei?ii?aoeaiay).Yeiiiie/aneay n?aaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ninoieo ec: yeiiiie/aneie ianoaiiaee, iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee, i?aaiaie n?aaeu, oece/aneie aaia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu, einoeoooeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneie n?aaeu, aeeth/ay anth niaieoiiinoue einoeoooia io ?aeeaiiuo aaaionoa aei aaieia.77. INIIAIUA I?IAEAIU OI?IE?IAaIEss ?UII*IIE YEIIIIEEE A ?INNEE.Nia?aiaiiay ?inneeneay yeiiiieea iaoiaeeony nae/an a ia?aoiaeiii ia?eiaea. Yoi i?iiaaeooi/iia ninoiyiea iaaeaeo ieaiiaie e ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Iauay iniaaiiinoue ?inneeneie yeiiiieee - iia eae ieaiiaay nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io caiaaeiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee; eae ?inneeneay iia ia eiaao aiaeiaia a eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo, aeaaea auaoeo nioe. no?aiao. Ii?aaeaeaiiia ninoiyiea ?uii/iie nenoaiu oa?aeoa?ecoao yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie ?aceia ia?ooaiea ?aaiiaaney a yeiiiieea aneaaenoaea ianiioaaonoaey ni?ina e neiaeeaoaainy i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneay i?iaeaia, eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii aacioeaaaoaeueii ?aoaoue a oa/aiea ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea - i?iaeaio no?oeoo?ii-eiaanoeoeeiiiie ia?ano?ieee ia nia?aiaiiie oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneie iniiaa aeey anao noauaeoia oi?ie?othuaeny ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e i?aaeaea anaai - ainoaea?noaii e aai einoeoooaie. Iae?iyeiiiie/aneay ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue eiaao iiiaiia?acea oi?i. ?anniio?ei eo a 2o aniaeoao:_1) ia?aaiiia?iinoue a ?acaeoee io aeaeueiuo naeoi?ia e io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa; 2)ia?aaiiia?iinoue a oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneie iniiaa ?acee/iuo naeoi?ia e io?aneae. I?e 1) ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue i?iyaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai a aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiii ?acaeoee io?aneae 1-ai iiae?acaeaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aeiey eioi?iai a niaieoiiii iau-ii i?iaeoeoa ia eiiaoe 80o-68% - yoe io?anee iiaeiuaee eueaeioth aeieth eiaanoeoeee, nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, eaaeeo. ?aai/ae neeu, oai naiui aua aieaa "iaacaeieeaay" ae?oaea io?anee. Ia ?acaeoea io?aneae a?.1 auaeaeyeinue ia aieaa 5% i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. Nicaeaiea iaaeaeaiiiai ii naiei ianooaaai AIE, iiaeiuaaoaai aaeaaiaeii ia iaiaa 2/3 yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu, ia niaea?aeaiea eioi?iai aaeaaiaeii o?aoeeinue 18-20% iaoe. aeioiaea. Yoi e iaoneiaeei ionoaaaiea io?aneae, ia ?aaioaaoeo a AIE, /oi i?eaaei e caiaaeeaieth oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, e aeaoeoeeoo, e eiii?oo . 2 i?iaeaia: a e?aeia caiouaiiii ninoiyiee e eio?ano?oeoo?a: o?ainii?oiia, neeaaeneia oic-ai, yia?aaoe/aneay, eioi?iaoeeiiiay, eiiioiaeueiay, nioeeaeueiay. 3 i?iaeaia - aeoaiei aeaoi?ie?iaaiiie ieacaeanue no?oeoo?a AIE, io?aaeaaoay iauoth ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue iaoe. yeiiiieee. Iaaaoeaiua oaiaeaioeee ye. ?acaeoey:· iaoeeiiiia nieaeaiea oaiiia ye. ?acaeoey;· ia?anoaiea eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia;· oaaee/aiea ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu i?e aiaoiai aeaoeoeeoa ?aa. neeu;· ianniaue eciin ini. i?iec. oiiaeia.Ana yoi auioaeeei i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eaaaiooue, e ?aoi?iai n 1985a. - ia?ano?ieea, /oi yaeyeinue ioeai/iui eo?nii ?aoi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiieee. A ia/aea 90o - iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aoi?i aaeaeo e?aeiaai nii?ioeaeaiey eiina?aaoeaiuo nee, e?aeia ia?aie/aiiua eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?ano?nu. ?inney inoaaony no?aiie aunieiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai ?enea, caieiay 90 ianoi n?aaee 169 no?ai ie?a. E?ecen ia?ao. yeii. anoue e?ecen eae oaca oeeeea, oi e auoiae ec e?eceniie neooaoeee i?aaeiieaaaao iaeiia?aiaiiia ?aoaiea ii?iaeaeaiiuo yoeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie i?iaeai: i?aia?aciaaiea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e noaiiaeaiea ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?, inouanoaeaiea no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee a ni/aoaiee n oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneei iaiiaeaieai anaai aeaenoaothuaai i?iecaiaenoaa - n ae?oaie. "Auoaneeaaoue" iaoe. yeiiiieeo ec e?ecena i?eaeaony anai iioaioeeaeueiui eiaanoi?ai, ainoaea?noaaiiui e /anoiui.78. OEIAINIAUE EAIEOAE. OEIAINIAAss IEEAA?OEss E OI?IU AA AINIIAeNOAA.Oei. e. - yoi iiiiiieenoe/aneee i?ii. Eaieoae, neiaeeaoeeny n iiiiiii. aaieianeei eaieoaeii. Ia?niieoeoee?iaaiiui iineoaeai O.e. aunooiaao oeiainiaay ieeaa?oey. I?ii. e. - eaieoae, aaaine?iaaiiue aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe e ooieoeeiie?othuee a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa(a i?ii-noe, n/o, no?-aa, ia o?ainii?oa). Iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee, i?ioiaeeo 2 noaaeee a 3-o ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oi?iao: aeaiaaeiie, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie, oiaa?iie(e?oaiiai?io eaieoaea). Aeaeaa, n ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia, io I.e. iainiaeyaony oi?aiaue e nnoaeiue eaieoae. Eiioeaio?aoeey e oeaio?aeecaoeey I.e. aaaeoo e aicieeiiaaieth e ainiiaenoao iiiiiieee, e n?aueaaieth n aaieianeei e ia?aciaaieth O.e. Aaieianeee e. - niaieoiiinoue aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia(nianoaaiiuo e i?eaea/aiiuo), eioi?uie iia?e?otho aaiee. Oei. ieeaa?oey - yoi iaiiiai/eneaiiay a?oiia e?oiiaeoeo e iaeaieaa aiaaouo iiiiiieenoia, ieeoeaoai?yaoeo ainiiaenoai oei. e. Ia?aciaaiea O.i. i?ienoiaeeo ia iniiaa n?aueaaiey i?ii. e aaieianeeo iiiiiieee. Iniiaiua oi?iu aa ainiiaenoaa:nenoaia o/anoey(Ae. iau.- iaoue n eiio?ieueiui iaeaoii aeoeee, aei/a?iea, aio/aoua);ee/iay oiey(nithc);n?aueaaiea oeiainiaiai eaieoaea n ain. aiia?aoii (nayce aeciana n iieeoeeie); - ainiiaenoai iaae n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.79. YOaIu ?ACAEOEss YEIIIIE*ANEIE OAI?EE.Y.o. eae iaoea (neoaiaoece?iaaiiia ciaiea i nouiinoe yeiiiieee) aicieeea a 17-18 a., a ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey eaieoaeecia.1.A naiii ia/aea iiyaeeanue oai?aoe/aneay oeiea-ia?eaioeeeci. I?aaenoaaeoaee yoie oeieu n/eoaee, /oi aiaaonoai ethaeae ninoaaeytho aeaiueae, ca eioi?ua iiaeii eoieoue ana. Yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea niioaaonoaiaaei oiio a?aiaie, eiaaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey i?eiineea aieueoea aeioiaeu. Caeanue i?e?ino aiaaonoaa aue naiii/aaeaeai, eai a oi a?aiy oiaa?u a iaeiie no?aia iieoiaeenue ii aieaa ieceei oeaiai, a a ae?oaie i?iaeaaaeenue ii aieaa aunieei oeaiai. Ia?e-ou n/eoaee caaea/ae y. o. - ?ac?aaaouaaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey ain. iieeoeee, eioi?ay i?ecaaia ?anoe?youe oi?aiaeth e iaeaieeaaoue cieioi a no?aia. I?aaenoaaeoaee: Oiian Iai(aiae. eoiaoe, i?aaeei - i?iaeaaaoue eiino?aioeai ia aieueooth noiio, /ai iieoiaoue o ieo. Iiie?aoueai o?. yeiiiieno aeae ii?aaeaeaiea y.o. iacaaiea "iieeoe/aneay y. "- eae ain-ai aiaaoaao.2.Oai?aoe/aneia o/aiea oeceie?aoiia. Iieiaeeee ia/aei eeanne/. iiieo, y. ?ino aiaaonoaa iauanoaa oec-ou naycuaaee oieueei n anoanoaaiiui ieiaei?iaeeai caiee e iiyoiio ia n/eoaee i?iiuoeaiiinoue io?aneueth, aaea nicaeaaony i?e?ino aeioiaeia. (O?ainoa Eaiy). Iaeaieaa iniiaaoaeueiua ioaaou ia aii?inu ia?aciaaiey e ?inoa aiaaonoaa iaoeee aeaee i?aaenoaaeoaee eeane/. Oeieu -aia. yeiiiienou: Oeeueyi Iaooe, Aaeai Nieo, Aeaaeae ?eea?aei.- iie onoaiiaeee, /oi aiaaonoai anae iaoeee aicieeaao a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ai anao io?aneyo. ?ino aiaaonoaa i?ienoiaeeo oiaaea, eiaaea ia?aiia/aeueii cao?a/aiiay ia i?iecaiaenoai noiia noieiinoe(a aeaea aeaiaa, oiaa?ia) a i?ioeanna o?oaea ia?aueaaony ia aeiiieieoaeueioth aaee/eio(i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue eee i?eaueue). Yoi ioe?uoea iicaieeei y.o. noaoue iiaeeeiiie iaoeie. Iniiaaa o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe, eeanneee ia niiaee a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a eco/eoue eaieoaeenoe/aneoth yeiiiieeo a naaoa yoie oai?ee. Yoa caaea/a auiaea ia aeieth E. Ia?ena (1818-83), eioi?ue nicaeae oai?eth i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe. 3, A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iaoaai aaea cia/eoaeueii iiauneeny iao/iue o?iaaiue ie?iaie ye. iaoee. Ia/eiay n 1969 a Oaaaeneay aeaaeaiey aaeaaiaeii i?enoaeaeaao Iiaaeaaneea i?aiee ii ye. iaoeai.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ian/eouaaaony 3 aeanyoea eao?aaoia.80.Nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia e aa iieacaoaee.Nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia, eioi?ay i?eiyoa a ie?iaie i?aeoeea, e ia?aoiae e eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony a yeiiiie/aneii aiaeeca e noaoenoeea ?innee, iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue noaoenoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth aeey niiinoaaeaiey e ioeaiee iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ninoiyiey no?aiu. Nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia ooaa?aeaeaia III a1993a, (1-e aa?eaio-68-e a.)I?eioeeiu Nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia:1.Aaeiaue i?iaeoeo e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae no?aiu i?iecaiaeeony eae a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e noa?a oneoa, o. a. a noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa aeeth/aaony aeayoaeueiinoue: — eiiiaiee e i?aaei?eyoee, i?iecaiaeyueo oiaa?u e oneoae; — /anoiuo iaei?ii?e?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee; — iiaeniaiuo oicyenoa;eeoe naiaiaeiuo i?ioannee (aaeaieaoia, a?oenoia, aeo?iaeenoia e ae?.); — ?aaioieeia noa?u oi?aaeaiey; — oeiainiai - eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee; — iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee (eeoaia, iauanoa, annioeeaoeee ); — a?iee;iaaiiie i?eneoae; — aeaaeaeueoeaa aeeeuey, naeaaaaiiai a a?aiaeo.2.A nicaeaiee noieiinoe oiaa?ia e oneoa ia?yaeo e ia?aaia n o?oaeii i?eieiatho o/anoea caiey. eaieoae e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, o. a. oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa.3. Nicaeaaaaiay i?eaueue, ?anniao?eaaaony ia eae ?acoeueoao oieueei o?oaea, a eae ?acoeueoao niaieoiiiai eniieueciaaiey yoeo oaeoi?ia.N 1988 a. ia/aoi aiaae?aiea a ?inneeneoth i?aeoeeo Nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia. Aaeiaue aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI), eae iniiaiie iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey iauanoaa ( AII- aai iiaeeoeeaoeey ) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue anao eiia/iuo i?iaeoeoia e oneoa i?iecaaaeaiiuo a oa/aiea aiaea. I?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou (eo iiaoi?iue n/ao) eneeth/athony i?e iiaen/aoa AAI (AII). AAI (AII) ii io?aneyi ( ii i?iecaiaenoao ) en/eneyaony eae noiia aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe anao io?aneae iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, a oii /enea noa?u oneoa. AAI (AII) ii ?anoiaeai ii?aaeaeyaony, eae noiia eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia ia oiaa?u e oneoae, ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie oiaa?ia e oneoa , aaeiaiai iaeiieaiey, naeueaei yenii?oa e eiii?oa.AAI (AII) ii aeioiaeai ?ann/eouaaaony eae noiia ca?aaioiie ieaou iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, i?eauee oe?i e ei?ii?aoeee, aeioiaeia iaei?ii?e?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aeioiaeia naiinoiyoaeueiuo ?aaioieeia, ?aioiuo ieaoaaeae, i?ioeaioa e aeaoo ia naycaiiuo n aeioiaeaie ieaoaaeae: aii?oecaoeee e einaaiiuo iaeiaia ia aecian. Ec AAI (AII) iiaeii iieo/eoue ae?oaea aaaeiua iieacaoaee: /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (*II) e iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae (IAe). AII - aii?oecaoeey = *II *II - einaaiiua iaeiae = IAe AII - naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina = AAIAii?inu eyecaiaio ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee1. I?aaeiao yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.2. Nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey.3. Yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu, eo nenoaia e eniieueciaaiea.4. Iaoiaeeea yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.5. Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e aai oaeoi?u.6. Iauanoaaiiue niinia i?iecaiaenoaa.7. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu.8. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay nouiinoue nianoaaiiinoe.9. Iniiaiua enoi?e/aneea e iauayeiiiie/aneea oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.10. Oiaa?iay oi?ia oicyenoaa. Iauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee aai aicieeiiaaiey e iniiaiua /a?ou.11. Oiaa? e aai naienoaa. Aaee/eia noieiinoe oiaa?a.12. Aeaiueae, eo nouiinoue e ooieoeee a nenoaia oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa.13. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e aai caeiiu.14, Nouiinoue ?uiea e aai ooieoeee.15. Eeanneoeeaoeey ?uieia. No?oeoo?a e aeaeu iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea. ?uiie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e ieaoiuo oneoa.16. ?uiie eaieoaea.17. Oiaa?iua ae?aee, eo ooieoeee e iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey,18. ?uiie nnoaeiiai eaieoaea.19. ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa, eo eoiey-i?iaeaaea.20. Oiiaeiaua ae?aee e iaoaieci eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.21. ?uiie ?aai/ae neeu.22. Ae?aea o?oaea e aa ooieoeee.23. Acaeiiaeaenoaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai e ?uii/iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.24. I?aaei?eyoea (oe?ia) e aai ooieoeee.25. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu i?aaei?eyoee.26. A?aiaea e a?aiaeiua ioiioaiey a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.27. Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa e eo ?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.28. Aeoeee e eo aeaeu. Iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue e eo?n aeoeee.29. Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Ooieoeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.30. Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe.31. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iuo oeai ?aaiiaaney. Eiieo?aioiay ?uii/iay oeaia.32. Eiieo?aioeey, aa aeaeu e ooieoeee.33. Aicieeiiaaiea e nouiinoue iiiiiieee. ?aciiaeaeiinoe iiiiiieee.34. Anoanoaaiiua iiiiiieee e eo ?aaoee?iaaiea.35. Iniiaiua iiiaiou aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e aai yooaeoeaiinoue.36. Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, eo aeaeu e no?oeoo?a.37. I?eaueue e oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia aa ?acia?.38. Oeaia e oeaiiia?aciaaiea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Ooieoeee e aeaeu oeai.39. Aeeyiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa ia aeioiaeu.40. Ia?eaoeia e ?ieue eiiiaaoeee a iaania/aiee onoie/eainoe aeioiaeia.41. Iniaaiiinoe ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena (AIE).42. Iiiyoea iee?iyeiiiieee e iae?iyeiiiieee. Iieacaoaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee ia iae?io?iaia.43. Aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AII), aaeiaie aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (AAI).44. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, aai ?ani?aaeaeaiea e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea. Oiiae iaeiieaiey e oiiae iio?aaeaiey.45. Nouiinoue e ?ieue iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.46. Ainoaea?noai e aai ?ieue a yeiiiie/aneii ?aaoee?iaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.47. Niaieoiiue ni?in e niaieoiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea a iaoeeiiaeueiii ianooaaa.48. Aeaiueae e eo nia?aiaiiay i?e?iaea. Aeaiaaeiue ?uiie e no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yaiethoeey e aeaeu aeaiaa.49. E?aaeeo e aai iniiaiua oi?iu.50. Aaieianeay nenoaia, aa no?oeoo?a e ooieoeee.51. Oa?aeoa?enoeea nia?aiaiiie e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu ?O.52. Iiiyoea oeiainia. Oeiainiaay nenoaia e aa yeaiaiou.53. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e ianoiua athaeaeaou.54. Eioeyoeey. Oi?iu aa i?iyaeaiey. Iniiaiua oeiu nia?aiaiiie eioeyoeee.55. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey eioeyoeee.56. Aioeeioeyoeeiiiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa, ia?u ?aaoee?iaaiey eioeyoeee.57. Aeaiaaeiua ?aoi?iu.58. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, aai nouiinoue, oeaee e iniiaiua oeiu.59. Yeiiiie/aneea e?ecenu e oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? aini?iecaiaenoaa.60. O?iaaiue aeecie ianaeaiey e aai iieacaoaee.61. No?oeoo?a aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ianaeaiey. Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ianaeaiey ii o?iaith aeioiaeia.62. Aac?aaioeoea, aa i?e/eiu e oi?iu, iaoiaeu i?aiaeieaiey.63. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea ii nioeeaeueiie caueoa aac?aaioiuo.64. Nouiinoue e iniiaiua /a?ou anaie?iiai oicyenoaa.65. Oi?iu e oaiaeaioeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.66. Naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu, eo oeiu.67. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia.68. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey.69. Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea.70. Oi?aiaue e ieaoaaeiue aaeainu no?aiu.71. Aaethoiua ioiioaiey. O?iaie eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaetho.72. Aaethoiue eo?n, aai ooieoeee e ?aaeeiu.. Iaoiaeu iiaeaea?aeaiey aaethoiiai eo?na.73. Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey ie?iaiai oicyenoaa.74. ?uii/iay yeiiiieea e aa iniiaiua /a?ou.75. I?eaaoecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.76. I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai e aai ?ieue a ?acaeoee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.77. Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a ?innee.78. Oeiainiaue eaieoae. Oeiainiaay ieeaa?oey e oi?iu aa ainiiaenoaa.79. Yoaiu ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.80 Nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia.

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