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Экономическая наука до Адама Смита

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Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

1998

Niaea?aeaiea

toc \o “1-3” Yeiiiie/aneay iaoea aei Aaeaia Nieoa 3

Ia?eaioeeeci 3

Aeieo?eia oi?aiaiai aaeaina 3

Iaoaieci cieioiaeaiaaeiuo iioieia 4

Caueoa ia?eaioeeecia 6

I?aaeoa/e Eaeina? 8

?aoeeiiaeueiua yeaiaiou oai?ee ia?eaioeeecia 9

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u: 12

Yeiiiie/aneay iaoea aei Aaeaia Nieoa

Ia?eaioeeeci

Oa?iei “ia?eaioeeeci” aia?aua ia?ae naia cia/aiea a o?oaeao Aaeaia
Nieoa. Ii ioia/ae: “?acee/iua iooe ?acaeoey aeaaininoiyiey a ?acee/iua
a?aiaia e o ?aciuo ia?iaeia aeaee iiaiae aeey ?acaeoey aeaoo ?acee/iuo,
n oi/ee c?aiey i?eia?aoaiey ethaeueie aiaaonoaa, aaoaae iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee: “oi?aiaie nenoaiu”, eee “nenoaiu ia?eaioeeecia”, e
“naeueneioicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu”. Yoe aeaa nenoaiu ia enoiaeeee ec iaeieo
e oao aea iniiaaiee. Eaiy e a?oiia aai iineaaeiaaoaeae, eiai iioiiee
aeiaiai?eeenue eiaiiaaoue oeceie?aoaie (“yeiiiienou” – oaeiai auei eo
naiiiacaaiea), aunooiaee aaeeiui o?iioii e i?aaenoaaeyee niaith
ioaeaeueioth oeieo yeiiiie/aneie iunee. Ii aiaeeeneea iaioeaoenou XVII e
XVIII aa. I?aaenoaaeyee naaa aeinoaoi/ii ynii, eaeia ec ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oa/aiee iunee iie ?acaaaaee; iaiaa anaai yoi ioiineeinue e oie
o?aaeeoeee, eioi?oth Aaeai Nieo e?eoeeiaae iiae iacaaieai
“ia?eaioeeeci”. Iie ia niaeaniauaaee iaaeaeo niaith ie i?eioeeiu, ie
iauee aiaeeoe/aneee eino?oiaioa?ee. Oai ia iaiaa ia i?ioyaeaiee o?ao
noieaoee ianiaeaniaaiiuo eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oneeee, iieiuo
i?ioeai?a/eainoe e io?aaeathueo iiiaiia?aciua ianoiyoaeuenoaa ?aaeueiie
aeecie, ii?aaeaeaiiua naycothuea aeieo?eiaeueiua ieoe i?iyaeyeenue
aiiaue e aiiaue. Iicaea “ia?eaioeeeci” a cia/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiie oacu
enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee aue iacaai “a?iiicaeeei /aiiaeaiii”,
“ioaeaeathuei iaiaa?ii enoi?eia?aoee” e “aeaaioneei oai?aoe/aneei
iocu?ai”. Ii yoi neiai aiieia i?eiaieii a ea/anoaa oa?ieia,
iienuaathuaai oeaio?aeueioth oaiaeaioeeth yeiiiie/aneie iunee eiioea
XVII na?aaeeiu XVIII aa.

Aeieo?eia oi?aiaiai aaeaina

Aaaeouea i?eioeeiu iao/iiai ie?iaicc?aiey ia?eaioeeenoia oi?ioi
ecaanoiu: cieioi e nie?iaeua ethaiai ?iaea eae au?aaeaiey nooe
aiaaonoaa; ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee n oeaeueth iaania/aiey i?eoiea
a no?aio cieioa e na?aa?a; iiaeaea?aeea i?iiuoeaiiinoe iooai eiii?oa
aeaoaaiai nu?uey; i?ioaeoeeiieneea oa?eou eiii?oe?oaiua i?iiuoeaiiua
oiaa?u; iiiu?aiea yenii?oa, iniaaiii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee; ?ino ianaeaiey
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ieceiai o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou. Aaconeiaii,
na?aeoea ia?eaioeeecia – aeieo?eia aeoeaiiai oi?aiaiai aaeaina, eae
iai?aiaiiiai oneiaey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey. Iaiaaeeaiii
aicieeaao aii?in i oii, eae aiiaua iiaeii auei i?eeoe e iiaeiaiie
oaaaeaeaiiinoe. Aaeai Nieo aeae ia?aue e iaeaieaa i?inoie ioaao:
ia?eaioeeeci anoue ia /oi eiia, eae nieaoaiea i?ioaeoeeiienoneeo
caaeoaeaeaiee, iaaycaiiuo i?iaeaaeiiio ia?eaiaioo “iaoeie oi?aiaoeaie e
i?iiuoeaiieeaie”, e iniiaaii iii ia “i?inoaeoai i?aaenoaaeaiee, aoaeoi
aiaaonoai ninoieo a iaeaaeaiee aeaiueaaie”. Eae e eiaaeeae, ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii o?aoeoue iaiueoa, /ai iieo/aao, anee iaia?aii oaaee/eoue naia
aiaaonoai. Eaeoth iaoa?eaeueioth oi?io i?eieiaao yoio eceeoae naa?o
iio?aaeaiiiai? Ia?eaioeeenou ioiaeaeanoaeyee aai n i?eia?aoaieai
oaa?aeuo aeaiaa eee nie?iaeu. Ioeai/ii noaaeeny ciae ?aaainoaa iaaeaeo
aeaiueaaie e eaieoaeii, a oaeaea aeoeaiui naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina e
aaeaaiaeiui i?aauoaieai aeioiaea iaae iio?aaeaieai. Oaeei auei nouanoai
nieoeaineie e?eoeee ia?eaioeeecia.

Ni a?aiai Aaeaia Nieoa eiiiaioaoi?u ieeiaaea ia ia?anoaaaee ianoaeaeaoue
aii?in ia naiii ee aeaea ia?eaioeeenou ioiaeaeanoaeyee aeaiueae e
eaieoae, eee, eniieuecoy a?oae/ioth oa?ieiieiaeth, caiieoth iiiaoo e
aiaaonoai? I?eieiay ai aieiaiea ii?aceoaeueioth iaa?aaeiinoue, n eioi?ie
aaoi?u oiai a?aiaie oiio?aaeyee oaeoth i?eau/ioth, iaeoiaeioth eaeneeo,
aaeaa ee oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi a eeoa?aoo?a aeiioneaaony aieaa /ai iaeii
oieeiaaiea yoiai aii?ina. “Iaeei ec eo/oeo aiaeeeneeo aaoi?ia a iaeanoe
oi?aiaee”, – eae i?eciaao Aaeai Nieo, oeeoe?oy Oiiana Iaia e Aeaeiia
Eieea, – ia/eiaee n caia/aiey, /oi aiaaonoai no?aiu ninoieo ia oieueei a
aa caianao cieioa e na?aa?a, a aua a caiea, no?iaieyo e anyeiai ?iaea
iio?aaeoaeueneeo aeaaao; iaeiaei a oiaea eo ?annoaeaeaiee caiey, e
no?iaiey e iio?aaeoaeueneea aeaaa, iioiaea, auiaaeatho o ieo ec iaiyoe,
e eo aeiaiaeu /anoaiueei naiaeyo e cieioo e na?aa?o”. Ioeaieaay aaee/eio
eiouanoaa a Aiaeee eiioea XVII a., Oeeueyi Iaooe caeeth/aao, /oi iauaa
eiee/anoai aeaiaa ninoaaeyei iaiaa 3% niaieoiiie nianoaaiiinoe. A naiai
“O?aeoaoa i iaeiaao e nai?ao” (1662) iaia?aie/aiiiio iaeiieaieth
ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia ii i?ioeaiiinoaaee oacen, eioi?ue iacuaaee
aeieo?eiie iio?aaiinoae oi?aiaee ii ioiioaieth e eiee/anoao aeaiaa:
“Aeey oiai, /oiau iaoeey iiaea inouanoaeyoue oi?aiaua iia?aoeee,
iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?u e iiaeiaathuae i?iii?oeee,
i?aauoaiea eee iaaeinoeaeaiea eioi?ie i?eiineo iaeeiaeiaue o?ii”. Oai ia
iaiaa yoi ia iiiaoaei aieaa iicaeiei aaoi?ai noaaeoue ciae ?aaainoaa
iaaeaeo eiee/anoaii aeaiaa e iaoeeiiaeueiui aiaaonoaii eee i?ecuaaoue e
ia?iaiaioiiio iiaeaea?aeaieth aeoeaiiai oi?aiaiai aaeaina.

Iiaeii i?ioeeoe?iaaoue oia?aiiuo ia?eaioeeenoia, ia ioiaeaeanoaeyaoeo
aeaiueae e eaieoae e aneaae ca A?enoioaeai iiae/a?eeaaaoeo /enoi
oneiaioth i?e?iaeo aeaiaa, ii oaeaea ni?aaaaeeeai e oi, /oi ii/oe ana
ia?eaioeeenou ieoaee eeethceth i oii, /oi aeaiueae anoue a iaeioi?ii
?iaea “aaaeiaeoaa n?aaenoai”. Aeaiueae – yoi “aeeciue eiiia?oeee”,
“ianouiue aeoo oi?aiaee”, eee, neiaaie Ayeiia, “eae iaaic – ieioe eeoue,
iiea eaaeao aac aeaea”. Oaeiai ?iaea iaeooaaeaiiay ia?aciinoue auea
?acthie?iaaia a aeieo?eia XVIII a. i oii /oi, “aeaiueae noeioee?otho
oi?aiaeth”, ii iia auea a oiaeo noieaoeyie i?aaeaea aac eaeiai-eeai
yaiiai oai?aoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey. A eiioea eiioeia ianoaeaeaoue yoio
aii?in aanoeaeueii, eai ionoonoaea onoiyaoaeny oa?ieiieiaee a eeoa?aoo?a
oiai a?aiaie aeaeaao ii/oe iaaiciiaeiui i?iaaaeaiey ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
aeneiiaoe/aneie eaeaioeoeeaoeeae aeaiaa e aiaaonoaa e aieaa iauei
i?aaeiieiaeaieai, /oi oaaee/aiea iaeiiai anaaaea i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
ae?oaiai.

Iaoaieci cieioiaeaiaaeiuo iioieia

Anee ia?eaioeeeci a naieo iaeaieaa ?ac?aaioaiiuo aa?neyo ia niaoeaae
aeaiaa e eaieoaea, ioeoaea oiaaea anaiauay icaai/aiiinoue oiai a?aiaie
aeoeaiui oi?aiaui aaeainii? Eaeea aeaaa noeee no?aia i?aauoaiea yenii?oa
iaae eiii?oii? Iiyoue aea, ionoonoaea iauai?eiyoie oa?ieiieiaee e
i?ioiaiaeeoe/aneee oa?aeoa? iao/iuo o?oaeia aeaeatho cao?oaeieoaeueiui
ii?aaeaeaiea oiai, /oi iiae?acoiaaae aaoi?, aiai?y i aeaeaoaeueiinoe
i?aauoaiey yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii. Eiaaony ee a aeaeo ia/oi ia iaiaa
iaeaiia, /ai ooaa?aeaeaiea, aoaeoi aeoeaiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina
anoue aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee aiaaonoaa iaoeee, eee /oi iii –
aaeeinoaaiiay auaiaea, iieo/aaiay no?aiie io aiaoiae oi?aiaee, eee yoi
ia aieaa /ai neiaaniay oi?ioee?iaea aeey iainiiaaiey ia?ii?eyoee,
n/eoathueony auaiaeiui ii ae?oaei i?e/eiai? Eaeiaa au ie auea oi/iay
eioa?i?aoaoeey, iuneue i oii, /oi i?aauoaiea yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii
anoue iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneiai aeaaininoiyiey, iiaeao n/eoaoueny
iniiaiui caaeoaeaeaieai, i?ioiaeyuei /a?ac ana o?oaeu ia?eaioeeenoia.
Yoi i?aainoiaeii aeaiiino?e?oao iacaaiea eieae O. Iaia: “Aiaaonoai
Aiaeee ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea, eee aaeain iaoae aiaoiae oi?aiaee eae
i?eioeei iaoaai aiaaonoaa” (1664). Ii ioaa?aaeanue aeaaea yoa
eiinoaoaoeey iniiaiiai caaeoaeaeaiey ia?eaioeeenoia. Iaeei ec
enneaaeiaaoaeae aiaeeeneiai ia?eaioeeecia A.A.Aeae. Aeaeiinii cayaee,
/oi “iniiaiie i?aaeiao eioa?ana ia?eaioeeenoia ninoiye a nicaeaiee
yooaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa” e /oi “e aeanyoue i?ioeaioia o?oaeia
aiaeeeneeo ia?eaioeeenoia ia iinayuaiu ceiiieo/iie aeieo?eia oi?aiaiai
aaeaina”. Yoi cayaeaiea Aaeia? ia?e?iaae oae: “ia iniiaa i?i/oaiey
o?oaeia aiaeeeneeo ia?eaioeeenoia y i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi e aeanyoue
i?ioeaioia yoeo ?aaio ia naiaiaeiu io yaii au?aaeaiiiai eee
iiae?acoiaaaaiiai ioiioaiey e ninoiyieth oi?aiaiai aaeaina e ia?ai,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo ii iiaeao auoue oeo/oai”. Eiia/ii, iao ieeaeie
ioeaee a naiie caaioa i ninoiyiee oi?aiaiai aaeaina. *oi ioee/aao
ia?eaioeeenoneea oai?ee, oae yoi oeenaoeey ia oi?aiaii aaeaina e
no?aieaiea e iiaeaea?aeaieth aeenaaeaina oi?aiaee a aeeeoaeueiie
ia?niaeoeaa.

Ieaoaaeiue aaeain anaaaea aeieaeai auoue naaeaine?iaai, oae eae yoi ia
aieaa /ai aooaaeoa?neia ?aaainoai aeaaaoa e e?aaeeoa (caeanue aiai?eony
i “aeaoeoeeoa” e “aeoeaiii naeueaei” a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ieaoaaeao, ii
oieueei eneeth/ay ii?aaeaeaiiua noaouee aeaaaoa e e?aaeeoa ec iaai?a
n/aoia, eioi?ua, acyoua a niaieoiiinoe, anaaaea aeieaeiu auoue acaeiii
o?aaiaiu). Ii oi?aiaue aaeain ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai auoue
o?aaiiaaoai. No?aia iieo/aao aeioiae io iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iaiaia
iin?aaenoaii: (1) c?eiiai yenii?oa oiaa?ia, (2) iac?eiiai yenii?oa
oneoa, (3) yenii?oa ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia eee (4) eiii?oa eaieoaea a
oi?ia eeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee aioo?e no?aiu, eeai i?eaueae ia naie
eiaanoeoeee ca ?oaaaeii, eeai eiino?aiiuo caeiia. No?aia ?anoiaeoao ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iaiai: (1) c?eiue eiii?o, (2) iac?eiue eiii?o, (3)
eiii?o ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia e (4) yenii?o eaieoaea a aeaea caa?aie/iuo
aeoeaia. Yoe /aou?a noaouee a niaieoiiinoe anaaaea o?aaiiaaoaiu. Anee
yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo n ia?auie o?aiy noaoueyie, ?acieoea i?iyaeyaony a
yenii?oa eee eiii?oa eaieoaea. Eiaaea ia?eaioeeenou aiai?yo ia aeoeaiii
naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina, iie ana-oaee eiatho a aeaeo i?aauoaiea
yenii?oa, c?eiiai e iac?eiiai, iaae eiii?oii, i?ecuaay eeai e
i?eaea/aieth cieioa a no?aio, eeai e i?aaeinoaaeaieth e?aaeeoa
ca?oaaaeiui no?aiai, o.a. yenii?oo eaieoaea. Eiuie neiaaie, iie ia
i?iaiaeeee /aoeiai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oai, /oi naaiaeiy iacuaaaony “n/ao
oaeoueo iia?aoeee” e “n/ao aeaeaeaiey eaieoaeia” a ieaoaaeiii aaeaina.

Eeanneee ieeiaaea ia niiiaaaeenue a oii, /oi a?aoiaiou eo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia a iieueco iinoiyiiiai i?aauoaiey yenii?oa iaae
eiii?oii iniiauaaeenue ia niuneiaie iooaieoea: /aai au ie iaaeayeenue
aeinoe/ue ia?eaioeeenou aeoeaiui oi?aiaui aaeainii, ana yoi aeaaaei
eeoue ieiieaoiue yooaeo. Aua a 1630 a. Oiian Iai iiiye, /oi i?eoie a
no?aio ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia iiaeieiaao aioo?aiiea oeaiu, e aeieo?eia
“i?iaeaoue aei?iaea, eoieoue aeaoaaea” iai?a/eaaeanue i?ioea naiie
no?aiu. Eaioeeueii e THi aiiaue noi?ioee?iaaee yoio auaiae a XVIII a. e
i?eia?ii ca noieaoea “iaoaieci cieioiaeaiaaeiuo iioieia” iaania/ee
ieii/aoaeueiia ii?iaa?aeaiea ia?eaioeeenoneeo i?eioeeiia. A?aoiaiou auee
oaeeie: /enoi aaoiiaoe/aneea iaoaieciu niinianoaotho “anoanoaaiiiio
?ani?aaeaeaieth aeaiaaeiuo iaoaeeia” iaaeaeo oi?aothueie no?aiaie e
onoaiiaeaieth oaeeo o?iaiae aioo?aiieo oeai a ieo, /oi yenii?o eaaeaeie
no?aiu noaiiaeony ?aaiui aa eiii?oo. Ethaua aeiiieieoaeueiua iauaiu
aeiau/e cieioa a ioaeaeueiie no?aia iiaunyo o?iaaiue aioo?aiieo oeai
ioiineoaeueii ae?oaeo no?ai. A ?acoeueoaoa i?aauoaiea eiii?oa iaae
yenii?oii aeieaeii iiea/eaaoueny iooieii cieioa. I?ioeann i?iaeieaeaaony
aei oao ii?, iiea ai anao oi?aothueo no?aiao ia onoaiiaeony iiaia
?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo yenii?oii e eiii?oii, niioaaonoaothuaa aieaa aunieiio
i?aaeeiaeaieth cieioa. Oae eae aiaoiyy oi?aiaey e cieioi iiaeiaiu aiaea
a aeaoo niiauathueony ninoaeao, eioi?ay no?aieony iaoiaeeony ia iaeiii
o?iaia, iieeoeea iiaiie ca aeoeaiui aaeainii naia naay ioiaiyao.

Ana yeaiaiou, ninoaaeythuea yoo oai?eth naii?aaoee?othuaainy iaoaiecia
?ani?aaeaeaiey ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia, auee ecaanoiu oaea a XVII a.
Oiian Iai iieacae, /oi ethaia /enoia ianneaiia eee aeoeaiia naeueaei
aaeaina ii oaeouei iia?aoeeyi, c?eiui e iac?eiui, aeieaeii
oeiaine?iaaoueny iooieii eee i?eoieii ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iauaiu yenii?oa e eiii?oa caaenyo io niioiioaiey o?iaiy
oeai a ?acee/iuo no?aiao. A 1690 a. Aeaeii Eiee ynii iieacae, /oi oeaiu
eciaiythony a ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iii?oeee e eiee/anoao aeaiaa a ia?auaiee.
O?aaiaaeinue oieueei naycaoue yoe iunee aiaaeeii e i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi
iao ieeaeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe caaioeony i aeieain?i/iii ninoiyiee oi?aiaiai
aaeaina. Oioy Aaeai Nieo e ia nnueaeny ia iaoaieci cieioiaeaiaaeiuo
iioieia a “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”, eae ioia/aao Aaeia?, yoi iaeia ec
aaeeeeo caaaaeie enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iunee, oae eae Nieo ianoaeaeae
yoio aii?in a naieo aieaa ?aiieo “Eaeoeeyo”, eiaiii yoe a?aoiaiou
iiaoaeeee eeanneeia ioaa?aiooue ienaiey ia?eaioeeenoia eae iooaiiua e
aioo?aiia i?ioeai?a/eaua.

Eeanneee iiaee au aeiaaaeoue, /oi yia?ae/iue i?ioaeoeeiieneea aeoo oiai
a?aiaie iiaeaea iiiaeo ia?eaioeeenoia eniieueciaaoue aeiaiaeu “aaeaina
o?oaea” a iieueco ia?aie/aiee ia eiii?o aia anyeie nayce n oi?aiaui
aaeainii eee aea acuaaoue e iineaaeiaio eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau oneeeoue
ia?aue. N/eoaeinue iauai?eiyoui, /oi eiii?o aeieaeai ninoiyoue ec nu?uey
e iieooaa?eeaoia, i?iecaaaeaiiuo n eioaineaiui i?eiaiaieai eaieoaea,
oiaaea eae yenii?o –ec eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa, i?iecaaaeaiiiai n
eioaineaiui i?eiaiaieai o?oaea, ia oii iniiaaiea, /oi /enoue yenii?o
o?oaea iiaeaea?aeeaaao caiyoinoue aioo?e no?aiu e oaaee/eaaao “aeioiae
io ca?oaaaeiuo enoi/ieeia” (foreign-paid incomes). E oiio ciaeiiiio
i?ioaeoeeiienoneiio a?aoiaioo aeiaaaeyeenue aeiaiaeu aiaiiiai e
no?aoaae/aneiai oieea, a oaeaea i caueoa iaie?aioae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Neaaeothuaio iieieaieth, ia?yaeo n aaoiiaoe/aneei iaoaieciii
cieioiaeaiaaeiuo iioieia ioe?uaoaio caeii n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, yoi
i?aaenoaaeyeinue ioeaeie, iiiiiaeaiiie ia ae?oaoth ioeaeo.

Caueoa ia?eaioeeecia

No?iaue i?eaiai?, auianaiiue ioeaeai ia?eaioeeenoia eeanne/aneie
oai?eae, i?aauaae iainii?aiiui a oa/aiee noieaoey. ?aeyoeaenoneia
oieiaaiea ia?eaioeeecia auioaeaeaii auei auaeeaeaoue aieioue aei
aic?iaeaeaiey i?ioaeoeeiiecia a Aa?iia e ?acaeoey iaiaoeeie enoi?e/aneie
oeieu. Nia/aea ?ioa? e Oiieea?, a caoai eo aiaeeeneea iineaaeiaaoaee
Eaiieiaai e Yoee iiaeiyeenue ia caueoo ia?eaioeeenoneie iieeoeee eae
aiieia ?aoeeiiaeueiie, i?eaiaeiie aeey aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia, a /anoiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiie aaoa?eee e oneeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Yoe ?acoeueoaou aeaaea nae/an n/eoathony aiieia
?acoiiuie aeey naiaai a?aiaie. Oaeay eioa?i?aoaoeey oe?iei
?ani?ino?aieeanue n?aaee enoi?eeia yeiiiie/aneie iunee. Eiaaea Aaeai
Nieo a iaeiii ianoa inoi?iaeii caiaoee, /oi “iai?iia aaaeiaa
aeaaininoiyiey”, ii auneacuaae oi/eo c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie
ia?eaioeeenou aeieaeiu aini?eieiaoueny ana?ueac. Yoa iiceoeey iiiiaaao
i?ieeoue naao ia iaeii ec aeaaiuo oaaaeaeaiee yiioe ia?eaioeeecia:
oeaeue ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooa
ineaaeaieai yeiiiie/aneie iiue ninaaeieo ainoaea?noa a oie aea noaiaie,
anee ia a aieueoae, eae e oneeaieai nianoaaiiie. Eiee au?acee yoi eae:
“aiaaonoai” icia/aao ia i?inoi aieueoia eiee/anoai cieioa e na?aa?a, a
aieueoaa a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie no?aiaie. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aieueoeinoai
ia?eaioeeenoia i?eaea?aeeaaeenue oie oi/ee c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie
yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu iaoeee acaeiii aioaaiienoe/iu, eae aoaeoi au a
ie?a eiaaony oeene?iaaiiia eiee/anoai ?ano?nia, eioi?ua iaeia no?aia
iiaeao caiieo/eoue oieueei ca n/ao ae?oaie. Yoi iauyniyao, ii/aio iie ia
noaniyeenue caueuaoue iieeoeeo “?aci?e ninaaea” (beggar-my-neighbor) eee
aunooiaoue ca nie?auaiey aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey eae oeaeue
iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee.

Aeaaea anee aeiionoeoue, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiia iiaouanoai yaeyeinue
aaeeinoaaiiie oeaeueth iieeoeee ia?eaioeeecia, i?e oii /oi aiaaonoai
iaeaaeaao oeaiiinoueth eeoue a ea/anoaa iiaenii?uey yoiio, –
eioa?i?aoaoeey, eioi?oth Aaeia? n/eoae niiieoaeueiie, – yoiai iaei aeey
oiai, /oiau niyoue n ciaiai ia?eaioeeenoneie oai?ee eeaeii oinoaaiiie
ioeaee. Aeey ?anniio?aiey iieiiai ?anoeaaoa aiieiaaoeee iu aeieaeiu
ia?aoeoueny e aucuaathuei “Caiaoeai i ia?eaioeeecia” a “Iauae oai?ee”
(1936) Eaeina. Eae oieueei iaie iniciaii, /oi yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia ia
no?aieony aaoiiaoe/anee e ninoiyieth iieiie caiyoinoe, ooaa?aeaeae
Eaein, eeanne/aneay aeieo?eia, iai?aaeaiiay i?ioea iieeoeee
i?ioaeoeeiiecia e aace?othuayny ia i?aeiouanoaao iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, ai iiiaii oo?a/eaaao naith neeo: “Ii anee aiai?eoue
i aeeaaea a eneonnoai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie
nenoaiie a oeaeii e iaania/aiey iioeiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey anao
?ano?nia yoie nenoaiu, oi ?aiiea i?aaenoaaeoaee yeiiiie/aneie iunee XVI
e XVII aa. a iaeioi?uo aii?inao aeinoeaaee i?aeoe/aneie ioae?inoe,
eioi?ay a ioi?aaiiuo io aeecie aano?aeoeeyo ?eea?aei auea nia/aea
caauoa, a iioii e aiana au/a?eiooa”. Eaein cayaee, /oi icaai/aiiinoue
ia?eaioeeenoia i?eeeaii cieioa a no?aio yaeyeanue ia iaayc/eaie
?aay/aneie eaeaae, a eiooeoeaiui iuouaieai nayce iaaeaeo iaeeeai aeaiaa
e ieceei i?ioeaioiuie noaaeaie. Aieaa oiai, ia anai i?ioyaeaiee
/aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee neeiiiinoue naa?aaaoue i?aiaeaaeaea iaae
iiaoaeaeaieai eiaanoe?iaaoue, e ia?eaioeeenou aeinoieiu iioaaeu ca
iiieiaiea oiai, /oi neaainoue iiaoaeaeaiey eiaanoe?iaaoue anoue eeth/ e
?aoaieth yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai. Eiaaea i?yiua ainoaea?noaaiiua
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey eee aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iaaiciiaeiu, eae yoi e
auei iaeaioia Iiaiai a?aiaie, eo/oaa, /oi iiaeao auoue naeaeaii, – yoi
iiiu?aiea eioeyoeee /a?ac iiaeaea?aeaiea aeoeaiiai oi?aiaiai aaeaina:
i?aauoaiea yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii iiaeaea?aeeaaao oeaiu, a i?eeea
cieioa, oneeeaay i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa, nieaeaao i?ioeaioiua noaaee e oai
naiui noeioee?oao eiaanoeoeee e caiyoinoue. Eaein n/eoae yoi “ca?iii
iao/iie enoeiu a ia?eaioeeenoneie aeieo?eia”.

I?aaeoa/e Eaeina?

Aac niiiaiey, aiaeeeneea yeiiiienou XVII e XVIII aa. /anoi eaaeoony eae
au i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie Eaeina. Iie inoaeaeaee “caii?aaeeaaiea aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa” (locking up money), i?aa?auathueo eo a “ia?oaue a?oc” (dead
stock); iie oii?ii oaa?aeeee i ?anoiaeao ia i?eia?aoaiea i?aaeiaoia
?ineioe e i?aaeeaaaee i?ia?aiiu iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio aeey iaeaa/aiey
iieiaeaiey “eeoieo ethaeae”; a iiiaeanoai auneacuaaiee, a eioi?uo
no?aieaiea e cieioo niaaeeiyaony n aa?ie a aeaaioai?iua iineaaenoaey aai
aeey ioa/anoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aienoeio ii?aaeaao. Iaeiaei yoi ia
icia/aao, /oi o/aiua oiai ia?eiaea i?eaea?aeeaaeenue i?ioieaeineaineiai
iiieiaiey niaieoiiiai yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi
eaeineaineay aiieiaey ia?eaioeeecia iie?aaony io/anoe ia nia?aiaiiue
auaiae i oii, /oi onoie/eaue aeoeaiue oi?aiaue aaeain aeieaeai
nii?yaaoueny n yenii?oii eaieoaea eae eiiiaine?othuei oaeoi?ii,
iiaeiuathuei ecauoi/iua naa?aaeaiey aioo?e no?aiu. Ii caa?aie/iua
eiaanoeoeee ia ea?atho ieeaeie ?iee a ia?eaioeeenoneii aiaeeca, e aei
Aeaeaeina Notha?oa (1767) iao i?eia?ia a?aoiaioaoeee a iieueco
onoie/eaiai iioiea caa?aie/iuo eiaanoeoeee. Iaeiaei aeaaiia neaaia ianoi
a eaeineaineie aiieiaee, eae oeacae Oaeoa?, e?eoeeoy “Caia/aiey i
ia?eaioeeecia”, yoi oaaaeaeaiiinoue a oii, /oi aac?aaioeoea a yiioo
ia?eaioeeecia ea/anoaaiii aiaeiae/ia oaoiieiae/aneie e oeeeee/aneie
aac?aaioeoea, eioi?ie ia?eiaee/anee iiaeaa?aeaia yeiiiieea
eiaeono?eaeueiuo aea?aeaa. Aac?aaioeoea, aucaaiiay nieaeaieai
eiaanoeoeee a iniiaiie eaieoae, oaeoe/anee ia auea ecaanoia aei
I?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee. A XVII a. a Aiaeee, n aa i?aeiouanoaaiii
aa?a?iie yeiiiieeie, aac?aaioeoea aieueoae /anoueth i?ienoaeaea io
naciiiiai oa?aeoa?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eee neo/aaoeony
iao?iaeaeiuo eao. Aeaaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe aac?aaioeoea a iniiaiii auea
naciiiie, iiaeiaii oiio eae ceiiee eaaeinoaa eee aanaiiaa iieiaiaeuea
i?einoaiaaeeaatho ?aaioo aiaeyiuo iaeueieoe. Oi?aiaue e?ecen iia au
aucaaoue oeeeee/aneoth aac?aaioeoeo, eioi?ay o?aaiaaea au niaoeeaeueiuo
ia? aeey iaeaa/aiey neooaoeee, ii ia oio aeae aac?aaioeoeu, eioi?ue
i?eaeaeae aieiaiea ia?eaioeeenoia – aeia?iaieueiay aac?aaioeoea,
aaniethoiia iaaeaeaiea ?aaioaoue a ianoa?neeo e ia oaa?eeao e yaiia
i?aaeii/oaiea aeinoaa aunieei ca?aaioeai; i?iaeaia auea ia a
eaeineaineie auioaeaeaiiie aac?aaioeoea, a a oii, /oi ecyuii
eiaiiaaeinue “eaiinoueth e ?aca?auaiiinoueth ianaeaiey”.

Caeanue iiaeieiaaony aii?in, eioi?ue aua aicieeaao a i?ioeanna iaoaai
aiaeeca: i ?acee/ee iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie, iacaaiiuie aac?aaioeoeae ii
Ia?eno e ii Eaeino. Iiiyoea “eaeineaineay aac?aaioeoea” iaicia/aao
neooaoeeth, eiaaea iioie eiaanoeoeee iaaeinoaoi/ai, /oiau iiaeioeoue
naa?aaeaiey, inouanoaeyaiua i?e o?iaiyo aeioiaea, niioaaonoaothueo
oneiaeyi iieiie caiyoinoe. Ii i?e/eia ioiineoaeueiiai ecauoea
oece/aneiai eaieoaea ii?ia i?eauee neeoeii iaea, /oiau noeioee?iaaoue
eiaanoeoeee, o?aaoaiua aeey iaania/aiey iieiie caiyoinoe. Aac?aaioeoea
ii Ia?eno, anoue ?acoeueoao iaoaaoee eaieoaea ioiineoaeueii
i?aaeeiaeaieth o?oaea; iaaaeaeaaoiia niioiioaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa
e ia?aie/aiiua oaoiieiae/aneea aiciiaeiinoe caiauaiey eaieoaea o?oaeii
ia iicaieytho aani?ae?iaaoue aanue i?aaeeaaaaiue iauai ?aai/ae neeu,
aeaaea eiaaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe eniieuecothony iieiinoueth.
Aac?aaioeoea, ii Ia?eno, – ?acoeueoao eeai ecauoi/iiai ?inoa ianaeaiey,
eeai neeoeii ieceiai o?iaiy aeioiaeia, aea aua a ni/aoaiee n i?eieoeaiui
iaaeaeeie oaoiieiaeyie, /oiau aucuaaoue aaeaeaaoiue iioie eiaanoeoeee.
Neeoeii ieceee o?iaaiue aa?aaeeeainoe, a ia iaaeinoaoi/iinoue
yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina naea?aeeaaao ?ino auionea i?iaeoeoeee. Aac?aaioeoea,
ii Ia?eno, – i?iaeaia no?oeoo?iay, a ia oeeeee/aneay, e iioiio aeoeaiay
aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa, yooaeoeaiay aeey ai?ueau n
eaeineaineie aac?aaioeoeae, i?inoi auciaao eioeyoeeth, ia i?eaaaey e
onoaiiaeaieth iieiie caiyoinoe. A iaieo neo/ayo noiaeiu eeoue neiioiiu,
ii ia eaea?noaa, oae eae i?e?iaea aieacie niaa?oaiii ?aciay. Ec
neacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi aiaeiaey i?iaeaia aac?aaioeoeu, eae iia
iienuaaaony a ia?eaioeeenoneie eeoa?aoo?a, – ia iaiieiay caiyoinoue a
?acaeoie eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieea, ii yaiay eee ne?uoay aac?aaioeoea
nia?aiaiiuo ia?aianaeaiiuo e neaai?acaeouo no?ai Acee, Ao?eee e
Eaoeineie Aia?eee. Eaeineaineia oieeiaaiea ia?eaioeeecia – yoi ia aieaa
/ai aua iaeei i?eia? neeiiiinoe Eaeina ioeaieaaoue ana i?aaeoanoaothuea
oai?ee n oi/ee c?aiey aai nianoaaiiie e ?ani?ino?aiyoue nia?aiaiiua aio
i?iaeaiu ia anth /aeiaa/aneoth enoi?eth.

Eiaaea aaoi?u XVII – XVIII aa. i?ineaaeyee ?anoiaeu aiaaouo ia i?aaeiaou
?ineioe, iie yaii auee oaa?aei oaaaeaeaiu, /oi “?ineioiay aeeciue”
oi?ie?oao iio?aaiinoe e ii?iaeaeaao aeaiaaeiua noeioeu. Iaaeinoaoi/ii
?acaeoay yeiiiieea n i?eieoeaiuie ?uieaie o?oaea, eae iu ciaai ec
nia?aiaiiiai iiuoa, aanueia ?aniieaaaao e iunee, /oi ia aunoeo eeannao
iauanoaa eaaeeo iaycaiiinoue iaania/eaaoue ?aai/ea ianoa, niaea?aeaoue
iuoioth naeoo “/aeyaee”. Aeieoi? Aeaeiinii oae au?acee iauaa aeey XVIII
a. iiaiea: “Iaeuecy o?aoeoue aeaiueae ia ?ineioanoaa, ia aeaeay aeaaa
aaaeiui. Aieaa oiai, eo/oa o?aoeoue aeaiueae ia ?ineioanoaa, /ai
?acaeaaaoue eo; eai, o?aoy, au noeioee?oaoa i?iiuoeaiiinoue, oiaaea eae
?acaea/a inoaaeyao aeaiueae a aacaeaenoaee”. *oi eanaaony iaeia?aiey
ia?eaioeeenoaie iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio, oi iii /anoi iniiauaaeinue ia aieaa
/ai ia aa?a a iaae/aneoth neeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee i?inoi
iioiio, /oi iineaaeiea i?aaei?eieiathony a iauanoaaiiuo eioa?anao. Ii?ie
oi?aiaua aeai?annee iiaoaeaeaee aaoi?ia aunooiaoue ca iauanoaaiiua
?aaiou, e a aacuneoniie iaia?a oie yiioe ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia
niya/aiea nethieiooiie i?iaeaiu, iiaee au?aaeaoueny eae iinoiyiiua
i?aaeienaiey. Eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee ia aeatho iniiaaiee
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a oaaee/aiee caiyoinoe
i?ienoaeaea ec iiieiaiey aac?aaioeoeu eae iaaeinoaoi/iinoe yooaeoeaiiai
ni?ina. Ooaea oiai, yoe noaiu ?aeiiaiaeiaaeenue aac anyeiai aieiaiey e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe noeioee?iaaiey naa?aaeaiee e ia?aiauaiey eo e
iioaioeeaeueiui eiaanoi?ai.

?aoeeiiaeueiua yeaiaiou oai?ee ia?eaioeeecia

Ianiio?y ia oaaaeeoaeueioth e?eoeeo Oaeoa?ii iaenoi?e/aneiai oieeiaaiey
Eaeina, aai nianoaaiiue aiaeec ia?eaioeeecia io?aaeaao iieiinoueth
aano?aeiia ?acae?aaeaiea anai, /oi oioy au iaiiiai ioaeaao yeiiiie/aneei
aeaoa?ieieciii. Ii ia oieueei i?eienuaaao eaaeaeia ia?eaioeeenoneia
iieiaeaiea iiuiiio aeeyieth ioeai/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo eaeae, ii aeioiaeeo
aei ooaa?aeaeaiee oeia: “ia nouanoaoao aaniethoii ieeaeeo iniiaaiee
iieaaaoue, aoaeoi ia?eaioeeenou nicaeaee naith nianoaaiioth nenoaio…
ia iniiaa eaeei-eeai ia?acii i?eia?aoaiiiai eaeiai au oi ie auei ciaiey
?aaeueiinoe”, /oi yaeyao niaie eaeaaeueiue i?eia? aacaiaeeyoeeiiiinoe.
Aa?ii, /oi ia?eaioeeenou a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaei eioa?aniaaeenue
i?aeoe/aneei eniieueciaaieai aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia ia aiaiiua ioaeaeu
eee aeey eiia/iiai yenii?oa; e iie aeaaeaeaee cieioa ia ec-ca iaoaaoee
aai aeey /aeaiee iiiao. Eiia/ii, iaaeinoaoie aeaiaa aue aanueia
?ani?ino?aiaiiie aeaeiaie oiai a?aiaie, ii aeaaea ia?eaioeeenou
iiieiaee, /oi iiaeeeiiue eo iaaeinoaoie iiaeao auoue niya/ai nieaeaieai
aana iiiao eee yienneae aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa e /oi a oaeeo aeaeiaao
/anoaiueei niaoeaaeenue ieioia aaaeaiea aaethoiiai aeaea – iaoaaoea
iiiao ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiieiaea e oaeanoi/aiea e?aaeeoa a ia?eiaeu ayeie
oi?aiaee. Ii a?eoaineee enoi?ee *a?euec Oeenii i?aaenoaaee
naeaeaoaeuenoaa a iieueco oiai, /oi no?aieaiea iaeaaeaoue oaa?aeui
aeaiaaeiui n?aaenoaii a yiioo ia?eaioeeecia eiaei ii?aaeaeaiiua
aeinoieinoaa, i?eiaieoaeueii e oiaaeaoiei ianoiyoaeuenoaai, eioi?ua
iicaea en/acee. Oneiaey a?eoaineie oi?aiaee ni no?aiaie Aaeoeee e
Ino-Eiaeeae aeaeaee iaiaoiaeeiui aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aiaoiaoi?aiaie
eeeaeaeiinoe iaeioi?ia iaeiieaiea aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia. Ii i?e/eia
ia?acaeoinoe oiaaeaoiaai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeaiaaeiiai ?aiea Aiaeey ia
i?iecaiaeeea i?aeoe/anee ie/aai, /oi iiaei au auoue yenii?oe?iaaii. Aeey
i?eia?aoaiey ioaieoeu no?ai aaeoeeneiai aannaeia e eiaeeeneeo “niaoeee”
– neiai “niaoeee” a oi a?aiy iaicia/aei ia i?inoi i?ei?aau, a ana
ainoi/iua oiaa?u, eae oaeeiaua e oeii/aoiaoiaaeiua oeaie, e?aneoaee,
naoa?, eioa, /ae e naeeo?a, aaeaeaaoiua caiaieoaee /aio ia iiaee auoue
i?iecaaaeaiu a Aa?iia, – A?eoaiee i?eoiaeeeinue a eieiieaeueiie oi?aiaee
aeaeaoue oii? ia yeiiiieth ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia. Oaeei ia?acii,
yeiiiie/aneay ianoaiiaea a ie?a yiioa ia?eaioeeecia ia iicaieyea aanoe
oi?aiaeth ia iniiaa iiiainoi?iiieo ?an/aoia e o?aaiaaea nenoaiu
aeaonoi?iiieo niaeaoaiee.

Ioaa/ay ia yoio aeiaiae Oeeniia, Oaeoa? caiaoee, /oi iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
?uiee XVI e XVII aa. auee aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeou, /oiau iicaieeoue
aaethoiue iaiai, ii niaeaneeny n oai, /oi ia?eaioeeenou eiaee aaneea
iniiaaiey iaaniieieoueny ia eiaeeeneii eaiaea ooa/ee na?aa?a. Eae au oi
ie auei, yoi aeeneonney iaaiaeeo ia iuneue i nouanoaiaaiee ia
i?aaeiieaaaaoaainy ?aiaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ca?ia a aicc?aieyo
ia?eaioeeenoia.

Iiaeii oieueei oaeeaeyoueny oiio, /oi naie ia?eaioeeenou ieeiaaea ia
ia?auaee aieiaiey ia iniaaiiinoe oi?aiaee ni no?aiaie Aaeoeee e
INO-Eiaeeae. Nei?aa anaai, iie ia aeaeaee a yoii ie/aai iaiau/iiai.
Oai?ey ia?eaioeeecia a oeaeii /anoi iiae?acoiaaaao, ia iaiaa?eaay iniai,
oa i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?aaeueiii ie?a, eioi?ua, iioiaea, auee ianoieueei
i/aaeaeiu aeey oiai a?aiaie, /oi ia noieee oiiieiaiey. Noaoe/aneia
iiieiaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eae ea?u n ioeaaie noiiie
(auea?uo iaeiiai – /aeiaaea eee no?aiu –yaeyaony i?iea?uoai ae?oaiai),
iie/aeeaia aeiiouaiea ia?aie/aiiinoe iio?aaiinoae, iayeanoe/iinoe
ni?ina, neaainoe aeaiaaeiuo noeioeia – i/aaeaeii, /oi ana yoe
i?aaenoaaeaiey auee i?enoue aeieiaeono?eaeueiie yeiiiieea, i?eau/iie e
noieue iaeiio ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa e ianaeaiey, /oi eo iiaeii i?inoi
i?aiaa?a/ue. Ai a?aiaia, eiaaea aeioiae io aiaoiae oi?aiaee aue aeaeii
neo/ay, – a eiaiii oaeiaa yiioa ie?aoneiai eiia?eaeecia, – eiaaea
aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey ia?aie/eaaeanue ianeieueeeie ianaeaiiuie ioieoaie e
aaeanue oieueei nii?aaee/anee e eiaaea i?aeoe/anee iaecaanoiu auee
?aaoey?iay caiyoinoue e oaa?e/iay aeenoeeieeia, /oi iiaeao auoue
anoanoaaiiaa iunee, aoaeoi eeoue iieeoeea “?aci?e ninaaea” iaiaaoeo
iaoeeth, /oi aeoeaiue oi?aiaue aaeain aiieiuaao a naaa /enooth i?eaaaeo
e iauaio i?iaeaae ia ia?aie/aiiii aioo?aiiai ?uiea e /oi aieaa aunieay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa nieceo, a ia iiauneo i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea? Oaeiai ?iaea
iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey ia yeiiiie/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe noieue i?i/ii
ei?aieeenue a ?aaeueiii ie?a, /oi aaeaa ee ioaeaeaeenue a eiinoaoaoeee,
e oieueei iie iauyniytho, ii/aio ?acoiiua iiaee i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
oai?ee, auaeaeaaaoeony a oo yiioo.

Yoi ia icia/aao, /oi iai?aaeeueiua iiiyoey eee aeaaea ioe?iaaiiua ioeaee
ia ea?aee ieeaeie ?iee. A eiioea eiioeia aeieo?eia oi?aiaiai aaeaina
oaea a XV a. eiaea oiaeaeaiea, a auaeaeaaeanue a?aiy io a?aiaie aua a
XIV a. Iuneue i oii, /oi cieioi iaania/eaaao “aiaiioth ioneoeaoo?o”,
auea ii-ianoiyuaio i?eaeaeaoaeueia ai a?aiaia Aai?eoa VIII, e eiaaea
iineaaeiee i?iiioae ainoaea?noaaiioth eacio, yoi eaeay onoiyea, ieoaaiay
?acoiiie aiyciueth iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a yiioo, eiaaea e?aaeeoiua
einoeooou aua auee iaei ?acaeou. I?ioaeoeeiienoneea iano?iaiey,
iiioey?iua ai ana a?aiaia, – iniaaiii oiaaea, eiaaea ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee n/eoaaony naii niaie ?acoiathueiny, –
iiae aeeyieai aiaeiaee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiui e /anoiui oeiainaie
eaaei niaaeeiythony n iaaeiiui ioiaeaeanoaeaieai aeaiaa e aiaaonoaa,
ae?aaiaeoei ec yeiiiie/aneeo caaeoaeaeaiee. Iaia?aciaaiiua aaoi?u,
iiaeoaa/aiiua iioieii iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, iaia?oaeeee ii?aceoaeueiua e
iiae/an oaaaeeoaeueiua iniiaaiey aeey caueou io iauaaoaey
ia?eaioeeenoneie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea e a noaaoea n eiae/aneeie
neaaenoaeyie naieo i?acoiioeee yaeee yeiiiie/aneoth oai?eth ai
ieaaeai/anoaa. Caeanue aacaeia aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?aeyoeaenoneeo e
aaniethoenoneeo oieeiaaiee: ia?eaioeeenoneia “aeaeaiea” ?aaeueiinoe, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, a n ae?oaie – ii nouanoao i?eieoeaiue aiaeec, a?aoauee
/aua oiie/aiiui, /ai ec?a/aiiui.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. E.A. Ooiiaoa? “Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca”

2. Eaeoeee Aiaiiaciaa.

3. Aeae.Aeae. Oiaiaea? “Yeiiiieea: aa enoi?ey, oaiu, iiaeoiaeu”

Neiai “cieioi” a aeaiiii eiioaenoa icia/aao aiiaua aeaiaaeiue iaoaee. A
i?aeoeea aieueoeinoai no?ai Aa?iiu iniiaiui aeaiaaeiui iaoaeeii a oa
a?aiaia auei na?aa?i, ii ioiioaieth e eioi?iio ecia?yeny eo?n cieioa

Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee EIENI 1998

page 2

Oaiaeaa E.A.

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