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IIEOAANUeEEE I?NUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE E?OeAE ? 1

?AOA?AO IA OAIO :

«ETHAeEIA A NA?O? CAOE?A»

I?AeAIOOAAA O?OEUeIA IEAENAIAe? TH??EIAE*, A?OIA O – 41

IIEOAAA

1998

UI OAEA CAOE ?

O?ce/ia i?e?iaea an?o caoe?a, iacaeaaeii a?ae /anoioe, iaeia e oa ae :
oea i?oaei? eieeaaiiy, ye? iioe?ththoueny o oiio na?aaeiaeu?, a yeiio
aiie caoaeaeai?. O iia?o?? caoeia? oaee? iioe?ththoueny o aeaeyae?
?ica?aeii? (noa?e/ii?) oaee?. Caoeiaa noa?e/ia oaeey caiiaith? ana
a?eueoee ia’?i, ine?eueee eieeaaiiy /anoeiie iia?o?y, coiiaeai?
aeaea?aeii caoeo, ia?aaeathoueny ana c?inoath/?e ian? iia?o?y. Ie caeeee
aei oiai, ui caoeia? oaee? iioe?ththoueny a on? aiee a?ae ?o aeaea?aea.
Iai?eeeaae, eiee ni?aa? a?oeno, oi eiai iaeiaeiai, /e iaeaea iaeiaeiai
/ooe nia?aaeo, caieo ? iaa?oue ccaaeo; caoe ne?eiee /e a?oa?e
?icoiaeeoueny a on? aiee. Oiio aiai?youe, ui aeaea?aea /ooieo caoeiaeo
oaeeue ia iai?yieai?. sseui caoeiaa oaeey i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ii??aiyii
iaaaeeeee ioa??, oi aiia iioe?th?oueny a on? aiee, a ia eaea iai?yieaiei
io/eii, iia i?ii?iue na?oea, ui i?iiee /a?ac ae??i/eo o iai?ici?iio
ae?ai?. Ooi aoeeoe?, i?iieeath/e /a?ac a?aee?eoo eaaoe?eo, i?aeoe/ii
iaeiaeiai /ooe o an?o oi/eao e?iiaoe, a ia eeoa i?ioe a?eia.

Ie aeia?a cia?ii, ui i?iiai? na?oea ooai?ththoue /?oe? o?i? iai?ici?eo
i?aaeiao?a, yeui oe? i?aaeiaoe ciaoiaeyoueny ia oeyoo i?iiai?a. A oie
aea /an caoee ia ooai?ththoue oaeeo o?iae, o anyeiio ?ac? oiae?, eiee
?ici??e ia?aoeiae ia aeoaea aaeee?. Caoeia? oaee? i?ae «iao?eathoue»
ia?aoeiaee. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ie aeineoue aeia?a /o?ii ni?a?iciiaieea a
e?n?, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?i o oeae /an iiaea aooe cae?eoee
aea?aaaie. *ei aea iiynieoe, ui caoe ? na?oei, iath/e oaeeueao i?e?iaeo,
aeaiiino?othoue oae?, i?yii i?ioeeaaei? aeanoeaino? ? Uia ?ic?a?aoeny a
oeueiio, iiaa?iaiinue aei iiiyooy aeiaaeeie oaee?.

?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (((( aeieeaa?, ui /ei a?eueoa /anoioa caoeo, oei
iaioa aeiaaeeia caoeiai? oaee?. A oa?eoa? iioe?aiiy oaeeue a?ey
ia?aoeiae ?noioii caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?ici??aie
ai?aoeiaee ? aeiaaeeiith oaee?. sseui ?ici??e ia?aoeiaee iae? ii??aiyii
c aeiaaeeiith oaee? aai ni?anoaai? c iath, oi oaee? iao?eathoue
ia?aoeiaeo, ia aeath/e o?i?. Oae, oaee? ia iiaa?oi? aiaee a?eueii
iao?eathoue noaaeeie i/a?aoo. Ca oiano? ae noiaie /e aaeee? eaiai? oaee?
ia caoiaeyoue.

Oaee? /ooieo caoe?a cae/aeii iathoue aeiaaeeio aeecueei e?eueeio
aeanyoe?a naioeiao??a, aea iiaeooue aeinyaaoe aeiaaeeie 15 – 20 i. Oiio
i?aaeiaoe, ?ici??e yeeo ia ia?aaeuothoue 15 – 20 i, ia ? ia?aoeiaeaie
aeey iioe?aiiy caoeiaeo oaeeue, aiie ?o iao?eathoue, ia aeath/e caoeiai?
o?i?. Aeiaaeeie ae na?oeiaeo oaeeue aei??ththoueny aeanyoeoeny/ieie
/anoeaie i?e?iao?a, oiio an? i?aaeiaoe, ui ian ioi/othoue, a ii??aiyii?
c aeiaaeeiith na?oeiaeo oaeeue iaaecae/aeii aaeee? ? aeathoue /?oe?
o?i?.

OEUeO?ACAOE

Ia a?aei?io a?ae cae/aeieo caoe?a oeueo?acaoee iathoue cia/ii iaioo
aeiaaeeio oaeeue. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aiie aeathoue oeueo?acaoeia? o?i? ?
?o iiaeia iaea?aeaoe o aeaeyae? aocueeeo io/e?a, ye? ca aiaeia??th ?c
na?oeiaeie i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe oeueo?aaoeiaeie io/eaie. Oaeei /eiii,
iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui oeueo?acaoe iioe?th?oueny a iaeii??aeiiio
na?aaeiaeu? i?yiie?i?eii, ia iaeia? ia?aoeiae, ?ici??e yeeo cia/ii
ia?aaeuothoue aeiaaeeio oaee?.

C oeueo?acaoeii, ye ? c ?ioeie aeaeaie oaeeue, niinoa??aathoueny
caeiieaiiy, a?aeaeaaiiy, aeeo?aeoe?y oa iiaeeiaiiy.

I?e caeiieaii? oa iaae?ii? oeueo?acaoeiaeo oaeeue i?ae eooii
a?aeaoaa?oueny oe?eaaa yaeua – ooai?aiiy i?iaeieueieo ? iiia?a/ieo
oaeeue iaeii/anii.

Iaee?aua oeueo?acaoe iiaeeia?oueny aacaie, o?eaie c iaeith i?oaei?noth
(ieanoiane), ii?enoeie o?eaie (aoia, ei?ie), a??oa – ??aeeiaie, iaea??oa
– oaa?aeeie o?eaie.

Oeueo?acaoe aeoaea oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny. ?niothoue oeueo?acaoeia?
: ??caiiy, caa?thaaiiy, iayiiy, eoae?iiy, /euaiiy, oeiaethaaiiy ieeo ?
ooiaio, i?enei?aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, aiooaaiiy noniaic?e ?
aioeuen?e, eiio?ieue yeino?, aa/aiiy, aoieieaoe?y ? o.ae.
Aeei?enoiao?oueny oaeiae oeueo?acaoe o o?i??, iaoaeo?a??, aeaeo?ii?oe?
oa iaaeeoeei?.

sse aea ae?? oeueo?acaoe iaethaeeio ? Iaaeeee – oai?aoeee ? i?aeoeee
ia oea ieoaiiy iiee ui eaoaai?e/ii? a?aeiia?ae? ia aeathoue. Oi/i?oa,
iaei? aaaaeathoue oeueo?acaoe aeoaea aoaeoeaiei ? aaniethoii aacia/iei,
?io? – iaaiaee. Iiynieoe oaeo neooaoe?th iiaeia a iniiaiiio oei,
ui oeueo?acaoe i?eeoia o iaaeeoeeio cian?i iaaeaaii (iaoa??aee 1987 ?.)
Ioaea, oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ui aaaaoi i?iaeai ooo ua ia ciaeoee
inoaoi/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy. Iathoue ?aoe?th o? niaoe?ae?noe, ye?
iaaieioothoue ia oai?/iio i?aeoiae? aei aeei?enoaiiy oeueo?acaoeo o
iaaeeoeei?, ai a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a e?eoaaiiy ? ae?aaiinoeee c eiai
aeiiiiiaith aeathoue o?eueee iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe. Aaaeeeai eeoa a??ii
i?ae?a?aoe ?ici??, aeice, iaoiae ? i?eeaaee. Aeico, ye i?aaeei,
aeae?athoue aeey na?aaeiuei? ?ioaineaiino? ca o?eaae?noth aieeao
oeueo?acaoeo. *anoioo oeueo?acaoeiaeo eieeaaiue iae?athoue a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aeeaeie ?icoaooaaiiy oai?iai i?aaia. *ei ieae/a /anoioa, oei aeeaoa
i?iieeathoue a o?ei oeueo?acaoeia? eieeaaiiy, oiio iae/ano?oa
aeei?enoiaothoue /anoioo 0,8 – 1 IAoe.

Iaaei??i? aeice oeueo?acaoeo ia ae?iaieoeoa? iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia
i?aai?ci ethaeeie. O oeo, ooi ii?ooo? i?aaeea oaoi?ee aaciaee, iiaea
ii/aoeny i?ioan?eia caoai?thaaiiy. Oiio ii?aoeueiaothoueny aoaeoeai?
caoiaee ii ai?iouea? c oe?aeeeaei aieeaii oeueo?acaoeo ia ethaeeio.

Aei aa?oiueiai ei?aeiio oeueo?acaoeiaeo oaeeue i?aeoiaeyoue oaee?
a?ia?caoeiaiai ae?aiaciio (109 – 1013 Aoe). I?oaei? eieeaaiiy oeeo
/anoio iaceaathoueny a?ia?caoeii (aai oeueo?a-oeueo?acaoeii).

?IO?ACAOE

?io?acaoe – oea eieeaaiiy /anoioe ieae/a 16 Aoe. Aeyaeaii, ui
?io?acaoe iaaoaii aieeaa? ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie ? ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua.
Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui /anoioa ?io?acaoeo ni?aiaaea? c aeaniith /anoioith
i?aaeiaoa, a oea, ye iai a?aeiii – yaeua ?aciiaino. Oea ? ? iniiaiith
i?e/eiith caoaiiai aieeao ?io?acaoeo ia ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua. Oaee?
??cii? /anoioe iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ??ci? i?aaie ethaeeie, ia ??ci?
eiino?oeoe??.

A iaeiiio c noa?iaeiieo eiiaeiinueeeo oaao??a a?eueoa i?anoie?ooy oiio
noaaeee i’?no, a na?aaeei? yei? ae?y ia?aiineeanue ?c no/aniino? o
aeeaiea ieioea. sse ia iaiaaaany iinoaiiauee noai?eoe iaiao?aeio
oa?ii?noue ii oiaeo ae??, i?/iai o iueiai ia aeoiaeeei. A?aeiiee o?cee
?iaa?o Aoae, ui ciaoiaeeany ia ?aiaoeoe??, ianiiae?aaii cai?iiiioaaa
ae?yoe ia aeyaea/?a iecueei/anoioiei ia/ooiei caoeii. Ianooiiiai aeiy a
oaao? i?eaacee aeoaea aeiaao ? oe?ieo o?oao oa i?e/aieee ?? aei i?aaio.
Iacaaeiaai aei niaeoaeey Aoae i?ia?a ei?ioei/aniee aeine?ae ii aieeao
?io?acaoeo ia ethaeae. Eiee a?i i?ea?a o ae?th aaia?aoi?, i?/iai ia
/aeaaoeo aeyaea/?a ioiieea aeeaia oo?aioa, aaci?e/eiiee no?ao, aiie
noaee noiii ia?aaeyaeaoeny, aeeaeoeny ii noi?iiao, a aeaeio?? anoaee c?
no?eueoe?a ? i?oee aei aeoiaeo. I?yeiai caoeo ia aoei, aea e?eooaeaa?
i?aea?nee noa?iaeiiiai eaiaeaeya?a cao?aio?ee. Iaa?oue ia aoeeoe?
ii/aeanue iai?ea.

?ioee aeiaaeie iaa i?noea a eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iaeonoeee Ii?nueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeiai oeaio?o a Ia?nae?, aea a/ai? i?iaiaeeee
aeine?aee ia ??cieo /anoioao ? iiooaeiinoyo aei?ii?ithaaiiy. I?e
aei?iaoaaii? iaeiiai c aaia?aoi??a oeueo?acaoeo aeine?aeieee noaee
ii/oaaoeny iiaaii. Ana a?a?oaaei o ieo ana?aaeei? – oeoiie, na?oea,
eaaai?. A non?aei?o eaai?aoi??yo ethaee cae?e/aee a?ae aieth. Aaia?aoi?
aeieioee, aea i?ioyaii aeae?eueeio aiaeei aiie ii/oaaeeniy cian?i
«nionoioaieie». A o?e aea eaai?aoi??? aoa noai?aiee ?ioee ?io?acaoeiaee
aaia?aoi?, caeaoiee c?oeioaaoe aoae?aeth, oi/a eiai iiooaei?noue
neeaaeaea anueiai 2 eAo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?io?acaoe iiaeia caaaneoe ca aeiiiiiaith /ooieo caoe?a
a?eueoi? iiooaeiino?.

Aea ia caaaeaee ?io?acaoe – oe?aeeeaee. Ca eiai aeiiiiiaith iiaeia
ia?aaeaa/aoe oae? noeo?ei? eeoa, ye caieao?on, oeoiai? (c yiiinueei? –
aaeeea oaeey a aaaai?), aeaa?aeaiiy aoeeaio. Ca aeiiiiiaith aaea
noai?aieo i?eeaae?a aeey aeyaeaiiy ?io?acaoeo oe? eeoa iiaeia
aeia?aaeeoe ? oei naiei a?yooaaoe aeeooy oeny/ ethaeae.A/ai? aeaaee
oe?eaao noaoenoeeo.A na?aaeiueiio

eiaeiiai ?ieo a?aeaoaa?oueny 1 eaoano?io?/iee caieao?on, 18 aeoaea
neeueieo, 120 ?oei?aieo, 1000 na?aaeiuei? neee, 6000 neaai ?oei?aieo,
49000 a?ae/ooieo, 300000 iii?oieo ? 6000000 ye? ie i?inoi ia
a?ae/oaa?ii.Ia oeae /an ia?aoiao?oueny 600 ae?th/eo aoeeai?a, c ieo eiei
200 o?eueee a ?iaeiiac??.

OOI

Eoe?aoe?e Ea? (? noie?ooy i.a.) : «Oe?aeeeaiai aaaaoi iai a aooa ?aea».

O.?iaa?neaa (i?aceaeaio VI I?aeia?iaeiiai eiia?ano c aeonoeee, OO

noie?ooy
i.a.) : «Ooi – oea yae».

«Ooi – oea a?aeoiaee oeea?e?caoe??. Oae caaaeaii ae oe? a?aeoiaee aei
i?i?ioio !»

«Oeoeiu oi/o, oeoeiu. Ia?au, /oi ee, iaiaeaeaiu ?» Aicianainueeee

On? oe? aeneiaethaaiiy a??i?. Ooi – oea aeoaea oe?aeeeaa yaeua. A?i
aeoaea iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ethaeeio. C oeueiai i?eaiaeo i?iaaaeaii
/eneai? aeine?aee. Iaeei aeoaea oe?eaaee aeine?ae aoei i?iaaaeaii a
Aa?iai??. Ethaeae iii?noeee a caoeiiai?iieeio e?iiaoo. O ieo i?ney aeiy
i?aoe? a oeeo oiiaao niinoa??aaeinue iia??oaiiy iano?ith ? naiiii/oooy.
Ioaea, a?aenooi?noue ooio oaae ? oe?aeeeaei /eiieeii. Oiio ??aaiue ooio
ia iiaeiai aeoiaeeoe ca iaai? ?aiee.

Iaaaaeaii aeae?eueea i?eeeaae?a. Oea aoaeooue aea? noaoo? c aacao.

«Ia aeeneioaoe?, ye o oeaoo»

??aaiue ooio o cae/aei?e aeeneioaoe? ia iaioee, i?ae iiaeeco
aaee/aciiai aa?aeaeia?a, yeee aioo?oueny ceao?oe, iia?aeiiey?
a?eoainueeee iaoeiaee aeo?iae «Iueth Na?ioeon». Ia?aa??eaoe neoo 1800
iieiaeeo i?ioe?a ?c Aethnnaeueaei?oa a?eii a?ae 18 aei 24 ?ie?a,
aeine?aeieee iaea?aeaee a?aaeath/? ?acoeueoaoe : eiaeiee aeanyoee c ieo
no?aaeaea? ao?aoith neooo, yeee ia iiaeia a?aeiiaeoe. E??i oiai, o
eiaeiiai /aoaa?oiai niinoa??aa?oueny ?iceaae ooieoe?e neooo.

Aeeaothoue e ?io? ?acoeueoaoe : aeanyoa /anoeia iieiaeeo ethaeae 16 –
18 ?ie?a /a?ac na?eici? iioeiaeaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai aooa ?icoi?thoue
ethaenueeo iiao na?aaeiuei? ao/iino? c o?oaeiiuaie. ?i aeiaiaeeoueny
iai?oaeoaaoe oaaao, noaaeeoe ca ?ooii aoa, a oi e caeiaaaeoaaoeny i?i
ci?no neacaiiai ca ia?eaeaie ne?a.

Iniaeeai aeooeoue o?iaeaeaea??a «oaoii» – aeeeee ooi, ui iaei
anioe?th?oueny c ioceeith, aeaoeeaaee yeiai cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue iaa?oue
ao?e?o eiaaeuenueeiai oeaoo ii/aoeo noie?ooy.

««A?aeaeoee» neoo»

Oea/eoe, eiaae?, aiae?? ii?cae?a o iao?i ? ianeoaiaoth/ee ia?niiae
aa?iae?ii?a – iino?ei? ee??ioe e?ea??a, ui caeiathoueny a?aeiiaeaiiyi
neooo. Ui ii?iaeo oae? i?ioan??. Ca?ac aei oeeo iaoe??io?a noaee aeoeaii
i?e?aeioaaoenue oeiey?? oa nooaeaioe. Ui ii?iaeo – oaea iiaea : oeiioe?
e ae?a/aoa c «aaiaiaie» o aooao o aeaeyae? iaaooiee?a a?ae iea??a –
ae?ei cae/aeia. ? ana ae oaee uinue o?aaa ?iaeoe, yeui ie ia oi/aii, uia
o iiaiai iieie?iiy aoa «a?aeaeoee» neoo. Iiynieii : o oeaoeueeiio oeaoo
??aaiue ooio – 90 – 100 aeaoeeaae, ia aeeneioaoe? – 80 – 100 aeA.
Neea caoeo iea??a iiaea aeinyaaoe 114 aeA – cian?i iaaaaaoi aei 120 aeA
(ooio ce?oath/iai e?oaea), eiee ii/eia?oueny aieueiaee ii??a. Ia ia?oee
iiaeyae oea caeanoueny ia?aaeueiei, ? ana ae oaee : iino?eii neooath/e
iea??, iiaeia …caoai??oe.

Aia?eeainuee? iae?io??o?ae aaea /aoaa?oee ??e aea/athoue oae caaiee
??oi?/iee oien?eic – oai?iaa, yeith no?aaeathoue a?e? (!) i?aee?oee,
aeoeaii neooath/? iii-ioceeo. *i?ia ianaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae/oaa? i?e
oeueiio i?yeiai aeeneiioi?oo, ine?eueee no/ania ano?aaeia ioceea
iiaoaeiaaia ia ao?i-aia?eeainueeeo ?eoiao, ye? o ieo o e?ia?. Ui ae aei
a?eeo, oi, ye iieacothoue aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aai?/iith aeey ieo ?
eeane/ia ioceea, ui ia? a?ieia?/i? ?eoie i?e?iaee. A?eoo?noue oai??a
Iioea?oa, A?aaeueae?, Aaoa iathoue ?aeaaeueiee ?eoi – 60 oaea??a ia
oaeeeio, ui a?aeiia?aea? na?oeaaeooth. Oey ioceea ia a?aeaeaa? neoo, ia
?oeio? ?ioi?oao. Iaaiaee, ?? i?ineooiaoaaiiy, iniaeeai «aeeaa», c
aeeiiaiiyi ia eeane/ieo ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaioao, caa??aa? aeanoe/i?noue
aa?aaaiii? ia?aoeiee, ?icaeaa? ?ic??oath/o caeaoi?noue neooo.

Caoei?aaeena?e i?e caien? aeei?enoiaothoue aenie? /anoioe, ye?
i?ecaai? ?i?ooaaoe i?ici??noue cao/aiiy. Iecueea ye?noue a?eueoino?
oiiia?ai ciooo? aeiaeaoeiai i?aei?iaoe aa?oi? /anoioe. A ?acoeueoao?
??aaiue caoeiaiai oeneo ia ieo cia/ii ia?aaeuo? ii/aoeiaee. A?ae onueiai
oeueiai aao neooiaee ia?a aoaea ana a?eueoa ? a?eueoa ?oeioaaoeny, a
neoo, i?e?iaeii, cieaeaoeny. A?aeiiaeoe iioeiaeaeaiee ia?a o??o?a?/iei
oeyoii i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai.

AE IIAEAOA neooaoe ioceeo ii aei?ic? aei oeiee, a iao?i, a aaoiaon? –
aeania a oeueiio ? ? aieiaia ia?aaaaa iea??a. ? ana ae … A oeeo
aeiaaeeao aei ioceee a iaaooieeao aeiaeathoueny ooi ? a?a?aoe?y
o?ainii?oo. sseui ae ae i?e oeueiio ua e aeoeeo aeo?oa (aaeaea ae aeo?oa
!), a?ae oeeo ?oo?a a?aee?eaa?oueny ? cae?eaa?oueny i?ina?o ?anoao??ai?
o?oae – a?aeaoaathoueny nai???aei? oeiiee ana?aaeei? naiiai aooa. O
i?aenoieo iaiii?oii a?aeaoaa?oueny iineaaeaiiy neooiaiai ia?aa. A ia
iineaaeaiee neooiaee ia?a c aaeeeei caaeiaieaiiyi iaiaaeathoue
?ioaeoe??.

Oea ia cia/eoue, ui o?aaa acaaae? a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae iea???a. Oea
cia/eoue, ui iaaooieee oi/a a ?iiae? o?aaa ci?iaoe c aoo, ia aieeaoe
iea?? ia anth iiooaei?noue, ??aeoa neooaoe a o?ainii?o? ?, ia aeaeue, ia
neooaoe cian?i, yeui o aan a?ei aai A?C.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a :

Aacaoa «Ci?y Iieoaaueie»

?.A.Oi?aaei «Ca ei?aeiiaie /ooiiai»

N.O.Aii/a?aiei «Ia/ooi? caoee – o?oaea??»

?.?.Eethe?i «Aeeaiee na?o caoeo»

?.Oaeei? «Ooi»

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