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Д. Рикардо о факторах определяющих стоимость товара (Контрольная)

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Ninoaaiie /anoueth oai?ee noieiinoe ?eea?aei yaeyaony e?eoeea ei
iaiao/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ii aeaiiie i?iaeaia, Yoa oai?ey, nianoaaiii, e
au?inea ec oaeie e?eoeee. ?eea?aei ianoiyoaeueii, a?aoiaioe?iaaii,
e?eoe/anee ?anniio?ae oeaeue ?yae aoeueaa?iuo oai?ee noieiinoe e ioaa?a
eo iaeio ca ae?oaie.

Iniaia aieiaiea i?e yoii ?eea?aei oaeaeee iaiao/iiio aa?eaioo o?oaeiaie
oai?ee noieiinoe Nieoa. Niioaaonoaaiii aeaienoaaiiinoe i?eiaiyaiiai
Nieoii iaoiaea ii ?ac?aaioae e aeaienoaaiioth oai?eth noieiinoe. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, Nieo i?eoiaeee e i?aaeeueiiio a Oeaeii auaiaeo i oii,
/oi noieiinoue oiaa?ia ii?aaeaeyaony o?oaeii, cao?a/aiiui ia eo
i?iecaiaenoai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, Nieoo i?aaenoaaeyeinue, /oi iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oai o?oaeai, eioi?ue “iieoiaaony ia
yoio oiaa?”. Ii Nieoo, yoi oiaeaeanoaaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey.

?eea?aei ?aoeoaeueii aunooiee i?ioea aoi?iai, iaiao/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey
noieiinoe Nieoii. Ii iieacae, /oi yoi ioithaeue ia oiaeaeanoaaiiua
iiceoeee, /oi aoi?ay oi/ea c?aiey Nieoa ia niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

?eea?aei iieacae, /oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aai/aai oaeoe/anee ia caaeneo io
aeinoeaiooiai ei o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Ii ienae:
“Ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia caaeneo io eiee/anoaa oiaa?a, eioi?ia aoaeao
i?iecaaaeaii o?oaeii iaeiiai aeiy… anee aianoi /aou?ao ia? o?oaeii
iaeiiai aeiy iiaei au auoue i?iecaaaeaii aeanyoue ia?, ca?aaioiay ieaoa
ieneieueei ia iiauneeanue au e ?aai/ee ia iieo/ee au aieaa cia/eoaeueiie
aeiee oeaaa, iaeaaeaeu eee oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo oeaiae”. (3. O. V. N. 67).

Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?eea?aei i?iaiaeee /aoeia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo o?oaeii,
cao?a/aiiui ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a e ii?aaeaeythuei aai noieiinoue, e
oai o?oaeii, eioi?ue iiaeii eoieoue ia aeaiiue oiaa?, iaaeaeo o?oaeii
cao?a/aiiui e o?oaeii iieoiaaiui. A ea/anoaa enoi/ieea noieiinoe o
?eea?aei aunooiaao o?oae, cao?a/aiiue ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a.

Aianoa n oai oacen ?eea?aei ia ionoonoaee iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe
ca?aaioiie ieaou io eciaiaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea eae aoaeoi au
i?ioeai?a/eo ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ecaanoii, /oi a oneiaeyo
naeaeueiie neeu, /ai aieueoa i?iecaaaeao ?aai/ee oiaa?ia, oai auoa aai
ca?aaioiay ieaoa. I?e/eia, ii eioi?ie ?eea?aei ionoaeaae aeaiiue oacen,
a oii, /oi ii no?aieeny auyaeoue ii?aaeaeythuea caaeneiinoe
yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee, a iioiio e aano?aae?iaaeny io iaiaa nouanoaaiiuo
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae. A naiii aeaea, aeaiiue oacen ?eea?aei
iie?aaony ia neaaeothuea aeaa i?aaeiinueee. ?eea?aei enoiaeee ec oiai,
/oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aaoee?oaony cao?aoaie o?oaea, o?aaothueieny aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa “o?oaea” eae oiaa?a (a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – ?aai/ae neeu
eae oiaa?a). Iiyoiio iia e ia caaeneo iaiin?aaenoaaiii io
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe yoiai o?oaea (15. Ae. 1. § 5-7).

Oai ia iaiaa, yoa e?eoeea auea iaaeinoaoi/ii iineaaeiaaoaeueiie.
?eea?aei oaeoe/anee iieacae, /oi noieiinoue oiaa?ia ia neeaaeuaaaony ec
aeioiaeia, iineieueeo yoe iineaaeiea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaea
nicaeaiioth noieiinoue. Iaeiaei ii i?eiye ae?oaie iaiao/iue oacen Nieoa
a oai?ee noieiinoe, a eiaiii aai iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi noieiinoue oiaa?a
?aniaaeaaony ia aeioiaeu. Iaaeaeo oai a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia aeioiaeu
?aniaaeaaony eeoue aiiaue nicaeaiiay noieiinoue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoa
oi/ea c?aiey eaii?e?iaaea a no?oeoo?a noieiinoe oiaa?a oae iacuaaaioth
noa?oth noieiinoue, oi anoue noieiinoue, ia?aianaiioth ni n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa. E caeanue iu aeaeei, /oi iaiiieiaiea ?eea?aei
aeaienoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a o?oaea ia iicaieeei aio aeaoue iiaeeeiii
iao/iia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu no?oeoo?u noieiinoe oiaa?a.

Ioia/o, /oi no?oeoo?a noieiinoe iaeaaeaao aeaienoaaiiinoueth, niaea?aeeo
eae aiiaue nicaeaiioth (aano?aeoiui o?oaeii), oae e ia?aianaiioth
(o?oaeii eiie?aoiui) noieiinoue ni n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, eiaiii a neeo
aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaeu o?oaea, nicaeathuaai oiaa?.

Iaeiaei aeoiaaony, /oi ?eea?aei, aiieia iainiiaaiii ioaa?aaaoee oacen i
iieaciinoe oiaa?a eae enoi/ieea aai noieiinoe, ana aea iaaeinoaoi/ii
iieii o/eouaae ?ieue iio?aaeoaeae a i?ioeanna ?aaoee?iaaiey noieiinoe.
Ii, iai?eia?, ienae neaaeothuaa: “Oiaiueoeoa ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
oeyi, e oeaia eo, a eiioea eiioeia, iiieceony aei o?iaiy eo iiaie
anoanoaaiiie oeaiu, oioy ni?in iia au oaeaieoueny, oo?ieoueny eee
o/aoaa?eoueny” (3. O. E. N. 253). I?e oaeii oaaee/aiee ni?ina, anee
iauai i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee ia aoaeao niioaaonoaaiii oaaee/ai, oeaiu
ia oiaa?u ia oiaaeoo, a aic?anooo. I?e yoeo oneiaeyo aiciiaeii e
oaaee/aiea noieiinoe oiaa?a; anee niecyony n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa oeyi, a ni?in ia ieo iiiaie?aoii oaaee/eony, oi a ea/anoaa
?aaoeyoi?a noieiinoe iiaoo aunooieoue cao?aou o?oaea ia ooaeoeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo. Iauay noiia iauanoaaiiie noieiinoe a yoii neo/aa i?aauneo
noiio eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae oiaa?ia. Aicieeiao yaeaiea oae
iacuaaaiie eiaeiie nioeeaeueiie noieiinoe.

N yoeo aea iiceoeee ?eea?aei iaian oaea? e ii eiioeaioeee “noauaeoeaiie
oeaiiinoe”. Ii iieacae, /oi yoa eiioeaioeey eeoaao oai?eth noieiinoe
eaeiai-eeai iauaeoeaiiai iniiaaiey. ?eea?aei ienae: “Eiaaea iu aiai?ei,
/oi oeaiiinoue aeieaeia ecia?youeny oaeiaieuenoaeai, aeinoaaeyaiui
iieueciaaieai oiaa?ii aai nianoaaiieeo, oi iu aieaa, /ai eiaaea- eeai,
aeaeaee io oiai, /oiau eiaoue ia?eei oeaiiinoe, eai aeaa /aeiaaea io
iieueciaaiey iaeiei e oai aea i?aaeiaoii iiaoo iieo/eoue a aunieie
noaiaie ?acee/iia oaeiaieuenoaea” (Iyo. ii: 20. N. 37).

Noieiinoiua ioiioaiey i?iyaeythony ia iiaa?oiinoe a neiaeiie, caiooaiiie
oi?ia, iiae/an noaayuae iiae niiiaiea nai oaeo ii?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe
cao?aoaie o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a. Iaeia ec oaeeo caaaaeie
iinoaaeea a ooiee e ?eea?aei.

Ii caaeoiaeny iaae aii?inii i oii, /ai ii?aaeaeyaony noieiinoue
iaaini?iecaiaeeiuo i?aaeiaoia noa?eiu e oaaeaa?ia eneonnoaa. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, enoiaey ec iauaai ii?aaeaeaiey caeiia noieiinoe iia aeieaeia
ii?aaeaeyoueny ie /ai eiui, eae cao?aoaie o?oaea ia eo i?iecaiaenoai. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, i/aaeaeii e oi, /oi noieiinoue oaeeo oiaa?ia ia
ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie, iineieueeo oeaiu ia ieo noaeue aaeeee, /oi ia
iaoiaeyony ie a eaeie nayce n cao?aoaie o?oaea.

Ioeaea ?eea?aei iniiaaia ia oii, /oi ii niaoeaae caeanue noieiinoue
oiaa?ia e eo oeaio. Ia oeaio niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueii aicaeaenoaoao iaiin?aaenoaaiii. ?aaeeea,
iaaini?iecaiaeeiua oiaa?u oaeoe/anee i?iaeathony ii aunieie iiiiiieueiie
oeaia, iineieueeo eo eiee/anoai iaaiciiaeii oaaee/eoue ie i?e eaeeo
cao?aoao o?oaea. Aianoa n oai oaeiai ?iaea oiaa?u eiatho oaiaeaioeeth
noaiiaeoueny ana aieaa ?aaeeeie (aneaaenoaea eo oo?aou, ii?/e e o.i.), a
iioiio e oeaiu ia ieo, eae i?aaeei, aic?anoatho. Oaeei ia?acii, oaiiiai
iiiiiieueiie oeaiu iieiinoueth iauyniyao ana iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe a
aeaeaeaiee oeai ia iaaini?iecaiaeeiua oiaa?u.

Ae?oaei aniaeoii ioeaee ?eea?aei yaeyaony iaiiieiaiea ei oiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi iaaini?iecaiaeeiua oiaa?u ia iaeaaeatho
noieiinoueth. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaeeie/iua oiaa?u, iaiiaoi?eiua
oai?aiey auaeathueony ianoa?ia. Iiyoiio eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue o?oae,
iioaaeoee ia eo ecaioiaeaiea, ia i?aa?auaaony a iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiue
o?oae, ia i?eia?aoaao oi?iu noieiinoe. Yoi au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi
cao?aou o?oaea ia oaeiai ?iaea oiaa?u ia ?aaoee?otho eo iaiaia ia
ae?oaea oiaa?u, ia ii?aaeaeytho eo iaiiauo noieiinoae. Oaeoe/anee
?eea?aei aeecei iiaeoiaeee e iiieiaieth yoie noi?iiu aeaea. Ii ienae i
iaaini?iecaiaeeiuo oiaa?ao: “Oeaia eo ia noieo ie a eaeie iaiaoiaeeiie
nayce n eo anoanoaaiiie noieiinoueth” (3. O. E. N. 259). Ii ?ac oeaiu ia
ii?aaeaeythony cao?aoaie o?oaea, yoi eae ?ac e naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii,
/oi oaeea oiaa?u ia iaeaaeatho noieiinoueth.

E?eoeea ?eea?aei iaiao/iuo oai?ee noieiinoe ?an/enoeea aio aei?iao aeey
?ac?aaioee nianoaaiiie iao/iie eiioeaioeee.

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