.

Безработица. Проблема безработицы в Восточной Европе

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
53 1378
Скачать документ

Iaeaaeaiea no?.

Aaaaeaiea 2

1. ?aiee aiaeeca 2

2. Iauay ea?oeia 3

2.1 Nie?auaiea caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a 3

2.2 ?ino caiyoinoe a /anoiii naeoi?a 4

2.3 Aac?aaioeoea 5

2.4 I?aeoe/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey 6

3. ?aoaiey a iaeanoe caiyoinoe e ca?aaioiie ieaou ia

ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo: ?aiee aiaeeca 8

4. Caiyoinoue e ca?aaioiay ieaoa a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a 11

4.1 Nie?auaiea auionea 11

4.2 Eciaiaiea caiyoinoe 13

4.3 Aeeiaieea ca?aaioiie ieaou 15

4.4 Aac?aaioeoea e o?iaaiue iieaou o?oaea a /anoiii naeoi?a 19

4.5 Iiaue e noa?ue /anoiue naeoi? 19

4.6 I?e?iaea iiauo oe?i /anoiiai naeoi?a 20

4.7 ?acee/ey ii no?aiai e a aeeiaieea 22

5. Aac?aaioeoea 24

5.1 I?e?iaea aac?aaioeoeu 24

5.2 Acaeyae ia iauea iioiee 26

Caeeth/aiea 27

I?eeiaeaiey 30

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea.

Iaiouaieaiie /a?oie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee yaeyaony aac?aaioeoea – a?aiaiiay
iacaiyoinoue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. I?e/eiu aeaiiiai yaeaiey
?aciiia?aciu. Ai-ia?auo, no?oeoo?iua naeaeae a yeiiiieea, au?aaeathueany
a oii, /oi aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiaee, iai?oaeiaaiey i?eaiaeeo e
nie?auaieth eceeoiae ?aai/ae neeu. Ai-aoi?uo, yeiiiie/aneee niaae eee
aeai?anney, eioi?ua auioaeaeatho ?aaioiaeaoaeae nieaeaoue iio?aaiinoue
ai anao ?ano?nao, a oii /enea e o?oaeiauo. A-o?aoueeo, iieeoeea
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe iieaou o?oaea: iiauoaiea ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a
ca?aaioiie ieaou oaaee/eaaao ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e oai naiui
nieaeaao ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo, /oi eeethno?e?oao eeanne/aneay iiaeaea
?uiea o?oaea. A-/aoaa?ouo, naciiiua eciaiaiey a o?iaia i?iecaiaenoaa a
ioaeaeueiuo io?ineyo yeiiiieee. Iaeiiaoe, a-iyouo, eciaiaiey a
aeaiia?aoe/aneie no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey, a /anoiinoe ?ino /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa oaaee/eaaao ni?in ia o?oae e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aic?anoaao aa?iyoiinoue aac?aaioeoeu.

Enoiaey ec i?e/ei aac?aaioeoeu, iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue a? iniiaiua
oi?iu.

O?eeoeeiiiay aac?aaioeoea (io aiae. friction – o?aiiea, ?aciiaeanea)
naycaia n ia?aiauaieai ethaeae n iaeiie ?aaiou ia ae?oaoth, ec iaeiie
ianoiinoe a ae?oaoth. I?e/eia aeaiiie oi?iu aac?aaioeoeu a oii, /oi e
ethaee, e ?aai/ea ianoa iaiaeii?iaeiu, e iiyoiio e?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiia
a?aiy aeey “acaeiiiai iienea”.

No?oeoo?iay aac?aaioeoea naycaia n eciaiaieyie a oaoiieiaeyo, a oaeaea n
oai, /oi ?uiie oiaa?ia e oneoa iinoiyiii eciaiyaony: iiyaeythony iiaua
oiaa?u, eioi?ua auoaniytho noa?ua, ia iieuecothueany ni?inii. A yoie
nayce i?aaei?eyoey ia?aniao?eaatho no?oeoo?o naieo ?ano?nia e, a
/anoiinoe, ?ano?nia o?oaea. Eae i?aaeei, aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiaee
i?eaiaeeo eeai e oaieueiaieth /anoe ?aai/ae neeu, eeai e ia?aiao/aieth
ia?niiaea.

Naciiiay aac?aaioeoea naycaia n iaiaeeiaeiauie iau?iaie i?iecaiaenoaa,
auiieiyaiuie iaeioi?uie io?aneyie a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu a?aiaie, oi anoue
a iaeie ianyoeu ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo a yoeo io?ineyo ?anoao (e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, nieaeaaony aac?aaioeoea), a ae?oaea – oiaiueoaaony (a
aac?aaioeoea aic?anoaao). E io?ineyi, aeey eioi?uo oa?aeoa?iu naciiiua
eieaaaiey iau?iia i?iecaiaenoaa (a cia/eo – e caiyoinoe) ioiinyony
i?aaeaea anaai naeueneia oicyenoai e no?ieoaeuenoai.

Oeeeee/aneay aac?aaioeoea naycaia n iaaeinoaoi/iui niaieoiiui ni?inii

Eciaiaiey aac?aaioeoeu a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia ca iineaaeiea aiaeu iieacaiu
ia ?enoiea 1-1. Yoio ?enoiie io?aaeaao ianeieueei ioee/eoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae. Ia?aay ninoieo a iauai iiauoaiee o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu n
1990 a. Aoi?ay au?aaeaaony a iaiaeii?iaeiinoe iauae ea?oeiu. A oi a?aiy
eae aieueoeinoai no?ai a iaoae auai?ea aeaiiino?e?otho o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu a i?aaeaeao 10-15 i?ioeaioia. *aoneay ?anioaeeea e ?inney
eiatho ai?acaei aieaa ieceee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu. Ia?a/aiue
aii?inia, i?ienoaeathueo ec ?enoiea 1-1. i/aaeaeai. Ii/aio o?iaie
aac?aaioeoeu aic?inee e ii/aio iie oae ?acee/athony? ssaeyaony ee
aac?aaioeoea canoieiie eee iia anoue inoaiiaea ia iooe ia?aoiaea n
iaeiie ?aaiou ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo? Aoaeao ee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu
aic?anoaoue a aeaeueiaeoai, eee iia iiaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny ia
neiaeeaoainy o?iaia, iaaethaeaaiii a aieueoeinoaa no?ai? Eaeoth
iieeoeeo aicaeaenoaey ia ?uiie o?oaea neaaeoao auaeaeaaoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaai? Neaaeoao ee ei aea?aeaoue eo?n ia i?ae?auaiea auieao
iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea /a?ac oanoue ianyoeaa eee aea /a?ac aiae? Yoi
iaeioi?ua ec aii?inia, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony a aeaiiie aeaaa. A iae
iu i?iaiaeece?oai aianoa yaeaiey, eioi?ua aace?othony ia eioi?iaoeee,
iieo/aiiie a ?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey ioaeaeueiuo no?ai. Nia?aa, i?aaeaea
/ai i?aaenoaaeoue iniiaiie yneec iauae ea?oeiu, iu iaia/aai ?aiee iaoaai
aiaeeca. A iineaaeothueo ?acaeaeao iu oaeoaeyainy a aeaoaee.

?aiee aiaeeca

Iauea ?aiee, a eioi?uo neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue aac?aaioeoeo a i?ioeanna
ia?aoiaea yniu. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iaeiaaea ainiiaenoaiaaaoee
ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? iaoeeiiii ?ac?ooaaony, Ainoaea?noaaiiua oe?iu
oa?ytho ?aaioieeia; iaeioi?ua oe?iu ?ai?aaiecothony, ae?oaea
cae?uaathony. Iiaue /anoiue naeoi? aicieeaao e ?anoao. Aac?aaioeoea
anoue ?acoeueoao yoiai i?ioeanna ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey. Ii
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu i?ioaeatho a ?acee/iuo oi?iao.
?anniio?ei aeaa e?aeieo acaeyaea. Niaeanii ia?aiio ec ieo, aeaaiie
neeie yaeyaony eieeain ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ianiiniaiuo
i?eniiniaeoueny e ?uii/iie n?aaea. *anoiue naeoi?, iaoiaeyueeny a
yia?eiiaeueiii ninoiyiee, ?anoao, ii iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey oiai, /oiau
caiyoue iiiaeanoai aunaiaiaeeaoeony ?aaioieeia. Niaeanii yoie oi/ea
c?aiey, ia?aoiae auno?i aaaeao e aunieie aac?aaioeoea e aac?aaioeoea
auno?i noaiiaeony canoieiie. ?aai/ea, eioi?ua eiatho ian/anouea
iioa?youe ?aaioo, aanueia aa?iyoii, auauaatho ec ninoaaa ?aai/ae neeu
eee noaiiayony

aac?aaioiuie ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie. Aunieay aac?aaioeoea i?aaenoaaeyao
aunieea yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua ecaea?aeee yoi oa?iaeaao ?aoi?ia,
caiaaeeyao aeaeaaioth ?ai?aaiecaoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a e
aeene?aaeeoe?oao ?aoi?iaoi?neea i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Niaeanii aoi?iio
acaeyaeo, aeaaiie neeie yaeyaony auno?ue ?ino /anoiiai naeoi?a, eioi?ue
ia?aoaaouaaao ?aai/eo ec ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e, oai naiui,
nicaeaao n?aco noeioeu, e aiciiaeiinoe aeey eo ?ai?aaiecaoeee. N yoie
oi/ee c?aiey, aac?aaioeoea yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii caei?iaiai i?ioeanna
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey. Aeaaea anee eiee/anoai aac?aaioiuo aaeeei, eo
ninoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie iai?a/eaaaiinoueth e yaeyaony
oeaio?aeueiui caaiii yooaeoeaiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey. Eae iieo/eoue
aeaiiua, iicaieythuea auynieoue, eaeie acaeyae, i?aaeeai eee, nei?aa
anaai, aaea enoeia, eaaeauay iaaeaeo aeaoiy oi/eaie c?aiey?

Iauay ea?oeia.

Nie?auaiea caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a.

Oaaeeoea 1-1 aeaao ioeaiee eciaiaieyi caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii
naeoi?a ca ia?eiae 1990-92 aa. Iauay ea?oeia ynia. Iaeeoei
cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea caiyoinoe ai anao no?aiao. Ii i?e/eia neaaiai
i?ia?anna n?aaeiae e aieueoie i?eaaoecaoeee, aeeiaieea iieacaoaeae
io?aaeaao ia noieueei eciaiaiea noaoona i?aaei?eyoee, neieueei i?aaaeeai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeaenoaeoaeueiii nieaeaiee caiyoinoe. Eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeyao ?inney, aaea nieaeaiea caiyoinoe iauyniyaony, aeaaiui
ia?acii, eciaiaieai noaoona i?aaei?eyoee e caiyoinoue ia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oe?iao nieceeanue ii/oe ia 4 i?ioeaioa a 1992 a.

I?eaaaeaiiua a oaaeeoea iieacaoaee, iaeiaei, ne?uaatho ?acee/ey,
oa?aeoa?iua aeey

ioaeaeueiuo ia?eiaeia a?aiaie e aeey ioaeaeueiuo no?ai. *oiau iiiyoue
yoi, neaaeoao

iiaeoiaoue i aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae ianoaiiaea, a eioi?ie aeaenoaotho
ainoaea?noaaiiua

oe?iu iaeaioia i?eaaoecaoeee. Yoi iniaaiii aaaeii iioiio, /oi
i?eaaoecaoeey

ieacaeanue aanueia iaaeeaiiui i?ioeannii. A ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao e a
eaaeaeie no?aia

oe?iu ?acee/athony eae naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie iiceoeeae oae e ianooaaaie
oiea,

eioi?ue iie eniuoaee. Iaeioi?ua oe?iu iioa?yee aanue naie ?uiie a
?acoeueoaoa

?aniaaea NYA. E iaeioi?ua no?aiu, oaeea eae Aieaa?ey, auee cia/eoaeueii
neeueiaa

ae?oaeo no?ai cao?iioou

ia?aiia/aeueiuie oieaie A ?acee/iuo no?aiao oe?iu ?acee/athony naieie
aioo?aiieie iiaoaeeoaeueiuie iioeaaie. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai ?aoaiey,
i?eieiaaiua i?aaei?eyoeyie, io?aaeatho eioa?anu iaiaaeaea?ia e ?aai/eo.
Iaeiaei ioiineoaeueiay cia/eiinoue yoeo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii caaeneo io
einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo e enoi?e/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Oeaee eaaeaeie a?oiiu
oaeaea ?acee/iu; caeanue eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiu ia?niaeoeau
i?eaaoecaoeee e iaeeaeaaiua auaiaeu eaaeaeie a?oiiu, e eiaaea ia/aeny
ia?aoiaeiue yoai, yoe iaeeaeaiey eciaieeenue. Iaeiiaoe, ?acee/ia
naia aiaoiyy n?aaea, a eioi?ie ooieoeeiie?otho oe?iu. A aieueoeinoaa
no?ai oe?iu auno?i noieeioeenue n aeanoeeie athaeaeaoiuie ia?aie/aieyie,
iineieueeo noaneaeee e ae?oaea aeaeu iiaeaea?aeee auee ?acei nie?auaiu e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeinoaoi/ii aeieai ia ionooiaee io naieo ia?aiia/aeueiuo
ieaiia aeanoeie iieeoeee, /oi i?eaaei e cae?uoeth iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee.
Eia-aaea oaeouea eee iaeeaeaaiua athaeaeaoiua ia?aie/aiey iaiiiai iya/a
e aei neo ii? oe?iu iiaee ecaaaaoue naiiai oyaeaeiai auai?a. Eae
ni/aoaeenue yoe oaeoi?u? A Iieueoa, Aaia?ee e *aoneie ?anioaeeea iiaeii
iaaethaeaoue ianeieueei yoaiia ia?aoiaea. A ia/aea ia?aoiaea oe?iu
noa?aeenue oaea?aeeaaoue ?aaioieeia. Nie?auaiea caiyoinoe oei
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai nie?auaiea auionea. Aieueoeinoai oaieueiaiee auee
aeia?iaieueiuie eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ioiineoaeueii aacaieaciaiiuie,
iai?eia?, iooai aein?i/iiai auoiaea ia iaineth. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa auea
onoaiiaeaia oaeei ia?acii, /oi aeeth/aea aieueooth /anoue i?aaeiae
i?eauee, e yoi ia oa?iaeaei caiyoinoe. Ii ii i?ioanoaee a?aiaie
oneeeaathony i?eciaee oiai, /oi iioa?y ?aaiou auoiaeeo ca ?aiee
o?eeoeeiiiie aac?aaioeoeu. Oaieueiaiey ii aieueoae /anoe noaiiayony
auioaeaeaiiuie, ethaee oaieueiythony ii i?aeiouanoao ia n oeaeueth
ia?aoiaea ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo, a aeey oiai /oiau iiiieieoue ?yaeu
aac?aaioiuo. Oe?iu i?eieiatho ?aoaiey n o/aoii ana aieaa aeeeoaeueiie
ia?niaeoeau, aeaaea aei i?eaaoecaoeee. Ae?oaea no?aiu aeaeyony ia aeaa
a?oiiu. N iaeiie noi?iiu, Aieaa?ey, aaea ia?aiia/aeueiue oie aue
iaiiiai neeueiaa, a aii?oecaoi?u iaiiiai neaaaa, aaea ia?aiia/aeueiia
nie?auaiea auionea e caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a auei iaiau/ii
neeueiui. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?inney e, a iaiueoae noaiaie, ?oiuiey,
aaea aieaa iyaeea athaeaeaoiua ia?aie/aiey aei neo ii? iicaieytho
ainoaea?noaaiiui oe?iai ia?aie/eoue iioa?e a caiyoinoe ia o?iaia iiiai
aieaa ieceii, /ai ianooaau nie?auaiey auionea.

?ino caiyoinoe a /anoiii naeoi?a.

Eae iieacaii a oaaeeoea 1-1, /anoiue naeoi? auno?i ?anoao. I?e/ai a
aieueoie noaiaie yoio ?ino, iiyoue aea ca eneeth/aieai ?innee, iiaeao
auoue ioianai ia n/ao ?inoa iiaiai – a ia i?eaaoece?iaaiiiai – /anoiiai
naeoi?a. Aei neo ii? yoio ?ino io?aaeae, aeaaiui ia?acii, i?ioeann
no?oeoo?iiai i?eniiniaeaiey, caiieiaiea oa?aeoa?iie aeey nioeeaeecia
a?aoe a oi?aiaea e oneoaao. E i?e?iaea iiaiai /anoiiai naeoi?a auea
noi?ie?iaaia eae iniaaiiinoyie naiie oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, oae e
iaeeeai aeanoeeo aa?uea?ia io ia?aie/aiiiai aeinooia e e?aaeeoo aei
ionoonoaey yenia?oecu. *anoiue naeoi? ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa iaeeeo
oe?i, eioi?ua oeiaine?othony ca n/ao aioo?aiieo enoi/ieeia, e, anee
i?eiyoue a ?an/ao ae?oaea aniaeou eiiiainaoeee iiieii ca?ieaou, iau/ii
ieaoyo naiei ?aaioieeai iaiueoa, /ai ainoaea?noaaiiua oe?iu. Oe?ieea
iioiee oaieaiiuo, a oaeaea ooaaeoeo n ?aaiou ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aunieii o?iaia aaie?ionoa e iai?anoeaeiii oa?aeoa?a
naiie ?aaiou, eioi?ay e oiio aea ioee/aaony aunieie
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth. Iaeioi?ua no?aiu, oaeea eae Iieueoa e Aaia?ey,
iaoiaeyony ia oie noaaeee, eiaaea aeiey oi?aiaee e oneoa i?eaeeaeaaony e
niioaaonoaothuei iieacaoaeyi a ae?oaeo ?uii/iuo yeiiiieeao n i?eia?ii
oaeei aea o?iaiai aeioiaea. Yoi iiaeieiaao aii?in i oii, aoaeoo ee
ieaaee?iaaoueny iaaeno?aiiaua ?acee/ey a oaiiao nicaeaiey ?aai/eo iano a
/anoiii naeoi?a. Iu iaoiaeei iaei iniiaaiee n/eoaoue, /oi /anoiue
naeoi? aaea-eeai – a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iai?eia?, iiaeao iai?a?uaii ?anoe
iaeiei e oai aea oaiiii.

Aac?aaioeoea.

Yaiethoeey aac?aaioeoeu neaaeoao ec iaoae oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acaeoey
/anoiiai e ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?ia. Noieone?iaaa aieiaiea nia?aa ia
Aaia?ee, Iieueoa e *aoneie ?anioaeeea iiaeii iaaethaeaoue eae n oa/aieai
a?aiaie iaiyaony i?e?iaea aac?aaioeoeu. Ia?aiia/aeueiia nie?auaiea
caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a i?ienoiaeeei eae iooai i?yiiai
ia?aoiaea ?aaioieeia ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo, oae e iooai auauoey ec ninoaaa
?aai/ae neeu iin?aaenoaii aein?i/iiai auoiaea ia iaineth. Aeey oao, eoi
eiae ian/anouea noaoue aac?aaioiui, ia?niaeoeau auee ooiaiiuie,
iieacaoaee o?iaiy iooiea ec ?yaeia

Oaaeeoea 1-1. Caiyoinoue ii oi?iai nianoaaiiinoe.

A ouny/ao Aeiey a iauae
caiyoinoe

Iieacaoaee 1990 1991 1992 1990 1991
1992

Aaia?ey

Iauay caiyoinoue 4699,0 4334,0 4120,0

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? – 2860,4 2645,0 – 66,0
64,2

*anoiue naeoi? – 1473,6 1475,0 – 34,0
35,8

IIEUeOA

Iauay caiyoinoue 16511,0 15601,0 15379,0

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? 10963,4 9313,8 8550,7 66,4 59,7
55,6

*anoiue naeoi? 5547,7 6287,2 6828,3 33,6 40,3
44,4

*aoneay ?anioaeeea

Iauay caiyoinoue 5351,0 5059,0 4880,0

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? 4917,0 4052,0 – 91,9 80,1

*anoiue naeoi? 434,0 1007,0 – 8,1 19,9

NEIAAEEss

Iauay caiyoinoue 2478,0 2281,0 2160,0

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? 2357,0 1989,0 1793,0 95,1 87,2
83,0

*anoiue naeoi? 121,0 292,0 367,0 4,9 12,8
17,0

AIEAA?Ess

Iauay caiyoinoue 4097,0 3564,0 3113,0

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? 4097,0 3204,0 2673,0 100,0 89,9
85,9

*anoiue naeoi? – 360,0 440,0 – 10,1
14,1

?OIUIEss

Iauay caiyoinoue 10840,0 10786,0 10205,0

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? – 10041,8 8980,4 – 93,1
88,0

*anoiue naeoi? – 744,2 1224,6 – 6,9
12,0

?INNEss

Iauay caiyoinoue 75400 73800 72300

Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? 66900 60300 53600 88,7 81,7
74,1

*anoiue naeoi? 8300 13500 18700 11,0 18,3
25,9

– iao aeaiiuo.

I?eia/aiea: aeaaiea ii Iieueoa a 1989 a. ninoiaeytho,

niioaaonoaaiii, i7600, 12126 a 5474, /oi aeaao aeieth iuouo a
ainoaea?noaaiiii

naeoi?a 68,9 i?ioeaioia e a /anoiii naeoi?a 31.1 i?ioeaioa. Enoi/iee;
Employment

Observatory, ioeaiea ?ineiinoaoa e Anaie?iiai aaiea

aac?aaioiuo, iniaaiii o?iaiy o?oaeiono?ienoaa, auee ieceeie. N
oa/aieai

a?aiaie, eiaaea oaieueiaiey noaee i?aeiouanoaaiii iaaeia?iaieueiuie,
oaaee/eeny

i?eoie a ninoaa aac?aaioiuo eae n ainoaea?noaaiiuo, oae e n /anoiuo
oe?i: i?aaaea

au?inee e ia?aoiua iioiee ec ninoaaa aac?aaioiuo. Ia?aiauaiea n ?aaiou

ia ?aaioo i?ienoiaeeo oaia?ue /a?ac aac?aaioeoeo. Ieceee o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu a *aoneie ?anioaeeea n?aaieoaeueii n Iieueoae e Aaia?eae
ii?iaeaeai eae aieaa eioaineaiui ?inoii /anoiiai naeoi?a (i?e iaiueoae
enoiaeiie aaca), oae e aieaa aeanoeeie ia?aie/aieyie ia i?aai iieo/aoue
iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea. Ia neaaeoao, iaeiaei iaaeiioeaieaaoue yoe
eciaiaiey, eioi?ua i?aoa?iaaaao n oa/aieai a?aiaie i?e?iaea
aac?aaioeoeu. A n?aaiaiee n caiaaeiuie no?aiaie, oaeo/anoue ninoaaa
aac?aaioiuo inoaaony ieceie. A naaiaeiyoiae Iieueoa e Aaia?ee, iany/iue
iieacaoaeue o?iaiy o?oaeiono?ienoaa ec ninoaaa aac?aaioiuo aei neo ii?
ia aeinoeaaao 3 i?ioeaioia; aeey n?aaiaiey a NOA a 1992 a. ii ninoaaeye
25 i?ioeaioia. N?aaeiea oeeo?u ne?uaatho cia/eoaeueiua ?aaeiiaeueiua
?acee/ey. O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu neeueii aa?uee?oao ii ?aaeiiai a
eaaeaeie no?aia ii aeaoi i?e/eiai: a ?acoeueoaoa ?acee/ee a oaiiao
nie?auaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a e a oaiiao ?inoa /anoiiai naeoi?a.
Ia?aie/aiey ia ia?aaeaeaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu oneeeaatho yoe ?aaeiiaeueiua
?acee/ey. Ae?oaea no?aiu iiyoue aea iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa
a?oiiu. A Aieaa?ee aunieay aac?aaioeoea ii?iaeaeaaony ni/aoaieai
neeueiiai nie?auaiey caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a e neaaiai
eiiiaine?othuaai ?inoa caiyoinoe a /anoiii naeoi?a. Iioiaeay a iaueo
/a?oao ea?oeia, oioy n ae?oaie a?aiaiiie o?aaeoi?eae iioieia ?aai/ae
neeu, enoiaeyueo ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a, oa?aeoa?ia aeey Neiaaeee.
A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue *aoneie ?anioaeeea, /anoiue naeoi? aue caeanue
ecia/aeueii iaiiiai iaiueoa, /oi iaoneiaeei cia/eoaeueii aieaa ieceea
iieacaoaee ia?aoiaea ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo o oa?ythueo ianoi a
ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a. Aeey ?oiuiee e ?innee aieaa ieceay
aac?aaioeoea ia noa?oa ia?aoiaea anoue, i?aaeaea anaai, ?acoeueoao aieaa
neaaiai nie?auaiey caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a. Iineaaeothuaa
iiauoaiea aac?aaioeoeu a ?oiuiee a 1992 a. io?aaeaao iaeioi?ia
oaeanoi/aiea athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee, oioy eciaiaiey a yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeea auee /anouie e iai?aaeneacoaiuie.

I?aeoe/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey.

A oeaeii iu iaaethaeaai o?e oi?iu ?acaeoey. Ia?aay oi?ia oa?aeoa?ia
aeey o?ao

iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?ai oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu – Iieueoe, Aaia?ee e
*aoneie

?anioaeeee – aaea ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? nie?auaaony e i?aia?acoaony, a
/anoiue

naeoi? ?anoe?yaony. Caeanue aeaa nii?iuo aii?ina. Neieueei ?aaioieeia
aeieaeii

aunaiaiaeeoueny n ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee? E /oi i?iecieaeao n
?inoii caiyoinoe a /anoiii naeoi?a, eiaaea i?ioeann no?oeoo?iiai
i?eniiniaeaiey iiaeieaeao e eiioeo? Aoi?ay oi?ia iaaethaeaaony a
Aieaa?ee e, a iaiueoae noaiaie, a Neiaaeee, aaea nie?auaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a auei neeueiui, ?ino /anoiiai naeoi?a – neaaui
e aac?aaioeoea au?inea i/aiue neeueii. I/aaeaeiue aii?in ninoieo
caeanue a neaaeothuai: iicaieeo ee yeiiiie/aneia e iieeoe/aneia
aeaaeaiea aac?aaioeoeu e aeai?annee i?iaeieaeaoue ?aoi?io?

O?aouey oi?ia iaaethaeaaony a ?innee e, a iaiueoae noaiaie a ?oiuiee,
aaea iyaeea athaeaeaoiua ia?aie/aiey iicaieytho ainoaea?noaaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi iiaeaea?aeeaaoue caiyoinoue oeaiie a?icyuae
aeia?eioeyoeee. Aac?aaioeoea iecea, ii ia?aiaiu oaea ia/eiathony. E
ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n ianiiniaiinoueth noaaeeece?iaaoue yeiiiieeo e
iaania/eoue n?aaeo aeey aeeeoaeueiuo no?oeoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee yaii
aaeeee. A iineaaeothueo ?acaeaeao ?anniao?eaathony ?acee/iua /anoe
iauae ea?oeiu, caiyoinoue a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a, caiyoinoue a
/anoiii naeoi?a e aac?aaioeoea aieaa aeaoaeueii. A iineaaeiai ?acaeaea
?anniao?eaathony i?aaeiieiaeaiey i aoaeouai ?acaeoee.

?aoaiey a iaeanoe caiyoinoe e ca?aaioiie ieaou ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo: ?aiee aiaeeca

N naiiai ia/aea ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey iaoiaeeeenue iiae
oaeoe/aneei eiio?ieai naieo ?aai/eo e oi?aaeythueo. Oi?iaeueiue,
th?eaee/aneee nianoaaiiee, – iau/ii i?aaenoaaeaiiue ainoaea?noaaiiui
eacia/aenoaii eee caiiai nicaeaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae, – a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oeeiiyeny io eiio?iey. Ia auei oi?iaeueiiai
caueoieea eioa?ania eaieoaea.

Ionthaea ia neaaeoao, iaeiaei, /oi caeanue aa?ia noaiaea?oiay iiaeaeue
oe?iu,

oi?aaeyaiie ?aaioieeaie. Caeanue aieaa iiaeoiaeyo iiaeaee i?eiyoey
?aoaiee ia oe?ia,

aaea aeiieie?otho “einaeaea?u” (o.a. oaea caiyoua ia aeaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee a

i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iioaioeeaeueiui “iiae/eai”) iiaeiaiua oai, eioi?ua
?acaeou aeey

?uii/iuo yeiiiiee. Aeaiiua iiaeaee i?aaeneacuaatho, /oi ca?aaioiay
ieaoa

onoaiaaeeaaaony ia oaeii aunieii o?iaia, eaeie aiciiaeai i?e
iiaeaea?aeaiee

noaaeeueiiai o?iaiy caiyoinoe n?aaee ?aaioathueo ia i?aaei?eyoee
(Commander,

Coricelli i e Staehr 1992 e Lane e Dinopoulos 1991 iainiiauaatho
i?eaieaiinoue

yoeo

iiaeaeae a eiioaenoa ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea). Ii iie i?eaieaiu oieueei n
o?aiy aaaeiaeoeie iaiai?eaie. Ia?aay iaiai?ea eanaaony ioiineoaeueiie
?iee ?aai/eo ii n?aaiaieth n oi?aaeythueie. Einoeoooeeiiaeueii ?ieue
?aai/eo nouanoaaiii ?acee/ia a ?aciuo no?aiao. I?iaiaeece?iaaiiua
i?aeoe/aneea neooaoeee iieacuaatho neeueioth caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
einoeoooeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae e ?aaeueiuie aeaenoaeyie. E 1992
aiaeo /aoineiaaoeeea e aaiaa?neea i?iiuoeaiiua ?aai/ea a oeaeii ia
ea?aee eee ea?aee iaaieueooth ?ieue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee, a oi a?aiy eae
iieueneea e ?oiuineea ?aai/ea auee nouanoaaiii aieaa aeeyoaeueiu
(Estrin, Schaffer e Singh, 1993). Eoi-oi iiaeao ni?ineoue, eae
oi?aaeythuea aiiaua niiniaiu eiaoue eaeoth-oi aeanoue ia oe?iao i?e
oaeoe/aneii ionoonoaee eiia/iiai nianoaaiieea. Ioaao i?ienoaeaao
/anoe/ii ec oi?iu einoeoooia – oaeie, eae i?aai ?aai/eo niaaoia a
Iieueoa niauaoue oi?aaeythueo, – /anoe/ii ec oiai, /oi ?aai/ea
ioaeaeathony a iiuoa oi?aaeythueo, aeaau oe?ia auaeeea a o?oaeiua
a?aiaia. Aii?in caeanue ninoieo a oii, eaeiaa naycue iaaeaeo neeie
i?ionithcia e aeeyieai ?aai/eo aioo?e oe?iu. *eneaiiinoue i?ionithcia
inoaaony aieueoie ai anao no?aiao, ii eo aieinoaaiiinoue neeueii
?acee/aaony. *eneaiiinoue e aieinoaaiiinoue i?ionithcia yaii auee auoa
a Aieaa?ee e ?oiuiee, aieinoaaiiinoue, a ecaanoiie noaiaie,
iaania/eaaeanue “iiauie” aiaauie nithcaie, /eneaiiue ninoaa – noa?uie
i?ionithciuie no?oeoo?aie. Oioy aeaiiua i caaanoiaeao ia aeinooiiu,
ynii, /oi caaanoiai/iia aeaeaeaiea aeinoeaei naiiai aunieiai o?iaiy a
?oiuiee, Iieueoa e Aieaa?ee. Aieinoaaiiinoue i?ionithcia a auaoae *NO?
e Aaia?ee ii/oe iieiinoueth ionoonoaoao. Eaaeaony, /oi neea i?ionithcia
a ?acee/iuo no?aiao naycaia n aeanoueth ?aai/eo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, ii
neaaeoao, aa?iyoii, ?anniao?eaaoue iaa yoe yaeaiey nei?aa eae io?aaeaiea
iaeiie e oie aea i?e/eiu – iauae ?iee ?aai/eo a ia?aoiaeiii i?ioeanna, a
ia eae yaeaiey i?e/eiii naycaiiua ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Aoi?ay iaiai?ea eanaaony ia?niaeoea ?aai/eo e oi?aaeythueo, eioi?ua
(ia?niaeoeau), a naith i/a?aaeue, caaenyo io i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee.
Iiaeoiaeu e i?eaaoecaoeee a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao ?acee/aeenue i/aiue
cia/eoaeueii, ii ianooaaai, i?ioeaaeo?a e ii a?aiaie inouanoaeaiey (ni.
Fridman, Rapacjzynsky in Earle 1993).

A iaeioi?uo no?aiao, oaeeo eae Aieaa?ey e ?oiuiey, ianiio?y ia
ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiua ieaiu, auei aeinoeaiooi iaiiiaia (ca
eneeth/aieai iaeie i?eaaoecaoeee i?aeiouanoaaiii a ?icie/iie

oi?aiaea). E, ca eneeth/aieai ?innee e *aoneie ?anioaeeee, aieueoay
i?eaaoecaoeey inouanoaeyeanue iaaeeaiii, aeaenoaeoaeueiay niaia i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe e i?aa eiio?iey nouanoaaiii caiacaeuaaea ii n?aaiaieth n
iauyaeaiiui ?anii?yaeeii.

A ?innee ?aaioieee iiiu?yeenue e oiio, /oiau acyoue oe?iu a naie ?oee,
i?e yoii oi?aaeythuea iieo/aee iani?acia?ii aieueooth aeieth a eaieoaea
(Boyko, Sheifer e Vishny 1993). A ioee/ea, io yoiai /aoneay e ?oiuineay
ianniaay i?eaaoecaoeey i?aaeinoaaeea aieaa ia?aie/aiiua i?aaa
“einaeaea?ai”, ii a iaaeo no?aiao ana aua ia au?eniauaaaony
neieueei-ieaoaeue ii?aaeaeaiiue ?acoeueoao. Iieueoa caieiaao
i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea. A oeaeii ii i?ioanoaee a?aiaie aa?iyoiinoue
oiai, /oi ?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoee iieo/ao nouanoaaiiua i?aaa aic?inea; a
iniiaiii yoi iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iieeoe/aneoth oeaio,
oiea/eaaaioth ca oi, /oiau i?eaaoecaoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii
inouanoaeyeanue. Yoi aaaeii iioiio /oi yoi oi?ie?oao
i?aaei?eaaoecaoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey e ?aai/eo, e oi?aaeythueo. Eiaaea a
ia/aea ?aoi?iu i?eaaoecaoeey eacaeanue i/aiue aeeceie, a aeiee
naaiaeiyoieo ?aaioieeia a eaieoaea oe?i iinea i?eaaoecaoeee
i?aaenoaaeyeenue iaeaiueeeie, aeey oi?aaeythueo e aeey ?aai/eo auei iaei
iniiaaiee ?aaioaoue ia aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao e i?enooiaoue e
no?oeoo?iui i?aia?aciaaieyi. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo – eae a Iieueoa a 1991
a. – yoi i?eaaei e o?aaiaaieyi iiauoaiey ca?ieaou e annioeee?iaaeanue n
iiaaaeaieai, iai?aaeaiiui ia aeaeaieoaeecaoeeth oe?iu. Ii caiaaeeaiea
i?eaaoecaoeee e aieaa aunieay aeiey ?aaioieeia a i?eaaoece?oaiii
eaieoaea canoaaeee oe?iu ?aaioaoue ia aieaa ioaeaeaiioth ia?niaeoeao.
Yoi noaiiaeony oa?aeoa?iui e aeey Iieueoe (Pinto, Belka e Kzajewski
1993). Iaeiaei yoi o?oieia ?aaiiaanea e caiaaeeaiea i?eaaoecaoeee
iiaeao auoue neiioiiii ?anoouae ianiiniaiinoe e aeinoeaeaieth
eiinainona, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey niaiu oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe. A oaeeo
neo/ayo – Aieaa?ey e ?oiuiey, aiciiaeii, eo/oea i?eia?u – auea?uoe io
aeaeueiiaeaeiiai iiaaaeaiey iaiaa i/aaeaeiu e iiaeao iineaaeiaaoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiay aeaeaieoaeecaoeey.

Iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaoeeaeueii iiae/a?eeaaoue, /oi o?aaiaaiey aunieie
ca?aaioiie

ieaou, ieceea eiaanoeoeee e ionoonoaea no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee yaeythony
caeanue

iaeaieaa aa?iyoiuie iineaaenoaeyie. O?aouey iaiai?ea ninoieo a oii, /oi
aiaoiyy n?aaea, a eioi?ie ooieoeeiie?otho ainoaea?noaaiiua oe?iu,
nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io oie n?aaeu, a eioi?ie aeaenoaotho oe?iu a
caiaaeiuo no?aiao. Iniai cia/eia caeanue noaiaiue oaeoueo e
ia?niaeoeaiuo athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai aiiaue ca
eneeth/aieai ?innee, naii inouanoaeaiea ?aoi?iu, oae aea eae e
oaeanathuay neooaoeey n ainoaea?noaaiiui athaeaeaoii, auno?i aaaeoo e
oaeanoi/aieth athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Aeeiaieea noaneaeee i?eaaaeaia a oaaeeoea 1-2.
Nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea noaneaeee iaaethaeaaony a aieueoeinoaa no?ai,
e?iia ?innee e ?oiuiee.

Oaaeeoea 1-2. Noaneaeee ain. i?aaei?eyoeyi (i?ioeaio io AAI)

No?aiu 1990 1991 1992

Aaia?ey 3,2 2,6 2,1

Iieueoa 6,2 3,1 1.4

*NO? 14,1 9,7 5,5

Neiaaeey 9,6 5,5 4,1

Aieaa?ey 8,8 3,0 3,2

?oiuiey 3,6 2,5 2/3

?inney – – 28,7

– iao aeaiiuo.

Oe?iai o?aaoaony a?aiy aeey iniciaiey oiai oaeoa, /oi ia?aie/aiey noaee
aeanoeeie

e aoaeoo inoaaaoueny oaeiauie e a aeaeueiaeoai. E?iia oiai, noaneaeee
ninoaaeyee

iau/ii eeoue iaeii ec ecia?aiee aeanoeinoe athaeaeaoiiai ia?aie/aiey. A
aieueoeinoaa

neo/aaa ae?oaea iaoaieciu, oaeea eae caaeieaeaiiinoue ii oieaoa iaeiaia,
iaoieaoa

io/eneaiee ii nioeeaeueiiio no?aoiaaieth, aeaoaaua e?aaeeoiua eeiee,
niinianoaiaaee

niya/aieth athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, nouanoaaiii
niya/aee

aeaeeioth aeanoeinoue yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Eae oieueei eciaieeenue

iuouaiey oe?i ioiineoaeueii aeanoeinoe athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee, iie
ia/eiaee nie?auaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e caiyoinoe. A naaoa yoiai ioaeii
?anniao?eaaoue aeeiaieeo ca?aaioiie ieaou e caiyoinoe n naiiai ia/aea
ia?aoiaeiiai yoaia. Oi, /oi iu aeaeei, e /oi aeaoaeueii i?aaenoaaeaii
ieaea, ca iaeioi?uie iaiai?eaie, oi/ii niioaaonoaoao iiaeaee. A ia/aea
?aoi?i nie?auaiea caiyoinoe auei iacia/eoaeueiui e /anoi i?ienoiaeeei ca
n/ao oaieueiaiee ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth e aein?i/iiai auoiaea ia
iaineth. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa auea onoaiiaeaia eeai ieaea, eeai aeecei e
iioieeo, eioi?ue aeeeoiaaeny iieeoeeie aeioiaeia (Blanchard e Layard
1992, Jackman e Pages j.993). Ii ia?a i?iaeieaeaiey ?aoi?iu,
i?eaioaoeey ia aieaa aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao e iuouaiey aieaa aeanoeeo
athaeaeaoiuo ia?aie/aiee canoaaeytho oe?iu auno?aa aunaiaiaeaeaoue
?aaioieeia. *enei iaaeia?iaieueiuo oaieueiaiee oaaee/eaaaony. A oi aea
a?aiy ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?anoao, ii iau/ii a nayce n iauei ninoiyieai aeae
ia oe?i a.

Caiyoinoue e ca?aaioiay ieaoa a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a

Nie?auaiea auionea.

Ia ?enoieao 1-2 e 1-3 iieacaii nieaeaiea AAI e i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ii no?aiai n 1990. AAI a ecaanoiie ia?a io?aaeaai
?acaeoea /anoiiai naeoi?a, ii a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa i/aiue
neeueii aeiieie?otho ainoaea?noaaiiua oe?iu.

?enoiee oeacuaatho ia i/aiue cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa,
eioi?ia

cao?iioei ana no?aiu n naiiai ia/aea ia?aoiaea. Iauaa nie?auaiea AAI n
1929 aiaea

aa?uee?oao io 12% a Iieueoa aei 40% a Aieaa?ee. Iauaa nie?auaiea
i?iiuoeaiiiai

i?iecaiaenoaa aa?uee?oao io 31% a Aaia?ee aei 54% a Aieaa?ee. Aeaaea
anee iu oaa?aiu

a oii, /oi ioeoeeaeueiay noaoenoeea i?aoaaee/eaaao ?acia?u iaaeaiey
auionea, iu ana

?aaiiiiaia?oaeeaaai cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa,
eioi?ia i?eoei

aneaae ca i?aaeoanoaothuei caiaaeeaieai ?inoa. I?e aieaa aeeceii
?anniio?aiee

aeaeia a?aiaiiay ?acieoea a ?acaeoee niauoee ii ioaeaeueiui no?aiai. A
o?ao naiuo

?acaeouo oeaio?aeueiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao iaeaieueoaa nie?auaiea auionea
i?iecioei a

oio aiae, eiaaea ia?aoiae ia/aeny ana?ueac – 1990 a. a Iieueoa, 1991 a.
a aeaoo

ae?oaeo. E na?aaeeia 1.992 a. a Iieueoa iiyaeeenue i?eciaee
noaaeeecaoeee

i?iiuoeaiiiai auionea e a

ia?aie iieiaeia 1993 a. ii aue i?eia?ii ia 10% auoa, /ai a
i?aaeoanoaothuai aiaeo.

A Aaia?ee e *aoneie ?anioaeeea auione

noaaeeece?iaaeny a 1993 a. e oaia?ue iaeeoei neaaua i?eciaee iiaeuaia,
Aieaa?ey ioee/aaony a yoii ieaia; oioy caeanue oaeaea iaeaieueoaa
nie?auaiea i?eoiaeeony ia ia/aei ?aoi?iu, oaii nie?auaiey ana aua aunie
a 1992 a. E a ?innee, e a ?oiuiee oaii nie?auaiey aua aic?anoaao a 1992
a. Oioy yoi e ia yaeyaony iaoae aeaaiie oaiie, iiieiaiea oiai, ii/aio
auione nie?aoeeny oae neeueii, nouanoaaiii aaaeii aeey iaoae caaea/e.
Ec naaaeaiee, nia?aiiuo ae?oaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie oae aea, eae e ec
aeaiiie ?aaiou, neaaeoao, /oi nie?auaiea auionea a aieueoeinoaa no?ai,
aeaeeii, eiaao aeaa eiioeaiooaeueii ?acee/iua i?e/eiu. Ia?aay,
eioi?ay aeiieie?oao a ia/aea ia?aoiaea, yoi iauee oie, ni/aoaiea
nieaeaiey niaieoiiiai ni?ina e noaeaiey e?aaeeoa. Aoi?ay i?e/eia,
cia/eiinoue eioi?ie aic?inea, yoi ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea, naeaeae a
ioiineoaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao e a ioiineoaeueiuo ?acia?ao ni?ina. Oaeay
eioa?i?aoaoeey aace?oaony ia iiiaeo eeth/aauo iiiaioao. Iaeei ec ieo –
yoi iaeua ?acee/ey a ioiineoaeueiie aeeiaieea auionea iaaeaeo naeoi?aie
a ia/aea ia?aoiaea e ?ino yoeo ?acee/ee ai aoi?ie e o?aoee aiaeu
ia?aoiaea. Eciaiaiey oeacaiiuo ?acee/ee iieacaiu a. oaaeeoea 1-3.
Eneeth/aieai ec iauae ea?oeiu i?aaenoaaeyaony Aaia?ey, aaea no?oeoo?iua
eciaiaiey ea?aee aieaa aaaeioth ?ieue i?aaeaea e aei 1990 aiaea
iaaethaeaeanue yaii aneiiao?e/iay aeeiaieea a ?acee/iuo naeoi?ao.
Ae?oaie eeth/aaie iiiaio – yoi ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo ioiineoaeueiuie
oeaiaie a ioaeaeueiuo naeoi?ao e eciaiaieyie auionea. Anee au oiee
ioiineoaeueiiai ni?ina aeiieie?iaaee ia noa?oa ia?aoiaea, iiaeii auei au
iaeeaeaoue iieiaeeoaeueiie ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo ioiineoaeueiu- ie oeaiaie
e auioneii. E, ca eneeth/aieai Aaia?ee e Aieaa?ee, a oa/aiea ia?aiai
aiaea ?aoi?iu ei??aeyoeey auea i/aiue ieceie ii aaniethoiiio cia/aieth
aaee/eiie. A Iieueoa iacia/eoaeueiay io?eoeaoaeueiay ei??aeyoeey a 1990
a. i?aa?aoeeanue a iieiaeeoaeueioth e nouanoaaiioth a 1991 e 1992 aa.
(Borensztein, e Ostry, 19931 aeaaa 2 ianoiyuaai ecaeaiey). *oi
eioa?anii (ii yoi iiaeao neacaoue aieueoa i iieacaoaeyo, /ai i neooaoeee
a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia), ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo eiaeeeaoi?aie
i?aaeiieaaaaiuo n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa, oaeeie, eae aioo?aiiea
ecaea?aeee ia oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa e aaee/eia auionea, iacia/eoaeueia
aeey ethaie ec ?anniao?eaaaiuo no?ai.

Eciaiaiea caiyoinoe.

Ia ?enoiea 1-4 i?aaenoaaeaia aeeiaieea caiyoinoe, auionea e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii ?acee/iui no?aiai,
ia/eiay n 1989 a, aeey Iieueoe e n 1990 a, aeey ae?oaeo no?ai.

Eiathueany aeaiiua iicaieytho ia?eniaaoue aieaa aeaoaeueioth ea?oeio,
niaeanii eioi?ie oaieueiaiey n ?aaiou auee nia?aa aeia?iaieueiuie, a
noaee ana a aieueoae ia?a auioaeaeaiiuie. Iiaeoiae oe?i ninoiye nia?aa
a eniieueciaaiee nie?auaiiiai ?aai/aai aeiy, e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
ioioneia, a oaeaea a eniieueciaaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?ia?aii, eioi?ua
oeiaine?iaaee aeia?iaieueiua ?aiiea auoiaeu ia iaineth. A Iieueoa a 1990
a. ii e?aeiae ia?a, 70 i?ioeaioia nie?auaiey caiyoinoe auei iieo/aii ca
n/ao i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiiai auoiaea ia iaineth; e, oioy a ae?oaeo no?aiao
niioaaonoaothuea iieacaoaee auee ieaea – oae a Aaia?ee iaaeaeo 1990 e
1992 aa. yoei iooai auei aeinoeaiooi 20 i?ioeaioia nie?auaiey caiyoinoe
– oaeay ?aaeoeey yaii yaeyaony iauae.

Aeaeaa, auioaeaeaiiua oaieueiaiey n ?aaiou auee neiioeaio?e?iaaiu ia
eaoaai?ee aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ?aai/eo, aeeth/ay aaeieieno?aoeaiue ia?niiae
e eaioeaey?neeo ?aaioieeia. Yoi iiaeao /anoe/ii iauynieoue ecia/aeueii
aunieee oaeaeueiue aan aeaiuei a ninoaaa aac?aaioiuo. Ieacuaaaony, /oi
oieueei a Aaia?ee, aaea iu iaaethaeaai aieaa nouanoaaiiua no?oeoo?iua
eciaiaiey e 1992 a., aac?aaioeoea n?aaee ioae/ei aeiieie?oao iaae
aeaineie aac?aaioeoeae.

Oai ia iaiaa n oa/aieai a?aiaie iaaethaeaaony yaiue ?ino auioaeaeaiiuo
oaieueiaiee n

?aaiou – a. *NO?, Aaia?ee e Iieueoa n 1991 a. e a ?oiuiee n 1992 a. I?e
yoii

aaaeiia cia/aiea eiatho niiniau auoiaea ec ninoaaa ?aai/ae neeu.
Ianniaua

oaieueiaiey auee ?aaeeeie. Yoi iiaeao auoue ioianaii ca n/ao
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo

i?aiyonoaee, aunieeo ecaea?aeae ii oaieueiaieth e, ianiiiaiii,
nio?aiythuaainy i?aaa

?aai/eo neeueii aeeyoue ia ?aoaiey ii aii?inai caiyoinoe. Iineaaeiee
oaeoi?

i?aaenoaaeyaony iniaaiii

aaaeiui aeae Iieueoe, ?oiuiee e ?innee. E?iia oiai, ca eneeth/aieai
Aaia?ee n 1992 a. ie a iaeiie no?aia ia auei aeaenoaothuae i?ioeaaeo?u
aaie?ionoaa, /oi aeaeaei ?aoaiey i oe?ieiianooaaiuo oaieueiaieyo e
aiciiaeiie eeeaeaeaoeee oe?i aieaa o?oaeiuie.

I?e ia?aii ?anniio?aiee yoe oeeo?u aiai?yo i oii, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiue
naeoi? iieaaaaony nia/aea ia oi, /oi ana oo?ynaony naii niaie e oieueei
caoai i?iaiaeeo o?aaoaiia aeey aai auaeeaaiey nie?auaiea caiyoinoe. Ii
yoi eeoue /anoue enoi?ee. Ae?oaie iaai? oeeo? – eiee/anoai i?eiyouo ia
?aaioo a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a – oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi iaoa iauay
ea?oeia aeieaeia auoue, ii e?aeiae ia?a, oneiaeiaia. A no?aiao, ii
eioi?ui iu eiaai aeaiiua, iioiee aeeaathueany a ninoaa caiyouo a
ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a aeaeaei ia auee iacia/eoaeueiuie. A Iieueoa a
1992 a., a oi a?aiy eae iioie ec ninoaaa caiyouo a ainoaea?noaaiiii
naeoi?a ninoaaee 20 i?ioeaioia, ia?aoiue i?eoie i?aaunee 10 i?ioeaioia –
oaeeaeoaeueii aunieee iieacaoaeue. A Aaia?ee iioie ec ninoaaa caiyouo a
ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a ninoaaee 22 i?ioeaioa e ia?aoiue i?eoie – 10
i?ioeaioia. A ?innee oeeo?u auee e aiana oaeeaeoaeueiua – 22 e 19
i?ioeaioia, niioaaonoaaiii. Oioy yoe iieacaoaee eioaineaiinoe iioieia a
ninoaa caiyouo a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a aeaeaee io o?iaiy a 35
i?ioeaioia, eioi?ue iaaethaeaaony ia ?uiea o?oaea NOA, iie, oai ia
iaiaa, cia/eoaeueiu.

Iu iieaaaai, /oi i?e/eiu noieue aunieeo iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
i?eai ia

?aaioo, ?acee/iu. Aunieea iieacaoaee a ?innee, aa?iyoii, io?aaeatho
eiiaeiaoeeth

oaeoi?ia, aeeth/athueo i?aai oe?i ia iieo/aiea iiauoaiiuo noaneaeee i?e
iaeia

aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo, naa?oiioeienoe/iua aeaeu ia aoaeouaa ?acaeoea
e aeeiaieeo

auionea, oaoiieiaeth ni naienoaaie, iienaiiuie Eaiioueaaneie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie

ooieoeeae (Commander e Jackman 1993). Yoi, iaeiaei, aaeaa ee iiaeao
iauynieoue

neooaoeeth a Aaia?ee e Iieueoa a 1992 a. Caeanue /anoe/iui iauyniaieai
iiaeao neoaeeoue

iaiaeii?iaeiinoue ?aai/eo e iaiaoiaeeiinoue caiaieoue iaeioi?uo
oaieeaoeony ?aaioieeia

aeaaea ia?aae eeoeii nie?auaiey caiyoinoe. Ae?oaei iauyniaieai iiaeao
auoue

iaiaeii?iaeiinoue oe?i, a oii niunea, /oi iaeioi?ua oe?iu ?anoe?ythony
aeaaea a

nie?aua-

thoeony naeoi?ao. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aaiaa?neea aeaiiua i iaeia

?aaioieeia oe?iaie iiaeoaa?aeaeatho yoo oi/eo c?aiey, ii naaaeaiey

i oii, eae ?ani?aaeaeyaony eciaiaiea caiyoinoe ii ioaeaeueiui

oe?iai o?aaiaioa?iu.

O?oaeii ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, neieueei aua i?aaenoieo iioa?ue

e no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee a noa?a caiyoinoe. Iaci? iiaeaioiaeai-

iue Pinto, Belka.Krajewski (1993) niaea?aeeo ioeaiee iaiaaeaea?ia

oe?i i nio?aiythuaeny ecauoi/iie caiyoinoe a na?aaeeia 1992 a.

a Iieueoa. Iaaeeaia eaaeeo iaaeaeo 5 e 10 i?ioeaioaie, a n?aaeiyy

aaee/eia ninoaaeyao 12 i?ioeaioia i?e oii, /oi ia i?eaueueiuo

oe?iao ecauoi/iay caiyoinoue ana aua ninoaaeyao 10 i?ioeaioia.

A Aaia?ee aeiey oe?i, io/eoaaoeony i iaeia iiauo ?aaioieeia,

noaaeeueii aic?anoaea n i?eia?ii 10 i?ioeaioia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia

1991 a. aei i?eaeeceoaeueii 25 i?ioeaioia a ia?aie iieiaeia 1993

a. Noaaeeecaoeey caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a a iaeioi?uo

no?aiao iiaeao neoaeeoue naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi i?e o?aaoee?i-

aaiee i?aa nianoaaiiinoe iu iaaethaeaai ieii/aiea niaaea. Ii yoi

iiaeao io?aaeaoue oaeaea iaaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa aeiioneaoue aieueoia

nie?auaiea caiyoinoe. Yoei iiaeii iauynieoue iineaaeiea eciaia-

iey caiyoinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a Aieaa?ee, aaea athaeaeao-

, iua e iieeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu naycaiiua n aeaeueiaeoei nie?auaie-

ai caiyoinoe iiaoaeaeaee i?aaeoaeuenoai oaeoe/anee noaneaee?iaaoue

oe?iu, /oi aaei e nio?aiaieth /eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea.

Ii yoi iiaeieiaao aii?in i oii, /oi i?ienoiaeeo ii ia?a

oiai, eae i?eaaoecaoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii inouanoaeyaony. ?aa?anne-

iiiua o?aaiaiey naycuaathuea eciaiaiey caiyoinoe n aeaenoae-

oaeueiuie eee ieaie?oaiuie eciaiaieyie a oi?iao nianoaaiiinoe

a Aaia?ee iieacuaatho aeinoaoi/ii neeueioth ia?aoioth caaeneiinoue.

Ii a oeaeii eiaaony iaiiiai no?iaeo naeaeaoaeuenoa oiai, /oiau

eciaiaiey iaeiaiiaaiey eee oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe onoie/eai

i?aaenoaaeyee – a iaeanoe caiyoinoe – ia?o eciaiaiey ?aaeeia

ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?i. I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi a *aoneie ?anioa-

eeea, ianiio?y ia i?eiyoea caeiia i aaie?ionoaa (ai?aeue 1993 a.)

e caaa?oaiea ia?aiai ?aoiaea aao/a?iie i?eaaoecaoeee, cae?uoey

i?aaei?eyoee ia i?eia?aee neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiuo ianooa-

aia.

Iioiaea, /oi aaiee aiyony aucaaoue oe?ieoth aieio aoi?e/-

iuo aaie?ionoa. Iauay ea?oeia ninoieo, oaeei ia?acii, a

nie?auaiee caiyoinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuie oe?iaie, a oiaea

eioi?iai eciaiaiey iaeiaiiaaiey oe?i neaai io?aaeatho no?oeoo?-

iua eciaiaiey. ?aiaa iu iainiiaaee, ii/aio yoi eiaiii oae.

Aeeiaieea ca?aaioiie ieaou.

?enoiie 1-5 aeaoaeece?oao aeeiaieeo ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou

n o/aoii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai, ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou n

o/aoii oeai i?iecaiaeeoaeae e oaeaeueiuo cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea n

1989 a. aeey Iieueoe e n 1990 a. aeey inoaeueiuo no?ai.

A oaaeeoea 1-4 oa aea eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeaia ae?oaei

iooai /a?ac eiiiiiaiou iieacaoaey oaeaeueiuo cao?ao ia iieaoo

o?oaea. Oaeaeueiua cao?aou ia iieaoo o?oaea iiaoo auoue au?aaeaiu

eae i?iecaaaeaiea ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii iio?aae-

oaeueneeo oeai, ioiioaiey aeaoeyoi?a iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai e

iieacaoaeth o?iaiy oeai i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iieacaoaey, ia?aoiiai

i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Oaeei ia?acii, oaeaeueiua cao?aou ia

iieaoo o?oaea aic?anoatho, anee ?anoao ?aaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa

n o/aoii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai eee anee onei?yaony ?ino iio?aae-

oaeueneeo oeai ii n?aaiaieth n iioiauie, eee anee iaaeaao i?iecai-

aeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. A oaaeeoea i?aaenoaaeai aeeaae eaaeaeiai ec o?ao

eiiiiiaioia.

?enoiie e oaaeeoea aiai?yo i oii, /oi aeey anao no?ai

oa?aeoa?ia i/aiue iioiaeay ea?oeia. Ai anao neo/ayo, ia/aei

ia?aoiaeiiai yoaia auei naycaii n ?aceei iaaeaieai ?aaeueiie

ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai. Iaaeaiea

?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai a

ia?aue ianyoe ?aaeecaoeee noaaeeecaoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu iaaethaea-

einue a ?acia?ao io 27% a *NO? aei 57% a Aieaa?ee. E eiioeo ia?aiai

aiaea nie?auaiea ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii iio?aae-

oaeueneeo oeai ninoaaeei io 18 aei 40 i?ioeaioia a Aieaa?ee, auaoae

*NN?, Iieueoa, ?oiuiee e ?innee. Oieueei a Aaia?ee, aaea ?ino

o?iaiy oeai aue iaiiiai iaiueoa, ia iaaethaeaeinue eee iaaethaeaeinue

i/aiue iaaieueoia nieaeaiea ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou. Iiaeii

auei au iaeeaeaoue, /oi oaeia nieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou i?ienoi-

aeeo a ?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiey iioieeia ca?aaioiie ieaou,

eioi?ua aaaeoo e iaiieiie eiaeaenaoeee. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, eiaiii aeey
yoiai e auee aaaaeaiu oaeea iioieee. Ii ia?aiia/aeueii ai anao no?aiao,
e?iia Aaia?ee, ca?aaioiay ieaoa auea onoaiiaeaia ieaea iioieeia,
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeeie ca?aaioiie ieaou. Yoi iiaeao
auoue ioianaii ia n/ao ?yaea i?e/ei, iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec eioi?uo auee
inoi?iaeiinoue a oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e aeaeaiea iiaeaea?aeaoue
o?iaaiue caiyoinoe; iaa i?e/eiu auee

aucaaiu nie?auaieai eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa (Calvo e Coricelli 1993). Ca
ia?aiia/aeueiui nieaeaieai ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai iineaaeiaae/i /anoe/iia ainnoaiiaeaiea aa o?iaiy.
Ii e eiioeo 1992 a. ?aaeueiay ca?ieaoa n o/aoii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai
ana aua auea ia 20-35 i?ioeaioia ieaea aa i?aae?aoi?iaiiiai o?iaiy;
eneeth/aieai aiiaue yaeyaony Aaia?ey, aaea ?aaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa n
o/aoii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai ii/oe ia eciaieeanue.

Aeeiaieea ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii oeai i?iecaiaeeoaeae
io?aaeaao oaaee/aiea eeeia iaaeaeo iio?aaeoaeueneeie oeaiaie e oeaiaie
i?iecaiaeeoaeae (onei?aiiue ?ino ia?auo e ionoaaaiea iineaaeieo),
eioi?ia iaoneiaeaii i?iaeieaeathueiny i?ioeannii eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai.
Iiyoiio, iinea ia?aiia/aeueiiai nieaeaiey, ?aaeueiay ca?ieaoa n o/aoii
oeai i?iecaiaeeoaeae au?inea auno?aa, /ai ?aaeueiay ca?ieaoa n o/aoii
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai. A oi a?aiy eae ?aaeueiay ca?ieaoa n o/aoii
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai a Aieaa?ee ninoaaeyao 50 i?ioeaioia io
aei?aoi?iaiiiai o?iaiy, ?aaeueiay ca?ieaoa n o/aoii oeai i?iecaiaeeoaeae
auoa, /ai auea ia?aae ia/aeii ia?aoiaeiiai yoaia. ?acaeueiay ca?ieaoa n
o/aoii oeai i?iecaiaeeoaeae ?aaia 100 i?ioeaioai i?aae?aoi?iaiiiai
o?iaiy a Iieueoa, 90 i?ioeaioai a auaoae *NN?, II i?ioeaioai a Aaia?ee e
80 i?ioeaioai a ?oiuiee.

Oaaeeoea 1-5. Aaeiaay i?eaueue e iauaio ?aaeecaoeee 1989-92 aa., %

No?aiu 1989 1990 1991 1992

Aaia?ey 5,0 3.3 -1,1 –

Iieueoa 28.0 23,3 6,9 3.0

*NO? 9.2 9,4 9,8 –

Neiaaeey – 14,4 6,1 0,8

Aieaa?ey 34,7 14,7 8,2 -2,4

?oiuiey 4,2 3,7

Aeiaaaei, /oi aeeiaieea oaeaeueiuo cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea io?aaeaao
nieaeaiea

i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. A eoiaa oaeaeueiua cao?aou ia iieaoo
o?oaea ia iaiythony

eee iiauoathony ii n?aaiaieth n i?aae?aoi?iaiiui o?iaiai. Iai?ioiay
noi?iia

yoiai yaeaiey – i/aiue ieceea i?eauee. Iiaaaeaiey oe?i a iaeanoe
ca?aaioiie ieaou

e caiyoinoe auei oaeei, /oiau ?ani?aaeaeyoue

iaaeaeo caiyouie aieueooth /anoue aeinooiiie i?eauee. N o/aoii anao
iaaeeaaeaueo i?aaeinoa?aaeaiee i aeinoiaa?iinoe ecia?aiey i?eauee,
oaaeeoea 1-5 ynii iieacuaaao ?aceia nieaeaiea aeiee aieiiaie i?eauee a
noieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ca eneeth/aieai *aoneie ?anioaeeee
aei 1992 a. Iieacaoaeai ianooaaia iaaeaiey i?eaueae a Iieueoa yaeyaony
oi, /oi e ia/aeo 1992 a. aieaa 45 i?ioeaioia iieueneeo oe?i noiyee au
ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eeeaeaeaoeee, anee au auea aaaaeaia i?ioeaaeo?a
aaie?ionoaa (Uiszei 1993).

Oioy iu ia i?eaiaeei a oaaeeoea aeaiiuo ii ?innee, auno?ue ?ino oeai
i?iecaiaeeoaeae ii n?aaiaieth n iio?aaeoaeueneeie oeaiaie a 1992 a. e
?acia?u oiea ?aaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai
eiiiaine?othony caeanue cia/eoaeueiui iaaeaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea. Eae yoi ie ia?aaeienaeueii, ii iu iiaeai iaaethaeaoue naeaea a
iieueco i?eauee aeaaea a oi a?aiy, eiaaea iaeaaei ii?aaeaeeoue, eoi aea
yaeyaony eaieoaeenoaie.

Iiaeai ee iu ?anneacaoue aieueoa i oaeoi?ao, ii?aaeaeythueo ca?aaioioth
ieaoo, n?aaieoaeueiie cia/eiinoe ca?aaioiie ieaou e caiyoinoe i?e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiee i iiaaaeaiee oe?iu ia ?uiea o?oaea, e i ?iee oneiaee
naiiai ?uiea o?oaea? Aeaaea anee iu ia eiaai aua oi/iie ea?oeiu, iu
eiaai oaia?ue ianeieueei eeth/ae e ioaaoai.

Ai anao neo/ayo ca?ieaoa a i?eioeeia ?aaoee?iaaeanue i?aaeoaeuenoaaie
iin?aaenoaii iieeoeee aeioiaeia. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi yoi aeieaeii auei
oiaiueoaoue ?aca?in a eciaiaieyo ca?ieaou ii naeoi?ai e io?aneyi. Ii
aieaa aeacaa?aae?iaaiiue aiaeec, eae, iai?eia?, ia aaca Aaiaa?neeo
io?aneaauo aeaiiuo, oeacuaaao ia aieueoea ?acee/ey e neeueiua io?aneaaua
yooaeou. Iiaeiaiua ?anoiaeaeaiey iu iaoiaeei e iaaeaeo no?aiaie. A
?innee ?aaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa aaeaa naeaeioeanue io o?iaiy,
neiaeeaoaainy a ?acoeueoaoa oeaiiaiai oiea a yiaa?a i992 a. Aia/aoeaiea
yaii oaeiai, /oi ?aai/ea niaeaneeenue ni noieue iacia/eoaeueiui
iiauoaieai ca?aaioiie ieaou a iaiai ia noaaeeueioth caiyoinoue. Yoi
iiaeao oaeaea auoue ?acoeueoaoii i?aaei?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo iaeeaeaiee,
eiaaea ?aaioieeai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iinea i?eaaoecaoeee ca?aaioiay
ieaoa cia/eoaeueii aic?anoao. Oai, aaea iae?iyeiiiie/aneay e
no?oeoo?iay iieeoeea auee iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiu – ?oiuiey, –
o?oaeiono?iaiiua ?aai/ea aieueoa o?aaiaaee iiauoaiey ca?ieaou, /ai
nio?aiaiey o?iaiy caiyoinoe.

Iiyaeyaony iaiaeeaeaiiay ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo oneiaeyie ?uiea o?oaea e
eciaiaieyie

ca?aaioiie ieaou. Niaeanii iaeiie ec

oi/ae c?aiey, no?aiu n aieaa Uaae?uie iiniaeyie ii aac?aaioeoea
oa?aeoa?ecothony aieaa neeueiui aeaaeaieai ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo (Burda
1993), i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ?acee/ey iaaeaeo Aaia?eae e *aoneie
?anioaeeeie. Eoi-oi, oai ia iaiaa, iiaeao ni?ineoue, yaeyaony ee oaeay
naycue i?e/eiiie naycueth. Aunieea eiyooeoeeaiou aiciauaiey iiniaeai
o?oaeiauo aeioiaeia aeey iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia,
i?aeiouanoaaiii, iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo, a Aaia?ee ia iiaoo iauynieoue
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aac?aaioeoeu eee eciaiaiea ninoaaa aac?aaioiuo e
ia i?aaenoaaeythony iiuiui oaeoi?ii aeeeoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey. Ii a
aieaa iauai ieaia, ynii, /oi o?iaie iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea iecee ai
anao no?aiao, aaea eiyooeoeeaiou aiciauaiey ?acei nieaeathony ca
i?aaeaeaie ei?ioeiai ia?eiaea, eioi?ue iau/ii onoaiaaeeaaaony ?acee/iuie
?aaeeiaie iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea. (Scarpetta, Boeri, and Renters- wand
1993).

Aaiaa?neea aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aeinoaoi/ii neeueiie nayce
iaaeaeo ia?aiaiiuie ia?aiao?aie ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieia o?oaea e
eciaiaieyie ca?aaioiie ieaou, e ?aaeiiaeueiue o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu
iieacuaaao o?aaeeoeeiiioth ia?aoioth naycue n ca?aaioiie ieaoie. A
*aoee e Neiaaeee aeaeaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e i?aaeiaio o?iaith oaeaea
oeacuaaao ia neeueiia aicaeaenoaea ?aaeiiaeueiie aac?aaioeoeu.
Iaiauaiiua aeaiiua e aeaiiua ii ioaeaeueiui oe?iai a iniiaiuo io?aneyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa
auea /oanoaeoaeueia e ianooaaai nie?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, e ioiioaiea
?aaeiiaeueiuo eciaiaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou e nei??aeoe?iaaiiiio o?iaith
aac?aaioeoeu (oa, eoi euao ?aaioo, iethn ioi?aaeaiiua a auioaeaeaiiue
ioione e auioaeaeaiiua ?aaioaoue iaiieiia ?aai/aa a?aiy) oa?aeoa?ecoaony
neaaie ia?aoiie caaeneiinoueth; aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue iacaiyoinoe
iai?a/eaaaony iaiueoeie eciaiaieyie a ca?aaioiie ieaoa. A Aieaa?ee
?aaeiiaeueiua aeaiiua ca 1991 e 1992 aiaeu ?ane?uaatho ?acaeaathuothny
o?aaeeoeeiiioth ia?aoioth naycue iaaeaeo iiaaaeaieai ioiineoaeueiie
ca?aaioiie ieaou ii ?aaeiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiie aac?aaioeoeae.

Aac?aaioeoea e o?iaaiue iieaou o?oaea a /anoiii naeoi?a.

Iieo/eoue oi/iua aeaiiua i ?acia?ao /anoiiai naeoi?a e iauaia auionea a
iai aanueia neiaeii, iineieueeo ioeoeeaeueiay noaoenoeea caieaeaao
?acia?u /anoiiai naeoi?a oae aea, eae e aai ?ino. A /anoiinoe,
eioi?iaoeey ia i/aiue iaaieueoeo ii ?acia?ai oe?iao,

eioi?ua, aeaaiui ia?acii, e aeeytho ia iieacaoaeue ?inoa /anoiiai
naeoi?a, yaeyaony iaiieiie. Ciay i ?anoiaeaeaieyo a noaoenoe/aneeo
aeaiiuo, iu a yoii ?acaeaea /anoe/ii iieaaaainy ia ?acoeueoaou
iaaethaeaiee.

Oaaeeoea 1-1 oaea niaea?aeeo iaoe ioeaiee caiyoinoe a /anoiii naeoi?a ii
aiaeai e no?aiai. Oiic?eoaeueii iu iiaee au niiinoaaeoue yoe ioeaiee n
eioi?iaoeeae i aeeaaea /anoiiai naeoi?a a nicaeaiea AAI. Iaeiaei oi/ii
yoi naeaeaoue iaaiciiaeii, oae eae ioeaiee caiyoinoe oe?iei aa?uee?otho
e /anoi aanueia eciai/eau. Ii oai ia iaiaa, aeaiiua ii caiyoinoe aeatho
iai aiciiaeiinoue i?eaeeceoaeueiie ioeaiee eciaiaiee yoiai iieacaoaey.

Oae, caiyoinoue a /anoiii naeoi?a iiauneeanue ai anao no?aiao, /anoi n
iiiiuueth yaiuo eee iayaiuo iaeiaiauo eueaio. Iaeaunoae ioiaoee yoio
o?iaaiue aeinoea a Iieueoa e Aaia?ee. Caiyoinoue a /anoiii naeoi?a
iaaeo no?ai ninoaaeea aieaa 35 i?ioeaioia. Ioiineoaeueii Iieueoe yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi eiaei ianoi ?anoe?aiea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai naeoi?a, eioi?ue a iniiaiii yaeyaony /anoiui. A
ioiineoaeueii Aaia?ee – i iaee/ee a i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu cia/eoaeueiiai ii
?acia?ai ia?aaeno?e?oaiiai /anoiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee, eioi?ue
iinoaiaiii noae eaaaeueiui e iiiieiee aeaiiua noaoenoeee. A no?aiao n
ieceei o?iaiai o?aaeeoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, oaeeo eae Aieaa?ey,
?oiuiey, ?inney e Neiaaeey, ?ino caiyoinoe a /anoiii naeoi?a
iacia/eoaeai, e caiyoinoue a aeaiiii naeoi?a ieaea 10-25 i?ioeaioia.
Oieueei a ?innee ?ino caiyoinoe a /anoiii naeoi?a io?aaeaao
cia/eoaeueioth i?eaaoecaoeeth n?aaeieo e aieueoeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iiaue e noa?ue /anoiue naeoi?.

Noiia?iua iieacaoaee ne?uaatho aaaeiua no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey –
oiaiueoaiea ?acia?a

noa?iai /anoiiai naeoi?a e ?acaeoea iiaiai. *anoue ia?aiia/aeueii
nouanoaiaaaoaai

/anoiiai naeoi?a eee eniieueciaaea aeaaii?eyoiua aiciiaeiinoe, eiaaoea
ianoi a

nioeeaeenoe/aneeo yeiiiieeao, eee auea oanii naycaia n ainoaea?noaaiiuie

i?aaei?eyoeyie. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi yoa /anoue /anoiiai

naeoi?a eniuouaaao o?oaeiinoe. A Iieueoa, aaea iiaeii oi/ii
ii?aaeaeeoue yoe no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey, a 1990 a. aaie?ionoaa e
i?einoaiiaee aeayoaeueiinoe “noa?uo” oe?i i?aiaeaaeaee iaae iiyaeaieai
iiauo oe?i a oa/aiea ii/oe anaai aiaea, oae /oi /enei ?aci?eaoeony oe?i
ninoaaeei ca aiae i?eia?ii 90 i?ioeaioia io /enea aiiaue nicaeaiiuo
oe?i. Aiaeiae/ii a ?innee oiaiueoaiea /enea eiiia?aoeaia icia/aao
ii?aaeaiea “noa?iai” /anoiiai naeoi?a.

Ei?i/a aiai?y, a iniiaiii ?ino /enea caiyouo a /anoiii naeoi?a
i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao iiauo oe?i, /anoue eioi?uo aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa
iaeioi?uo eciaiaiee th?eaee/aneiai noaoona. I?eaaoecaoeey neacuaaaony
ia ?inoa iaaieueoeo ii ?acia?ai i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee. Ii/oe
ana iiyaeaoeany oe?iu, ninoaaeythuea aieueoeinoai io oeacaiiuo iaeuo
oe?i, auee i?eaaoece?iaaiu iin?aaenoaii naea/e a a?aiaeo eee eiiaeiaoeee
n aueoiii aeiee, eee i?iaeaaee n aoeoeeiiia (ANA, 1993).

I?e?iaea iiauo oe?i /anoiiai naeoi?a.

Iaoe aeaiiua aiai?yo i i?aiaeaaeaiee a /anoiii naeoi?a iaaieueoeo, /anoi
iniiaaiiuo ia aeiiaoiai oicyenoaa oe?i n ia?aie/aiiui eniieueciaaieai
iaaiiiai o?oaea, caieiathueony, eae i?aaeei, oi?aiaeae. Iie
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ia/aeueiie noaaeee ?acaeoey, eiaaea “ooi”,
aucaaiiue eeaa?aeecaoeeae oeai e auai?i/iui ineaaeaieai oi?aiaiai
eiio?iey, niinianoaoao iieo/aieth naa?o ii?iaeueiie i?eauee, a iaeeea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee eniieuecotho i?aeiouanoaa a?aiaiiuo ?aio e ?uii/iuo
ieo. Yoi iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeaaony nio?aiaieai ?aaiou a ainoaea?noaaiiii
naeoi?a, iineieueeo oaeei ia?acii ioaeaeueiua ?aaioieee ia?aaeaeatho
naay io ?enea aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae. *a?ac iaeioi?ia
a?aiy, eae oieueei ioiineoaeueiua oeaiu onoaiaaeeaathony ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii o?iaia, a?aiaiiua aunieea i?eauee nie?auathony, inoaaeyy
aieueooth /anoue ?aaioieeia noa?u oneoa ni cia/eoaeueii aieaa ieceeie
aeioiaeaie. A yoii iieiaeaiee /anoiue naeoi? yeiiiieee i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie noa?o n ieceie ca?aaioiie ieaoie, ieceie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth,
ieceei o?iaiai eaieoaeecaoeee e i/aiue ia?aie/aiiui aeinooiii e aiaoiaio
oeiaine?iaaieth.

Oe?iu, eae i?aaeei, yaeythony iaeeeie ?aaioiaeaoaeyie, iau/ii eniieuecoy
o?oae ia

aieaa iyoe – aeanyoe ?aaioieeia, ia eiatho naiaai i?ionithca e ?aciauaiu
ii ?uieai

?acee/iie i?iaeoeoeee. Oe?iu, ?aaeecothuea naith i?iaeoeoeeth
iaiin?aaenoaaiii

aeiiaoiei oicyenoaai, ieacuaathony iaeaieaa iacaueuaiiuie io aeaayuaai
aeeyiey ?aoi?i. A oeaeii, iu aeaeei aeiaieueii aunieee o?iaaiue
aaie?ionoa n iineaaeothuei aic?iaeaeaieai oe?i, aeaaea anee ii
iauaeoeaiui i?e/eiai eo /enei o?oaeii ecia?eoue. ?ino caiyoinoe a yoeo
oe?iao eiaao ianoi ia aieaa, /ai a oa/aiea aeaoo eao ni aeiy ia?aciaaiey
oe?iu.

Ia?aie/aiiay eioi?iaoeey i ca?aaioiie ieaoa iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iiaiea i
oi?aiaea e noa?a oneoa eae i noa?ao iaiaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo, /ai ?aaioa.
a ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a.

I?aaenoaaeaiea i niioiioaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou a /anoiii e
ainoaea?noaaiiii

naeoi?ao yeiiiieee aeaao oaaeeoea 1-6. Aiaeece?oy yoe aeaiiua, neaaeoao
iiiieoue,

/oi, eae i?aaeei, /anoiua oe?iu ia i?aaeinoaaeytho ieeaeeo, eeai
i?aaeinoaaeytho

iacia/eoaeueiua iiniaey, nioeeaeueiua auieaou eee eueaiou ii n?aaiaieth
n ainoaea?noaaiiuie, oae /oi ?aaiue /anoiiio naeoi?o o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie
ieaou a

ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a yaeyaony, aa?iyoii, aaean i?eaeaeaoaeueiui.
Iaeneiaeueii

iaaeaiaaeiua iiniaey iiaoo ninoaaeyoue aei 35 i?ioeaioia ca?aaioiie
ieaou, eae a

?innee (Commander e Jackman, 1993) eee eaeie-eeai ae?oaie no?aia, aaea
iaaeaiaaeiay

ninoaaeythuay iaiueoa, ii oaeaea cia/eia. Aiaeec aeaiiuo ii Aaia?ee e
Iieueoa

iieacuaaao aieueoea ?acee/ey l noaiaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiniaee a
ainoaea?noaaiiii e /anoiia naeoi?ao.

E?iia ?innee, a ae?oaeo no?aiao n?aaeiee o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou
cia/eoaeueii ia ?acee/aaony ii aeaoi naeoi?ai yeiiiieee. A Iieueoa,
aaea aeaiiua niae?aeenue a oa/aiea o?ao eao, i?aeoe/anee ia
iaaethaeaeinue eciaiaiee a iauai niioiioaiee iaaeaeo o?iaiyie iieaou
o?oaea a ainoaea?noaaiiii e /anoiii naeoi?ao 32 1991, 1992 e ia?aoth
iieiaeio 1993 aa. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa I /anoiii naeoi?a inoaaaeanue
i?eia?ii ia o?iaia 90-95 i?ioeaioia io ca?aaioiie ieaou a
ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a; aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee yoi ioiioaiea
auei ianeieueei ieaea. Iaaeaeo eaoaai?eyie ?aaioieeia “aaeuo” e “neieo
ai?ioie/eia” oaeaea

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Курсовые, Дипломы, Рефераты на заказ в кратчайшие сроки
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020