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Безработица как социально-экономическое явление

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

EOAAINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

EAOAAe?A OAI?AOE*ANEIE YEIIIIEEE

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

ia oaio:

AAC?AAIOEOeA EAE NIOeEAEUeII-YEIIIIE*ANEIA ssAEAIEA: IAOAIECI E
IINEAAeNOAEss

Auiieieea

nooaeaioea 1 eo?na

yeiiiie/aneiai

oaeoeueoaoa ICI

a?oiiu 06.02

Eociaaiei I.E.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Iaioaceaaa A.A.

Ii?iieiio?iea?

E?ANIIAeA? 2000

IEAI ?AAIOU

1.Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau aiaeeca enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea o?oaea. 3

1.1 O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu e eo eeanneoeeaoeey. 3

1.2 ?uiie o?oaea: iaoaieci aeaenoaey, ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia

?aai/oth neeo. 4

1.3 Aac?aaioeoea: i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey, nouiinoue e aeaeu. 7

1.4 Caiyoinoue e aa oi?iu. 5

2. Iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai ?uiea o?oaea. 11

2.1 Ioeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i, aeaenoaothueo i?e iaeia

?aai/eo, e eo ?aaeueiia iieiaeaiea. 11

2.2 Oaieueiaiea ii caeiio e ?aaeueiia iieiaeaiea. 13

2.3 ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu. 15

2.4 Aii?inu iieaou o?oaea. Oa?eoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea e

naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee. 16

2.5 Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eciaiaieai o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou e

aac?aaioeoeae. 17

2.6 ?aai/aa a?aiy: onoa?aaoea ii?iu, i?iaioee?othuea

ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. 19

3. Iooe nieaeaiey aac?aaioeoeu e iaania/aiea caiyoinoe. 20

3.1 Caeii i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey 20

3.2 I?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth caeiia 23

3.3 Ono?ienoai neoaeau caiyoinoe ?O e ae?oaeo no?ai 27

3.4 A?aiaiiay caiyoinoue 31

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u 36

Aeaaa 1 Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau aiaeeca enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea o?oaea.

1.1 O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu e eo eeanneoeeaoeey.

?aai/ay neea – yoi niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo, niaieoiiinoue oece/aneeo e
aeooiaiuo nee, eioi?uie iaeaaeaao aeeaie i?aaieci e eniieuecoao a
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeaieaa oaaaeeoaeueiie yaeyaony oi/ea c?aiey oao
yeiiiienoia, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaatho ?aai/oth neeo eae aeaenoaothuea
(ooieoeeiie?othuea) ?ano?nu o?oaea. A o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu (o?oaeiaie
iioaioeeae) eae niaieoiiinoue ?ano?nia o?oaea iauanoaa, eieeaeoeaa, eo
iioaioeeaeueioth niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo.

O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu ethaie no?aiu aeeth/atho a naay ea/anoaaiiua e
eiee/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee. Oae, eiee/anoaaiiue ninoaa caaeneo io
/eneaiiinoe e oaiiia ?inoa ianaeaiey no?aiu, io ninoiyiey caei?iauey,
iea?aoeeiiiie iiaeaeaeiinoe e o.ae.; aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea
o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu, o/anoaothuea a i?iecaiaenoaa:

iniiaiua, i?aaenoaaeaiiua ianaeaieai o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa (a ?O yoi
ioae/eiu 16-59 eao, aeaiueiu 16-54 eao).

Aeiiieieoaeueiua, i?aaenoaaeaiiua eeoeaie iao?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa
(o/aueany e iaineiia?u).

O?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea – yoi iniiaiay /anoue o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia a
o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa iaeaaeathuay iaiaoiaeeiui ineoioece/aneei
?acaeoeai, ciaieyie e i?aeoe/aneei iiuoii, niiniaiay iieiioeaiii
o/anoaiaaoue a oece/aneii e eioaeeaeooaeueiii o?oaea. A ie?iaie
noaoenoeea o?oaeiniiniaiui n/eoaaony ianaeaiea a aic?anoa 15-64 eao, e
ii aeaiiui III iii ninoaaeyao ieiei 3/5 anaai ianaeaiey ie?a.

A ethaii nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa o?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea ninoieo ec 2
a?oii: yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai e iaaeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. E yeiiiie/anee
aeoeaiiio ianaeaieth ioiinyo ethaeae, caiyouo iauanoaaiii iieaciie
aeayoaeueiinoueth ai anao noa?ao o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe (a
iauanoaaiiii eee /anoiii naeoi?a), ea?athuaai ?aoathuoth ?ieue a
?acaeoee ethaie no?aiu. Aeeth/aao a naay 3 eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai: caiyoua,
aac?aaioiua e /anoe/ii caiyoua, i?e/ai iineaaeithth eaoaai?eth iiaeii
oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia 2 /anoe:

– /anoe/ii caiyoua ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth (o.a. nooaeaiou,

aeiiioicyeee, iaineiia?u);

– caiyoua iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue eee iaiieioth ?aai/oth

iaaeaeth ii iacaaenyuei io ieo i?e/eiai.

A oneiaeyo ?uiea ia?aoth /anoue neaaeoao ioianoe e caiyoui, a
iineaaeithth e aac?aaioiui.

E yeiiiie/anee iaaeoeaiiio ianaeaieth ioiinyo o?oaeiniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai,
caiyouo o/aaie n io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa, aeiiaoiei oicyenoaii e
ainieoaieai aeaoae, a oaeaea i?inoi aacaeaeueieeia, niciaoaeueii ia
?aaioathueo.

Ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ii?aaeaeyaony
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie, niaoeeaeueiie e iao/iie iiaeaioiaeie,
eaaeeoeeaoeeae ?aaioieeia, eo aic?anoiui ninoaaii, iiuoii ?aaiou,
oai?/aneei ioiioaieai e o?oaeo e o.ae.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia eiatho
aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u. Yeiiiieei-aeaiia?aoe/aneay iao/iay eioi?iaoeey
iicaieyao i?iaiice?iaaoue /eneaiiinoue, ninoaa e aeeiaieeo o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia, eo iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eae yeaiaioa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa. Ia iniiaa aeaiia?aoe/aneeo aeaiiuo
ainoaea?noai ?ac?aaaouaaao e i?eaiaeeo a aeeciue iieeoeeo a iaeanoe
?inoa ia?iaeiianaeaiey, iaia/aao ia?niaeoeau eciaiaiey niioiioaiey
/eneaiiinoe naeueneiai e ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, aai iea?aoeee e
cae?aieaiey a iaeiianaeaiiuo ?aaeiiao; inouanoaeyao i?ia?aiiu,
iaania/eaathuea yeieiae/aneia aeaaiiieo/ea, oeiaine?iaaiea ia?aciaaiey,
iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia, iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea ianaeaiey e o.ae.

1.2 ?uiie o?oaea: iaoaieci aeaenoaey, ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?aai/oth
neeo.

Iaaiiue o?oae au?aaeaao i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
nianoaaiieeaie n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaioieeaie, iaeaaeaoaeyie eeoue
?aai/ae neeu.

?aaioieee i?iaeatho naith niiniaiinoue e o?oaeo, eae oiaa? ii oeaiai, a
iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeeo noieiinoue ?aai/ae neeu. I?aaei?eieiaoaee
i?eia?aoatho i?aai ?anii?yaeaoueny ?aai/eie neeaie e iieo/atho i?aai
iieiiai ?anii?yaeaiey i?iaeoeoii, niciaiiui ?aaioieeaie. Ana
i?aaei?eieiaoaee i?e eniieueciaaiee iaaiiiai o?oaea iieo/atho, eae
i?aaeei, eiiaiaeiaaiea /oaeei o?oaeii, eae e a oie eee eiie ia?a i?aai
i?enaiaiey e eniieueciaaiey a naieo oeaeyo i?eaaai/iiai o?oaea eee
i?iaeoeoa, auiieiaiiuo iaaiiuie ?aai/eie.

?uiie ?aai/ae neeu – yoi iiiaiieaiiaay noa?a oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee, aicieeathuay iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie ?aai/ae neeu e iieoiaoaeyie
yoiai oiaa?a. Noiaenoai ?uiea ?aai/ae neeu n ?uieii iau/iuo oiaa?ia
iaia?oaeeaaaony a oiaeaeanoaaiiinoe oaeeo eaoaai?ee, eae oeaia, ni?in,
i?aaeeiaeaiea, eiieo?aioeey o/anoieeia ?uiea. Iaeiaei yoi nianai
ae?oaiai ?iaea ?uiie: ?aai/ee, iaeaaeaoaeue e i?iaeaaaoe ?aai/ae neeu,
ia iiaeao iaeeaeaoue iaia?aie/aiiia a?aiy iiiaioa iaeaieaa auaiaeiie
naeaeee, oae eae aai iiceoeee a eiieo?aioeee n iieoiaoaeyie aai oiaa?a
aeaeaei ia ?aaiu. Aaeaaeiaaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a n?aaenoaao
nouanoaiaaiey nieaeaao aai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue.

Eiieo?aioeey n?aaee naieo i?iaeaaoeia ?aai/ae neeu iiaeaa?aeaia
aicaeaenoaeth iiiaeo oaeoi?ia, a oii /enea e oaeeo, aeaenoaeth eioi?uo
iie ia iiaoo naiinoiyoaeueii i?aiyonoaiaaoue. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai
i ?acaeoee eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ia iaecaaaeii a oie eee
eiie ia?a i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth ecauoi/iiai ?aai/aai ianaeaiey, a?iee
aac?aaioiuo.

Iauaaeeiaiea ?aaioieeia a i?ioanneiiaeueiua nithcu yaeyaony aaaeiui
eino?oiaioii caueou eioa?ania ?aaioieeia iaaiiiai o?oaea ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo n eo iaieiaoaeyie ia ?uiea e a i?iecaiaenoaa.

?ieue ?uiea o?oaea a yeiiiieea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia?iiia:
– niaa?oaaony niaaeeiaiea ?aai/aai ni
n?aaenoaaie

i?iecaiaenoaa; – ?aaoee?oao ?ani?aaeaeaiea e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiauo

?ano?nia ii io?aneyi e ?aaeiiai;

– ioe?uaaao ?aai/ei aiciiaeiinoe yooaeoeaii i?eiaieoue

naie oece/aneea e i?ioanneiiaeueiua niiniaiinoe,

?aaeeciaaoue naie /aeiaa/aneea ono?aieaiey.

?uii/iua oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey iaaiiiai ia?niiaea i?aaei?eyoee oneeeaatho
no?aieaiea ?aaioieeia e iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee, oe?aieytho
aeenoeeieeio, niinianoaotho e i?eioaeaeatho e iiauoaieth eioaineaiinoe
o?oaea. Aianoa n oai ?iaeaeatho no?ao e iaoaa?aiiinoue ca aoaeouaa a
nayce n aiciiaeiie aac?aaioeoeae. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iinoaaeei ia?aae
ainoaea?noaii i?iaeaio ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe, /a?ac noeioee?iaaiea
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea.

Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu – eaoaai?ee ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie ?aai/ae neeu, au?aaeathuea
aeaonoi?iiiea iio?aaiinoe a ?aai/ae neea e ?aai/eo ianoao. Iio?aaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa a ?aai/ae neea i?aaei?eieiaoaee au?aaeatho eae ni?in ia
iaa, a iio?aaiinoue ?aaioieeia a ?aai/eo ianoao aunooiaao aeey
?aaioiaeaoaeae eae i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu.

Eieaaaiey e eciaiaiey a niioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai
?aai/ae neeu aucuaatho aiaeiae/iua iineaaenoaey, eae e ia ?uiea iau/iuo
oiaa?ia.

1.3 Aac?aaioeoea: i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey, nouiinoue e aeaeu.

Aac?aaioeoea yaeyaony oeie/iui nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei yaeaieai aeey
?uii/iie oi?iu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay au?aaeaaony a
oii, /oi /anoue yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey ii iacaaenyuei io iaa
i?e/eiai ia eiaao ?aaiou e ca?aaioea.

I?e/eiu aac?aaioeoeu, eioi?ay yaeyaony iinoiyiiie oa?icie anai caiyoui a
i?iecaiaenoaa e oieueei anooiathuei a ?aai/oth aeeciue, ?aciiia?aciu,
eae e ioaeaeueiua neie a?iee aac?aaioiuo. Iniiaiay aea i?e/eia iiiaeo
aeaeia aac?aaioeoeu naycaia n eciaiaieai ni?ina i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia
?aai/oth neeo, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue iinoiyiii iaiyaony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea. Ii i?e ?anoe?aiee i?iecaiaenoaa,
eciaiaiee aai no?oeoo?u, iooaeeeaaao ?aai/ea neeu, aeaeay eo oi
iaaeinoaoi/iuie, oi ioiineoaeueii ecauoi/iuie.

Aeeiaieea, o?iaaiue e no?oeoo?a aac?aaioeoeu a ?aciuo no?aiao a
?acee/iua ia?eiaeu i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu. Aeey aiaeeca aac?aaioeoeu aaaeii
eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, eioi?ue en/eneyaony, eae aeiey ioeoeeaeueii
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo iieiinoueth aac?aaioiuo e /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey,
aeeaouaai ia aeioiaeu naiaai o?oaea;

i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aac?aaioeoeu, iieacuaathuay, neieueei a?aiaie
aac?aaioiua i?aauaatho a oaeii ninoiyiee;

Ii aa?iainy e i?e/eiai yoiai neiaeiiai yaeaiey, eioi?uie yeiiiienou
?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee n/eoatho ?acee/iua oaeoi?u: ioeueooceaioeu aeaeyo
i?e/eiu aac?aaioeoeu a ecauoea ia?iaeiianaeaiey, o. a. ?aai/ea neeoeii
auno?i e eaaeiiuneaiii ?aciiiaeathony; oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiay naaiaeiy
oaoiieiae/aneay oai?ey ia?aeeaaeuaaao aeio ia oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, o.e.
eaaeaeia oaoie/aneia iiaiaaaaeaiea auoaeeeaaao ?aai/eo n i?iecaiaenoaa;
o eaeineaioeaa aac?aaioeoea iaoneiaeaia iaaeinoaoeii yooaeoeaiiai
(niaieoiiiai) ni?ina ia oiaa?u e oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa; iiiaoa?eno
O.Oaeae iieaaaao, /oi yoi yaeaiea ii?iaeaeaaony “ioeeiiaieai ?aaiiaaniuo
oeai e ca?aaioeia io noaaeeueiiai ?uiea e noaaeeueiuo oeai”, io yoiai
ioeeiiaiey aicieeaao yeiiiie/anee ia iainiiaaiiia ?aciauaiea o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia, /oi aaaeao e aeenaaeaino ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea;
ia?enenoneay oai?ey enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi i?e/eiie “ioiineoaeueiiai
ia?aianaeaiey” yaeyaony ?ino i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea a i?ioeanna
aai iaeiieaiey, a neaaenoaea /aai ioiineoaeueii nie?auaaony ni?in
eaieoaea ia ?aai/oth neeo, i?e/ai yoi naienoaaiii oieueei
eaieoaeenoe/aneiio niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iao niiiaiey, /oi ana yoe oai?ee i?aaeeueii ioia/atho n ?acee/iuo
iiceoeee i?e/eiioth iaoneiaeaiiinoue aac?aaioeoeu. Iaiauea eo, iu
niiaeai iieo/eoue iauaeoeaiia aaeeiia ii?aaeaeaiea: ia?aciaaiea
aac?aaioeoeu iaoneiaeaii iaaeinoaoeii niaieoiiiai ?uii/iiai ni?ina ia
oiaa?u e oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, n o/aoii ?inoa i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey
eaieoaea. ?ieue oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna o/eouaaaony caeanue a iiauoaiee
i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea, a oai?ee O.Oaeaea e O.Iaeueoon aioee a
yoi ii?aaeaeaiea /a?ac eciaiaiea niaieoiiiai ni?ina.

Aeaeu aac?aaioeoeu i?aaenoaaeaiu 2 a?oiiaie, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue
ioaaouaatho iiiai/eneaiiua aa ?aciiaeaeiinoe:

1.Anoanoaaiiay aac?aaioeoea oa?aeoa?ecoao iaeeo/oee aeey yeiiiieee
?aca?a ?aai/ae neeu, niiniaiie aeinoaoi/ii auno?i niaa?oaoue
iaaeio?aneaaua e iaae?aaeiiaeueiua ia?aiauaiey a caaeneiinoe io
eieaaaiey ni?ina e iaoneiaeaiiuo eie iio?aaiinoae i?iecaiaenoaa. E iae
ioiinyony:

einoeoooeeiiaeueiay aac?aaioeoea, eioi?ay ii?iaeaeaaony

iaoaieciaie, einoeoooaie ?uii/iie nenoaiu e oaeoi?aie,

aeeythueie ia ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu

(/?acia?iua auieaou ii eeiee nioeeaeueiiai athaeaeaoa,

aaaeouea e niauaieth i?aaeii/oaiee o?oaeiniiniaiiai

ianaeaiey a noi?iio i?acaeiinoe; aaaaeaiea aa?aioe?oaiiai ieieioia
ca?ieaou, iiauoaiea iaeiaia, aaaeouaa e nie?auaieth iauaiia aeioiaeia
?aaioieeia, ii?iaeaeatho eia?oiinoue ?aai/ae neeu; ionoonoaea
eioi?iaoeee i naiaiaeiuo ?aai/eo ianoao; ionoaaaiea ?uiea o?oaea io
iio?aaiinoae i?iecaiaenoaa a eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u i?ioannee, a o?iaia
eaaeeoeeaoeee e o.ae.)

o?eeoeeiiiay (oaeo/ay) aac?aaioeoea, eioi?ay naycaia n iieneaie eee
iaeeaeaieai ?aaiou.

aeia?iaieueiay aac?aaioeoea aeeth/aao /anoue o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey,
eioi?ia ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai ia oi/ao ?aaioaoue.

2. Auioaeaeaiiay aac?aaioeoea aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea oaeo/ay
aac?aaioeoea i?aauoaao anoanoaaiioth ii?io. Nouanoaoao iaiaei aa
?aciiaeaeiinoae:

– oaoiieiae/aneay aac?aaioeoea aicieeaao a nayce n aiaae?aieai

iaeiethaeiie e aacethaeiie oaoiieiaee, iniiaaiiuo ia

yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee. Ni/aoaaony n aunieei o?iaiai aeioiaeia

caiyouo. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aaaeao e aac?aaioeoea n?aaee

niaoeeaeenoia, ?aaioathueo ia eiiiuethoa?ao ia?auo

iieieaiee, a oaeaea auno?iio ?inoo iaaeiiiie caiyoinoe, oae

eae ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u eaaei aeeth/athony a

eiiioieeaoeeiiiua nenoaiu.

no?oeoo?iay aac?aaioeoea eaeao ?oea ia ?oeo n oaoiieiae/aneie. *anoue
aeoeaiie ?aai/ae neeu aunaiaiaeaeaaony a ?acoeueoaoa ianooaaiuo
no?oeoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee yeiiiieee, “oie?aiea” iaeieo io?aneae,
cae?uoea i?aaei?eyoee, nie?auaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa noa?ie
i?iaeoeoeee e ?acaeoea iiauo io?aneae. Yoa aac?aaioeoea i?ioaeaao
iniaaiii aieaciaiii, oae eae icia/aao ia i?inoi iioa?th iano, a
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eciaiaiey ia?aca aeecie e naiae i?ioannee.

?aaeiiaeueiay aac?aaioeoea oi?ie?oaony iiae aicaeaenoaeai neiaeiie
eiiaeiaoeee enoi?e/aneeo, aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo,
ineoieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia, a iiyoiio iai?aiaeieeii oieueei n iiiiuueth
n?aaenoa yeiiiieee.

ne?uoay aac?aaioeoea. A?aiaiiay aac?aaioeoea i?eieiaao eiiaaea ne?uoua
oi?iu: yoi ?aaioieee, eioi?ua o?oaeyony iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue,
?aai/oth iaaeaeth; aac?aaioiua, iioa?yaoea i?aai ia iiniaey e
iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua ia ae?aea; a no?aiao n aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui ?uieii
aieueoeinoai ?aaioieeia o?oaeyony iayooaeoeaii, ia a iieioth ia?o naieo
?aaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae, oae eae ia eiatho noeioeia e o?oaeo eee ei
ianaiaa?aiaiii iinoaaeyaony nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu e o.ae. O?iaaiue yoiai
aeaea aac?aaioeoeu aeinoeaaao ii?ie 50 %.

Aac?aaioeoea niiniaia i?eieiaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu , i?e/ai ?acee/iua
yeiiiie/aneea oeieu aeatho ei ?acioth eeanneoeeaoeeth:

1. Ii Ia?eno – oi?iu ioiineoaeueiiai ia?aianaeaiey – yoi oaeo/ay,
ne?uoay e canoieiay aac?aaioeoea. Oaeo/aa ia?aianaeaiea ia?acotho
aac?aaioiua, eioi?ua iiyaeythony a i?ioeanna aioo?eio?aneaaiai e
iaaeio?aneaaiai ia?aiauaiey ?aai/ae neeu. Ne?uoui ia?aianaeaieai
ioaa/aiu iaeeea i?iecaiaeeoaee: e?anoueyia, ?aianeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu. Eo
aac?aaioiia ninoiyiea ne?uoi /anoe/iie caiyoinoueth a nianoaaiiii
oicyenoaa. Canoieiia ia?aianaeaiea ia?acotho e?aeia ia?aaoey?ii caiyoua
?aaioieee, ia?aaeaathueany neo/aeiuie ca?aaioeaie.

2. Yeiiiienou Caiaaea ?acee/atho o?eeoeeiiioth, no?oeoo?ioth e
oeeeee/aneoth aac?aaioeoeu. O?eeoeeiiioth iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou (E.
Iaeeiiiaee), iacuaatho “iieneiaie aac?aaioeoeae”. Aa ninoaaeytho
?aai/ea, eioi?ua oaieeeenue e euoo ?aaioo aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth e
aunieiiiea/eaaaioth. No?oeoo?iay aac?aaioeoea iaoneiaeaia no?oeoo?iuie
naeaeaaie a yeiiiieea, /oi aucaaii aiaae?aieai a i?iecaiaenoai iiauo
oaoiieiaee e iiyaeaieai iiauo io?aneae e i?iecaiaenoa, n /ai naycaii
eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina, a yoi a naith i/a?aaeue
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?aiauaieai ?aai/ae neeu ec iaeieo noa?, io?aneae e
i?iecaiaenoa a ae?oaea. Eiaiii i?ioeann ia?aiauaiey e yaeyaony
ninoiyieai aac?aaioeoeu. Oeeeee/aneay aea – aa oi?ia naycaia n
e?eceniui nie?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, n ianniaui
oaieueiaieai ?aai/eo. A ia?eiae iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia i?ienoiaeeo
?annanuaaiea oeeeee/aneie aac?aaioeoeu.

Ia?enenoneay eeanneoeeaoeey aac?aaioeoeu aeaeaao aeoeaio ia
“ioiineoaeueiia ia?aianaeaiea” eae oaeiaia, eae niaieoiiinoue
aac?aaioiuo, iacaaeneii io oiai, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu iie ia ae?aeao o?oaea
eee iao. A aaoi?u o/aaieeia ii “Yeiiiieeno” iiaeoiaeyo e /eneaiiinoe e
no?oeoo?a aac?aaioeoeu aieaa i?aaiaoe/anee: caoeene?iaaiu aac?aaioiua a
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa caiyoinoe eee iao. Iiyoiio ioeoeeaeueiua
aeaiiua i aac?aaioeoea e aa ?aaeueiay aaee/eia ia aoaeoo niaiaaeaoue,
oae eae a ioeoeeaeueioth noaoenoeeo ia aeeth/aiu ne?uoay aac?aaioeoea e
aac?aaioiua, eioi?ua ii ?acee/iui i?e/eiai ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaeenue a
neoaeaa caiyoinoe.

Anee i?iaeieaeeoue eeanneoeeaoeeth aac?aaioeoeu, oi e?iia
auoaia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeia e oi?i ?acee/atho iinoiyiioth (aeeeoaeueioth)
e a?aiaiioth aac?aaioeoeo. E oioy ioeoeeaeueiiai ?acaeaeaiey iaaeaeo
ieie iao, ii noaey ii eeoa?aoo?a e neiaeeaoaeny i?aeoeea, iai?eia? a NOA
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?aauaaiey a ninoiyiee aac?aaioeoeu a oa/aiea 15 e
aieaa iaaeaeue iiaeii n/eoaoue aeeeoaeueiie. Yoi naiay iianiay e
/?aaaoay iineaaenoaeyie (nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoueth,
aeeneaaeeoeeaoeeae e ineoe/aneeie ?anno?ienoaaie aac?aaioiiai) oi?ia
aac?aaioeoeu. Iiyoiio ai anao no?aiao i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eo neoaeau
caiyoinoe a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaania/eaatho ?aaioie oaeiai ?iaea
aac?aaioiuo; no?aiyony anaia?ii nie?aoeoue eo /eneaiiinoue, anee iaeuecy
aiiaua i?aaeioa?aoeoue yoo oi?io aac?aaioeoeu.

1.4 Caiyoinoue e aa oi?iu.

A yeiiiie/aneeo iaoeao iao aaeeinoaa iiaiee a ii?aaeaeaiee caiyoinoe,
aiciiaeii iooiai, /oi yoie i?iaeaiie caieiaeenue niaoeeaeenou
i?aeiouanoaaiii a i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaieyo e ?ac?aaioeao (noaoenou,
ieaiiaeee, aeaiia?aou). Ii aieueoeinoai o/aiiuo o?aeootho caiyoinoue eae
aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae. I?aaaea, A.Y.Eiooa? io?eoeaao oaeoth o?aeoiaeo
caiyoinoe. “A ioee/ea io o?oaea caiyoinoue ia aeayoaeueiinoue, a
iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ethaeueie ii iiaiaeo aeeth/aiey ?aaioieea
a eiie?aoioth iia?aoeeth o?oaea ia ii?aaeaeaiiii ?aai/ai ianoa.” Ii
aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea eiaao ?yae iaaeinoaoeia. Ai-ia?auo, iai?aaiia?ii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue o?oae e caiyoinoue, iioiio /oi e oi, e ae?oaia anoue
?aaeecaoeey o?oaeiauo niiniaiinoae, e ioiaeaeanoaeyoue eo iaeuecy: o?oae
e caiyoinoue ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa eae nouiinoue e aiaoiyy oi?ia
inouanoaeaiey niiniaiinoe e o?oaeo. Ai-aoi?uo, iaeuecy
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue niaea?aeaiea caiyoinoe eae aeayoaeueiinoe aa
iauanoaaiiie oi?ia, yoi icia/aei au eeoeoue iauanoaaiioth oi?io
caiyoinoe aa iaoa?eaeueiiai aauanoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey.

A iauai, caiyoinoue ianaeaiey – yoi iieacaoaeue iaania/aiiinoe aai
o?oaeiniiniaiie /anoe ?aaioie, auiieiaiea eioi?ie aeaao aeioiae, o.a.
ca?aaioioth ieaoo, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth i?eaueue e ae?. Yoio
iieacaoaeue ?ann/eouaaaony eae eiyooeoeeaio caiyoinoe, eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea ioiineoaeueiie aaee/eiu – ioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe
eeoe, caiyouo ai anao noa?ao oicyenoaaiiie, oi?aaeai/aneie,
ia?aciaaoaeueiie e eiie aeayoaeueiinoe, e /eneaiiinoe anaai
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey. E caiyoiio ianaeaieth ioiinyony ana
?aaioathuea ii iaeio, i?aaei?eieiaoaee, naiinoiyoaeueii iaania/eaathuea
naay ?aaioie; eeoea, caieiathueany eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, oa?ia?u, /eaiu eiiia?aoeaia, eca?aiiua e iacia/aiiua
ia iiea/eaaaiua aeieaeiinoe, aiaiiineoaeauea, nooaeaiou AOCia, o/aueany
n?aaeieo niaoeeaeueiuo caaaaeaiee e IOO, oeieueieee noa?oeo eeannia.

Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue caiyoinoue aeiaaeueioth (anaiauoth) e
yeiiiie/aneoth. Aeiaaeueiay caiyoinoue aeeth/aao a naay, iiieii
yeiiiie/aneie caiyoinoe, o/aao a iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo, n?aaeieo
niaoeeaeueiuo, aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo; aaaeaiea aeiiaoiaai oicyenoaa
e ainieoaiea aeaoae; ooiae ca i?anoa?aeuie e eiaaeeaeaie; o/anoea a
i?aaiao ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo; neoaeao a
aii?oaeaiiuo neeao.

Yeiiiie/aneay caiyoinoue iiae?acoiaaaao o/anoea o?oaeiniiniaiiai
ianaeaiey a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, aeeth/ay noa?o oneoa. Yoio aeae
caiyoinoe eiaao ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea, aa niioiioaiea n ae?oaeie
aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaaiii n o/aaie. Io iaa caaeneo yeiiiie/aneee
iioaioeeae iauanoaa, o?iaaiue e ea/anoai aeecie,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee e aeooiaiue i?ia?ann eaaeaeie no?aiu.
Yeiiiie/aneay caiyoinoue eiaao neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee:

iauanoaaiii-iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae ii i?iecaiaenoao
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oneoa (i?e/ai ia oieueei iaoa?eaeueiua, ii e
aeooiaiua, eoeueoo?iua, nioeeaeueiua oneoae), aeaaiaea?y yoiio
caiyoinoue neoaeeo oaeiaeaoai?aieth ee/iuo e iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae;

iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe eiie?aoiui ?aai/ei ianoii, /oi iicaieyao
o?oaeyuaiony ?aaeeciaaoue naie oece/aneea e aeooiaiua niiniaiinoe e
o?oaeo; ionthaea aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey caiyoinoe eiaao
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia n eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo iano a
eiee/anoaaiiii e ea/anoaaiiii aniaeoao;

caiyoinoue yaeyaony enoi/ieeii aeioiaea a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou,
i?eauee e a ae?oaeo oi?iao, aaea aeioiae iiaeao au?aaeaoueny a
aeaiaaeiie e iaoo?aeueiie oi?iao.

Oaeei ia?acii yeiiiie/aneay caiyoinoue – yoi iauanoaaiii-iieaciay
aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?iecaiaenoao iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, iiaee?aieaiiay
eiie?aoiuie ?aai/eie ianoaie e neoaeauay enoi/ieeii aeioiaea.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ?acee/ea caiyoinoe caeiiiie e iacaeiiiie (o.a.
ai?ianoai, iiaeiieueiay aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?iecaiaenoao,
o?ainii?oe?iaea, o?aiaieth e ?aaeecaoeee ia?eioeeia, i?oaeey e o.ae.);
e?eoa?eai caeanue neoaeeo niioaaonoaea eee i?ioeai?a/ea aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

Aa?iainy e ioeaiea iio?aaiinoe a ?aai/ae neea e ?aai/eo ianoao.
Eiyooeoeeaio caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ioaaouaaao ii/oe ana a?oiiu
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey e iiyoiio aai iieacaoaeue au?aaeaao i/aiue
on?aaeiaiioth aaee/eio. Oeaio?aeueiue aea aii?in aiaeeca caiyoinoe – yoi
auyaeaiea aeeiaieee, oaeoi?ia e ianoiyoaeuenoa caiyoinoe a?oiiu iaaiiuo
?aai/eo. Eiyooeoeeaio eo caiyoinoe i?aaenoaaeai ioiioaieai /eneaiiinoe
caiyouo iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia e /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia, euoueo ?aaioo. A
yoii niioiioaiee iaoee naia io?aaeaiea aeaa a?oiiu iio?aaiinoae: ?aai/eo
– a ?aaioa, a ?aaioiaeaoaeae – a ?aai/ae neea. O?iaaiue caiyoinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony ni?inii ia ?aai/oth neeo. A iio?aaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa a
?aaioieeao i?aaeii?aaeaeaia eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo iano, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii caiieieoue ethaeueie, /oiau aeinoe/ue caieaie?iaaiiiai
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Naie aea ?aai/ea ianoa – yoi iniaue niinia
ioi?ieaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae
i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iauaeoeaiay iniiaa caiyoinoe ?aai/eo caeeth/aaony a
ianooaaao e ea/anoaa aiaea/aiiuo a i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa o?oaea.
Caaeneiinoue iio?aaiinoae i?iecaiaenoaa a ?aai/ae neea io ianooaaia
n?aaenoa o?oaea (io ?aai/eo iano) aunooiaao eae iauayeiiiie/aneee caeii
caiyoinoe iaaiiuo ?aai/eo.

?aaoee?iaaiea caiyoinoe ianaeaiey iiaeii inouanoaeyoue ?acee/iuie
iooyie:

1.Iooai eciaiaiey iio?aaiinoe naiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a ?aai/ae neea, /oi e
aeinoeaaaony aaiaeii iiauo iano, i?aaeoniio?aiiui niioaaonoaothueie
iaoeeiiaeueiuie e ?aaeiiaeueiuie i?ia?aiiaie.

2.Iooai eciaiaiey (oiaiueoaiey) iio?aaiinoe a ?auei/eo ianoao ni noi?iiu
?aai/eo, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a nayce n inouanoaeaieai ainoaea?noaii
ianooaaiuo nioeeaeueiuo e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee
(?anoe?aiea eiioeiaaioia iieiaeaaee, iao/athuaeny n io?uaii io
i?iecaiaenoaa, eueaioiua ioionea aeaiueiai n iaeieaoieie aeaoueie,
nie?auaiea aic?anoa auoiaea ia iaineth ioaeaeueiui a?oiiai ?aaioieeia e
o.ae.).

Aaaeiia cia/aiea a ?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaiee ieaiia ii ?aaoee?iaaieth
caiyoinoe eiaao oyniaiea caeiiiia?iinoae aa aeeiaieee; cia/eoaeueiua
aeinoeaeaiey a eo enneaaeiaaiee eiatho yeiiiienou Caiaaea.

Nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo eciaiaieyie iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e caiyoinoe. O ian aeieaia
a?aiy auei ?ani?ino?aiaii iaeiicia/iia iiaiea i oii, /oi ?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia iniiaa ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee,
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiauoaieai “i?aaie/aneiai no?iaiey eaieoaea”,
iaecaaaeii aaaeao e oaaee/aieth aac?aaioeoeu. Eiia/ii aea, i?e
aiaae?aiee oaoie/aneeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee i?ienoiaeeo auoaniaiea /anoe
caiyouo ?aaioieeia ec i?iecaiaenoaa, ii yoi a e?aoein?i/iii ieaia. A
aeieain?i/iii aea acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, ?inoii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e caiyoinoe – iaiaeiicia/ii, a aieaa
neiaeii. Aaaeue eae ecaanoii, i?ia?ann iaoee e oaoieee nii?iaiaeaeaaony
aicieeiiaaieai iiauo i?iecaiaenoa e aeaaea io?aneae, eioi?ua
ii?iaeaeatho ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo. Iai?eia?, a ?acaeouo no?aiao a
1989-91 aa. i?e n?aaeiaaiaeiaii oaaee/aiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
ia 0,5% , caiyoinoue aic?anea ia 0,2%, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiieaeaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia 0,5% aea/ao ca niaie oiaiueoaiea caiyoinoe ia
0,4%.

A oeaeii aaeeinoaaiiay iaaeaaeiay no?aoaaey, iai?aaeaiiay ia iaania/aiea
onoie/eaie e aunieiiiea/eaaaiie caiyoinoe, aeieaeia aace?iaaoueny ia
iiauoaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia iniiaa IOI.

Ae?oaay caaeneiinoue a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea nouanoaoao iaaeaeo o?iaiai
aac?aaioeoeu e eioeyoeeae (“e?eaay Oeeeina”). A ?acoeueoaoa
enneaaeiaaiey ecia?aiey ca?aaioiie ieaou a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ca 1861-1957
aa. i?ioanni? O.Oeeein i?eoae e auaiaeo i nouanoaiaaiee eiaa?neiiiie
(ia?aoiie) caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo o?iaiai aac?aaioeoeu e oaaee/aieai
aeaiaaeiie ca?aaioiie ieaou. *ai auoa o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, oai ieaea
o?iaaiue eioeyoeee ca?aaioiie ieaou.

Aeaaa 2 Iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai ?uiea o?oaea.

Ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie no?aiaie n ia?aoiaeiuie yeiiiieeaie a ?O ?uiie
o?oaea ii eiiio aaeaioe?oaony e iiaui oneiaeyi. O?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu
iinea ia/aea ?aoi?i inoaaaeny ioiineoaeueii ieceei, iniaaiii ia oiia
?aceiai iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa; oaeo/anoue aea eaae?ia noaea
cia/eoaeueii auoa. Cia/eo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia
i?ienoiaeeo i?aaeaea anaai aioo?e io?aneae e i?aaei?eyoee, a ia ca n/ao
eciaiaiey niioiioaiey caiyouo e aac?aaioiuo.

Iniaaiiinoe ?inneeneiai ?uiea o?oaea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
ii?aaeaeythony oai, /oi aeaenoaothuaa o?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
onoa?aei. Iiaaaeaiea ?oeiaiaenoaa iaoeo i?aaei?eyoee ia?aaeei yaeyaony
(aaeaeaaoiui) ?aoeeiiaeueiui ioaaoii ia iaaaeaeaaoiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, /?acia?ii ia?aie/eaathuaa naiaiaeo eo aeaenoaee, e
iauyniyaony neaainoueth einoeoooia, iaania/eaathueo aai niaethaeaiea.
Iieo/aiiua a oiaea enneaaeiaaiey 20 i?aaei?eyoee a 5 ?inneeneeo
?aaeiiao, aeaiiua, aeeth/athuea aiaeec eioa?aueth n iaiaaeaea?aie,
?aai/eie e i?ionithciuie aeoeaenoaie, a oaeaea iniiaaiiua ia
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo a oeaeii ii no?aia e ii i?aaei?eyoeyi a
/anoiinoe, /oi eiaiii ianiaa?oaiiay i?aaiaay aaca e ia ioeaaeaiiay
?aaioa ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaea caiyoinoe a ?O, yaeyaony i?e/eiie oiai,
/oi ?aaioiaeaoaee eaeoo ia iaoiae e ia?ooaiea caeiia, i?e/ai ia anao
nooiaiyo o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee: iaeia-oaieueiaiey ?aaioieea,
?ani?aaeaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ?aai/ae neeu, ?aaeeiia o?oaea e aai
iieaou.

2.1 Ioeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i, aeaenoaothueo i?e iaeia

?aai/eo, e eo ?aaeueiia iieiaeaiea.

Iniiaiuie aeieoiaioaie, ?aaoee?othueie o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey a iaoae
no?aia, yaeythony Eiaeaen caeiiia i o?oaea (EciO), Eiinoeoooeey e
A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana aua aeaenoaoao noa?ue EciO, i?eiyoue aua a 1971 a.
I?aaeoniio?aiiua ei ii?iu i?eaioe?iaaiiu ia caueoo eioa?ania i?aaeaea
anaai ?aaioieeia; iie i?iaicaeaoatho i?aai eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea ia o?oae
ii niiniaiinoyi e ?aaiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca ?aaiue o?oae; oaeaea
niaea?aeao aeiiieieoaeueiua aa?aioee i?e iaeia e oaieueiaiee aeey
aeaiuei, iieiaeaaee e eiaaeeaeia. Iieiaeuo ?aaioieeia e aeaiuei
cai?auaii i?eaeaeaoue e oyaeaeui oece/aneei ?aaioai, oaeaea iai?aaeyoue
ia ?aaiou n iaaeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie o?oaea. Nio?aiyaony iaoe?iue
ia?a/aiue ?aaio ii io?aneyi e i?ioanneyi, ia eioi?ua ia ?ac?aoaaony
i?eieiaoue aeaiuei. Ioaeaeueiua ia?aie/aiey ioiinyony e iaeio eeoe, ia
yaeythueony a?aaeaeaiaie ?O.

Ia yoii oiia a oa/aiea iineaaeieo eao, ii aeaiiui Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eiieoaoa noaoenoeee, nio?aiyaony aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaia niioiioaiea
/eneaiiinoe caiyouo e aac?aaioiuo. Oai ia iaiaa /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia,
/ae o?oaeiaie noaae ia i?aaei?eyoee iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 3 eao,
ninoaaeyao 38 % niaieoiiie ?aai/ae neeu, /oi niioaaonoaoao n?aaeiei
iieacaoaeyi ii no?aia. A iiaua ?aaioieee n o?oaeiaui noaaeai ia aieaa 3
eao ninoaaeytho i?eia?ii 50% ?aai/ae neeu a noa?a oneoa, aaieianeie e
oeiainiaie noa?ao, a oi a?aiy eae a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e athaeaeaoiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo eo aeiey nianai ia aaeeea. I?aaaea ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo
n /eneii caiyouo iaiaa 200 /aeiaae, 2/3 anao ?aaioieeia yaeythony
iiae/eaie eee ?aaioatho ia aieaa 3 eao.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi aiiaue nicaeaaaaiua i?aaei?eyoey e oa, /oi
eiatho onoie/eaia oeiainiai iieiaeaiea, i?iaiaeyo aeoeaioth iieeoeeo
caiyoinoe, oiaaea eae ia aeaaii nouanoaothueo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
iaoiaeyueony a e?aeia oyaeaeii oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee, iia iouaia ia
naiioae. Oaeea i?aaei?eyoey ia a ninoiyiee eiieo?e?iaaoue ii o?iaith
ca?ieaou n ninaaeyie e i?eieiatho ia ?aaioo /ooue ee ia anao iiae?yae a
iaaeaaeaea, /oi /anoue aiiaue i?eiyouo oaieeony ia n?aco, a i?i?aaioaao
ianyoe – ae?oaie; e?iia oiai, iie ecaaaatho iaieiaoue iieiaeaaeue, /oi
niaeanii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i?aaeiieaaaao aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou ia
iao/aiea, e i?aaeii/eoatho i?eaeaeaoue aeaoaaoth ?aai/oth neeo, a
/anoiinoe ?aaioieeia i?aaeiaineiiiiai aic?anoa.

Oniaoii aeaenoaothuea i?aaei?eyoey, iai?ioea, iau/ii i?eaaaatho e iaeio,
iniiaaiiiio ia i?eioeeiao ioai?a; /aua anaai caeeth/atho o?oaeiaua
aeiaiai?u ia ia?aie/aiiue n?ie n oai, /oiau iaania/eoue aeinoaoi/ioth
naiaiaeo iaiaa?a a neooaoeee ianoaaeeueiinoe ni?ina; aeiioneatho
onoaiiaeaiea eniuoaoaeueiiai n?iea. E?iia oiai a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia
?inneeneii ?uiea o?oaea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee n?i/iua
o?oaeiaua eiio?aeou, iie ninoaaeee aei 55-60 % a iauae ianna o?oaeiauo
aeiaiai?ia, iaia/aaony oaiaeaioeee e oaaee/aieth eo aeiee, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ianniauo ia?ooaieyo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aaaeue ii
EciOo ?aaioiaeaoaeue eiaao i?aai ia caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie oieueei a ia?aie/aiiii /enea neo/aaa.

Ia iaoai ?uiea o?oaea iaaethaeaaony oaeaea ecauoie iaeieo i?ioannee (a
/anoiinoe yoi iaoiaeeo naia io?aaeaiea a nouanoaiaaiee “oaiaaie”
aac?aaioeoeu) e aianoa n oai a?aiaiiue aeaoeoeeo ae?oaeo. Oaeiai ?iaea
ianiioaaonoaea iiaeii n/eoaoue ii?iaeueiui yaeaieai, a ioee/ea io
/?acau/aeii ieceie iiaeeueiinoe ?aai/ae neeu e ia?iiiuo ianooaaia
ne?uoie aac?aaioeoeu, i?e eioi?ie ethaee niaeaniu ?aaioaoue ca i/aiue
ieceoth ca?ieaoo eee a?aiaiaie ia iieo/aoue aa aiana. I?ienoiaeeo yoi
iioiio, /oi i?aaei?eyoey iaiaeiicia/ii ioeaieaatho naie aiciiaeiinoe i?e
iaai?a ?aaioieeia.

Anee ia?aoeoueny eiie?aoii e oeeo?ai ii?ina, oi iu oaeaeei eae ianoiyo
aeaea n iaeiii ?aaioieeia. Oieueei 30% ianeaaeiaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
niiaueee , /oi o ieo ia aicieeaei i?iaeai n iaeiii ia?niiaea. A
inoaeueiua i?eciathony a eo nouanoaiaaiee e au?aaeatho iaaniieiaiiinoue
ii iiaiaeo niiniaiinoae oeaio?ia caiyoinoe iiii/ue ei a eo ?aoaiee. Ia
oaeiaeaoai?yao eo e ea/anoai iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia a
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneeo o/eeeuao. Iaeaieaa neiaeiui aeey
iaiaaeaea?ia i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony iaai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo. Ia
yoi oeacaee 32% i?aaei?eyoee; o?oaeiinoe n iaeiii niaoeeaeenoia a
iaeanoe oeiainia e ia?eaoeiaa eniuouaatho 22%; oaoieeia e
eiaeeia?ia-18%. I i?iaeaiao n iaeiii iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo
niiaueee eeoue 4% ii?ioaiiuo.

I?aaei?eyoey, eniuouaay oeiainiaua cao?oaeiaiey, ia a ninoiyiee
i?eaea/ue ?aaioieeia ioaeiie eaaeeoeeaoeee. Iie auioaeaeaiu iaieiaoue
auoaaeoeo ia iaineth ?aai/eo eee oaaee/eaaoue eiee/anoai niaianoeoaeae.
Iiaeao, a aeaiiii neo/aa oaeea ia?u aeaenoaeoaeueii ii?aaaeaiiu, ii
nae/an aeene?eieiaoeey ii iieiaiio e aic?anoiiio i?eciaeai noaea a ?O
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeaieai, eae ai aiiaue nicaeaiiuo eiiiaieyo,
oae e ia aeaaii aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoeyo, eiathueo onoie/eaia
oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea.

?aaioiaeaoaee i?aaeii/eoatho ia iaieiaoue aeaiuei, iieiaeuo ?aaioieeia,
auioneieeia AOCia, iineieueeo oa iaeaaeatho aeiiieieoaeueiuie eueaioaie
a iaeanoe caiyoinoe. Ia?aaeei a iauyaeaieyo i aaeaineyo oi/ii
oeacuaaaony aic?ano ?aaioieea, /oi yaeyaony i?yiui ia?ooaieai caeiia. A
/oi aiai?eoue i oii, /oi niaoeeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ioiinyuaainy
e neo/ayi naenoaeueiiai aeiiiaaoaeuenoaa ia neoaeaa, a ?O aiiaua ia
nouanoaoao.

A iauai, a naieo niiniaao iienea, iaai?a e iaeia ?aaioieeia iiea o?oaeii
auaeaeeoue eaeea-oi i?ei?eoaoiua oaiaeaioeee. Iiaeii oieueei neacaoue,
/oi ia ?inneeneii ?uiea o?oaea iaei aaaeaony ii “i?iecaieueii
iaiythuaeny iaoiaeeea”: a iaeieo neo/ayo iieuecothony noa?uie
oi?iaeueiuie e iaoi?iaeueiuie eaiaeaie, a ae?oaeo – i?eaaaatho e iiaui,
o.a. ia?auathony a oeaio?u caiyoinoe, eaae?iaua aaaionoaa, ?aciauatho
iauyaeaiey a niaoeeaeueiuo ecaeaieyo e o.ae.

2.2 Oaieueiaiea ii caeiio e ?aaeueiia iieiaeaiea.

Aeaenoaothuea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ii?iu niaea?aeao na?ueaciua
i?aiyonoaey aeey oaieueiaiey ?aaioieeia, aaeieieno?aoeey ai?aaa
?aci?aaoue o?oaeiaie aeiaiai? oieueei ii neaaeothuei iniiaaieyi:

eeeaeaeaoeey i?aaei?eyoey e nie?auaiea ooaoa nio?oaeieeia;

ianiioaaonoaea ?aaioieea caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe;

nenoaiaoe/aneia iaeniieiaiea ?aaioieeii iaycaiiinoae;

i?iaoe (a oii /enea, ionoonoaea ia ?aai/ai ianoa aieaa 3-o /ania a
oa/aiea ?aai/aai aeiy aac oaaaeeoaeueiie i?e/eiu);

aica?auaiea ia i?aaeiaa ianoi eeoe, ?aiaa auiieiyaoeo yoo ?aaioo;

iiyaeaiea ia ?aaioa a iao?acaii aeaea, a ninoiyiee ia?eioe/aneiai eee
oiene/aneiai iiueyiaiey;

niaa?oaiea oeuaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie eee iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.

I?e/ai iaee/ea auoaoeacaiiuo iniiaaiee aeey oaieueiaiey

aeieaeii auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaii aeieoiaioaeueii. A i i?aaenoiyuai
ianniaii aunaiaiaeaeaiee ?aaioieee aeieaeiu i?aaeoi?aaeaeaoueny
ia?niiaeueii iiae ?anieneo ia iaiaa, /ai ca 2 ianyoea. Niioaaonoaothuay
eioi?iaoeey aeieaeia caaeaaia?aiaiii i?aaeinoaaeyoueny aaeieieno?aoeeae
i?aaei?eyoey i?ionithciiio i?aaio, eioi?ue ii caeiio iiaeao ia?aie/eoue
i?iaaaeaiea ianniauo nie?auaiee.

I?ionithcu iiaoo eieoeee?iaaoue ianoaeaeaiea n ?aaioiaeaoaeyie e
niioaaonoaothueie i?aaiaie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ia?niaeoea
o?oaeiono?ienoaa aunaiaiaeaeaaiuo ?aaioieeia, ii?yaeea i?aaeinoaaeaiey
ei nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee e enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey ia?ii?eyoee ia n?ie
aei 6 ianyoeaa. Aeeeoaeueiinoue yoiai n?iea ii?aaeaeyaony iieiaeaieai a
noa?a caiyoinoe a aeaiiii ?aaeiia, a ?anoiaeu oeiaine?othony ec ianoiiai
athaeaeaoa.

A neo/aa, anee ainoaea?noaaiiia eee ioieoeeiaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea
iaoiaeeony a i?ioeanna i?eaaoecaoeee, cai?auaaony nie?auaoue aieaa 10%
ia?niiaea a oa/aiea 6 ianyoeaa aei aeaou i?eaaoecaoeee. I?e i?iaeaaea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey ii eiieo?no a aai oneiaeyo iiaeao
iaiaa?eaaoueny niaethaeaiea ?yaea nioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee. Iai?eia?,
nio?aiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea ?aai/eo iano, i?aaiecaoeey iiaeaioiaee,
iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia e o.ae. A neo/aa aaie?ionoaa i?aaiu
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue aueoia i?aaei?eyoey ia iniiaa
oaiaea?a n niaethaeaieai oaeeo oneiaee, eae nio?aiaiea ia iaiaa 70%
?aai/eo iano, iaania/aiea ia?aiiaeaioiaee eaae?ia e o?oaeiono?ienoai
ia?niiaea a neo/aa ia?ai?ioeee?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

AEaiueiu, iieiaeaaeue e eiaaeeaeu eiatho aeiiieieoaeueiua aa?aioee. Oae,
aaeieieno?aoeey ia ai?aaa oaieueiyoue aa?aiaiioth aeaiueio, aeaiueio,
eiathuoth ?aaaiea a aic?anoa aei 3 eao; iaeeiieoth iaoue, eiathuoth
?aaaiea aei 14 eao, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoey,
eiaaea oaieueiaiea aeiioneaaony, ii n iaycaoaeueiui i?aaeinoaaeaieai
?aaiou. Oi anoue aaeieieno?aoeey iaycaia o?oaeiono?ieoue auoaoeacaiiuo
aeaiuei ii ieii/aieth o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a, a ia yoio ia?eiae ca ieie
nio?aiyaony n?aaeiyy ca?aaioiay ieaoa, ii a oa/aiea ia aieaa /ai 3
ianyoeaa ni aeiy ieii/aiey aeiaiai?a.

A neo/aa nie?auaiey /eneaiiinoe eee ooaoa ?aaioieeo iieaaaaony auoiaeiia
iiniaea a ?acia?a iany/iiai n?aaeiaai ca?aaioea; ia ia?eiae
o?oaeiono?ienoaa ca iei nio?aiyaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa a oa/aiea 2-3
ianyoeaa i?e oneiaee, /oi ii ia iicaeiaa, /ai /a?ac 2 iaaeaee iinea
oaieueiaiey ca?aaeno?e?iaaeny a ea/anoaa aac?aaioiiai a i?aaiao
caiyoinoe.

A neo/aa oaieueiaiey ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth eeoea, ?aaioathuaai ii
aann?i/iiai o?oaeiaiio aeiaiai?o, iii iaycaii i?aaeoi?aaeeoue ia yoii
aaeieieno?aoeeth ienueiaiii ca 2 iaaeaee e aei enoa/aiey yoiai n?iea
aaeieieno?aoeey iaycaia eniieieoue ana eiie?aoiua iaycaoaeuenoaa, o.a.
i?iecaanoe ?an/ao e auaeaoue o?oaeiaoth eieaeeo.

AEanoeea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ii?iu, ?aaoee?othuea oaieueiaiea ?aaioieeia,
auioaeaeatho ?aaioiaeaoaeae i?eaaaaoue e ae?oaei niiniaai nie?auaiey
ooaoia, n?aaee eioi?uo i?aiaeaaeaao oaieueiaiea ii nianoaaiiiio
aeaeaieth.

No?aoaaey e oaeoeea ?aaioiaeaoaeae n yoii aii?ina noieue aea i?inoa,
neieueei iaei??aeoia e a?oaa: iineieueeo ioeoeeaeueiia oaieueiaiea
?aaioieea ii niioaaonoaothuae noaouea – aeaei ia i?inoia, a nie?auaiea
ooaoia – i?ioeann aei?iainoiyuee e ia iieuecothueeny iiioey?iinoueth,
iaiaaeaea?u ieacuaatho aeaaeaiea ia ?aaioieeia, /oiau iiaoaeeoue eo
oaieeoueny ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua niiniau
?aaeecaoeee “no?aoaaee auaeaaeeaaiey”: nieaeaiea eee caaea?aeea auieaou
ca?aaioiie ieaou; ioi?aaea a ioionea aac nio?aiaiey niaea?aeaiey;
nie?auaiea ?aai/eo /ania; eaii?e?iaaiea o?aaiaaiee oeo/oaiey oneiaee
o?oaea. E?iia oiai i?eiaiyaony “no?aoaaey noeioee?iaaiey” oaieueiaiey ii
nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth. Iai?eia?, ia caaiaea “Iee?ii” ?aaioieeai,
au?aceaoei aioiaiinoue oaieeony ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth a oa/aiea 2
iaaeaeue, auea n?aco auiea/aia ca?aaioiay ieaoa ca 3 ianyoea.
Aaeieieno?aoeey ?ann/eouaaea, /oi eioeyoeey neeueii iiauneo
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, e aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiiaea
?aaioieee iioee ia yoi.

Aioiaiinoue ?aaioieea niaeaneoueny n oaieueiaieai ii nianoaaiiiio
aeaeaieth ia?aaeei iauyniyaony oaeaea aiyciueth a neo/aa ioeaca
iieo/eoue “ieiooth” caienue a o?oaeiaie eieaeea e oaa?aiiinoueth a oii,
/oi anee ?aaioiaeaoaeue caoi/ao, oi anaaaea iaeaeao aeey yoiai iiaiae.

I/aaeaeii, eiaiii iiyoiio, iianaianoii ia ?inneeneii ?uiea o?oaea
iaaethaeaaony /?acia?ii aunieay aeiey oaieueiaiee ii nianoaaiiiio
aeaeaieth ii n?aaiaieth n oaieueiaieai ii eieoeeaoeaa ?aaioiaeaoaey.
?acoeueoaou iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho neaaeothuoth a?aaeaoeeth
oaieueiaiee: ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth – 72%, ii nie?auaieth ooaoia –
13%, a nayce n auoiaeii ia iaineth – 10%, ca ia?ooaiea o?oaeiaie
aeenoeeieeiu – 5%.

N?aaee i?e/ei oaieueiaiey ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth ia ia?aii ianoa
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue o?iaiai iieaou o?oaea – 55%; caaea?aeee auieaou
ca?aaioiie ieaou – 15%; i?e/eiu ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a – 13%; oyaeaeua e
iianiua oneiaey o?oaea – 7%; iai?eaieaiue ?aaeei ?aaiou – 6%.

Aeaiiua ii?inia ainoaea?noaaiiie noaoenoeee iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi n?aaee
oaieueiythueony ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth i?aiaeaaeatho ?aai/ea (“neiea
ai?ioie/ee”). Ii anoue oaeaea oaeou aeoeaiiai nie?auaiey /eneaiiinoe
oaoie/aneiai e aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ia?niiaea. Eiuie neiaaie,
i?aaei?eyoey i?eiaiytho ?acioth no?aoaaeth aunaiaiaeaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu,
aaeaine?oy iaaeaeo nio?aiaieai o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa e
?ano?oeoo?ecaoeeae eaae?ia ia iniiaa iiauoaiey eo ea/anoaaiiiai ninoaaa.
Iai?eia?, ia caaiaea “Iee?ii” ?aaioieeia, ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eioi?uo
aiciiaeii auei i?iaanoe aac io?uaa io i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aoeee inoaaeoue a
ooaoa i?aaei?eyoey. N oeaeueth nio?aiaiey o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa
aaeieieno?aoeey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai caaiaea “Oa?” (Naia?a), ia niio?y
ia neiaeiia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey, iinoa?aeinue iiauneoue
ca?ieaoo ?aaioieeai, niaaaeay eo aeaoaauie i?iiuoeaiiuie e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuie oiaa?aie, iieo/aiiuie ii aa?oa?o. Iaeioi?ua
i?aaei?eyoey ?aoaee oo aea caaea/o iooai iaeiieaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe ca
iinoaaeo yeaeo?iyia?aee e aiaeiniaaaeaiea. A oi aea a?aiy iie ia
i?aiyonoaiaaee ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi n?aaeiaai caaia ecaaaeyoueny io ia
ono?aeaaaoeo eo ?aaioieeia (oaieueiaiey ca ia?ooaiea o?oaeiaie
aeenoeeieeiu, ioi?aaeaiea a aaeieieno?aoeaiua ioionea n nio?aiaieai
ieieiaeueiiai o?iaiy ca?ieaou, /oi auioaeaeaei eo oeoe n i?aaei?eyoey).

Oeiainiai onoie/eaua i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo iicaieeoue naaa ieaoeoue
aunieoth ca?ieaoo e niaea?aeaoue iauaeou nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u,
eiio?iee?oy i?ioeann aunaiaiaeaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu a eioa?anao nio?aiaiey
iniiaiiai yae?a aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia.

2.3 ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ioiinyuaany e ?ani?aaeaeaieth ?aai/ae neeu, iineo
aeinoaoi/ii iauee oa?aeoa?. ?a/ue eaeao i o?aaiaaieyo e eaaeeoeeaoeee
i?e caiauaiee aaeainee e ia?aaiaea ia ae?oaoth ?aaioo ia oii aea
i?aaei?eyoee a neo/aa i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iniaua ii?iu
?aaoee?otho o?oae aa?aiaiiuo aeaiuei e aeaiuei, eiathueo aeaoae a
aic?anoa aei 1,5 eao (i?aaeinoaaeaieai aieaa eaaeie ?aaiou aac
nie?auaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou).

Nouanoaothuaa o?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e eieeaeoeaiua aeiaiai?u
i?aaeinoaaeytho ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi i?aaei?eyoee aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieia iiea
aeey iaiaa?a. Eae iieacuaatho iaaethaeaiey, naaiaeiy iie i?aaeii/eoatho
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaioieeia ii ?aciui iiae?acaeaeaieyi iaeiiai
i?aaei?eyoey (iaania/eaay a oie eee eiie ia?a eo ia?aiiaeaioiaeo), iaeio
a?aiaiiuo ?aaioieeia. ?oeiaiaeeoaee anao o?iaiae aieueoa anaai oeaiyo
?aai/eo, eiathueo ianeieueei i?ioannee, e iiyoiio ia?aaeei iaania/eaatho
iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee ia?niiaea, i?aaiecoy i?ioanneiiaeueioth
iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo aac io?uaa io iniiaiie ?aaiou, ?aaea n
io?uaii io i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo a oiaea ii?ina aeaiiuo iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae ia
ioiineoaeueii iacia/eoaeueiuo ianooaaao ia?aiauaiey ?aai/ae neeu iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eyoee e n?aaieoaeueii aunieie
iiaeeueiinoe eaae?ia aioo?e iaeiiai e oiai aea iiae?acaeaeaiey.
Ianeaaeiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe iieacaei, /oi 70-95%
?aaioieeia ieeiaaea ia ia?aaiaeeeenue ec oeaoa a oeao. Noieue aunieee
iieacaoaeue a aeaiiii neo/aa iauyniyaony, aeaeeii oai, /oi ii?aaeaeaiiay
i?ioanneiiaeueiay niaoeeaeecaoeey a ?aieao e?oiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
(iai?eia?, a iaoaeeo?aee), nicaeaao oaoiieiae/aneea “aa?uea?u”,
cao?oaeiythuea ia?aiauaiea eaae?ia iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie.
Iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu aioo?e iaeiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ii/oe a 4 ?aca
iiauoaao eioaineaiinoue ia?aiauaiey eaae?ia iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie
i?aaei?eyoey. I?e iaee/ee ecauoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea ii
ioaeaeueiui i?ioanneyi iioaioeeae ?aaioieeia ia?aaeei eniieuecoaony
iayooaeoeaii. A iniiaiii yoi eanaaony eeoe, eiathueo aunoaa ia?aciaaiea,
iniaaiii ii niaoeeaeueiinoyi, eioi?ua a ianoiyuee iiiaio ia iieuecothony
ni?inii. Oae ia i?aaei?eyoee “Aeiino?ie” (Iineaa) aianoi ?aai/eo,
?ooeiiui o?oaeii caiyou niaoeeaeenou n aunoei ia?aciaaieai, /oi aaaeao e
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeaa?aaeaoeee, nieaeaiey noeioeia e o?oaeo.

Eae iieacuaatho enneaaeiaaiey i?aaei?eyoee, ethaeyi ia?aaeei ii?o/atho
?aaioo, o?aaothuoth aeey aa auiieiaiey aieaa ieceie eaaeeoeeaoeee, /ai
eiathuayny o ieo. Yoi ioiineony i?aaeaea anaai e eeoeai iaineiiiiai
aic?anoa, iniaaiii e aeaiueiai. A aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i
na?ueaciii ia?ooaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Oae ia caaiaea “Oa?” ieiei
40-60% oao, eoi iiaeeaaeae oaieueiaieth ii nie?auaieth ooaoia, inoaaeee
ia i?aaei?eyoee, iaeiaei ia?aaaee ia aieaa iecoea aeieaeiinoe. Ethaee
auioaeaeaiu auee nie?eoueny n yoei, /oiau ia iioa?youe ?aaioo.

Ia caaiaea “Iaoaeeo?a” (Eaia?iai) a ?acoeueoaoa ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ?aaio, ia o?aaothueo aunieie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee, auiieiyeanue eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie
niaoeeaeenoaie. Ii eaaeaeie iia?aoeee /enei caiyouo ?aai/eo naaaeaii e
ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiiio n oaoiieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey. Ii anae
aa?iyoiinoe, yoi auciaao neiaeiinoe aeaaea i?e naiii iaaieueoii
oaaee/aiee eniieueciaaiey iiuiinoae.

No?oeoo?a caiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo (o.a. niioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe ?aai/eo
e neoaeaueo, caiyouo ia iniiaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeeyo e
iainiiaiuo) a oeaeii noaea aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiie, oioy oaeou
iaaeieniieueciaaiey o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea iaaethaeathony iianaianoii.

2.4 Aii?inu iieaou o?oaea. Oa?eoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea e

naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee.

Iauaa oa?eoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iieaou o?oaea auei ioiaiaii a 1992a.
I?aaei?eyoey, ca eneeth/aieai athaeaeaoiuo, iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoue
o?iaaiue iieaou o?oaea naiinoiyoaeueii, i?e/ai Ca?ieaoa ia iiaeao auoue
iaiueoa onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a, o.a. a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi ninoaaeyao 83?oa. 49 eii. a ianyoe. Eiia/ii,
ecia/aeueii i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi I?IO aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue
i?iaeeoi/iiio ieieioio, iaeiaei ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo eao ?ac?ua
iaaeaeo ieie iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaaony e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy I?IO ia
i?aauoaao 18-20% i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia.

Aaia?aeueiuie, io?aneaauie e ?aaeiiaeueiuie niaeaoaieyie, a oaeaea
eieeaeoeaiuie aeiaiai?aie iiaeao onoaiaaeeaaoueny ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue
ca?aaioiie ieaou aeey aeaiiie io?anee, ?aaeiia eee i?aaei?eyoey,
nouanoaaiii ioee/athueeny io ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea a
oeaeii a ?O. Anee i?aaei?eyoea iiaeienuaaao eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai?, iii
aeieaeii onoaiiaeoue o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou, enoiaey ec
caoeene?iaaiiiai ieieioia aeey aeaiiie io?anee. Ii, e niaeaeaieth,
iiaeienaiea eieeaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?a ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui.

Eieeaeoeaiua aeiaiai?u iiaoo oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaaoue ?acee/iua i?aiee
e eiiiainaoeee (ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaea, ca auneoao eao) e iaaeaaaee
(iai?eia?, ca aunieoth eaaeeoeeaoeeth, i?ioanneiiaeueiia ianoa?noai,
?aaioo a iniauo oneiaeyo).

A ia athaeaeaoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo o?iaaiue ca?ieaou onoaiaaeeaaaony ia
iniiaa AON.

Ii ?aaeueiinoue oaeiaa, /oi ?acieoea a o?iaia ca?ieaou eae aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoee, oae e iaaeaeo ieie aanueia cia/eoaeueia.

Aii?in i oii, ianeieueei yoa aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iainiiaaiia e eaeeie
niiniaaie iia aeinoeaaaony, i/aiue aeooaeai e o?aaoao ?aoaiey. Iaeei ec
niiniaia ?aaoee?iaaiey aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ca?ieaou – caeeth/aiea
?acee/iiai ?iaea eiio?aeoia. Oae, iai?eia?, ia caaiaea “Iee?ii” n
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie aunoaai caaia, aaaeoueie niaoeeaeenoaie, aeaaiui
aooaaeoa?ii e oeiainiaui aee?aeoi?ii aaeieieno?aoeey caeeth/aao
o?oaeiaua aeiaiai?u ia ia?aie/aiiue n?ie; – ia n?aaeiai o?iaia (o.a. n
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey eee ioaeaea)
iiaeienuaathony oae iacuaaaiua oneiaiua eiio?aeou, niaeanii eioi?ui
ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?ann/eouaaaony enoiaey ec n?aaeiae au?o/ee aeaiiiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey. Yoa aaciaay ca?ieaoa iau/ii oaaee/eaaaony n o/aoii
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai eiyooeoeeaioa ?aaioieea, onoaiaaeeaaaiiai aee?aeoi?ii
i?aaei?eyoey. Iai?eia?, aeey caianoeoaey aee?aeoi?a ii ninoaaeyao 0,8 –
0,9 ca?ieaou naiiai aee?aeoi?a. Ae?oaea eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia iaieiathony
ia iniiaa aann?i/iiai o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a; eo ca?aaioiay ieaoa ninoieo
ec ieeaaea e iaaeaaaee (aeiey ieeaaea a iauae noiia ca?ieaou ia
i?aauoaao 20 %). Iiieii yoiai, nouanoaoao eaoaai?ey ?aai/eo, iau/ii
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo, eioi?ua iieo/atho ieeaaeu, onoaiiaeaiiua
ia?niiaeueii. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy oaeea nenoaiu noeioee?iaaiey,
nicaeaiiua n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey oeaiiuo eaae?ia ia i?aaei?eyoee,
iieo/atho ana aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea. I?e/ai iaaeaaaee e i?aiee
aunooiatho a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai noeioea. Iaeiaei i?eioeei
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe eioi?iaoeee i ?acia?ao ca?aaioiie ieaou aua ia
i?eaeeny a ?inneeneeo oneiaeyo. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?aaioieeai
ecaanoii, eaeoth ca?ieaoo iieo/atho eo eieeaae, /oi aaconeiaii
ineiaeiyao i?aaiecaoeeth aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ca?ieaou e i?iaioee?oao
eiioeeeou n?aaee ia?niiaea.

E?iia oiai, a nayce n ?ani?ino?aiaieai aa?oa?iuo noai ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
oe?iei eniieuecoaony ?acee/iua iaaeaiaaeiua oi?iu iieaou e
noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea. Aua ?aaioieee iieuecothony aeaaaie, eioi?ua
iaania/eaaao nioeeaeueiay eio?ano?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoee (aacu ioaeuoa,
noaaeeiiu, iaaeeoeeineea /anoe, noieiaua e o.i.), iieo/atho iiaeaea?aeeo
ii niaea?aeaieth aeaoae a aeaoneeo naaeao. I?ioeann ia?aaea/e aeeeiai
oiiaea e o/?aaeaeaiee nioeeaeueii-auoiaie noa?u ia aaeain
ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?aaiia eaeao ia?aaiiia?ii e aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii.

2.5 Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eciaiaieai o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou e

aac?aaioeoeae.

Eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i?iaaaeaiiua ii?inu, aieueoeinoai ?aaioieeia ia
oaeiaeaoai?aii o?iaiai iieaou naiaai o?oaea. Oai ia iaiaa /anoue
?aniiiaeaioia niaeaneeinue au iieo/aoue iaiueooth ca?ieaoo, i?e oneiaee
aa?aioee eo caiyoinoe. Ii anoue e oaeea, eoi i?aaeii/ae au
aa?aioe?iaaiiie caiyoinoe aieaa aunieoth iieaoo o?oaea. Aii?inu,
naycaiiua n ii?aaeaeaieai oeaiu ?aai/ae neeu n oai, eae niioiinyony
ca?ieaoa e aeaiaaeiay ianna, iaoiaeyuayny a ia?auaiee, eae o?iaaiue
iieaou caaeneo io ninoiyiey ?uiea o?oaea e ?acia?ia aac?aaioeoeu,
yaeythony aanueia neiaeiuie e nioeeaeueii iaeaieaa aaaeiuie a oai?ee
caiyoinoe.

Iiaeaeoe, ia a iaeiie no?aia ia ioee/aeinue noieue aunieie ne?uoie
aac?aaioeoeu, noieue cia/eoaeueiiai nieaeaiey ?aaeueiie ca?ieaou ia oiia
iiauoaiey o?iaiy aac?aaioeoeu, e oaeiai yaeaiey, eae aeeeoaeueiua
caaea?aeee auieaou ca?ieaou.

Iiiaea yeiiiienou, eae ca?oaaaeiua, oae e ioa/anoaaiiua, n/eoatho
aunieee o?iaaiue ca?ieaou eee aa ?ino aeaaiuie i?e/eiaie nio?aiaiey
ni?ina ia o?oae, a ieceee o?iaaiue ca?ieaou eee aa oiaiueoaiea –
n?aaenoaii oaaee/aiey caiyoinoe, nnueaynue ia caeii ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, /ai auoa oeaia ?aai/ae neeu, oai ieaea
a?iaea au ni?in e iaiai?io. Oae, a o/aaieea aia?eeaineiai yeiiiienoa
I.A.Iyiueeueth iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi “aeanoeinoue ?aaeueiie ca?ieaou
oiaiueoaao aa?iyoiinoue o?oaeiono?ienoaa e iiauoaao o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu”. E a o/aaieea iaoaai o/aiiai Eaoaaaa A.Ae. aiai?eony, /oi
iineieueeo ca?ieaou aeeth/atho a ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, aa ?ino
aucuaaao iiauoaiea oeai ia auioneaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth, neaaenoaeai /aai
iiaeao ieacaoueny nieaeaiea ni?ina, a cia/eo nie?auaiea iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa e caiyoinoe.

E niaeaeaieth, ec oai?aoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee ia io?eoeaoaeueiii aeeyiee
iiauoaiey ca?ieaou ia ?ino aac?aaioeoeu aeaeathony niioaaonoaothuea
auaiaeu e aeathony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?ionithcia. Oae, E.?.Iaeeiiaee e N.E.A?th ooaa?aeaeatho:
oniao ethaiai i?ionithca a onoaiiaeaiee noaaie ca?ieaou auoa ?aaiiaaniie
nii?iaiaeaeaaony oiaiueoaieai /enea caiyouo ?aai/eo.

Ii noaoenoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aii?aee anai ooaa?aeaeaieyi, /oi a
?O oaaee/aiea aac?aaioeoeu oei iaeiia?aiaiii n ?aceei oiaiueoaieai
ca?ieaou, naycaiiui aeaaiui ia?acii ni niaaeii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo, a 1995 a. ?aaeueiay ca?ieaoa
ninoaaeea anaai eeoue 45% o?iaiy 1991 a. Ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui ca
1996-97aa. ia/eneaiiay ca?ieaoa eae aoaeoi oaaee/eeanue, ii ia?iiiua
iaauieaou, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo caaeieaeaiiinoue ii ca?ieaoa e iiya?th
1997 a. ninoaaeea 55,2 o?ei. ?oa. , i?eaaee e aeaeueiaeoaio iaaeaieth
aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey ?O.

Caaea?aeee auieao ca?ieaou – a?oaia ia?ooaiea Eiiaaioeee ?95 “Ia io?aia
ca?aaioiie ieaou”, no.12 eioi?ie aeaneo: “Ca?aaioiay ieaoa auiea/eaaaony
?aaoey?ii…n?iee auieaou onoaiaaeeaathony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aeaiiie
no?aiu eee ii?aaeaeythony aeiaiai?aie eee a?aeo?aaeiuie ?aoaieyie”. A
iaoai ECIOa no.96 onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi ca?ieaoa auiea/eaaaony ia ?aaea,
/ai eaaeaeua iieianyoea; oieueei aeey ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia
iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu eiua n?iee.

E?iia oiai niauoey 17 aaaonoa 1998 a. aucaaee iiaia ?aceia iaaeaiea
?aaeueiie ca?ieaou, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeei ia oiia aeaeueiaeoaai
nie?auaiey caiyoinoe.

A neiaeeaoeony oneiaeyo iiauoaiea ca?ieaou iiiiaeao iaeeaeoue yeiiiieeo,
i?aaeioa?aoeoue aa aeaeueiaeoee niaae e aeaa?aaeaoeeth ?aai/ae neeu.
Aaaeue ethaia nieaeaiea ca?ieaou noaeaao aioo?aiiee e?oa oiaa?ia, a
cia/eo niinianoaoao ia oaaee/aieth, a oiaiueoaieth caiyoinoe.

Oae, Eaein a iieaieee ni noi?iiieeaie eeanne/aneie oeieu ooaa?aeaeae,
/oi ?uiie o?oaea a ioee/ea io ?uiea ae?oaeo oiaa?ia – niaoeeoe/aneee
?uiie, ia eioi?ii i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu iaei caaeneo io o?iaiy
ni?ina ia iaai, o.a. io o?iaiy ca?ieaou. A naiae ?aaioa “Iauay oai?ey
caiyoinoe, i?ioeaioa e aeaiaa” ii aiaeece?iaae aii?in i oii, aaaeao ee
nie?auaiea aeaiaaeiie ca?ieaou i?e ?aaiuo i?i/eo oneiaeyo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee einaaiii e oaaee/aieth caiyoinoe, e i?eoae e
auaiaeo, /oi ia aaaeao.

Eaein ecaeae nianoaaiioth oai?eth caiyoinoe, niaeanii eioi?ie
ia?aiao?ii, n eioi?ui niioiineony iauai caiyoinoe, yaeyaony iauai
yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. Ionthaea, iaeaieaa ?acoiiie iieeoeeie,
ia?aie/eaathuae iioeiaeueiua niioiioaiey iieaou n caiyoinoueth,
aeinoeaaaony a eiia/iii n/aoa i?e oneiaee oaea?aeaiey onoie/eaiai o?iaiy
ca?ieaou.

2.6 ?aai/aa a?aiy: onoa?aaoea ii?iu, i?iaioee?othuea

ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai inoaeinue i?aeoe/anee iaeciaiiui n
niaaoneeo a?aiai n i?enouae ae onoaiiaeie ia iieioth caiyoinoue
ianaeaiey e ii?iaeueiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ?aai/ae iaaeaee ia aieaa
40 /ania. Aeey ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee (?aaioieeia ia aeinoeaoeo 18 eao,
o/eoaeae, a?a/ae, aeaiuei, ?aaioathueo a naeueneie ianoiinoe;
?aaioieeia, caiyouo ia a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaao) ?aai/ay iaaeaey
nie?auaaony aei 36 /ania, a a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo (iai?eia?, aeey
iiae?inoeia 15-16 eao) aei 24 /ania.

Naa?o nooi/iay ?aaioa aeiioneaaony oieueei ii ?ac?aoaieth
niioaaonoaothuaai auai?iiai i?ionithciiai i?aaia e ia aeieaeia
i?aauoaoue 120 /ania a aiae eee 4 /ania a aeaiue a oa/aiee 2 aeiae
iiae?yae. AEaiueiu, eiathuea aeaoae a aic?anoa aei 3 eao, ia
aeiioneathony e naa?oo?i/iui eee ii/iui ?aaioai e ia ioi?aaeythony a
eiiaiaee?iaeo aeaaea n eo niaeaney. Aeaoe a aic?anoa 14 eao oaeaea ia
aeiioneathony e naa?oo?i/iui ?aaioai e ia iiaoo iai?aaeyoueny a
eiiaiaee?iaee.

Noieue aea aeaoaeueii ?aaeaiaioe?oaony ii?yaeie i?aaeinoaaeaiey iniiaiuo
e aeiiieieoaeueiuo auoiaeiuo aeiae, ioioneia ii ooiaeo , a oaeaea
aaeaaiaeii iiea/eaaaiiai ioionea e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ioioneia.

*?acia?iay aeanoeinoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ?aaoee?othuaai ?aai/aa a?aiy,
aaaeao e aai i?aeoe/anee iianaianoiiio ianiaethaeaieth, o.e. iii
aaniethoii ia niioaaonoaoao nouanoaothuaio iieiaeaieth. A oneiaeyo
aeaoeoeeoa ?aai/eo iano e ieceeo iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea ?aaioieee
niaeaniu o?oaeeoueny noieueei, neieueei iio?aaoaony, /oiau oaea?aeaoueny
ia naiai ?aai/ai ianoa.

A nayce n yoei iiyaeeinue aua iaeii ?ani?ino?aiaiiia yaeaiea:
iaiiea/eaaaiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue ioione, eiaaea ?aaioiaeaoaee
i?eioaeaeatho ?aaioieeia “aeia?iaieueii” a?aoue oaeea ioionea ia
iaii?aaeaeaiii aeieaee nei?, a ethaee, aiynue ieacaoueny a a?iee
aac?aaioiuo, niaeaoathony n yoeie na?ueaciaeoeie ia?ooaieyie
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Aeaaa 3. Iooe nieaeaiey aac?aaioeoeu e iaania/aiea caiyoinoe.

3.1 Caeii i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey

I?eiyoue a 1991 a. e aannii?ii i?ia?anneaiue n oi/ee c?aiey
oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae Caeii ?NON?
“I caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a ?NON?” iniiaai ia iaueo i?aaenoaaeaieyo ia
oi?aaeaiee ?uieii o?oaea a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. A oiaea
yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee iaiaeiie?aoii noaaeeny a iiaanoeo aeiy
aii?in i ei??aeoe?iaea ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee caeiia “I caiyoinoe…”
(ii ioithaeue ia ia ioeaca io aai “i?i?uii/iiai” niaea?aeaiey). *oiau
i?eaeeceoue aeaenoaothuee caeii e eciaiythueiny ?aaeeyi, a iaai
aeaaaeaeu aiineeenue aeinoaoi/ii na?ueaciua ooi/iaiey (a ai?aea 1996 a.
e ethea 1999 a.), iiiaea ec eioi?uo aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaee
i?eioeeieaeueiue oa?aeoa?. E oaeiaui, iai?eia?, iiaeii ioianoe
ia?aie/aiea ?acia?a iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea. Anee a 1996-1999 aa. aai
aaee/eia ia iiaea i?aauoaoue n?aaeithth ca?aaioioth ieaoo a ?aaeiia
i?iaeeaaiey e ?aaeno?aoeee aac?aaioiiai, oi oaia?ue – i?iaeeoi/iue
ieieioi. I?e yoii ieieiaeueiia iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea ia iiaeao auoue
iaiueoa 20% aaee/eiu i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia. A ?acoeueoaoa, anee ?aiueoa
iaeneiaeueiia e ieieiaeueiia cia/aiey ninoaaeyee niioaaonoaaiii 1465
?oa. e 83,5 ?oa., oi a iaa 1999 a. – niioaaonoaaiii 924 e 184,8. Auei
ooi/iaii iiiyoea “caiyoua a?aaeaeaia”, e eaeiaui noaee ioiineoue a oii
/enea e eeoe, caieiathueony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth,
auiieiythueo ?aaiou ii a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui aeiaiai?ai (aeiaiai?ai
iiae?yaea) e o.i. I?e oooaeoaiee oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee caiyoinoe oaeanoi/eeenue oneiaey ?aaeno?aoeee aac?aaioiuo.

Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia yoe e ae?oaea iiaaoeee, a oeaeii

iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi e iuia aeaenoaothuay ?aaeaeoeey caeiia
ianiaa?oaiia. Inoaiiaeiny ia iaeaieaa e?oiiuo aii?inao, eioi?ua
oeaeaniia?acii ?aoeoue i?e aai i/a?aaeiie, e, caiaoei, iaecaaaeiie
aei?aaioea.

Oae, aei ia/aea ?aoi?i iaeuecy auei i?aaeaeaeaoue e eiee/anoaaiii

iienaoue oaeea yaeaiey, eae cia/eoaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ianaeaiey ii
o?iaith aeioiaeia e ?acaeoea a oe?ieeo ianooaaao ia iaeaaaaiiai iaeiaii
naeoi?a yeiiiieee, nieaeathuaai ?aaeueioth iio?aaiinoue a ?aai/eo ianoao
e nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeea /anoe eeoe, iioa?yaoeo ?aaioo;
i?inoaeaathuea i?aaei?eyoey, caiyoinoue ia eioi?uo ia aeaao aa?aioee
iieo/aiey ca?aaioiie ieaou, /oi oaaee/eaaao ni?in ia ?uiea o?oaea;
iaaeaiaaeiua oi?iu ?an/aoia iaaeaeo oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie,
oiaiueoathuea aiciiaeiinoe oeiaine?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee
caiyoinoe, a oaeaea oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oaiiiaiia ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea.

I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii i?eaanoe iacaaiea caeiia (eioi?ia,

ii iaoaio iiaieth, neeoeii oe?ieia) a niioaaonoaea n niaea?aeaieai:
aieueoay /anoue aai noaoae oaeoe/anee iinayuaia ia caiyoinoe eae
oaeiaie, a iaycaoaeuenoaai, eioi?ua aa?ao ia naay ainoaea?noai ii
iiaeaea?aeea ianaeaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea. Oae, a 11 ec 39 noaoae caeiia a
?aaeaeoeee 1999 a. ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu, naycaiiua eneeth/eoaeueii n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiui a i?aaiao ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau
caiyoinoe ianaeaiey a?aaeaeaiai nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee e eiiiainaoeee. Ai
iiiaeo noaoueyo ?a/ue eaeao i ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo iaycaoaeuenoaao a
iaeanoe caiyoinoe, eioi?ua ainoaea?noai eeai aa?ao ia naay (?aaeecaoeey
i?aaa a?aaeaeai ia o?oae, aeiiieieoaeueiua aa?aioee aeey ioaeaeueiuo –
nioeeaeueii oycaeiuo – eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey, i?ioanneiiaeueiay
iiaeaioiaea, iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee e ia?aiiaeaioiaea aac?aaioiuo
a?aaeaeai, i?aaiecaoeey iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio), eeai aeaeaae?oao
?aaioiaeaoaeyi. *oi eanaaony nianoaaiii iieeoeee caiyoinoe (a ia aa
eio?ano?oeoo?iiai iaania/aiey), oi aeaiiiio aii?ino iinayuaia oaeoe/anee
iaeia – /aoaa?oay – noaouey caeiia.

Anee iauay eiaeea caeiia ia eciaieony, oeaeaniia?acii iiiaiyoue aai
iacaaiea. A ea/anoaa ?aai/aai iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue, e i?eia?o, oaeia –
“I ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioeyo ianaeaieth a noa?a caiyoinoe”.

A iieueco ooi/iaiey iacaaiey aiai?eo e oi, /oi aeaenoaea iiiaeo noaoae
iuiaoiaai caeiia ioaaouaaao oieueei ?aaeno?e?oaiue ?uiie o?oaea e aai
oeao?aioia (ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a i?aaiao ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau
caiyoinoe aac?aaioiuo), a ia ?uiie o?oaea a oeaeii. Aoi?ay
i?eioeeieaeueiay i?iaeaia, ia ?aoaiea eioi?ie iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue
aieiaiea i?e nio?aiaiee i?aaeiaai iacaaiey caeiia, -aeeth/aiea a iaai
iieiaeaiee, ii?aaeaeythueo i?aaa e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ?acee/iuo i?aaiia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe oaaea?aeueiiai o?iaiy, naycaiiuo n ?ac?aaioeie e
?aaeecaoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe. A iuia aeaenoaothuae
?aaeaeoeee caeiia aii?inu, naycaiiua n einoeoooeeiiaeueiui iaania/aieai
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe, ?aoaiu iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii. Ec
no?oeoo? eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, eioi?ua aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue
iaycaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a yoie iaeanoe, a caeiia oiiiyiooa eeoue
Oaaea?aeueiay ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe ianaeaiey (no.15),
aoiaeyuay naaiaeiy a ninoaa Ieienoa?noaa o?oaea e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
?innee. *oi eanaaony I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O a oeaeii (oiiieiaaony a no. 3,
13, 22, 24, 25), Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O – OeA (no.22). Iaineiiiiai
oiiaea – IO (no.32), oi eo ?ieue, niaeanii nouanoaothuae ?aaeaeoeee,
naiaeeony eeai e ooaa?aeaeaieth iaeioi?uo ii?i e ii?iaoeaia (iai?eia?,
i?aaeoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaao iaoaieci aaaaeaiey e ?acia? eaiou aeey
i?eaia ia ?aaioo eiaaeeaeia), eeai e auiieiaieth ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo
ooieoeee (oae, o/?aaeaeaiey OeA aeeoioee?otho ia ioe?uouo a ieo n/aoao
n?aaenoaa Ainoaea?noaaiiiai oiiaea caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, IO iaania/eaaao
ia?ae/iia oeiaine?iaaiea ?anoiaeia ia auieaoo aein?i/iuo iainee).

Ae?oaea oiiieiaaiia a caeiia no?oeoo?u, aeeth/ay eii?aeeiaoeeiiiua
eiieoaou niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe ianaeaiey (no.20). i?ioanneiiaeueiua
nithcu e eiua i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua i?aaiu ?aaioieeia (no.21). yaeythony
iauanoaaiiuie, e iioiio au?aaaouaaaiua eie ?aoaiey aeaeaei ia anaaaea
iaycaoaeueiu aeey eniieiaiey.

*oi aea eanaaony Ieiyeiiiieee e Ieioeia ?innee – no?oeoo?
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, aac eioi?uo, ia iao acaeyae, aeaenoaaiiay
ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea a noa?a caiyoinoe aiiaua iaaiciiaeia, oi iie a
caeiia aiiaua ia oiiiyioou.

Aeaeaa, iiuo iino?iaiey oaaea?aoeaiuo ioiioaiee a nia?aiaiiie ?innee
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi oniaoe a aeaiiii iai?aaeaiee iiaoo auoue
aeinoeaioou oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee a eaaeaeie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe
i?aaa e ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey ?acee/iuo o?iaiae
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiie ea?a?oee aoaeoo /aoei ?aca?aie/aiu e
oeiainiai iaania/aiu. Iaaeaeo oai a caeiia niioaaonoaothuea iieiaeaiey
ionoonoaotho, /oi cao?oaeiyao ii?aaeaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaiey
athaeaeaoa AOCI ia aeaa /anoe – oaaea?aeueioth e noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee.
Iiyoiio iieiaeaiey i ?aca?aie/aiee iieiiii/ee a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee caiyoinoe iaaeaeo i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey ?acee/iuo o?iaiae
aeieaeiu auoue /aoei noi?ioee?iaaiu.

Iniaiai aieiaiey o?aaoao aii?in i oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee n?aaenoa
AOCI. Aeaei a oii, /oi naaiaeiy oa??eoi?ee n ioiineoaeueii iaaunieei
o?iaiai ?aaeno?e?oaiie aac?aaioeoeu iaania/aiu a oeaeii ?ano?naie AOCI
nouanoaaiii eo/oa, iaaeaee oa, aaea yoio o?iaaiue aunie. Oaeay
neooaoeey, ia iao acaeyae, iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi aeaeaei ia ana ?anoiaeu
AOCI a ?aaeiiao oi?ie?othony ia ii?iaoeaiie iniiaa. Oae, ia iniiaa
ii?iaoeaiiai i?eioeeia a ?aaeiiao iiaoo auoue noi?ie?iaaiu ?anoiaeu
athaeaeaoa AOCI oaeoe/anee oieueei ia auieaoo iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea, a
Oaeaea noeiaiaeee a?aaeaeaiai a ia?eiae eo i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee, iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee e ia?aiiaeaioiaee ii iai?aaeaieth
i?aaiia neoaeau caiyoinoe. ?anoiaeu aea ii ae?oaei noaoueyi athaeaeaoia
ii?aaeaeythony enoiaey nei?aa ec ea/anoaaiiuo, a ia eiee/anoaaiiuo
e?eoa?eaa. Iiyoiio iaoaieci ?ani?aaeaeaiey athaeaeaoia AOCI noauaeoia ?O
oeaeaniia?acii oieoeoee?iaaoue ia iniiaa ii?iaoeaiiai i?eioeeia ?an/aoa
aai ?anoiaeia, cae?aiea yoi a caeiia. Aua iaeia e?oiiay
a?oiia i?iaeai, o?aaothuay iniaiai aieiaiey, naycaia n ?aaeecaoeeae ia
i?aeoeea oae iacuaaaiiai aae?aniiai iiaeoiaea a ?aaioa i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau caiyoinoe n ianaeaieai e ioeacii io iuia
i?aeoeeoaiiai eaoaai?eeiiai iiaeoiaea.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oeaeue ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe, eae yoi
neaaeoao ec aeaenoaothuae ?aaeaeoeee Caeiia, – iiaeaea?aeea ioaeaeueiuo
eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey. A?aaeaeaiai, i?eciaiiui a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea
aac?aaioiuie, auiea/eaaaoa iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea (no.31), eiaaeeaeai,
eeoeai, aunaiaiaeaeaaiui ec i?aaiecaoeee a nayce n nie?auaieai
/eneaiiinoe eee ooaoa, aeaiai (ioaeueyi) aiaiiineoaeaueo e a?aaeaeai,
oaieaiiuo n aiaiiie neoaeau, i?aaeinoaaeythony aeiiieieoaeueiua aa?aioee
caiyoinoe (no.13) e o.ae. Iaeiaei i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea ia o/eouaaaony oio
oaeo, /oi ii naiaio nioeeaeueiiio ninoaaa, o?iaith aeooaauo aeioiaeia e
ae?oaei nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi naiuee (aeiiioicyenoaa),
/eaiaie eioi?uo yaeythony aea/iua eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai, iiaoo
cia/eoaeueii ?acee/aoueny. Ia i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
i?e aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa iieeoeee caiyoinoe, ia iao acaeyae,
iai?aaeeueii. Iaiaoiaeei aieaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e
iiaeaea?aeea eeoe, ioiinyueony e oie eee eiie eaoaai?ee, /oi
eaeaieiae/anee niioaaonoaiaaei au i?aaei?eieiaaiui a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ia?ai ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey
no?aiu e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee nioeeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa.

Na?ueaciie i?i?aaioee o?aaoao aii?in ia enoi/ieeao iiiieiaiey
athaeaeaoa AOCI. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a?aaeaeaia, oi?ie?othuea
i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea o?oaea, ia o/anoaotho naieie aciinaie a
nioeeaeueiii no?aoiaaiee ia neo/ae aac?aaioeoeu. Eo no?aoiaaiea
iaania/eaaao ?aaioiaeaoaeue. I?e yoii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua n/aoa
cano?aoiaaiiuo ia aaaeoony, a n?aaenoaa, iinooiathuea a oiiae,
iaacee/eaathony. A oaeie neooaoeee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae i?e
iacia/aiee iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea (noeiaiaeee i?ioiaeyuei
i?ioiiaeaioiaeo, iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue e eiuo auieao) yeiiiie/anee e
nioeeaeueii i?aaiia?ai.

Ae?oaia aeaei, anee a iiiieiaiee athaeaeaoa AOCI i?eiao o/anoea
ianaeaiea. Caeanue iiaeao auoue i?aaeeiaeaii aeaa iiaeoiaea –
aeia?iaieueiia e iaycaoaeueiia i?eaea/aiea a?aaeaeai e oieaoa no?aoiauo
aciinia a oiiae caiyoinoe. A ia?aii neo/aa ?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe ia
ioe?uoee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iaeiieoaeueiuo n/aoia a nenoaia nioeeaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey ii aac?aaioeoea e ia onoaiiaeaiee ii?yaeea eniieueciaaiey
n?aaenoa, aeeoioee?oaiuo ia yoeo n/aoao. Ai aoi?ii – i?aaeeaaaaony
iainiiaaoue e aaanoe a aeaenoaea i?ia?anneaioth oeaeo oa?eoia
iaycaoaeueiuo no?aoiauo aciinia ?aaioieeia a AOCI. I?e yoii eeoea n
iaaunieie ca?aaioiie ieaoie aiiaua iiaoo auoue inaiaiaeaeaiu io eo
oieaou, a oi a?aiy eae n naiuo aunieiiiea/eaaaiuo ?aaioieeia no?aoiaua
aciinu aeieaeiu aoaeoo aceiaoueny ii iaeaunoae ec onoaiiaeaiiuo noaaie.
Oeaeaniia?acii i?aaeoniio?aoue a iiaie ?aaeaeoeee caeiia ?aoaiea aua
ianeieueeeo aeinoaoi/ii cia/eiuo aeey iaania/aiey ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uea
o?oaea i?iaeai. A /anoiinoe, i?e iiaeaioiaea caeiia “I caiyoinoe…’ a
1990 – 1991 a”, ia o/eouaaeny oaeie oaeoi?, eae ianoi i?iaeeaaiey
aac?aaioiuo. Iaaeaeo oai e ineoieiaey, e ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
caiyoinoe aac?aaioiuo naeueneeo aeeoaeae e ai?iaeai nouanoaaiii
?acee/athony. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu e ?aciua
ia?u, e ianooaau iiaeaea?aeea yoeo eaoaai?ee aac?aaioiuo.

Ia naea iaee/ea o aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa aac?aaioiuo i?eonaaeaaiua
caiaeueiuo iaaeaeia – oaeoi?, niya/athuee ino?ioo iioa?e ?aaiou
oiaiueoathuae iio?aaiinoue a nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa. A ia/aea II eaa?oaea 1999 a. 25,6% anao ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo
aac?aaioiuo i?iaeeaaee a naeueneie ianoiinoe, a eo aeiey a iauae
/eneaiiinoe iieo/aaoe) iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea ninoaaeyea 24,2%. Iiyoiio
aeieaeai auoue i?iienai iniaue ii?yaeie ?aaeno?aie, iaoa?eaeueiie e eiie
iiaeaea?aeee aac?aaioiuo a naeueneie ianoiinoe.

Oaeie iiaeoiae a oeaeii niioaaonoaoao i?eiyoie iuia eiioeaioeee
nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee a?aaeaeai ainoaea?noaii a caaeneiinoe ia
oieueei io oaeoueo aeioiaeia, ii e eiouanoaaiiiai oeaica naiuee. A
?aaeaeoeee caeiia 1999 a. auei ainnoaiiaeaii iieiaeaiea i oa??eoi?eyo n
iai?yaeaiiie neooaoeeae ia ?uiea o?oaea (no.7, i.2) – yoi, aaconeiaii,
iieiaeeoaeueiia yaeaiea. A ?aaeaeoeee 1991 a. oaeay noaouey
nouanoaiaaea, ii ec ?aaeaeoeee 1996 a. auea ecuyoa. Aeooaeueiinoue aa
ainnoaiiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyeanue iauaeoeaiuie oneiaeyie – nouanoaaiiuie
?acee/eyie a o?iaiyo ?aaeno?e?oaiie aac?aaioeoeu a ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao:
oae, i?e n?aaeiai aa o?iaia a no?aia a ia/aea II eaa?oaea 1999 a. 2,6%,
a Eiaooneie ?anioaeeea ii ninoaaee 10,7%, Ei?yeneii AI – 9,8, Aaeineii
Ao?yoneii AI – 8.2% e o.ae.

Iaeiaei aeaiiia iieiaeaiea caeiia ia eiaao i?yiiai aeaenoaey, a iioiio
I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O aeieaeii iaania/eoue nei?aeooth ?ac?aaioeo Ii?yaeea
ioianaiey oa??eoi?ee e iai?yaeaiiui ii neooaoeee, neiaeeaoaeny ia ?uiea
o?oaea, oiiiyiooiai a iiaie ?aaeaeoeee caeiia. A iai iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeoniio?aoue iniaua iaoaieciu ?aaoee?iaaiey caiyoinoe ia oaeeo
oa??eoi?eyo, oeiaine?iaaiey ia?ii?eyoee ii ?aaoee?iaaieth ?uiea o?oaea,
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee oa??eoi?ee n e?eoe/aneie neooaoeeae ia
?uiea o?oaea e o.i.

3.2 I?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth caeiia

Oeaeaniia?acii i?eiyoue ?aaeeeaeueiua i?aaaioeaiua ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, ia iiauoaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?aaioiaeaoaeae e
i?ionithcia ca ninoiyiea ?uiea o?oaea, n ae?oaie – ia oaeanoi/aiea
oneiaee, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo iiaeaea?aeeo iacaiyoiai ianaeaiey ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa (a /anoiinoe, i?e i?enaiaiee noaoona aac?aaioiiai,
ii?aaeaeaiee ii?yaeea e ?acia?a iacia/aaiuo iiniaee). Iaeiia?aiaiii
neaaeiaaei au ?anoe?eoue iieiiii/ey ?aaeiiia, eanathueany
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ianoiuo ?uieia o?oaea, ia?aaeaa ei iaeioi?ua i?aaa ec
Oeaio?a (iai?eia?, oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo oiiaeia caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey, noeioee?iaaiea ?aaioiaeaoaeae, eiaanoe?othueo n?aaenoaa a
nicaeaiea ?aai/eo iano e o ae.).

E?iia oiai, iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ei??aeoe?iaee iiceoeee Ieienoa?noaa
o?oaea e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?O a inouanoaeaiee iieeoeee ia ?uiea
o?oaea eae a Oeaio?a, oae e a ?aaeiiao, oeiaine?iaaiee oaaea?aeueiuo e
?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe ianaeaiey.

N o/aoii neacaiiiai oioaeinue au noi?ioee?iaaoue ?yae i?aaeeiaeaiee ii
eciaiaieth nouanoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey.

Ioauoeiue ?ieu cooeuaeueiux ia?oia?ia ia ?uiea o?oaea:

1. naeaeaoue iaycaoaeueiuie caeeth/aiea eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia
iaaeaeo ?aaioiaeaoaeyie e i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo n /eneaiiinoueth aieaa 5(10) /aeiaae e eo ?aia?aoeeth a
neoaeaa caiyoinoe;

2. aeeth/eoue a eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai? iaycaoaeuenoaa ?aaioiaeaoaeae ii
naiaa?aiaiiie oieaoa no?aoiauo aciinia a oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey,
i?aaeoniio?aa ee/ioth aaeieieno?aoeaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
i?aaei?eyoee a neo/aa eo iaauiieiaiey;

3. i?e ianniaii aunaiaiaeaeaiee i?ionithcai e ?aaioiaeaoaeyi
inouanoaeyoue niaianoiua ia?ii?eyoey ca n/ao n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee,
iauaaeeiaiiuo a niaoeeaeueiuo no?aoiauo oiiaeao;

4. i?aaeoniio?aoue noeioee?iaaiea ?aaioiaeaoaeae, nicaeathueo
aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aai/ea ianoa, iai?eia?, iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii
inaiaiaeeoue eo io aciinia a oiiae caiyoinoe iinea i?aaeuyaeaiey eie
aeieoiaioia i i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeao (a ia eae nae/an, eiaaea aeaiueae
auaeathony iiae i?iaeo aecian-ieai);

5. aaanoe naieoeee e ?aaioiaeaoaeyi, eiathuei iaiainiiaaiii aunieoth
oaeo/anoue eaae?ia, a oii /enea oaaee/aiea ii o?aaiaaieth i?ionithcia e
o?oaeiauo einiaeoeee ?acia?a no?aoiauo aciinia a oiiae caiyoinoe a
onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaeaeao.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee oeiaine?iaaiey i?ia?aii caiyoinoe:

6. i?aaeoniio?aoue, /oi ?acia? aciinia ii iaycaoaeueiiio ee/iiio
no?aoiaaieth io aac?aaioeoeu aeieaeai auoue ia iaiaa 50-100% noaaee
aciinia n ?aaioiaeaoaeae (aiciiaeii ca n/ao niioaaonoaothuaai nieaeaiey
noaaee iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n ca?aaioiie ieaou). No?aoiaua aciinu n
ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeia ia?a/eneythony a ?aaeiiaeueiua oiiaeu;

7. aianoi aaeeiiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai oiiaea caiyoinoe ianaeaiey
ia?aciaaoue aeaooo?iaiaaoth nenoaio, ninoiyuoth ec Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea
caiyoinoe e ?aaeiiaeueiuo oiiaeia caiyoinoe. A nayce n yoei eciaieoue
nouanoaothuee ii?yaeie ia?a/eneaiey ?aaioiaeaoaeyie no?aoiauo aciinia a
oiiae caiyoinoe e onoaiiaeoue aeaooeaiaeueioth oieaoo aciinia ia o?iaia
i?aaei?eyoee – ioaeaeueii a Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae caiyoinoe e a
?aaeiiaeueiua oiiaeu. I?e yoii a caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey ianoiiai ?uiea
o?oaea ?aaeiiaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe iiaee au a niioaaonoaee n
oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii oiaiueoaoue eee oaaee/eaaoue ?acia? io/eneaiee
aciinia a ?aaeiiaeueiua oiiaeu caiyoinoe.

Oaeay aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey oi?ie?iaaiey oiiaeia caiyoinoe (aeaooeaiaeueiay
nenoaia nai?a n?aaenoa) iicaieeo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaania/eoue
noaaeeueiinoue Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea, n ae?oaie – aeano aiciiaeiinoue
?aaeiiaeueiui i?aaiai ?aaoee?iaaoue iieeoeeo ia ?uiea o?oaea
iin?aaenoaii onoaiiaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo ii?iaoeaia, eiay a aeaeo aa
nioeeaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue, noeioee?iaaiea ?aaioiaeaoaeae e
i?aaiecaoeee e nio?aiaieth ?aai/eo iano, nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee
aeey aiaoieo eiaanoeoeee e yeiiiie/aneie iea?aoeee ianaeaiey. Ec
n?aaenoa Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea caiyoinoe iaiaoiaeeii oeiaine?iaaoue
oaaea?aeueiua i?ia?aiiu caiyoinoe, aeioe?iaaoue aeai?anneaiua ?aaeiiu,
i?aaeinoaaeyoue e?aoein?i/iua noaneaeee e noaaaioeee ?aaeiiaeueiui
oiiaeai. I?e eo iaaeinoaoea (eee iaiieiii nai?a) i?aaeoniio?aoue
aeioaoeee ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa (eae aa?eaio – athaeaeaoiia
e?aaeeoiaaiea ?aaeiiia iai?yioth eee /a?ac Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae
caiyoinoe). Ec n?aaenoa ?aaeiiaeueiuo oiiaeia iiaeii auei au
oeiaine?iaaoue ?aaeiiaeueiua i?ia?aiiu caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, aeeth/ay
niaea?aeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo neoaea caiyoinoe, i?ia?aiiu
iao/aiey e ia?aiao/aiey aac?aaioiuo, auieaoo iiniaee aac?aaioiui e
ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey aeoeaiie e ianneaiie iieeoeee ia ?uiea o?oaea;

8. onoaiiaeoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue oaaea?aeueiiai e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia ca
i?eiyoea i?aaiaie aeanoe ?aoaiee, aucuaathueo ?ino aac?aaioeoeu,
i?aaeoniio?aa aiciauaiea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia oiiaeia caiyoinoe
niioaaonoaothueo o?iaiae;

9. i?aaeinoaaeoue oa??eoi?eaeueiui neoaeaai caiyoinoe ianaeaiey i?aai
(ii niaeaniaaieth n Ieio?oaeii ?O e ?aaeiiaeueiuie aaeieieno?aoeeyie) ia
acaeiiia e?aoein?i/iia e?aaeeoiaaiea ?anoiaeia ii iaoa?eaeueiie
iiaeaea?aeea aac?aaioiuo e i?ioanneiiaeueiiio iao/aieth iacaiyoiai
ianaeaiey;

10. onoaiiaeoue ii?yaeie, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui i?e ia?aacaea
aac?aaioiiai, iieo/athuaai iiniaea, n iaeiie oa??eoi?ee ia ae?oaoth
?anoiaeu oiiaea caiyoinoe i?eieiathuae oa??eoi?ee, a oii /enea e ii
auieaoai iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea, e ii cao?aoai ia i?ioanneiiaeueiia
iao/aiea, eiiiaine?othony ec n?aaenoa oa??eoi?ee auacaea (aiciiaeii, a
?aieao niioaaonoaothueo iaaeoa??eoi?eaeueiuo niaeaoaiee);

11. a neo/ayo ianniaiai ia?anaeaiey iacaiyoiai ianaeaiey ec
aeai?anneaiuo ?aaeiiia, iaoneiaeaiiiai ?aoaieyie eee aeaenoaeyie
oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe, ia oa??eoi?ee n aeaaii?eyoiuie n oi/ee
c?aiey caiyoinoe oneiaeyie cao?aou ?aaeiiaeueiuo oiiaeia caiyoinoe
eiiiaine?othony ec Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea caiyoinoe eee oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa.

Eciaiaiea e?eoa?eaa i?enaiaiey noaoona aac?aaioiiai e onoaiiaeaiey
?acia?a iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea

Aeeth/eoue a ia?a/aiue e?eoa?eaa, ii eioi?ui a?aaeaeaiei ia iiaeao auoue
i?eciai 6ac?aaioiui n i?aaii iieo/aiey iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea:

– iaee/ea o iaai (aai naiuee) ai aeaaeaiee nianoaaiiinoe (caiee,
iaaeaeaeeiinoe, aeeaaeia, aeoeee e o.i.) naa?o ii?aaeaeaiiiai caeiiii
o?iaiy;

– i?aauoaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai caeiiii o?iaiy n?aaeiaaeooaaiai aeioiaea a
naiuea;

– oaieueiaiea n iineaaeiaai ianoa ?aaiou ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth aac
oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei. (Aeiey yoie eaoaai?ee aac?aaioiuo a /enea
iieo/athueo iiniaea ninoaaeyao ii ?aaeiiai 30-60%, iiyoiio aaaaeaiea
iiaeiaiiai ia?aie/aiey ia oieueei iicaieeo nie?aoeoue ?anoiaeu oiiaea
caiyoinoe, ii e canoaaeo iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia aeoeaii caueuaoue naie
o?oaeiaua i?aaa, a oaeaea iiauneoue o?aaiaaiey e i?ionithcai.);

ionoonoaea noaaea ?aaiou e aeieoiaioia,

iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo oieaoo no?aoiauo aciinia a oiiae caiyoinoe; ia yoo
eaoaai?eth a?aaeaeai ?ani?ino?aiythony i?ia?aiiu, naycaiiua oieueei n
o?oaeiono?ienoaii, i?ioanneiiaeueiui iao/aieai (aac auieaou noeiaiaeee)
e o.ae.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ?an/aou iieacuaatho, /oi ?aaeecaoeey
oeacaiiuo ia? iicaieeo nie?aoeoue ?anoiaeu oiiaea caiyoinoe ianaeaiey
oieueei ia auieaoo iiniaee ii e?aeiae ia?a ia iaeio o?aoue, iiauneoue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey, noauaeoia ?inneeneie
oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea i?ionithcia e ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee ca i?iaaaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i.

Oii?yaei/aiea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey

Ieienoa?noai o?oaea e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?O eae oeaio?aeueiue i?aai,
ii?aaeaeythuee cooeeaeueioth iieeoeeo ainoaea?noaa, ii iaoaio iiaieth,
a?yae ee aeieaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii oi?aaeyoue ?aaeiiaeueiuie
eniieieoaeueiuie no?oeoo?aie. Aai caaea/a – iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiia
oi?aaeaiea

A nenoaia ieienoa?noaa, eae iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, oeaeaniia?acii
ia?aciaaoue naiinoiyoaeueioth Oaaea?aeueioth neoaeao caiyoinoe ianaeaiey
n i?aaaie th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, aicaeaaeyaioth ?oeiaiaeeoaeai a ?aiaa
ia?aiai caianoeoaey ieieno?a.

E ooieoeeyi Oaaea?aeueiie neoaeau caiyoinoe ianaeaiey neaaeiaaei au
ioianoe:

iiaeaioiaeo i?aaeeiaeaiee a iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i caiyoinoe e
o?oaea;

?ac?aaioeo i?iaeoia oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu caiyoinoe,
eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai e oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoia OC, aeeth/ay auaeaeaiea
aeioaoeee, noaaaioeee e noaneaeee aeai?anneaiui ?aaeiiai, i?aaenoaaeaiea
eo a Ieio?oae ?O;

eniieiaiea oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe;

aiaeec ninoiyiey ?uiea o?oaea, auiieiaiey oaaea?aeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo
i?ia?aii caiyoinoe, a oaeaea iinooieaiey no?aoiauo aciinia a
Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae caiyoinoe;

?ac?aaioeo ioiinyueony e oaaea?aeueiiio aaaeaieth oeiiauo noaiaea?oia,
iieiaeaiee e eino?oeoeee ii aii?inai aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeiiaeueiuo
i?aaiia caiyoinoe;

iiaeaioiaeo e ?aaeecaoeeth i?ia?aii ianniaiai ia?anaeaiey iacaiyoiai
ianaeaiey ec aeai?anneaiuo ?aaeiiia a ?aieao niioaaonoaothueo
oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia?aii;

niaeaenoaea aeayoaeueiinoe iaainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaea caiyoinoe e o/aaiuo
oeaio?ia aeey iacaiyoiai ianaeaiey;

?anniio?aiea i?ia?aii ianniaiai aunaiaiaeaeaiey n e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee;

eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i caiyoinoe a ?aaeiiao,
oeaeaaui eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa, auaeaeaiiuo ia oaaea?aeueiua
i?ia?aiiu, e ae?.

?aaeiiaeueiua neoaeau caiyoinoe ianaeaiey iaoiaeyony a aaaeaiee
?aaeiiaeueiuo aaeieieno?aoeee, ioaa/atho ca ?aaeecaoeeth iieeoeee
caiyoinoe ia oa??eoi?ee. Niaou ia niaea?aeaiea eo aiia?aoia
ooaa?aeaeathony a ?aieao ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe ianaeaiey.
?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaeiiaeueiie NC yaeyaony oaaea?aeueiui ainoaea?noaaiiui
neoaeauei e iacia/aaony ieieno?ii o?oaea ?O, aai niaea?aeaiea
iaania/eaaaony ca n/ao oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. Inoaeueiua ?aaioieee
yaeythony ainneoaeaueie niioaaonoaothuaai ?aaeiiaeueiiai o?iaiy. ?aoaiey
Ieio?oaea e ONC a i?aaeaeao eo iieiiii/ee yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie aeey
?aaeiiaeueiuo neoaea.

E eo ooieoeeyi oeaeaniia?acii ioianoe:

?ac?aaioeo i?iaeoia ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe ianaeaiey e
athaeaeaoia OC, aeeth/ay ?an/aou ii aeioaoeeyi ec Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea
caiyoinoe, i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ?anniio?aiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe
i?iaeoia i?ia?aii, athaeaeaoia e io/aoia ia eo eniieiaiee;

?aaeecaoeeth oaaea?aeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe ianaeaiey
ia iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiie oa??eoi?ee;

aiaeec ninoiyiey ?uiea o?oaea a ?aaeiia;

eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i caiyoinoe ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
e a i?aaiecaoeeyo ?aaeiia;

eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa ?aaeiiaeueiuo OC;

oeiaine?iaaiea ai?iaeneeo e ?aeiiiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe ia iniiaaiee
ooaa?aeaeaiiuo iaeanoiuo athaeaeaoia OC;

io/aoiinoue ia?aae Ieio?oaeii ?O e oaaea?aeueiie neoaeaie caiyoinoe
ianaeaiey ii auiieiaieth oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia?aii caiyoinoe,
eniieueciaaieth n?aaenoa Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea caiyoinoe.

A yoeo oneiaeyo ca Ieienoa?noaii o?oaea ?O ii-i?aaeiaio nio?aiythony
aeaaiua iieeoe/aneea e oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee a iaeanoe o?oaea,
caiyoinoe e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey: ?ac?aaioea iai?aaeaiee nioeeaeueiie
iieeoeee ia e?aoein?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao, niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeueiuo
i?ia?aii, nioeeaeueiuo noaiaea?oia e ii?iaoeaia; ii?aaeaeaiea “i?aaee
ea?u” aeey naaiaioia ?uiea o?oaea e nioeeaeueiuo ia?oia?ia; ii?aaeaeaiea
enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee e eii?aeeiaoeey
aeayoaeueiinoe oaaea?aeueiuo aiaathaeaeaoiuo nioeeaeueiuo oiiaeia ia
iniiaa oaycee eo athaeaeaoia e oeiainiaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey; ioeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe oaaea?aeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii e eiio?ieue ca
oeaeaaui eniieueciaaieai auaeaeaiiuo n?aaenoa.

3.3 Ono?ienoai neoaeau caiyoinoe ?O e ae?oaeo no?ai

Iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe neoaeau caiyoinoe a ?innee ii ?yaeo i?e/ei
iaaeieniieueciaaiu. Aa iiceoeaiia aeeyiea ia ?uiie o?oaea aeaaea a
oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea iiaeao auoue iiauoaii. Iiieii oaeeo
“aiaoieo” ianoiyoaeuenoa, eae ia?aie/aiiia /enei eiathueony aaeainee,
oooaeoathuaany oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea Oiiaea caiyoinoe, aaaeouaa e
nie?auaieth aeoeaiuo i?ia?aii, eiathony e ae?oaea, “aioo?aiiea”,
oaeoi?u, aeoeaecaoeey eioi?uo iicaieeo iiaeeeciaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua
?aca?au e iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue aa aeayoaeueiinoe.

O/eouaay, /oi a ?inneeneeo enneaaeiaaieyo aeaiiua aii?inu i?aaenoaaeaiu
aanueia neoii, iiith eniieueciaaiu iaoa?eaeu IYN?, a oaeaea ?yae ae?oaeo
ca?oaaaeiuo enoi/ieeia, eanathueony nia?aiaiiuo eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey
neoaea caiyoinoe a ?acee/iuo no?aiao.

Nia?aiaiiay neoaeaa caiyoinoe no?ieony ia neaaeothueo i?eioeeiao,
niinianoaothueo iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?ia?aii e oneoa ia iae?i- e
iee?io?iaiyo:

1. Eioaa?aoeey eeth/aauo ooieoeee neoaeau caiyoinoe: iin?aaeie/anoaa i?e
iiaeai?a ?aaiou e ?aaioieea; oi?aaeaiea auieaoaie iiniaee ii
aac?aaioeoea; iai?aaeaiea a?aaeaeai ia aeoeaiua i?ia?aiiu.

2. No?aoaaey aeoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa n oeaeueth nieaeaiey
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aac?aaioeoeu (?aiiyy eaeaioeoeeaoeey euoueo
?aaioo e iaoiaeyueony iiae ?eneii noaoue aeeeoaeueii aac?aaioiuie;

eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ieaiu iienea ?aaiou; oanou ia aeoeaiinoue; ia?aie/aiea
aeinooia e iiniaeyi e o.ae.).

3. I?eiaiaiea aioo?aiieo eiaeeeaoi?ia yooaeoeaiinoe i?ia?aii e oneoa
neoaeau caiyoinoe.

4. Ia?aoiae io o?aaeeoeeiiiie ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe ii noaiaie
auiieiaiey ieaiia ?anoiaeia e ioeaiea ?aaiou ii ?acoeueoaoai aeey
eeeaioa eae iieacaoaey eiia/iie yooaeoeaiinoe ?anoiaeia.

Aeaiiua i?eioeeiu a iineaaeiea aiaeu noaee oieaa?naeueiuie aeey iiiaeo
no?ai ie?a. Iie aioee, iai?eia?, a ?yae aeieoiaioia IYN?, i?eiyouo a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy. Ia eo iniiaaiee eaaeaeay ec no?ai-o/anoieoe
i?aaiecaoeee ?ac?aaaouaaao nianoaaiiua eiioeaioeee e ieaiu ii iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo neoaea caiyoinoe.

Eioaa?aoeey yae?a ooieoeee neoaeau caiyoinoe

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa iiuiuo einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia
yooaeoeaiinoue ianneaiie e aeoeaiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe, – noaiaiue
eioaa?aoeee o?ao aa eeth/aauo ooieoeee: iiaeai? ?aai/aai ianoa e
?aaioieea; aaeieieno?e?iaaiea a iaeanoe auieao iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea;
iai?aaeaiea aac?aaioiuo ia o/anoea a aeoeaiuo i?ia?aiiao. Oae eae
ieii/aoaeueiay oeaeue anao o?ao ooieoeee neoaeau caiyoinoe ninoieo a
oii, /oiau ?aeioaa?e?iaaoue aac?aaioiiai a iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
ianoieueei auno?i, ianeieueei aiciiaeii, aaaeii i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea,
/oi iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaoao oaniay naycue e acaeiicaaeneiinoue. N o/aoii
yoiai aieueoae yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou neoaeau caiyoinoe iiaeii aeiaeoueny,
anee iaania/eoue oanioth eii?aeeiaoeeth e nio?oaeie/anoai:

1. iaaeaeo iiaeai?ii ?aaiou e auieaoie iiniaee, /oi iicaieyao yooaeoeaii
i?eiaieoue oano ia aioiaiinoue e ?aaioa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, auiieieoue
iaeii ec eeth/aauo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo oneiaee aeey aicieeiiaaiey i?aaa ia
iiniaea;

2. iaaeaeo iin?aaeie/anoaii a iienea ?aaiou e aeoeaiuie i?ia?aiiaie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee, /oiau aa?aioe?iaaoue aeey aac?aaioiiai
i?eia?aoaiea i?eciaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey caiieiaiey aeinooiiuo
aaeainee;

3.iaaeaeo aaeieieno?aoeeae, caiyoie auieaoaie iiniaee, e
iiae?acaeaeaieyie, caieiathueieny iai?aaeaieai aac?aaioiuo ia aeoeaiua
i?ia?aiiu n oai, /oiau ecaaaeaoue oaeoia o/anoey a i?ia?aiiao n
aaeeinoaaiiie oeaeueth aiciaiiaeaiey i?aaa ia iiniaey.

Iieeoeea aiaoaoaeuenoaa a oa/aiea ia?eiaea aac?aaioeoeu

Oa?aeoa? iieeoeee aiaoaoaeuenoaa aeieaeai auoue ?acee/ai a ia/aea
ia?eiaea aac?aaioeoeu e iinea iiiaeo ianyoeaa, i?iaaaeaiiuo a iieneao
iiaeoiaeyuaai ianoa. Iai?eia?, iao niunea o?aaiaaoue io
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ?aaioieea, iaoiaeyuaainy a ninoiyiee aac?aaioeoeu
iaeio eee aeaa iaaeaee, /oiau ii o/anoaiaae a iauanoaaiiuo ?aaioao. E
aiaeiae/ii – aaeaa ee noieo iinea 12 ianyoeaa aac?aaioeoeu iao/aoue
/aeiaaea ninoaaeaieth ?acthia: a?yae ee yoi ?anoe?eo aiciiaeiinoe
caiyoinoe.

?inneeneee caeii i caiyoinoe aiiaua iaoiaeeo aeaiiue aii?in. ?yae aai
noaoae i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaeoth nenoaio i?ei?eoaoia aeinooia e i?ia?aiiai
neoaeau caiyoinoe. Oae, no.13 i?aaeoniao?eaaao “aeiiieieoaeueiua
aa?aioee” oe?ieiio niaeo?o a?oii ianaeaiey. A ioiioaiee yoeo a?oii caeii
aa?aioe?oao ?yae ia?, a /anoiinoe: nicaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aai/eo
iano, niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ?ac?aaioeo niaoeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii
iao/aiey e o.ae. Auai? aeaiiuo a?oii a ea/anoaa oeaeaauo naeaeai nei?aa
ii nioeeaeueiui niia?aaeaieyi e a iaiueoae noaiaie naycai n eo ?aaeueiui
iieiaeaieai ia ?uiea o?oaea.

*oiau iaania/eoue aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiue auai?, ii?aaeaeeoue
ia?eiaee/iinoue e noaiaiue aiaoaoaeuenoa a oa/aiea ia?eiaea
aac?aaioeoeu, iaiaoiaeeii onoaiaaeeaaoue iaeea ii?iu ioiineoaeueii oiai,
/oi aeieaeii auoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?aaii, a n ae?oaie –
iaycaoaeuenoaii aac?aaioiuo (a iniaaiiinoe iieo/aoaeae iiniaee ii
aac?aaioeoea) ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo aac?aaioeoeu.

Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii auei au i?aaeeiaeeoue eioaineaioth iiiiuue a iienea
?aaiou iaaieueoie aiiiaaiiie a?oiia eee, a eaeaaea, a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii
ii?yaeea, oaea ia ?aiiae noaaeee aac?aaioeoeu. Ii eiaaea iioiee
aac?aaioiuo aaeeee, neeoeii aei?iai iaania/eoue eo anao oaeie iiiiuueth,
iniaaiii ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii o?iaia.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaaeii aua?aoue oao aac?aaioiuo, eoi aieueoa anaai
ioaeaeaaony a iiiiue. Ii yoie i?e/eia iiiaea no?aiu eniieuecotho
naaiaeiy oae iacuaaaiia i?ioeee?iaaiea eneaoaeae ?aaiou, /oiau
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue oao, eiio a?iceo aeieain?i/iay aac?aaioeoea.

I?ioeee?iaaiea e ?aiiaa aiaoaoaeuenoai neoaeau caiyoinoe

Ia?aay ?aaeno?aoeey euoueo ?aaioo a neoaeaa caiyoinoe – e?eoe/aneee
iiiaio anaai ia?eiaea aac?aaioeoeu. A no?aiao, aaea neoaeaa caiyoinoe
?anniao?eaaaony eae oieaa?naeueiue iinoaauee ainoaea?noaaiiuo oneoa
nieneaoaeyi ?aaiou (?inney, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey e Oaaoeey), anai
aac?aaioiui i?aaeeaaaaony oe?ieee aeeaiacii oi?i iao/aiey e ia? iiiiue a
iienea ?aaiou n?aco iinea ?aaeno?aoeee a neoaeaa caiyoinoe. Aac?aaioiua
iiaoo iieueciaaoueny yoeie oneoaaie iacaaeneii io oiai, iaoiaeyony iie
eee iao a a?oiia ?enea noaoue aeieain?i/iuie aac?aaioiuie. Oieueei
noaneaeee aeey nicaeaiey ?aai/eo iano ia?aie/aiu: iie i?aaeinoaaeythony
aeieain?i/iui aac?aaioiui eee a?oiiai iiauoaiiiai ?enea. Ae?oaea no?aiu
(Aano?aeey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey e Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou Aia?eee) iaiiiai aieaa
ecae?aoaeueiu ia ia/aeueiii yoaia aac?aaioeoeu. A Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
iai?eia?, iao/aiea aeey ac?ineuo aac?aaioiuo aeinooiii oieueei iinea
oanoe ianyoeaa iienea ?aaiou.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia ia?aie/eaaao aeinooi
a?aaeaeai e ethaui i?ia?aiiai e oneoaai a caaeneiinoe io noaaeee
aac?aaioeoeu. Iaeiaei ?aiiaa aiaoaoaeuenoai eae oieaa?naeueioth oneoao a
oe?ieii ianooaaa ana neiaeiaa ?aaeeciauaaoue a neooaoeee aunieie e
iinoiyiiie aac?aaioeoeu, ia?aie/aiiinoe ?ano?nia. Aeey ?aiiaai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa aieaa iiaeoiaeyo ioiineoaeueii aeaoaaua ia?u, iiaeiaiua
iiiiue a iienea ?aaiou; ai?acaei ?aaea i?eiaiythony oaeea aei?iainoiyuea
ia?u, eae noaneaeee e iao/aiea.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anaaaea nouanoaoao aeeeaiia e iaaei auae?aoue iaaeaeo
iaiueoei eiee/anoaii ?aiieo aiaoaoaeuenoa, caeai/eaathueony iau/ii
iaeiieaieai i?iaeai aeieain?i/iie aac?aaioeoeu, e aieaa ?aiiei ia/aeii
aiaoaoaeuenoa, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaaee/aieai athaeaeaoia neoaeau
caiyoinoe. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaoue, eiio ec aac?aaioiuo ioaeii
i?aaeeiaeeoue oa eee eiua oneoae eee iie aeieaeiu auoue iaycaoaeueiuie
aeey /eaiia ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii.

Auai? iiaeao eiaoue ianoi ia iniiaa ioaeaeueiuo i?eciaeia,
oa?aeoa?ecothueo niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe aac?aaioiiai /aeiaaea. Yoi
iiaoo auoue, iai?eia? ycueiaua o?oaeiinoe, eioi?ua ai?ei?ii ii?aaeaeytho
aunieee ?ene ae?aeoa e aeieain?i/iie aac?aaioeoea. Ae?oaie aieaa
neiaeiue iiaeoiae ninoieo a auyaeaiee e ioeaiea ianeieueeeo oaeoi?ia
?enea ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey iaoiaeia i?ioeee?iaaiey. Iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiai oi?iaeueiue niinia i?ioeee?iaaiey, iniiaaiiue ia noaoenoe/aneeo
iaoiaeao, eeai iaiaa oi?iaeueiue – ia aaca ioeaiie ni noi?iiu iiuoiiai
ia?niiaea neoaeau caiyoinoe, eee eiiaeiaoeey iaieo. A Oaaoeee, iai?eia?,
a iniiaiii iieaaathony ia i?ioeee?iaaiea n o/aoii iiaiey ia?niiaea, a
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao – ia oi?iaeueiua iaoiaeu, a Aano?aeee – ia eo
eiiaeiaoeeth.

Ia?aoeiny e iiuoo no?ai, eioi?ua caaeaaaee oii a ?acaeoee e i?eiaiaiee
iaoiaeia i?ioeee?iaaiey.

I?ioeee?iaaiea ?aaioieeia a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao

A iiya?a 1993 a. Eiia?ann” NOA i?eiye caeii, o?aaothuee io
eaaeaeiai ooaoa iniiaaoue nianoaaiioth Neoaeao i?ioeee?iaaiey e
aica?auaiey ?aaioieeia e oie eee eiie oi?ia caiyoinoe (WPRS),
auiieiythuoth o?e iniiaiua ooieoeee: ?aiithth eaeaioeoeeaoeeth
iieo/aoaeae iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea, eioi?ua, aa?iyoii, nei?i en/a?iatho
i?aai ia iaai; ii?aaeaeaiea oneiaee i?aaeinoaaeaiey yoei i?aoaiaeaioai
oneoa ii aica?auaieth e ?aaioa; nai? eioi?iaoeee i ?acoeueoaoao a oeaeyo
i?iaa?ee nio?aiaiey i?aainoaaiiinoe iiniaey e iaeaa/aiey ioeaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaee neoaeau caiyoinoe.

Ana aac?aaioiua, eioi?ua iinoiyiii oa?ytho ?aaioiaeaoaey e eiatho i?aai
ia iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea, i?ioeee?othony i?e ia?aie aea ?aaeno?aoeee.
I?ioeee?iaaiea i?iaiaeeony ia iniiaa noaoenoe/aneie iiaeaee, eioi?ay
ioeaieaaao aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi euouee ?aaioo en/a?iaao i?aai ia
iiniaea. Iiaeaeue niaea?aeeo iyoue ia?aiaiiuo: o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey,
noaae ?aaiou, eciaiaiey a caiyoinoe a i?ioeii (caiyoea/io?aneue) e
o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a aeaiiie ianoiinoe.

Euouea ?aaioo, i?ioeee?iaaiiua oaeei ia?acii, iaycaiu o/anoaiaaoue a
i?ia?aiiao iiiiue iieneo ?aaiou, ii ia a aieaa aei?iainoiyueo i?ia?aiiao
iao/aiey. I?e iaee/ee aiciiaeiinoae aeey iao/aiey yoei ?aaioieeai iiaeao
auoue naeaeaii oaeia i?aaeeiaeaiea, ii niaeanea ia i?ioiaeaeaiea
i?ia?aiiu iao/aiey inoaaony aeia?iaieueiui.

Eeanneoeeaoeey euoueo ?aaioo a Aano?aeee

A 1994 a. a ?aieao eieoeeaoeau “?aaioathuay Iaoeey” auea i?aaenoaaeaia
no?aoaaey ?aiiaai aiaoaoaeuenoaa neoaea caiyoinoe n oeaeueth
o?oaeiono?ienoaa ac?ineuo iieo/aoaeae iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea n naiie
aunieie noaiaiueth ?enea aeieain?i/iie aac?aaioeoeu. Aeey iieiaeuo
ethaeae i?eiaiyaony ae?oaay i?ioeaaeo?a.

Eniieuecoaony oi?iaeueiia i?ioeee?iaaiea, iniiaaiiia ia noaoenoe/aneie
iiaeaee. Auaeaeythony neaaeothuea neiioiiu aeieain?i/iie aac?aaioeoeu:
aic?ano, ia?aciaaiea, noaoon ei?aiiiai aeeoaey, ?iaeaeaiea ia a
aiaeiaiai?yuae no?aia, iaauee ?acaiai?iiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea,
eiaaeeaeiinoue e ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa. Ii yoei ia ia?aie/eaathony.
Nio?oaeieee neoaeau caiyoinoe iiaoo auae?aoue ec /enea euoueo ?aaioo a
ia?aua 12 ianyoeaa iinea ?aaeno?aoeee ioaeaeueiuo aac?aaioiuo eee eo
a?oiiu aeey aeaeueiaeoae ioeaiee n o/aoii aeiiieieoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia
(neaaie iiaoaeaeaiea e ?aaioa, ieceia naiioaaaeaiea, neaaua ciaiey ii
a?eoiaoeea, ieceay a?aiioiinoue, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey aac
paaiou). A 1995 a. eaeaioeoeoee?iaaii ieiei 5% eeoe, i?ioaaeoeo
i?ioeee?iaaiea. Aua 10% eeoe, iieo/eaoeo noaoon aac?aaioiuo, auee
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaiu ia iniiaaiee iiaiey neoaeau caiyoinoe. Ana ioia?aiiua
eeoea eioa?auethe?othony e eeanneoeoee?othony ii o?iaith neiaeiinoe
o?oaeiono?ienoaa.

Nenoaia Ecia?aiey oneoa e ?acoeueoaoia Ianeoaeeaaiey

a Eaiaaea (SOMS)

Eaiaaea ia eiaao oi?iaeueiie iiaeaee i?ioeee?iaaiey aeey ioeaiee euoueo
?aaioo ii noaiaie iianiinoe noaoue aeieain?i/iui aac?aaioiui. Ii iia
eniuouaaao nenoaio (SOMS), eioi?ay iniiauaaaony ia eiiaeiaoeee
“ye?aie?iaaiey oa?aeoa?enoee” e iiaiey eiinoeueoaioia.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?eiaiyaony yoa nenoaia, ?aaioieeai
i?aaeinoaaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue o/anoaiaaoue a i?ia?aiiao, e eioi?ui iie
aeiioneathony ii ?acoeueoaoai ioeaiee n eniieueciaaieai noaoenoe/aneie
iiaeaee e eioi?ua ioeaieaathony eae iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciua (n oi/ee
c?aiey iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia o?oaeiono?ienoaa) e yooaeoeaiua (eee
?aioaaaeueiua) n?aaenoaa iiiiue. Yoa iiaeaeue ?ac?aaioaia n o/aoii
iiuoa, iaeiieaiiiai ca i?aaeuaeouea aeanyoue eao, e ioeaiee
?acoeueoaoia, eioi?ua yoe aiaoaoaeuenoaa eiaee ia caiyoinoue e enoi?eth
aeioiaea aac?aaioiuo, a oae aea iauanoaaiiuo cao?ao ia yoe
aiaoaoaeuenoaa. Iniiaiie oaee aeaiiuo aue iino?iai iooai iauaaeeiaiey 20
nouanoaothueo oaeeia, eioi?ua aeeth/aee naaaeaiey ec ia?aienae
ianaeaiey, a oaeaea i iiniaeyo ii aac?aaioeoea, ia o/anoee a i?ia?aiiao
iao/aiey e o.ae. Niaoeeaeeno ii o?oaeiono?ienoao iniauai aeaoiy iiauie
eino?oiaioaie: iiaeaeueth iiaeai?a oiai n?aaenoaa, eioi?ia, aa?iyoii,
aoaeao iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui i?eiaieoaeueii e eiie?aoiiio eeeaioo,
aeeth/ay eioi?iaoeeth i iaeaieaa ?aioaaaeueiuo n?aaenoaao iiiiue e
aeaiiua i ?aaioa, aeioiaea eeeaioa e enoi?ee iiiiue aio.

Iineaaeothuaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeaenoaey

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?aaioa i?eia?aoaao ana aieueooth aaaeiinoue e
“n?i/iinoue” ii ia?a oaaee/aiey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea
aac?aaioeoeu. Iineaaeiyy iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae i?ioeann naiaai
?iaea naiiauai?a, eioi?ue a eiia/iii n/aoa aeaeaao i?ioeee?iaaiea
eceeoiei. Oa, o eiai neiaeiua i?iaeaiu, ae?aeootho a aeieain?i/ioth
aac?aaioeoeo, a oi a?aiy eae ae?oaea aoaeoo auoiaeeoue ec aac?aaioeoeu e
i?eia?aoaoue ?aaioo. Eiaaea nouanoaoao ?ene naiiauai?a aac?aaioeoeu,
aaaeii onoaiiaeoue aeeaaiic, o.a. ii?aaeaeeoue ?aaeueiua o?oaeiinoe, n
eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony aeieain?i/iue aac?aaioiue, e naeaeaoue ioeaieo
aiciiaeiuo n?ieia e niiniaia ainnoaiiaeaiey iioaioeeaea aai
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ia ?uiea o?oaea. Yoi iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi n
iiiiuueth aeoaieiai eioa?aueth, a anee iaiaoiaeeii, oi e ianeieueeeo, a
aeaaiia – aeaenoaee, niioaaonoaothueo iio?aaiinoyi e aiciiaeiinoyi
aac?aaioiuo.

Ioeaiea o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?aaioa n
aeieain?i/iuie aac?aaioiuie i?aeoeeothony naaiaeiy iiiaeie no?aiaie.

3.4 A?aiaiiay caiyoinoue

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

*eneaiiinoue a?aaeaeai, ia eiathueo caiyoey, ii aeoeaii euoueo ?aaioo,
ii aeaiiui ?inneeneiai noaoenoe/aneiai aaaionoaa, ninoaaeea e ia/aeo
aaaonoa 1999 a. 9,1 iei. /aeiaae, eee 12,3% yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai
ianaeaiey.

Oaaee/aiea iaiieiie caiyoinoe, caaea?aeee auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou,
iaeay oeaia ?aai/ae neeu e, eae neaaenoaea, ieceee o?iaaiue aeecie
niinianoaotho ?anoe?aieth aoi?e/iie (a?aiaiiie) caiyoinoe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ca?aaioiay ieaoa inoaaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii
aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. Iaeiaei aa aeiey a AAI i?iaeieaeaao oiaiueoaoueny,
cia/eo, “iaaeaao” e aa ?aaeueiia niaea?aeaiea. A oneiaeyo
i?iaeieaeathuaainy nie?auaiey ?aai/eo iano iiiaea aac?aaioiua aioiau ia
ethaoth ?aaioo, niaeaoaynue n ieceie iieaoie, a?aaeiuie oneiaeyie
o?oaea, ionoonoaeai nioeeaeueiie caueou.

Ii ioeaieai, a 1999 a. aoi?oth (o?aoueth) ?aaioo eiaee ieiei 8,5 iei.
/aeiaae; /eneaiiinoue caiyouo a iaoi?iaeueiii naeoi?a ninoaaeea ieiei 25
iei., a oii /enea 7,5 iei. /aeiaae, aeey eioi?uo oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue
yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaea.

Oi?iu a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe

A?aiaiiay caiyoinoue, yaeyynue iaeiei ec ao?eaooia ?uiea o?oaea,
?aaeecoaony a ?acee/iuo oi?iao: iaai ii eiio?aeoo, niaianoeoaeuenoai,
aeei?aeiua e naciiiua ?aaiou, iaaeiiiue o?oae e o.ae.

Aeaeea oi?iu a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe ioaaouaatho oaeea ?aaeeiu ?aaiou, eae
i?a?uaenoue eee iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue (iaaeaeth, ianyoe), naeaeiooua
ii n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiui ?aaeeiii ia/aei e ieii/aiea ?aaiou,
neieuecyuee (a oa/aiea nooie, iaaeaee, ianyoea) a?aoee o?oaea e ioaeuoa,
iaaeiiiay caiyoinoue, ?acaeaeaiea ?aai/aai ianoa iaaeaeo aeaoiy
?aaioieeaie e aieaa e o.i.

*anoi a?aiaiiay caiyoinoue neoaeeo naiaia?aciui iieeaiiii aeey iiaeai?a
eaae?ia ia iinoiyiioth caiyoinoue.

Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaay aaca a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe

Niaeanii ECiOo a?aiaiiuie i?eciathony ?aaioieee, i?eiyoua ia n?ie aei
aeaoo ianyoeaa, a aeey caiauaiey a?aiaiii ionoonoaothueo ?aaioieeia, ca
eioi?uie nio?aiyaony eo ianoi (aeieaeiinoue), – aei /aou?ao ianyoeaa.
A?aiaiiay caiyoinoue ?aaoee?oaony no. 253 ECiO “Iniaua oneiaey o?oaea
naciiiuo, a?aiaiiuo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia”, a eioi?ie
ii?aaeaeaii, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoueny iniaua
oneiaey o?oaea aeey eeoe, caiyouo ia a?aiaiiuo ?aaioao, niaianoeoaeae,
iaaeiiieeia, a oaeaea ?aaioathueo ii aeiaiai?ai.

Iaeiaei aeaenoaothuaa o?oaeiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia a ninoiyiee a
iieiie ia?a ?aaoee?iaaoue iuiaoiea o?oaeiaua ioiioaiey. Aaconeiaii, yoi
ioiineony e e noa?a a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe. Aeaei a oii, /oi ECiO
i?eaioe?iaai ia neooaoeeth, eiaaea ainoaea?noai a iaeiii eeoea aunooiaei
e eae nianoaaiiee n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, e eae eniieieoaeue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, e eae aa?aio nioeeaeueiie caueou o?oaeyueony.
Nae/an ana yoe ooieoeee ?acaeaeaiu iaaeaeo ?aaioiaeaoaeyie e
ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie, a eoiaa eioa?anu ?aaioieea ieacuaathony
iacaueuaiiuie.

A i?iaeoa oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “O?oaeiaie eiaeaen ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee” i?aaeoniio?aiu ?acaeaeu, ii?aaeaeythuea iniaaiiinoe
?aaoee?iaaiey ?uiea o?oaea ?aaioieeia, caeeth/eaoeo o?oaeiaie aeiaiai?
n?ieii aei aeaoo ianyoeaa, a oaeaea ii?yaeie iaeia (no.257), iieaou
ioionea (no.259), ?anoi?aeaiey o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a (no.260). A iiaii
ECiOa oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey o?oaea naciiiuo
?aaioieeia (no.261-264), eeoe, ?aaioathueo aaooiaui iaoiaeii
(no.265-270), ?aaioieeia, caiyouo o ?aaioiaeaoaeae-oece/aneeo eeoe
(no.271-277).

N i?eiyoeai iiaiai ECiOa oneeyony nioeeaeueiua aa?aioee aieueoiai /enea
a?aaeaeai, eiathueo a?aiaiioth e aoi?e/ioth caiyoinoue.

Iiieii ECiOa, iniiaiuie caeiiaie, ?aaoee?othueie nioeeaeueii-o?oaeiaoth
noa?o, yaeythony Eiinoeoooeey ?O e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i caiyoinoe n
eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie, a oaeaea niioaaonoaothuea iiaecaeiiiua aeou
e iieiaeaiey.

?acaeoea a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe

A oneiaeyo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe e ia?anoaiey
iaaaoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee a noa?a caiyoinoe iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao
auai? ainoaea?noaii i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee iieeoeee, niiniaiuo
nieceoue nioeeaeueiia iai?yaeaiea, a iaiaeie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyaiia
aunieie aac?aaioeoeae.

Aaaeiui n?aaenoaii iiaeaea?aeaiey caiyoinoe yaeyaony iaania/aiea
aac?aaioiuo a?aiaiiuie ?aai/eie ianoaie, aeathueie aiciiaeiinoue
e?oaeiaiaee/iiai e ?aciiia?aciiai o?oaeiono?ienoaa. ?aaeecaoeey yoie
caaea/e i?aaeiieaaaao niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoaiecia i?aaiecaoeee a?aiaiiie
caiyoinoe: iiauoaiea noaoona a?aiaiiie ?aaiou; ?anoe?aiea aa aeaeia;
eciaiaiea oneiaee o/anoey a?aaeaeai a iauanoaaiiuo e a?aiaiiuo ?aaioao;
nicaeaiea iiaiai iaoaiecia oeiaine?iaaiey n i?eaea/aieai n?aaenoa ec
?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu neoaeau caiyoinoe noaee
oaeaeyoue iiauoaiiia aieiaiea i?aaiecaoeee a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe
aac?aaioiuo. I?aeoeeothony niaianoiua ieaiiaua auacaeu niaoeeaeenoia
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aaiia neoaeau caiyoinoe e i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?aaiia
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey a ioaeaeaiiua ianaeaiiua ioieou a oeaeyo
niaeaenoaey nicaeaieth ?aai/eo iano ia a?aiaiiua (naciiiua) ?aaiou,
i?iaiaeyony ano?a/e n ?aaioiaeaoaeyie ia ianoao, ieacuaathony
iaiaoiaeeiua eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
aeia?iniaanoiua a?aaeaeaia, caiyoua ia naciiiuo ?aaioao, aiineaaenoaee
ia?aaeei i?eieiathony a ooao yoeo i?aaiecaoeee ieiei 8%).

Niaeo? oi?i a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe aeinoaoi/ii oe?ie. Iaeiaei iniiaiuie
ii-i?aaeiaio inoathony naciiiua e ?aciaua ?aaiou ii n?i/iui aeiaiai?ai,
a oaeaea caiauaiea a?aiaiii ionoonoaothueo ooaoiuo ?aaioieeia.

A ai?iaeao iniiaiua ia?oia?u neoaea caiyoinoe a i?aaiecaoeee a?aiaiiiai
o?oaeiono?ienoaa – aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa, aei?iaeii-yenieoaoaoeeiiiua
neoaeau, no?ieoaeueiua e oi?aiaua i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia?yaeo n ioieoeeiaeueiuie ?aaioiaeaoaeyie cayaee ia a?aiaiiua ?aaiou
iiaeatho e /anoiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, eniieuecothuea aeiiieieoaeueioth
?aai/oth neeo a eaoiee ia?eiae (iai?eia?, eaoiyy oi?aiaey n eioeia).

N?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue a?aiaiiuo ?aaio ii ?aaeiiai eieaaeaony e
ninoaaeyao io aeanyoe aeiae aei oanoe ianyoeaa. Iaeiie ec i?iaeai
inoaaony e?aoein?i/iinoue ?aaio, iineieueeo ii eo ieii/aiee a?aaeaeaia
auioaeaeaiu aiciaiiaeyoue iiene e iiaoi?ii ia?auaoueny a neoaeao
caiyoinoe.

N?aaee o?oaeiono?iaiiuo ia oneiaeyo a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe aeinoaoi/ii
auniea aeiey aeaiuei – 53%; oaeaeueiue aan iieiaeaaee a aic?anoa aei 29
eao – ieiei 40%, aieueoeinoai ec ieo ia eiaao iiuoa ?aaiou
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey. Eaaeaeue /aoaa?oue, iai?aaeaiiue ia
a?aiaiioth ?aaioo, – aac?aaioiue, ninoiyuee ia o/aoa a i?aaiao neoaeau
caiyoinoe aieaa aiaea, eaaeaeue aeanyoue o/anoiee – i?aaeiaineiiiiai
aic?anoa.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu neoaeau caiyoinoe ianaeaiey iinoiyiii iiiieiytho
aaie aeaiiuo ii a?aiaiiui ?aaioai. Ieiei 80% aaeainee i?eaioe?iaaiu ia
?aai/ea niaoeeaeueiinoe (iia?oci/ii-?aca?oci/iua, aei?iaeiua,
no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou, ?o/iie o?oae a naeueneii oicyenoaa e o.ae.);
iaiiiaei aieaa 10% i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ?aaioieeia n?aaeiae eaaeeoeeaoeee
ia oneiaeyo ii/aniaie iieaou; aeey aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia (i?aiiaeaaaiea, eiinoeueoe?iaaiea, aoaeeo, ?aciaua caeacu
ooaeiaeieeai, niaoeeaeenoai ii ?aeeaia, ia?eaoeiao e ae?.) – iaiaa 10%.

Aeiiieieoaeueiay a?aiaiiay caiyoinoue, eae i?aaeei, – ia?aaoey?iay,
e?aoein?i/iay, ii aeinoaoi/ii ecio?eoaeueiay e eioaineaiay. Aeey
?aaioiaeaoaeae, i?eaaaathueo e oaeie oi?ia i?eaea/aiey ?aai/ae neeu, yoi
?aaeueiue niinia ?aoaiey iia?aoeaiuo i?iaeai.

I?aaiai neoaeau caiyoinoe Aeoaeneiai e?ay oaeaeinue iaeaaeeoue
acaeiiaeaenoaea n ?aaioiaeaoaeyie ii nai?o aeaiiuo i a?aiaiiuo ?aai/eo
ianoao. Aieueooth /anoue aaeainee i?aaeinoaaeytho ioieoeeiaeueiua
i?aaei?eyoey, iniiaiui aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?uo yaeyaony
au?aueaaiea ieiaeiai-yaiaeiuo eoeueoo? e iaiuae. A ia?eiae i?iaaaeaiey
naciiiuo ?aaio o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu a naeueneie ianoiinoe nieaeaaony ia
0,5 i.i.

A Eaieia?aaeneie iaeanoe iniiaiuie aeaeaie a?aiaiiiai o?oaeiono?ienoaa
yaeythony aeiau/a e ioa?ocea ia?oaeiuo iaoa?eaeia, ?aaioa a eioaeueiuo
ia ia?eiae ioiieoaeueiiai naciia, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ?aaiou, ooiae ca
eaniiinaaeeaie, caaioiaea e ia?a?aaioea oi?oa, naciiiay oi?aiaey e ae?.

E iiaui aeaeai a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe, eioi?ua i?aeoeeothony a iaeanoe,
iiaeii ioianoe auiieiaiea cayaie io /anoiuo eeoe ia ooiae ca iai?iaeaie,
oai?eo o?iaeay, auaoe niaae, ooiae ca aieueiuie, auiieiaiea ae?oaeo
aeaeia ?aciauo oneoa. Aeey auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey ia iiaeiaiua cayaee a
neoaeaa caiyoinoe nicaeathony niaoeeaeueiua ea?oioaee aac?aaioiuo
a?aaeaeai, niaeaniuo auiieiyoue oaeoth ?aaioo e aioiauo i?enooieoue e
iae a ethaia a?aiy. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia a?aiaiiuo ?aaioao a n?aaeiai
ninoaaeyao io 120 aei 500 ?oa. Iieaoa a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe i?iecaiaeeony
aac i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa AOCI.

A aieueoeinoaa ?aaeiiia i?iaiaeyony y?ia?ee aaeainee aeey
o?oaeiono?ienoaa ia oneiaeyo a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe.

Eioa?anai a yoie nayce iiuo Aieaia?aaeneie iaeanoe. Caeanue
noi?ie?iaai aaie aeaiiuo, niaea?aeauee eioi?iaoeeth i naiaiaeiuo ianoao
aeey o?oaeiono?ienoaa a?aaeaeai a ea/anoaa naciiiuo e a?aiaiiuo
?aaioieeia, iaaeiiieeia e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee. Iaaeaeo
Eiieoaoii ii o?oaeo e caiyoinoe ianaeaiey aaeieieno?aoeee Aieaia?aaeneie
iaeanoe, ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai “Iaeanoiay iieiaeaaeiay ae?aea
o?oaea” e iaeanoiui niaaoii i?ionithcia caeeth/ai o?aonoi?iiiee aeiaiai?
i nio?oaeie/anoaa ii i?aaiecaoeee iaeanoiie iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuae
y?ia?ee a?aiaiiuo ?aai/eo iano. A 1998 a. a iae i?eiyee o/anoea 112
?aaioiaeaoaeae, eiathueo aaeaioiua a?aiaiiua ?aai/ea ianoa e ieiei 10
oun. a?aaeaeai, ec eioi?uo nauoa ouny/e /aeiaae ioia?aiu ?aaioiaeaoaeyie
aeey iineaaeothuaai o?oaeiono?ienoaa. I?iaaaeaiea iiaeiaiuo y?ia?ie
aeaao a?aaeaeaiai, caiyoui iaiieioth ?aai/oth iaaeaeth e iaoiaeyueiny a
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ioioneao, oain iiaeia?aoue ianoi a?aiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a,
/oiau oeo/oeoue naia iaoa?eaeueiia iieiaeaiea.

I?iaaaeaiea y?ia?ee aaeainee a?aiaiiuo ?aaio a A?eaaiianeii ?aeiia
Ai?iiaaeneie iaeanoe iicaieeei caiyoue aieaa 500 /aeiaae.

I?e niaeaenoaee i?aaiia neoaeau caiyoinoe a 1998 a. ia iauanoaaiiua e
a?aiaiiua ?aaiou ii no?aia a oeaeii o?oaeiono?iaii aieaa 500 oun.
/aeiaae, ec ieo aieaa iieiaeiu – aeaiueiu. I?e yoii auei nicaeaii nauoa
244 oun. a?aiaiiuo ?aai/eo iano.

A 1999 a. ieaie?oaony a?aiaiii o?oaeiono?ieoue aieaa 1,1 iei.
aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai, a oii /enea ia iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou – ieiei 400
oun. /aeiaae.

Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu i?aaiecaoeee a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe a?aaeaeai a?aiaiiie
caiyoinoueth – ieceay ca?aaioiay ieaoa (/anoi ieaea iiniaey ii
aac?aaioeoea) e /anoua caaea?aeee aa auieaou (eiiaaea aei oanoe
ianyoeaa). E?iia oiai, e?aoeia?aiaiiinoue yoeo ?aaio oooaeoaao
iieiaeaiea aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai (oae eae o ieo ia aoaeao 26
iiea/eaaaiuo eaeaiaea?iuo iaaeaeue, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ia/eneaiey iiniaey
ii aac?aaioeoea) i?e iiaoi?iii ia?auaiee a i?aaiu neoaeau caiyoinoe
(ae?aeo o?oaea).

Nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii ?aaiou ia oneiaeyo a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe
inoaaony ionoonoaea aa?aioee ia iinoiyiiia o?oaeiono?ienoai. I?e
o?oaeiono?ienoaa ia a?aiaiiua ?aai/ea ianoa a?aaeaeaia oaeaea
ieacuaathony eeoaiiuie e nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee (iai?eia?, iaaeeoeeineie
no?aoiaee).

Ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea a?aiaiiiai ianoa ?aaiou aeey iiiaeo aac?aaioiuo i/aiue
aaaeii ec-ca aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia ia o?ainii?o.

Aeey oeo/oaiey i?aaiecaoeee a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe neaaeoao i?iaeieaeeoue
niaa?oainoaiaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a /anoe eueaioiiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, iai?aaeaiiiai ia noeioee?iaaiea ?aaioiaeaoaeae e
i?eaea/aieth ?aaioieeia ia oneiaeyo a?aiaiiie caiyoinoe.

?acaeoeth yoiai aeaea caiyoinoe iiaei au niinianoaiaaoue onoaiiaeaiea
nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee aeey o?oaeiono?iaiiuo ia oaeea ianoa – no?aoiaie
iieen, aieueie/iue eeno, caienue ia?eiaea a?aiaiiie ?aaiou a o?oaeiaie
eieaeea e ae?.

I?aaiai eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee niaianoii n
i?aaiaie neoaeau caiyoinoe iaaei aeoeaece?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue ii
oaaee/aieth /enea a?aiaiiuo ?aai/eo iano, iniaaiii a ?aaeiiao n
e?eoe/aneie neooaoeeae ia ?uiea o?oaea, i?eaea/aieth ?aaioiaeaoaeae e
i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

C.A.Eiooa? “No?oeoo?a caiyoinoe ianaeaiey: i?iaeaiu

niaa?oainoaiaaiey.” Iineaa: “Iaoea” 1989.

I.I.E?aaaa “?aca?au iiauoaiey o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey”

I: “Yeiiiieea” 1983.

3. A.Iiaeoeeee “Ianaeaiea e oi?iu caiyoinoe” I: “Iuneue” 1985

4. I.A.Ai?iieia “Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu eniieueciaaiey
?aai/ae neeu” I:”Iuneue” 1973

5. I.I.Eei “O?oaeiaie iioaioeeae e caiyoinoue” Oa?ueeia 1993

6. A.A?yciiaa, A.Ia?onen “Caiyoinoue, o?iaaiue, no?oeoo?a e oi?iu
?aaoee?iaaiey” Ieine 1994

7. E.A.Aanooaeaa-Eaaea “Aac?aaioeoea? Ia iiaeao auoue!” “Yeiiiieea2 1992
?5

8. “Eo?n iauae yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee” iiae ?aae. A.I.E?ueiaa, E?aniiaea?
1997

9. “O/aaiee ii iniiaai yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee” A.Ae.Eaiaaa e ae?. I:1994

10. E.Einoei “Caiyoinoue, ca?ieaoa e eioeyoeey” “*aeiaae e o?oae” 1999
?2

11. Ae.Naen “?uii/iay yeiiiieea e ?inney” I:1994

12. “Anaie?iue e?ecen aaaeao e ?inoo aac?aaioeoeu” “O?oaeiaie ie?” 1998,
“*aeiaae e o?oae” 1999 ?8

13. N.Nie?iia “?uiee o?oaea ?aaeiiia a oneiaeyo oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneiai
e?ecena” “*aeiaae e o?oae” 1999 ?3

14. I.Aeaniaa, A.Eoeeoiaa “Ieio?oae iiaeaiaeeo eoiae” “*aeiaae e o?oae”
2000 ?3

15. Oaoeoy Aeca “Iieeoeea caiyoinoe a ssiiiee” “*aeiaae e o?oae” 1999 ?3

16. “*oiau aac?aaioeoea ia Eoaaie ia iieiaeaea” I.Euaiei “*aeiaae e
o?oae” 1999 ?7

17. O.Aieaiaeoeaaa , E A?eaeia “A?aiaiiay caiyoinoue, eae oi?ia
aeoeaiiai niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai” “*aeiaae e o?oae”
1999 ?11

18. O.I?ieiiia “Yooaeoeaiay i?aaiecaoeey oneoa neoaeau caiyoinoe:
niaa?oaiiua iiaeoiaeu” “*aeiaae e o?oae” 1999 ?8

19. I.Neaaeoeeee “Iiauneoue acaeiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue noauaeoia ?uiea
o?oaea” “*aeiaae e o?oae” 1999 ?2

20. “Eae oeo/oeoue caeii i caiyoinoe ianaeaiey” N.Nie?iia “*aeiaae e
o?oae” 1999 ?11

21. A.Noiyi “?uiie o?oaea a NOA: ninoiyiea e i?iaeaiu” “*aeiaae o?oae”
1999 ?7

PAGE 36

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