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Артур Сесил Пигу

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Eacaineee Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

A?oo? Nanee

Ieao

Auiieiee: Aaoo?ia Na?aae

?onoyiiae/

Ia?aue eo?n

yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

Eacaiue – 2000

A?oo? Nanee Ieao ?iaeeeny 18 iiya?y 1877 a. A oieaa?neoaoa eco/ae
iaoaiaoeeo e enoi?eth, /oi aio aeaei i?i/iue ooiaeaiaio ciaiee aeey
?aaiou a iaeanoe oai?aoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Ia/eiae naith ?aaioo iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii Ia?oaeea. A 1908 a. ?aeiiaiaeoao ia?aaeaoue naith eaoaae?o
a Eaia?eaeaea ethaeiiio o/aieeo Ieao. Yoio iino ii caieiae n 1908 – 1919
aa., ia ?ac i?eaeaeaeny i?aaeoaeuenoaii e ?ac?aaioea ?yaea eiie?aoiuo
?aoaiee ii yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea. Oaeaea ca naith aeeciue ii aue /eaiii
aaethoiiai eiieoaoa, /eaiii ei?ieaaneie eiiennee ii iiaeioiaeiui
iaeiaai, /eaiii eiieoaoa *aiaa?eeia ii aii?inai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey.

Oai?aoe/aneia ianeaaeea Ieao auei aaeeei. Iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeaoaeueioth ?ac?aaioeo ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeai, iinoaaeaiiuo aeaaiui
ia?acii a “Yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeaaininoiyiey”. Ia?yaeo n e?oiiuie
eieaaie, oaeeie, eae “Yeiiiieea noaoeeiia?iuo ninoiyiee”, “Caiyoinoue e
?aaiiaanea”, “Eieaaaiey i?iiuoeaiiie aeoeaiinoe” e ae?., Ieao ecaeae
?yae iaaieueoeo ?aaio, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie eae au oai?aoe/aneia
aaaaeaiea e aai iniiaiui i?iecaaaeaieyi: “Aeioiae”, “Aeiiieieoaeueiua
niia?aaeaiey i aeioiaea”, “Iaiieiay caiyoinoue”.

A “Yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeaaininoiyiey” ?ieue oeaio?aeueiie
oai?aoe/aneie iniiau ea?aao iiiyoea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeeaeaeaiaea. Aaaeii
ioiaoeoue , /oi Ieao ia ?ac?aaaouaaao oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea
aii?inu “yeiiiieena”, eee oae iacuaaaiie “/enoie yeiiiiee”, a aa?ao ca
iniiao i?aaeeiaeaiiua Ia?oaeeii iiiyoey. A enoi?eia?aoee Ia?oaee
ioia/aaony eae iineaaeiaaoaeue ?eea?aei Ae., acyaoee i?aaeaea anaai
o?oaeiaoth oai?eth noieiinoe. Auoieinoea, oaeei ia?acii, iao/iia
niaea?aeaiea oai?ee ?eea?aei, Ia?oaee, a aneaae ca iei e Ieao
iieiinoueth ia?aoee ia iiceoeee noauaeoeaiie oeieu.

Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?aaenoaaeoaeyi Eaia?eaeaeneie oeieu auea
naienoaaiia naiaia?aciay “aeieiaecaoeey“ yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee. Ieao a
yoii niunea yaeyaony y?eei i?aaenoaaeoaeai Eaia?eaeaeneie oeieu.

Ieao io?eoeaao nouanoaiaaiea a yeiiiie/aneie iaoea “aaeeiiai
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai e ai anao neo/ayo i?eiaiyaiiai caeiia”. I?iaicaeaoaao
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue caeiiia, eioi?ua au?aaeathony o?aaiaieyie aeeiaieee,
ii eiatho ae?oaea eiinoaiou, naiaeeiua e yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ia?en, aiai?y i neiaeiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca, aeaeae
auoiae oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiie aano?aeoeee, iicaieythuae ca /?acia?iui
iiiaiia?aceai iiaa?oiinoiuo oaeoia ane?uoue aeoaeiioth nouiinoue
yaeaiee. Ieao iuoaaony aanoe einaaiioth iieaieeo n Ia?enii. Oeacaa ia
iniaua o?oaeiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca a aeaea iiiaeanoaaiiinoe
eiinoaio, eioi?ua iaaei ii?aaeaeeoue, iaaeinooiiinoue yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
iaoiaeia e iaiaeeiaeiainoue niioaaonoaothueo eiinoaio a ?aciua ia?eiaeu
a?aiaie. Ia?en ?ane?ue oaeio i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, ana neeu ao?aeoaciuo
yeiiiienoia auee a?ioaiu ia ii?iaa?aeaiea ia?enecia. Eiaiii a yoeo
oeaeyo iiiyoea “iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey” auei caiaiaii ao?aeoaciuie
iineaaeiaaoaeyie iiiyoeai “yeiiiieen”.

Ieao ia oieueei i?iaiaeeo ia?aeeaee iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneie iaoeie e
aeieiaeae, ii e cayaeyao ia eo aaiaoe/aneii ?iaenoaa, ?anniao?eaay
?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneie aeecie eae yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann, iioiaeee ia
aeieiae/aneee. “Aeieiaecaoeey” yeiiiie/aneie iaoee neacuaaaony ia
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe aeaa, eioi?ay ?anoeo?iauaaaony ii aiaeiaee n
iio?aaiinoueth i?aaiecia i?iaeeeoue aeeciue.

Aiai?y i oii, eae “oicyenoaothuea noauaeou” ?ani?aaeaeytho iaee/iua
?ano?nu iaaeaeo ianoiyuei, aeeceei e ioaeaeaiiui aoaeouei, Ieao
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi yoi ?ani?aaeaeaiea e??aoeeiiaeueii, eai, auae?ay
iaaeaeo oaeiaeaoai?yaiuie iio?aaiinoyie, ethaee ia iaycaoaeueii
auae?atho oo, /oi i?eiineo aieueoaa oaeiaeaoai?aiea. Iai?ioea, iie
“neeiiiu i?iecaiaeeoue eee iieo/aoue iaiueoaa oaeiaeaoai?aiea, ii
naaiaeiy, a ia no?aieoueny e iieo/aieth ai?acaei aieueoaai
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ianeieueei eao nionoy” (o. 1, n. 91). Oai naiui
i?iaiaeeony iuneue, aoaeoi eiaiii aeieiae/aneay i?e?iaea /aeiaaea
aeeeooao aio i?aaeii/oaiea oaeoueo aeaa aoaeouei. Iii iai?aaeaii i?ioea
ia?enecia, eioi?iio eiaeii i?eienuaaaony i?ecua iiaea?oaiaaoue ianoiyuei
?aaee aoaeouaai.

Eoae, auaeaeioa a oeaio? enneaaeiaaiey aii?in i ?aaeueiii aeioiaea
iauanoaa, Ieao ?anniao?eaaao oaeoi?u, io eioi?uo yoio aeioiae caaeneo.
Ii caieiaaony eceiaeaieai ia oai?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai noieiinoe, a i?iaeai
oeaiu eae ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaaiiiai ioiioaiey, iaiiaie i?iii?oeee,
a eioi?ie oiaa?u e aeaiueae iaiaieaathony ae?oa ia ae?oaa.

Oai?aoe/aneea iiceoeee Ieao

Iineieueeo aeioiae -oeaio?aeueiay aeey Ieao i?iaeaia e iineieueeo
aeioiae ii?aaeaeyao o?iaaiue aeaaininoiyiey, naia enneaaeiaaiea ii
ia/eiaao n oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaaininoiyiey.

Ai-ia?auo, “… iiiyoea aeaaininoiyiea io?aaeaao yeaiaiou iaoaai
niciaiey e, aiciiaeii, acaeiinaycue yoeo yeaiaioia, ai-aoi?uo,
aeaaininoiyiea iiaeao auoue iienaii iiiyoeai (o. 1, n. 73).
Aaeeinoaaiiui eino?oiaioii aeey ecia?aiee a iauanoaaiii aeecie Ieao
iauyaeyao aeaiueae. A nayce n yoei e aiai?eo ia ia?aie/aiee
enneaaeiaaiey oie noa?ie, a eioi?ie iiaeii i?iecaiaeeo ecia?aiey n
iiiiuueth aeaiaa, o. a. i?ioeannii iaiaia oiaa?ia ia ?uiea,
oeaiiia?aciaaieai. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeaia n naiiai ia/aea io?uaaaony io
aa niaea?aeaiey – noieiinoe oiaa?a, a enneaaeiaaiea eeoue iaiiauo
ne?uaaao oio oaeo, /oi ?acee/iua oiaa?u, eae ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iua
iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe, aeaeathony niecia?eiuie aeaaiaea?y
noieiinoyi, a ia oeaiai, oai naiui Ieao nieiaao aii?in ia enoi/ieea
noieiinoe e ia?auaaony e oaeoi?ai, ii?aaeaeythuei oeaio oiaa?a.

N?aaee oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo o?iaaiue oeaiu, ii auaeaeyao aeaa
iniiaiua a?oiiu: ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeaeueioth iieaciinoue.
Iie oaycuaathony ae?oa n ae?oaii o iaieeanneeia iin?aaenoaii aiaeeca
“i?iecaiaenoai – ni?in”. Oeaia auea oai naiui iinoaaeaia a i?yioth
caaeneiinoue io ooieoeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

I?aaeeiaeaiea Ieao ii?aaeaeye ecaea?aeeaie i?iecaiaenoaa, oaycuaay eo n
oaoie/aneeie oneiaeyie i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, ieacaeenue
niaaeeiaiiuie aiaoia ?acee/iua oai?ee – ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe, – a oaeaea acaeyaeu ?eea?aei e eiioeaioeee
noauaeoeaiie oeieu.

Aeaeaa ?acaeaay iiiyoea aeaaininoiyiey, Ieao iinayuaao ae. 1, /. 1, a
naiae eieae iienaieth ?acee/ee iaaeaeo iauei e yeiiiie/aneei
aeaaininoiyieai e caaeneiinoe iauaai aeaaininoiyiey io yeiiiie/aneiai.
Iaeiaei \iiae yeiiiie/aneei aeaaininoiyieai Ieao iiae?acoiaaaao ia /oi
eiia, eae iauoth iieaciinoue (aiaaonoai), eniieuecoaioth e Ia?oaeeii.
Oi?ie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai aeaaininoiyiey Ieao naycuaaao n
acaeiiaeaenoaeai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ii ieoao, /oi noiia aeaiaa, eioi?oth eiaeeaeae aioia caieaoeoue ca oo
eee eioth aauue, iaiin?aaenoaaiii io?aaeaao ia oi oaeiaeaoai?aiea,
eioi?ia ii iieo/eo io aa eniieueciaaiey, a noaiaiue aeaeaoaeueiinoe aeey
iaai yoie aaue(oii 1, n.88). I?inoi Ieao caiaiyao oa?iei “iieaciinoue”
oa?ieiii “aeaeaoaeueiinoue”.

Aieueoia ianoi a oai?ee Ieao caieiaao eiioeaioeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeeaeaeaiaea. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeeaeaeaiae ii?aaeaeyaony eae oa aeiey
iaoa?eaeueiiai aeioiaea iauanoaa, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia a
aeaiueaao. Oaeei ia?acii, yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea e iaoeeiiaeueiue
aeeaeaeaiae aunooiatho o Ieao eae eaoaai?ee iaeiiii?yaeeiaua. Ieao
ieoao: “Oaeei ia?acii, y aoaeo ioiineoue e iaoeeiiaeueiiio aeeaeaeaiaeo
ana oi, /oi ethaee iieoiatho ia naie aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu, a oaeaea
oneoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua /aeiaaeo aeeeeuai, eioi?ui ii aeaaeaao e a
eioi?ii i?iaeeaaao” (o.1, n. 101). Ii ionoaeaaao iiieiaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeeaeaeaiaea eae iioieia oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyony a oa/aiea aiaea. Oaeaea noaaeo aii?in ia eciaiaiee
aaee/eiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeeaeaeaiaea ca ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu a?aiaie.

Ii iiaieth Ieao oeaia ni?ina – yoi oeaia eioi?oth iio?aaeoaeue aioia
caieaoeoue ca aaeeieoeo oiaa?a. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oiea/aiiay iio?aaeoaeai
oeaia yaeyaony i?aaeaeueiie oeaiie ni?ina. Ii yoa oeaia, ii nouanoao,
ecia?yao i?aaeaeueioth iieaciinoue oiaa?a aeey iieoiaoaey. Iiyoiio aa
aeaeaeaiea caaeneo io noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe e
eioaineaiinoe aeaeaiey iio?aaeoaey, eee, eiuie neiaaie, io oiai
eiee/anoaa oiaa?a aeaiiiai aeaea, eioi?ui ii ?aniieaaaao. Oeaiu, n aai
oi/ee c?aiey, au?aaeatho i?aaeaeueiua iieaciinoe oiaa?ia eeoue i?e
oneiaee, /oi iieoiaoaeueiay neea aeaiaa e aeioiae iio?aaeoaeae iaeciaiiu
(iaieeanneee anaaaea iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi aeey aaaeiiai i?aaeaeueiay
iieaciinoue aeaiaa aieueoa, /ai aeey aiaaoiai).

A ea/anoaa iniiaiiai caeiia i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe eniieuecoaony
ia?aue caeii Ainnaia, niaeanii eioi?iio oiaiueoaiea iieaciinoe aeaaa
aeey eiaeeaeaea ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi iauay iieaciinoue eaeie-eeai aaue
aeey iaai aic?anoaao aianoa n eaaeaeui oaaee/aieai caiana yoie aaue, ii
ia n oie nei?inoueth, n eaeie oaaee/eaaaony caian. E oneiaeyi aeaenoaey
yoiai caeiia Ieao ioiinee iaeciaiiinoue aeonia e aeaeaiee iio?aaeoaey.
Enoiaey ec ia?aie/aiiie ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe iieoiaoaeae, iaieeanneee
n/eoatho, /oi iiauoaiea ni?ina naycaii n iiieaeaieai oeaiu, e iaiai?io.
Iiyoiio iaeneiaeueiay oeaia ca oiaa? caaeneo io eiee/anoaa iieoiaaiuo
oiaa?ia. I?e nieaeaiee oeaiu ?anoao o?aaoaiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a, i?e aa
iiauoaiee – ni?in ia oiaa? iiieaeaaony. Ia yoie iniiaa auee iino?iaiu
e?eaua ni?ina, iieacuaathuea, eaeia eiee/anoai oiaa?a iiaeii i?iaeaoue
i?e ?acee/iuo oeaiao. Eino?oiaio aiaeeca ?uiea, i?aaeeiaeaiiue
iaieeanneeaie, naiaeeony e ii?aaeaeaieth oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina.
Aiaeec yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina icia/aao, ii iiaieth iaieeanneeia, aiaeec
e?eaie ni?ina. Iaeiaei a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina
ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei ooieoeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoueth iaaeaeo oeaiie
e ni?inii, ii e iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth ?acee/iuo neiaa ianaeaiey.
Iiyoiio i?e ethaii iiaeoiaea aiaeec /anoe/iiai ?aaiiaaney anaaaea iineo
aeinoaoi/ii ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa?. Ieao iiiuoaeny i?aiaeieaoue yoo
ia?aie/aiiinoue iooai ?anoe?aiey e?oaa e?oaa enneaaeoaiuo i?iaeai,
eioi?ua i?aaeaea eneeth/aeenue ec ?anniio?aiey. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea
anaai i aeeyiee ia yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea /anoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo
auaiae.

A yoii aiieia ii?aaeaeaiii i?iyaeeny ao?aeoaciue ?aoi?ieci Ieao, aai
aeaaea iiaeaeaiey oaaee/eoue nioeeaeueioth ni?aaaaeeeainoue.

Ieao niaoeeaeueii ?anniao?eaaao ?acee/iua aa?eaiou ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeeaeaeaiaea iaaeaeo eioueie e iaeioueie, no?aiynue
iainiiaaoue oacen, /oi ?inoo yeiiiie/aneiai e iauaai aeaaininoiyiey
niinianoaoao aieaa ?aaiiia?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea.

Ii iiaieth Ieao, ethaie aeioiae iiaeaa?aeai aeaenoaeth oauaathuae
i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. N ?inoii aeaiaaeiiai aeioiaea iieaciinoue
aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe aeey aeaaeaeueoea iaaeaao, a
a?aieoeu aai ni?ina, ii?aaeaeyaiua aaee/eiie aeaeaiee, ?anoe?ythony,
i?e/ai ii aioia ieaoeoue ca aeaai ai ana aieueoai niioaaonoaee
eioaineaiinoueth aeaeaiey a ia n ia?aie/aiiinoueth aeaiaa. Ec yoie
eiaeiie iinueee aeaeaeny eeaa?aeueiue auaiae i oii, aoaeoi
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea a iieueco aaaeiuo iiaeao oaaee/eoue iauaa
aeaaininoiyiea, o.e. oaeiaeaoai?aiea aaaeiuo oaaee/eony aieueoa, /ai
oiaiueoeony oaeiaeaoai?aiea aiaaouo. Yoa eaeay i i?eiaiaiee eiioeaioeee
oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe i?e aiaeeca niaieoiiiai aeioiaea
auea iiaeaa?aiooa ao?aeoaciuie yeiiiienoaie e?eoeea. Ii Ieao ioithaeue
ia iaeiinoi?iiai a aii?ina i ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee aeioiaea e
nii?iaiaeaeaao aai iiiaeanoaii iaiai?ie.

Ii aai ooaa?aeaeaieth, aaoiiaoeci oeaiiia?aciaaiey iiaeao
iaania/eaaoue auea?uo iaeioueo e i?iea?uo ninoiyoaeueiuo aeaaea a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea aaee/eia iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe oao e ae?oaeo
inoaaony iaeciaiiie. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo i?e oaoie/aneii oniaa?oainoaiaaiee
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaa, iio?aaeyaiuo iaeioueie, e oooaeoaiee i?iecaiaenoaa
aeaa, iio?aaeyaiuo aiaaouie.

Ii iiaieth Ieao, i?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue aeaaa caaeneo ia oieueei io
noaiaie eioaineaiinoe aeaeaiey, ii e io eiee/anoaa iaee/iuo aeaa, oi
aeinoaoi/ii oaoie/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee e oaaee/aiey yoiai eiee/anoaa,
/oiau ianuoeoue ni?in i?e iiieaeaiee oeaiu. A oaeii neo/aa aii?in i
nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, enoi/ieee noieiinoe, oneiaeyo
?ani?aaeaeaiey aiiaue nicaeaiiie noieiinoe iaaeaeo iaaiiuie ?aai/eie e
eaieoaeenoaie yeiau oa?yao niune, a ioiioaiey yenieoaoaoeee
iiaeiaiythony eaeeeee/aneie ea?oeiie oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe anao
ethaeae ii ia?a ?inoa iauanoaaiiiai aeaaininoiyiey. Ii a oii-oi e aeaei,
/oi ia?eneci aeieacae iaecaaaeiinoue nio?aiaiey (e aeaaea ?inoa)
yenieoaoaoeee iaaiiiai o?oaea eaieoaeii i?e ainiiaenoaa
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe iacaaeneii io oiai,
oiaiueoaaony eee ?anoao ianna iio?aaeoaeueiuo noieiinoae, e io oiai, eae
eiaeeaeae eee a?oiia eeoe ioeaieaaao iieaciinoue oao eee eiuo aeaa.

Neiaeiua ?annoaeaeaiey Ieao ia eciaiaiee a yeiiiie/aneii
aeaaininoiyiee, aai oeeea?aiiay yeiiiie/aneay eacoenoeea ieneieueei ia
aeaeatho iaieeanne/aneoth oai?eth ni?ina aieaa iao/iie e oai aieaa ia
oieueei ia ii?iaa?aatho ia?eneci, a iai?ioea, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
ianie?ooeiinoe aai iao/iuo iniia.

Ieao iiaeieiaao aii?in ia enoi/ieea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey iaeioueo. Ii aa?ai
aoeueaa?iie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee a o?aeoiaea iineaaeiaai oacena.
Aeaaiue aeioiae iaeioueo – eo ca?aaioiay ieaoa – ecia?aaeaaony ei eae
ieaoa ca o?oae. Ii ?anniao?eaaao o?oae ia eae cao?aoo ioneoeueiie
yia?aee, a eae iuouaiea oyainoiinoe. Aeey eiiiainaoeee
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe ?aaioieeia i?e ?anoe?aiee iauaia i?eeaaaaiiai
o?oaea (aoaeoi au iii ia aicieeaao i?e i?ia?anneaiuo iaoiaeao ?aaiou) ii
i?aaeeaaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai, iai?aaeaiiia i?aaeaea anaai ia
oi, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue ioeai/iiai iiieiaiey ?aai/eie naieo eioa?ania.

Ii iiaieth Ieao, ooieoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iieo/aiea i?iaeoeoa
eee aeioiaea. Yoio i?iaeoeo (aeioiae) auaiaeeony eae ?acoeueoao
aeaenoaey a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa –
eaieoaea, caiee, i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e o?oaea. Eaaeaeiio ec yoeo
oaeoi?ia niioaaonoaaiii “aiaiyaony” ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue i?iaeoeoa eee
aeioiaea. Niaeanii i?eioeeio i?aaeaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, iauee
i?e?ino i?iaeoeoa i?aaenoaaeyaony eae noiia i?aaeaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia,
nicaeaaaaiuo iineaaeieie aaeeieoeaie oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiiyoea
i?aaeaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa iaiin?aaenoaaiii auoaeaao ec caeiia oauaathuae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, niaeanii eioi?iio eaaeaeay
aeiaaai/iay aaeeieoea o?oaea, eaieoaea e o. ae. iaeaaeaao iaiueoae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth, /ai i?aaeuaeouay. Aano?aeoiue oa?aeoa? yoie
oai?ee ioia/aaony iiiaeie yeiiiienoaie, eai iaeuecy ii?aaeaeeoue, eiaaea
ianooiaao yoio i?aaeae. Caeii oauaathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiinoueth eaii?e?oao oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, ?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

Oaeoe/anee oieeoy ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa eae “?aaeueiua” ecaea?aeee,
iie eiaee a aeaeo ineoieiae/aneea iuouaiey – aea?oau, eioi?ua i?eiinyo
?aai/ea a neeo “oyainoiinoe”o?oaea, e aea?oau eaieoaeenoia a aeaea eo
“aicaea?aeaiey” io oaeiaieuenoaey iio?aaeoue eaieoae a ianoiyuai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeeiaeaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa oaycuaaaony n
i?aiaeieaieai yoeo ineoieiae/aneeo “oyainoae”. Aeaeaa eaeao ?anniio?aiea
ecaea?aeae a eo aeaiaaeiie oi?ia, a eioi?ie yoe ecaea?aeee aunooiatho ia
iiaa?oiinoe yeiiiie/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
i?aaenoaaeythony eae oeaiu, eioi?ua i?aaei?eieiaoaeue oiea/eaaao ca
ii?aaeaeaiiua ii?oeee o?oaea e eaieoaea.

Eaieoae Ieao o?aeooao ia eae aiieiuaiea o?oaea, a aoeueaa?ii, eae
?acoeueoao “aicaea?aeaiey” aeaaeaeueoea, eiaaea “ia?a aicaea?aeaiey eee
noaiaiue ?enea eee oi e ae?oaia aianoa iiauoathony”. Ieao ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi caeii oauaathuae aeioiaeiinoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa ei?aiiui ia?acii ioee/aaony io caeiia oauaathuae
aeioiaeiinoe ?ano?nia e ni?aaaaeeea ia oieueei i?e iaeioi?uo oneiaeyo,
ii anaaaea. Iiaeiaiue “caeii” oauaathuae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e
aeioiaeiinoe aeiaaai/iuo aaeeieoe oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa aeiioneaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaneiia/iiai aa?uee?iaaiey oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa i?e
iaeciaiiinoe oaoie/aneiai aacena. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao aiciiaeiinoue
aeiaeeoue a iaeei o/anoie caiee iaia?aie/aiiue eaieoae eee iinoaaeoue o
iaeiie iaoeiu eaeia oaiaeii /enei ?aai/eo, /oi naii ii naaa iaeaii, eai
eaaeaeue o?iaaiue oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiieaaaao
no?iaoth i?iii?oeeth i?eiaiyaiuo oaeoi?ia. Ioaa?aioa iaee/ea iauaeoeaiie
iniiau oeaiu oiaa?a – noieiinoe, iaieeanneee iiiaee a ieoe/aneee ie?.

Aaaeue anee oeaia oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony ecaea?aeeaie aai i?iecaiaenoaa,
oi iaiaoiaeeii a naith i/a?aaeue auynieoue, eae ecia?eoue yoe
ecaea?aeee. Ioaaoa ia oaeie aii?in iaieeanneee aeaoue ia a ninoiyiee.
Iiae?acoiaaay iiae ecaea?aeeaie cao?aou i?aaei?eieiaoaey ia iieoieo
iaoei, iieaoo ?aai/ae neeu, a?aiaeo caiee e o. i., iie iii?inoo
i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi ana yoe oiaa?u, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, oaea eiathony ia ?uiea, a cia/eo, oaea iaeaaeatho
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaiie.

Ieao ?anniao?eaae ?acee/iua neo/ae, eiaaea oeaia i?aaeeiaeaiey
?aaoee?oao iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aiiaua iaieeanneee niaoeaaee
i?iecaiaenoai ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee eee io?aneae n iauanoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii. Oaeia niaoaiea caiaoii a “Yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee
aeaaininoiyiey”. Ieao iuoaaony ?aoeoue aii?in i niioiioaiee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo e iauanoaaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania. Ii iiaieth
Ieao, niaieoiiue /enoue i?iaeoeo nicaeaaony aeaaiaea?y i?aaeaeueiiio
i?e?auaieth ?ano?nia a ethaie noa?a (anee i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao /anoiua e
iauanoaaiiua auaiaeu, a oaeaea iauanoaaiiua ecaea?aeee). Caeanue
iieiinoueth eniieuecoaony eaeay aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae yeiiiiee.

Ieao iino?iee iauoth oai?eth aeaaininoiyiey, niaeanii eioi?ie eeoue
au?aaieaaiea iauanoaaiiuo e /anoiuo i?aaeaeueiuo /enouo i?iaeoeoia
iaania/eaaao aeinoeaeaiea iaeneioia i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue yoie caaea/e auea i?aaeii?aaeaeaia eniieueciaaieai
i?eioeeiia aoeueaa?iie oai?ee, niaeanii eioi?ie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
aeiiieieoaeueiuo aaeeieoe ?ano?nia oiaiueoaaony.

Ieao ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi auaiaea, iaoneiaeaiiay yeiiiieae, eioi?ay
aeaeaao aiciiaeiie aic?anoaiea aeioiaeiinoe aeinoaaony ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeth, a iieoiaoaeth aeaaiaea?y nieaeaieth oeai

O?aeoiaea o?oaea eae oaeoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa n iiceoeee oiaiueoathuaeny
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aeiaaai/iuo aaeeieoe inoaaeyao aio oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe ni/aoaiey ionouo eeaa?aeueiuo iiaeaeaiee n caueoie
eioa?ania i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a aii?inao ca?aaioiie ieaou. Ec
yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea i acaeiiioiioaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ?aai/eo,
iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i iiaeeeiiie eeanniaie iiceoeee Ieao.

Oiaiueoaiea aeioiaea eaaeaeiai ?aai/aai i?e ?anoe?aiee i?aaeeiaeaiey
o?oaea Ieao iauyaeyao a eiia/iii n/aoa iaeicia/eiui oaeoi?ii n oi/ee
c?aiey iauaai o?iaiy aeaaininoiyiey. Eia/a aiai?y, ca eeaa?aeueiuie ii
oi?ia ?annoaeaeaieyie Ieao ne?uaaaony eo ao?aeoaciay nooue, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie aeaaea nieaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou i?e ?inoa
i?aaeeiaeaiey o?oaea iaania/eaaao ?ino eaieoaeenoe/aneiai aiaaonoaa.

Iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey e ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a
yeiiiieeo

Eaeaaeueiui oneiaeai aeinoeaeaiey iaeneioia yeiiiie/aneiai
aeaaininoiyiey Ieao i?iaeieaeae n/eoaoue niaiaaeaiea /anoiiai e
iauanoaaiiiai i?aaeaeueiuo /enouo i?iaeoeoia. Ii iiaieth Ieao, nithcu
eaieoaeenoia e iiiiiieey iiaoo caoi?iiceoue ?ino iauanoaaiiiai /enoiai
i?iaeoeoa, oaaee/eoue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo i?aaeaeueiui /anoiui e i?aaeaeueiui
iauanoaaiiui /enoui i?iaeoeoii. Io?anee n iiieaeathuaeny oeaiie
i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeaa?aeaiu oaiaeaioeee e iiiiiieecaoeee, oae eae a ieo
i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee iiaoo ieacaoueny ieaea n?aaeieo. Aiciiaeiinoue
iiiiiieecaoeee ii naycuaae i?aaeaea anaai n io?aneyie, eioi?ua a neeo
?acaeaoaeny niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeyo oe?iaiiua oiaa?u aunoaai
ea/anoaa a ?an/aoa ia iaeaiueeea ?uiee.

Aeaeaa ii aeiioneaao, /oi a nayce n i?iecaiaenoaii i?iaeoeoeee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuaeny iayeanoe/iui ni?inii aicieeatho iniaaiiua iiiiiieee.

O?aeooy iiiiiieee n iiceoeee ?uiea, ii aaiaeeo oaeia iiiyoea eae
“iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey”, eioi?ay “aicieeaao a oao oneiaeyo,
eiaaea iaeei ec aeaoo e aieaa i?iaeaaoeia iaania/eaaao oiaa?aie
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ?uiea, ia eioi?ue iie iinoaaeytho naith
i?iaeoeoeeth” (o. 1, n. 335).

Aeey oneiaee iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee, niaeanii Ieao, e?eaua
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ecia?aaeathony i?yiuie eeieyie.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea iiiiiieee e iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee o Ieao
ia?aie/eaaaony eneeth/eoaeueii iaeanoueth ?uiea, oioy ii e aeaeaao
ianeieueei caia/aiee i ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee.
A yoii aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie aai iaoiaeieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea e ioeaiea
oaeiai aaaeiiai aeey eaieoaeecia yaeaiey, eae iiiiiieey. A ioee/ea io
i?inoie eiieo?aioeee i?inoay iiiiiieey naycuaaaony ei n iaee/eai oieueei
iaeiiai i?iaeaaoea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea oiaa?a eee oneoa e
nouanoaiaaieai iacia/eoaeueiie eiieo?aioeee (iiiiiieenoe/aneie) ni
noi?iiu oao, eoi i?iecaiaeeo aiaeiae/iue oiaa? eee aai caiaieoaee.
Iiaeiaiua ioeaiee iicaieytho caianee?iaaoue iiaeeeiioth i?e?iaeo
eaieoaeenoe/aneie iiiiiieee e e oiio aea ne?uoue oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
ainiiaenoai iiiiiieee naycaii n acaei/eaaieai oeai ?aaee ecaea/aiey
iiiiiieueii aunieie i?eauee.

N iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey iiiiiieee eiieo?aioeey ia i?aia?acoaony a
aaciaeaeioth iiiiiieenoe/aneoth eiieo?aioeeth, a i?eia?aoaao iiaue
oa?aeoa?, noaiiaeony aua aieaa iaeanoi/aiiie e ?ac?ooeoaeueiie. Ii
iiaieth Eaieia, ia?aae iaie oaea ia eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaeeeo e
e?oiiuo, oaoie/anee ionoaeuo e oaoie/anee ia?aaeiauo i?aaei?eyoee.
Ia?aae iaie – oaeooaiea iiiiiieenoaie oao, eoi ia iiae/eiyaony
iiiiiieee, aa aiaoo, aa i?iecaieo. Yoa oa?aeoa?enoeea, aeoaiei
ane?uaathuay iiiiiieenoe/aneoth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, iaaeyaeii
iieacuaaao enoeiioth oeaio ?annoaeaeaiee Ieao i iiiiiieenoe/aneie
eiieo?aioeee.

Ieao cao?aaeaaao aii?in i aeeyiee a oneiaeyo iiiiiieenoe/aneie
eiieo?aioeee aiaae?aiey iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee ia oeaio
i?aaeeiaeaiey iin?aaenoaii yeiiiiee ia ecaea?aeeao. Ii ii no?aieoueny
auaanoe ionthaea nieaeaiea oeaiu aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee e oaaee/aiea
yeiiiie/aneiai aeaaininoiyiey. Oaeea auaiaeu iaoiaeyony a aiiethuai
i?ioeai?a/ee n iiiiiieenoe/aneie oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeeie. A oneiaeyo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee iiaua ecia?aoaiey iicaieytho a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie nieceoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth noieiinoue oiaa?a ii
n?aaiaieth n iauanoaaiiie, anee iie, oioy au ia a?aiy,
iiiiiieece?othony. A ?acoeueoaoa iiiiiieee, aiaae?eaoea oa eee eiua
aeinoeaeaiey oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, nieaeatho naie cao?aou, ii
i?iaeieaeatho aua?anuaaoue ia ?uiie oiaa?u ii iiiiiieueii aunieie oeaia.
Iiiiiieey eniieuecoao i?aeiouanoaa e?oiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oieueei a
ei?unoiuo oeaeyo, a ioithaeue ia ?aaee ?inoa yeiiiie/aneiai
aeaaininoiyiey. A iiaeoiae Ieao e yaeaieth iiiiiieee i?aaenoaaeythony ei
eae yaeaiea ?uiea.

Ieao ioeaieaaao o?oae ?aai/eo eae ?ooeiiue, eai eiaao aeaei eeoue n
?aai/eie i?inoiai oece/aneiai o?oaea, eioi?ue ia iiaeao aucaaoue oaeiai
eioa?ana, eae o?oae “i?eaeiaeueiuo” aeaeia. Iiyoiio, aeey
iiaeoeanouaaiey eioaineoeeaoeee o?oaea ?aai/eo ii i?aaeeaaaao
eniieueciaaoue iioiaiiiua, ii nouanoao, nenoaiu ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?e
eioi?uo iia noaaeony a caaeneiinoue io eiee/anoaa i?iecaaaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee. *oiau naeaaeeoue iaaeiaieuenoai ?aai/eo ii ioneaaony a
?annoaeaeaiey i nicaeaiee “o?oaeiaiai ia?oia?noaa” i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e
?aai/eo aeey aicaoaeaeaiey a ethaeyo “/oanoaa nianoaaiiinoe e
iao?eioecia ii ioiioaieth e iaiyaoae eo oe?ia” (o. 2, n. 76). Yoi oae
iacuaaaiay nenoaia ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oi, /oiau oaaaeeoue o?oaeyueony,
aoaeoi iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey (eaieoaeenoa) iaoneiaeaiu eioa?anaie
anaai iauanoaa. Oi anoue, Ieao caieiaeny ?anniio?aieai caeiiiia?iinoae
oi?ie?iaaiey acaeiiioiioaiee a eieeaeoeaa iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e
oi?aaeythueie – i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeanoe eaieoaea.

Eiia/ii, oe?iu, i?eiaiythuea eciu?aiiua i?eaiu ii onoaiiaeaieth
“ia?oia?noaa”, aeiaeeenue ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, oaaee/aiey
aeiee aunieiea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, nie?auaiey iayaie ia ?aaioo. Ii ia
neo/aeii eiiiaiee, caiyoua ia?ano?ieeie ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi noi?iiieeia
“iaiaauaiey o?oaea”, ?acei nie?aoeee eioi?iaoeeth i naieo yenia?eiaioao,
i?e?aaieaay ooa/eo eioi?iaoeee i iiauo oi?iao i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e
?ane?uoeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nae?aoia.

I?e yoii Ieao i/aiue iiae?iaii iienuaaao n?aaieoaeueiua aeinoieinoaa
?acee/iuo nenoai iieaou o?oaea a caaeneiinoe io au?aaioee; ia iiaeao ii
iaieoe e oaeie ceiaiaeiaaiue aii?in, eae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai
aeiy. Ii oaiaa?eaaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia no?aieoueny e /?acia?iiio
oaeeeiaieth ?aai/aai aeiy. ?aooao Ieao e ca onoaiiaeaiea aeey aeaiuei e
aeaoae ?aai/aai aeiy iaiueoae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, /ai aeey ioae/ei,
oioy i?eioeeieaeueiuo aic?aaeaiee i?ioea eniieueciaaiey aeaoneiai o?oaea
any/anee ecaaaaao. A?aieoeu ?aai/aai a?aiaie aeey ?acee/iuo ii oa?aeoa?o
o?oaea a?oii ?aaioieeia ii?aaeaeythony ecae?aoaeueii. Ii niaeaoaaony n
aiciiaeiinoueth ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey a?aieoe ?aai/aai aeiy,
eai i?aaei?eieiaoaee a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee eaeoo ia “eciaoeaaiea”
?aai/eo, ia caaeyaeuaay a aoaeouaa; ii n/eoaao, /oi n nioeeaeueiie oi/ee
c?aiey aiieia ii?aaaeaiii aeaeaeaiea ca nie?auaiea ?aai/aai aeiy aei 8 –
9 /ania.

Ieao i?aaeeaaaao neiaeiue noaoenoe/aneee aiia?ao aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
o?iaiy “ni?aaaaeeeaie” ca?aaioiie ieaou. Oeaiiinoue yoiai aiia?aoa n?aco
noaiiaeony ?aaiie ioeth ec-ca naiiai i?eioeeia, ii?aaeaeythuaai,
“ni?aaaaeeeaa” ca?aaioiay ieaoa eee iao.

Ieao iauyaeyao “ni?aaaaeeeaie” oo ca?aaioioth ieaoo, eioi?ay ?aaia
i?aaeaeueiiio i?iaeoeoo o?oaea. Eia/a aiai?y, aiaeec ca?aaioiie ieaou n
naiiai ia/aea noaaeony ia noaoai aoeueaa?iua iiceoeee. Aaeeinoaaiiue
?aaeueiue iiiaio a enneaaeiaaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou caeanue i?aaenoaaeyao
oeacaiea ia aa iaiaoiaeeioth naycue n o?iaiai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea. Yenieoaoaoi?neee enoi/iee ca?aaioiie ieaou ieacuaaaony aia noa?u
aieiaiey Ieao.

Eeoue a eiia/iii n/aoa Ieao noaeeeaaaony n aeaaiui – n aac?aaioeoeae,
oai o?iie/aneei yaeaieai, eioi?ia a ei?ia iiae?uaaao aiciiaeiinoe
?aai/aai iaiaaeeaiii iieo/eoue aieueooth ca?aaioioth ieaoo o ae?oaiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaey.

Aeey Ieao i?e/eia aac?aaioeoeu nia/aea e?iaony a i?inoii iiieaeaiee
ni?ina ia i?iaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaey. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue, ni?in ia i?iaeoeo
eioi?iai nie?auaaony, iiaeao, eae ooaa?aeaeaao Ieao, nie?aoeoue
i?iecaiaenoai o?aiy ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie: 1) aeaoue ?aai/ei ?aaioaoue
iieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue, oaieea /anoue ec ieo; 2) aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue
anai ?aai/ei ?aaioaoue iieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue, ia inouanoaeyoue eo
/a?aaeiaaiea oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iaeiia?aiaiii auea caiyoa oieueei
/anoue eo ieo; 3) i?aaeinoaaeoue ?aai/ei aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue
iaiieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue, i?e/ai oeaeue ooao ?aai/eo ieaaeaony caiyoui a
oa/aiea anaai ?aai/aai aeiy. Yoe iinueee iniiaaiu ia oii niia?aaeaiee,
/oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeth anaaaea aaaeii eiaoue iiae ?oeie a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeinoaoi/iia /enei eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo.

E ana-oaee, a /ai aea i?e/eia aac?aaioeoeu i?e eaieoaeecia? Ec aai
oai?ee ca?aaioiie ieaou oaeie ioaao i?inooiaao aeinoaoi/ii ynii. Anee
ia?ooaaony “ni?aaaaeeeaue” i?aaeae ca?aaioiie ieaou, oaycuaaaiue n
nicaeaieai i?aaeaeueiiai /enoiai i?iaeoeoa, nicaeaaaaiiai o?oaeii (eia/a
aiai?y, anee ca?aaioiay ieaoa iiauoaaony), oi oiaiueoaaony
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, e aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
ni?aaaaeeeainoe eaieoaeeno auioaeaeai nie?aoeoue i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia
(nie?aoea oae eee eia/a /anoue ?aai/eo), /oiau aucaaoue aiineaaenoaee
iiauoaiea ni?ina. Ieao iaeiei auno?aeii oaeaaao aeaoo caeoeaa:
iieiinoueth ne?uaaao enoeiioth i?e/eio aac?aaioeoeu i?e eaieoaeecia,
auaiaey aa ec neeoeii aunieie ca?aaioiie ieaou o?oaeyueony, e
i?aiiaeiineo aac?aaioeoeo ia a aeaea o?iie/aneiai, a a aeaea a?aiaiiiai
yaeaiey, eai iiauoathueeny iaecaaaeii ni?in ia oiaa?u, i?iecaiaenoai
eioi?uo nie?auaii, auioaeeo, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, i?aaei?eieiaoaey aiiaue
i?eaea/ue aeiiieieoaeueiua oaeoi?u (i?aaeaea anaai o?oae) aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey aic?inoaai ni?ina.

A aii?inao ca?aaioiie ieaou e aac?aaioeoeu eeanniaay i?eno?anoiinoue
Ieao, aioe?aai/ee oa?aeoa? aai oai?ee oaeaea ioneaaeeaaaony aeinoaoi/ii
/aoei e ynii.

Eeanniaia /oouea Ieao iiaeneacaei, ioeoaea eaieoaeecio a?iceo aeaaiay
iianiinoue, eoi iniiaiie i?ioeaiee ao?aeoacee. Iiyoiio ii iinayoee
aieueooth /anoue “Yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeaaininoiyiey” (ni. /. 3)
iiiuoeai caianee?iaaoue i?e?iaeo i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

A?oo? Ieao auoae a ionoaaeo a 1943 aiaeo, caieiay eaoaae?o iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee a Eaia?eaeaea ia i?ioyaeaiee 35 eao. Ia i?ioyaeaiee ?yaea eao
eaeineaineay oai?ey ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy aeioiaea, naeaeaaoay oii? ia
ooieoeee iio?aaeaiey e eiaanoeoeee, ioiaeaeioea eiioeaioeeth Ieao ia
aoi?ie ieai. A iineaaeiea aea aiaeu ii ia?a iaino?aiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee eaieoaeecia e i?iaaea iaaeaaeae
ia ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee iaaethaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiue
?aiannain iaieeanne/aneeo oai?ee.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Ieao A. N. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey aeaaininoiyiey. – I.: I?ia?ann, 1985.

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