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*oaaoneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie E.I. Oeueyiiaa

Einoeooo yeiiiieee, oeiainia e i?aaa

Yeiiiie/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ia oaio:

Auiieiee: nooaeaio I eo?na a?oiiu CYE-21-98

Ieeieaaa Aeaaeeneaa TH?ueaae/

I?iaa?ee: i?aiiaeaaaoaeue Eaaiiaa A.I.

*aaiena?u 1999

Iaeaaeaiea

Aaaaeaiea…………………………………………………………………………………………3

Nia?aiaiiay oi?ia a?aiaeu – eeceia, aai nouiinoue……………………………………..4

Eeceia a ?innee e ia Caiaaea, aai ianoi a eiiieaena ia?

ii iiauoaieth eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe……………………………………………14

Eeceiaiaue “aoi” ia ii?iaa?! (ia?niaeoeau e i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey)…………………20

Caeeth/aiea……………………………………………………………………………………..31

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u…………………………………………………………33

Aaaaeaiea

Oeaeueth ethaie yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea
iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe, o.a. iieo/aiea iaeaieueoae i?eauee i?e
eiathueony ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nao. Niiniau ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e
ii?aaeaeyee ?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa ia i?ioyaeaiee anae aai
enoi?ee. Ii iiaieth Aeae. Aaeona, i?aaenoaaeoaey eiiiaiee “Eaeni e Ei”,
/aeiaae i?ioiaeeo a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iauanoaa ianeieueei noaaeee
?acaeoey: ?aa, e?aiinoiie, iaaiiue ?aaioiee, nianoaaiiee.

Yeiiiieea, iniiaaiiay ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, eiaao aieueoee
iioaioeeae ii n?aaiaieth n ethaie ae?oaie. Yoio iioaioeeae au?aaeaaony a
?aciiia?acee niiniaia eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiinoe. Iaeiei ec oaeeo
niiniaia yaeyaony a?aiaea.

A?aiaeiua ioiioaiey ecaanoiu n ae?aaiinoe, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a
naeueneii oicyenoaa. Ii a nia?aiaiiii ie?a a?aiaea eiaao niaa?oaiii eiie
yeiiiie/aneee niune, /ai ?aiueoa. Anee i?aaeaea iia neoaeeea n?aaenoaii
yenieoaoaoeee e caeaaaeaiey a?aiaeaoi?ia, aaea yeiiiieeo ii
yenoaineaiiio iooe ?acaeoey, oi iuia a?aiaea iaiai?io iiauoaao noaiaiue
yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu, aeaao oain iaeiio aeciano ia oniao,
eioaineoeoee?oao ?acaeoea yeiiiieee.

Nia?aiaiiay a?aiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, iniiaaiiie ia ia?aaea/a a n?i/iia e aiciacaeiia
iieueciaaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ia ia/aeao
aeia?iaieueiinoe e ?aaiii?aaey noi?ii a oeaeyo auionea i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa) e iieo/aiey aeioiaea.

?aaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa a?aiaeu:

aeiaiai?iinoue iniiaiuo ioiioaiee a?aiaeaoi?a e a?aiaeiaeaoaey, eo
iieiia ?aaiii?aaea, a cia/eo e onoie/eaue oa?aeoa?;

oeene?iaaiiinoue a?aiaeiie ieaou, iicaieythuay ?acaeaaoueny a?aiaeaoi?o,
iieo/aoue aieaa aunieee aeioiae;

iieiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a?aiaeaoi?a a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
iieaoa o?oaea, o?oaeiaii ?anii?yaeea;

aiciiaeiinoue oeo/oaiey e i?e?auaiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa n iineaaeothuei
aiciauaieai cao?ao, a oaeaea aueoia (iniaaiii a eeceiaa).

A?aiaeaoi?, eniieuecoy a?aiaeiaaiiia eiouanoai, yeiiiieo nianoaaiiua
n?aaenoaa e iieo/aao aeioiae io yoiai, e nianoaaiii aeayoaeueiinoe,
inouanoaeyaiie ia iniiaa yenieoaoaoeee a?aiaeiaaiiiai eiouanoaa.

Nia?aiaiiay oi?ia a?aiaeu – eeceia, aai nouiinoue

Ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iinoaaee ia?aae i?iiuoeaiiuie
i?aaei?eyoeyie ?yae i?iaeai, aeaaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony: eae
ooaa?aeeoueny a iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ieo oneiaeyo aic?anoathuae
eiieo?aioeee, nie?auaiey ?uiea nauoa ec-ca aunieeo oeai i?iaeoeoeee e
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, neiaeiinoae iienea iinoaaueeia nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia
e ia?aie/aiiinoe oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Nouanoaoao ie?iaay i?aeoeea eiiia?aoeee eae aioo?e no?ai, oae e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay a eniieueciaaiee i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iaoei,
iiauo oaoiieiaee, nii?oaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey /a?ac iniaoth
oi?io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe – eeceia.

Neiaeiinoue ioiioaiee, neeaaeuaathueony a nayce n eeceiaii, ii?aaeaeyao
aai nouiinoue e i?ienoiaeaeaiea.

Eeceia – yoi eiiieaen aicieeathueo eiouanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n
ia?aaea/ae iai?oaeiaaiey a iieueciaaiea iinea aai i?eia?aoaiey o
i?iecaiaeeoaey.

Eeceia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa ia aica?aoiie iniiaa, o.a.
i?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae, eeceiaiaeaoaeue
iieo/aao eo ia?aoii a onoaiiaeaiiia a?aiy, oai naiui, yaeyynue oi?iie
a?aiaeu. I?e yoii ca naith oneoao ii iieo/aao aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a aeaea
eiienneiiiuo.

Eeceia ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth niioaaonoaoao e?aaeeoiui ioiioaieyi, a
iineieueeo caaiuee e nnoaeiaeaoaeue eniieuecotho eaieoae ia a
aeaiaaeiie, a a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie oi?ia, oi ii noiae e n eiaanoeoeeyie
eaieoaea.

Eeceiaiaeaoaeue ieacuaaao eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth eae au oeiainiaoth oneoao:
i?eia?aoaao ca iieioth noieiinoue o iinoaaueea iai?oaeiaaiea a
nianoaaiiinoue, a caoai eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue aiciauaao yoo noieiinoue
ia?eiaee/aneeie aciinaie (ieaoaaeaie).

Eeceia a yeiiiie/aneii niunea – yoi e?aaeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue
eeceiaiaeaoaeai eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth a oi?ia ia?aaeaaaaiiai a iieueciaaiea
iai?oaeiaaiey (oiaa?iue e?aaeeo), eioi?ue ioee/aaony io o?aaeeoeeiiiie
aaieianeie nnoaeu.

Iniaaiiinoe eeceiaa i?iyaeythony e a i?aaa iieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaieai
(eiouanoaii). Ca eeceiaiaeaoaeai nio?aiyaony i?aai ninianoaaiieea ia
ia?aaeaaaaiia iai?oaeiaaiea, a i?aai ia aai eniieueciaaiea ia?aoiaeeo
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth i?e inouanoaeaiee ei niaeaniaaiiuo eeceiaiauo
ieaoaaeae, a ii enoa/aiee n?iea aeiaiai?a, iinea iieiie auieaou
noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa), i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia?aoiaeeo e
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth.

Nouanoaoao eeceia eae aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa (iaoeiii-oaoie/aneee
eeceia), oae e eeceia iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa. Eeceia aeaeaeeiiai
eiouanoaa ioaaouaaao oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea, o?ainii?oiua
n?aaenoaa, no?ieoaeueioth oaoieeo, au/eneeoaeueioth oaoieeo e ae?oaia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea, i?eai?u. Eeceia aea iaaeaeaeeiiai
eiouanoaa ioaaouaaao caaeaiey e nii?oaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iacia/aiey.

Eeceia eiaao, eae i?aaeei, o?aonoi?iiiee oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee. Yoi
nianoaaiiee eiouanoaa, eioi?ue ia?aaeaao aai ia oneiaeyo eeceiaiaiai
niaeaoaiey – eeceiaiaeaoaeue (eie iiaoo auoue aaiee, oeiainiaua
eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, oe?iu eee
i?aaei?eyoey, eiathuea oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa aeey i?iaaaeaiey eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee). Neaaeothuei o/anoieeii yaeyaony eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue, eioi?ue
iiaeao auoue th?eaee/aneei eeoeii ethaie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu
(ainoaea?noaaiiia, aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai, iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e o.ae.) E, iaeiiaoe – yoi iinoaauee – i?iaeaaaoe
iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) aoaeouaio nianoaaiieeo – eeceiaiaeaoaeth.
Iinoaauee, eae i?aaeei, yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii.

Acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie eeceiaiaie naeaeee no?iyony ii
noaia. Eeceiaiaeaoaeue iiaeae?aao iinoaaueea iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa),
caoai a neeo ionoonoaey nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e aeinooia e caaiiui
n?aaenoaai, ii ia?auaaony e aoaeouaio eeceiaiaeaoaeth, eioi?ue eiaao
iaiaoiaeeiua n?aaenoaa. I?e yoii eeceiaiaeaoaeue i?eia?aoaao
iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai) o iinoaaueea a nianoaaiiinoue, a caoai
ia?aaeaao aai eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea ia oneiaeyo,
iaiaa?eaaaiuo a eeceiaiaii niaeaoaiee.

A caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa o/anoieeia naeaeee eeceia iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
i?yiie, eiaaea i?e aeaoonoi?iiiae naeaeea nianoaaiiee iai?oaeiaaiey
(eiouanoaa), ii aea iinoaauee, naeaao iai?oaeiaaiea a eeceia, e ia
einaaiiue, eiaaea iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai) ia?aaeaaony a eeceia /a?ac
iin?aaeieea eeceiaiaeaoaey. *anoiui neo/aai i?yiiai eeceiaa yaeyaony
aica?aoiue eeceia, eiaaea iinoaauee iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) ia?aaeaao
i?aai nianoaaiieea ia iaai aoaeouaio eeceiaiaeaoaeth ia oneiaeyo
eoiee-i?iaeaaee e anooiaao n iei a ioiioaiey a ea/anoaa iieueciaaoaey
iai?oaeiaaiey, o.a. iinoaauee e eeceiaiaeaoaeue a yoii neo/aa aunooiatho
eae iaeii e oi aea th?eaee/aneia eeoei.

Eeceiaiaua naeaeee ii ieoiaaiinoe iiae?acaeaeythony ia eeceia n iieiie
ieoiaaiinoueth, eiaaea iaania/eaaaony iieiay auieaoa noieiinoe
iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) eeceiaiaeaoaeth, e iaiieiie ieoiaaiinoueth,
eiaaea iiea/eaaaony oieueei /anoue aai.

Io oneiaee aii?oecaoeee eeceiaiaua naeaeee iiaoo auoue n iieiie
aii?oecaoeeae e i?e yoii n iieiie auieaoie noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey
(eiouanoaa) e n iaiieiie, o.a. n /anoe/iie iieaoie noieiinoe.

Ii i?eciaeai ieoiaaiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) e oneiaeyi aai
aii?oecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony e aeae eeceiaa: oeiainiaue e iia?aoeaiue.
Oeiainiaue eeceia oa?aeoa?ecoaony iieiie ieoiaaiinoueth iai?oaeiaaiey
(eiouanoaa) eee auieaoie aai noieiinoe, a i?e iia?aoeaiii n?iee
iiaaoaiey noieiinoe ei?i/a n?iea aii?oecaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa).

Nouanoaoao eae aioo?aiiee eeceia, eiaaea ana o/anoieee naeaeee
i?eiaaeeaaeao iaeiie no?aia, oae e aiaoiee eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue, eiaaea
iaeia ec o?ao noi?ii eee ana o?e noi?iiu iaeiia?aiaiii i?aaenoaaeytho
?aciua no?aiu.

O eeceiaa i?aiaeaaeaao oeiainiaay ooieoeey, iineieueeo ii yaeyaony
oi?iie aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a iniiaiua oiiaeu, aeiiieiyao o?aaeeoeeiiiua
eaiaeu eiaanoe?iaaiey: nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey e
i?aaiecaoeee, aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou, athaeaeaoiua e i?i/ea enoi/ieee.

Eeceia ?anoe?yao eaiaeu ii i?eaea/aieth n?aaenoa, noaeaao noa?o
eniieueciaaiey aeieain?i/iiai e?aaeeoa e ?anoe?yao i?eaea/aiea caaiiuo
enoi/ieeia.

Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue inaiaiaeaeaaony io aaeeiia?aiaiiie iieaou noieiinoe
iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa), /oi iicaieyao aio naeaeaoue ioaeiue auai?,
aeaaea a neo/aa e?aaeeoiuo ia?aie/aiee e iaaiciiaeiinoe i?eaea/aiey aeey
yoeo oeaeae caaiiuo n?aaenoa.

I?aeiouanoai eeceiaiaiai iaoaiecia i?iniao?eaaaony e a inouanoaeaiee
ieaoaaeae. Iineieueeo aeiaiaa?eaathueany noi?iiu iiaoo o/eouaaoue
oeiainiaia ninoiyiea, aaea iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ion?i/ea ia?aiai
ieaoaaea, ia?anoaiea eeceiaiauo auieao eee iaiai?io e o.ae.
E?iia oeiainiaie ooieoeee eeceia eiaao e i?iecaiaenoaaiioth, yaeyynue
iaeaieaa i?ia?anneaiui iaoiaeii iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oii /enea e ia?aaeiaie oaoieeie.

Eae i?aaeei, eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue eiaao aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?anoe
iaiaoiaeeiue iaai? oneoa: io oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey aei oneoa ii
no?aoiaaieth, ia?eaoeiao, iaania/aieth nu?ueai, ?aai/ae neeie e ae?.

I?aaiaia iaania/aiea eeceiaiauo ioiioaiee yaeyaony aaaeiie aa?aioeae aai
oniaoiiai ?acaeoey. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa iacaueuaiiinoue eae
eeceiaiaeaoaeae, oae e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae i?eaiaeeo e naea?aeeaaieth eo
acaeiiioiioaiee.

I?aaiaia iaania/aiea eeceiaiauo naeaeie eiaao iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie niaaeiuie naeaeeaie. I?e eeceiaiauo naeaeeao
iaiaa?eaaaony eiiieaen ioiioaiee e iaania/eaaaony n iiiiuueth
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa: aeiaiai?ia ii?o/aiey,
a?aiaeu, caeia e ae?.

I?aaiioiioaieyi i?e eeceiaiaii iaoaiecia i?enoue iaeioi?ua /a?ou
aeiaiai?a-ii?o/aiey, eiaaea iaeei aeiaiai?-ii?o/aiea yaeyaony
i?iaeieaeaieai ae?oaiai. I?e yoii a ia?aii aeiaiai?a iaeiie noi?iiie
yaeyaony iioaioeeaeueiue eeceiaiaeaoaeue, eioi?ue ii?o/aao eeceiaiaie
eiiiaiee i?eia?anoe aeey iaai iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai), ae?oaie
noi?iiie yaeyaony eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey, caeeth/athuay aeiaiai?
eoiee-i?iaeaaee n iinoaaueeii aai. Aoi?ie aea aeiaiai? caeeth/aao
eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey n eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, eioi?iio iia ii?o/aao
iieo/eoue iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai) e oiieiiii/eaaao aai i?aaeuyaeyoue
i?aoaicee ii aai ea/anoao iinoaaueeo – ecaioiaeoaeth.

Nouanoaothuea o?aaeeoeeiiiua einoeooou a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa ia iiaoo
aaeaeaaoii oi?aaeyoue anai eiiieaenii eeceiaiauo ioiioaiee. I?e yoii
yeiiiie/aneay noi?iia eeceiaiaie naeaeee i?eaeaao aicieeathuei
o?aonoi?iiiei acaeiiioiioaieyi iaeioi?ue aniaeo, eioi?ue ia o/eouaaaony
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie ii?iaie e i?aaeeaie, o.a. eeceiaiaua
ioiioaiey io?aaeatho niaa?oaiii iiaue oei ioiioaiee, eioi?ue
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony i?eciaieai naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey eeceiaiaiai
aeiaiai?a.

?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey ia eiaao niaoeeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii
o?aaoee?iaaieth eeceiaiauo i?aaiioiioaiee, oioy i?iaeo Caeiia i eeceiaa
iaoiaeeony ia ?anniio?aiee a Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia. Iaeiaei nouanoaoao
A?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea i eeceiaa (Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ?633 io
29 ethiy 1995 a.), eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue. E?iia yoiai aeey
?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue noaoueth 10 A?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeannoaeueiiai eiaeaena ?O, eioi?ue ?aaoee?oao noiaeiua ioiioaiey. Ii
aiaeiaee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeiaiai? eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia (a?aiaeu).
Oioy Iniiau a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O th?eaee/anee ia
o?aeootho oa?iei “eeceia” e eeceiaiaua niaeaoaiey ia auaeaeythony a
?acaeaea iaycaoaeueiiai i?aaa, iaeiaei noiaeiua ioiioaiey ?aaoee?othony
a Iniiaao a aeaaa “A?aiaea” (noaouee 85…88).

Iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iauea iieiaeaiey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua a aeiaiai?ao
eiouanoaaiiiai iaeia (a?aiaeu), eioi?ua io?aaeaiu a aeaaa A?aaeaeaineiai
eiaeaena ?O “Eiouanoaaiiue iaei” (noaouee 275…294). I?aaiioiioaiey ii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui naeaeeai iaiai?aiu a noaouea 277 A?aaeaeaineiai
eiaeaena ?O. I?e yoii ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth yoa ii?ia yaeyaony iauae e
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey.

Niaeanii noaouea 283 A?aaeaeaineiai Eiaeaena ?O iaieiaoaeue (a oneiaeyo
eeceiaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue) iaycai eniieueciaaoue iai?oaeiaaiea
(eiouanoai) niaeanii caeeth/aiiiio niaeaoaieth e aai iacia/aieth.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O i?aaeoniio?aii eciaiaiea oneiaee aeiaiai?a, a
oaeaea aai aein?i/iia ?anoi?aeaiea, eioi?ia aeiioneaaony ii niaeaoaieth
noi?ii.

Noaoueae 87 Iniia a iauai aeaea ?aaoee?oaony ii?yaeie aueoia
a?aiaeiaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, a noaoueae 88 i?aaeoniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia a?aiaeu e ae?oaea ii?iu, eioi?ua iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue e a eeceiaiauo iia?aoeeyo.

O/anoea ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee ?O /a?ac eeceiaiaoth oi?io ana aieaa ianoiyoaeueii o?aaoao
?anoe?aiey oieoeeaoeee i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eeceiaiaiai iaoaiecia.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ie?iaiai eeceiaiaiai ?uiea, o?aaoee?iaaiea eeceiaiauo
i?aaiioiioaiee, eioi?ua a ?aciuo no?aiao o?aeoothony iaiaeeiaeiai,
i?aaei?eieiaaony a Eiiaaioeee i iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeiainiaie a?aiaea,
i?eiyoie a iaa 1988 a. a a. Iooaaa (Eaiaaea). Oeaeueth caeeth/aiey
Eiiaaioeee yaeyaony ooi/iaiea iniiaiie oa?ieiieiaee ii oeiainiaie
a?aiaea (eeceiao), a oaeaea ?ac?aaioea ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo i?aaiaua
acaeiiioiioaiey anao noi?ii eeceiaiaie naeaeee.

Eiiaaioeey ooi/iyao e ia?aie/eaaao naeaeee, iiaeiaaeathuea iiae
ii?aaeaeaiea eeceiaiauo. Iia o?aeooao eeanne/aneee eeceia, eioi?ue iineo
o?aonoi?iiiee oa?aeoa?. Eiiaaioeey ia ?aaoee?oao aeaoonoi?iiiea naeaeee,
eioi?ua a ?innee iieo/eee iacaaiea “aica?aoiue eeceia”, a oaeaea e
iio?aaeoaeueneea naeaeee, o.a. a?aiaeo aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ee/iuo
iio?aaiinoae. A Eiiaaioeee i?iecaaaeaii ooi/iaiea iauaia eiouanoaaiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeceiaiaeaoaey, eeceiaiiieo/aoaey e iinoaaueea –
ecaioiaeoaey.

Caneoaeeaatho aieiaiey caoeene?iaaiiua a Eiiaaioeee i?aaeea i
acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie ii naeaeea a neo/aa i?eciaiey
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ?inney iiea ia yaeyaony /eaiii Eiiaaioeee, ii
nouanoaothuea i?aaiaua ioiioaiey iicaieytho a eaeie-oi ia?a i?iaiaeeoue
e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eeceiaiaua naeaeee. Iaeiaei anaiauaiethuaa i?aaiaia
iaania/aiea eeceiaiaiai iaoaiecia iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaaaoue.
Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia oi?aaeaiea eeceiaii iaania/eaaaony, a iniiaiii,
iooai nicaeaiey niaoeeaeece?othueony ia i?iaaaeaiee eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee
eiiiaiee, eioi?ua nin?aaeioa/eaatho aiaaeeii ana iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) a eeceia. Eiiiaiey i?aaiecoao
eeceiaiaue i?ioeann, aeieoiaioiiai?io, ?aeeaio, iaania/eaaao oaoie/aneia
ianeoaeeaaiea eeceiaiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa), aai ?aiiio,
iiaeeecaoeeth aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia e ae?.

Iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi oniaoiia ?acaeoea eeceiaiaiai iaoaiecia e
?anoe?aiea aai ianooaaia aiciiaeiu oieueei i?e iaee/ee eiieo?e?othueo
iaaeaeo niaie e ai?thueony ca eeeaioo?o eiiiaiee.

A ?innee nouanoaoao caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca aeey inouanoaeaiey aaieaie
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. A niioaaonoaee n i. “I” noaouee 5 Caeiia ?O “I
aaieao e aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe” aaieai ?ac?aoaii ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie,
i?iaiaeeoue e eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee. I?e yoii aaie iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a
eeceiaiaii i?ioeanna ia eae nnoaeiaeaoaeue eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, ii e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eae eeceiaiaeaoaeue, o.a. iai?yioth o/anoaiaaoue a
eeceiaiaii i?ioeanna.

Ii n?aaiaieth n aiiaue i?aaiecoaiuie eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie oaeia
o/anoea aaieia aeaao ei i?aeiouanoai, iineieueeo iie oaea
i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiu e aeey inouanoaeaiey eie eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee
iaiaoiaeeii eeoue nicaeaiea a eo no?oeoo?a iiae?acaeaeaiey niaoeeaeenoia
n ii?aaeaeaiiui iiuoii aaieianeie ?aaiou e ciathueo niaoeeoeeo
eeceiaiaiai i?ioeanna.

O/eouaay iaino?aiea eiieo?aioeee aaieianeeo oneoa a oneiaeyo ?uiea,
iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciui yaeyaony i?iaaaeaiea oaeeo oneoa eiiia?/aneeie
aaieaie, iineieueeo yoi iicaieeo iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii ?anoe?eoue noa?o
aaieianeiai aeeyiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a ?innee eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee iiea aua ia
noaee o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeey eiiia?/aneeo Aaieia, e anoanoaaiii eo
ianooaau ianiecia?eiu n eiathueieny iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie.

I?aaiecaoeey eeceiaiaiai i?ioeanna inouanoaeyaony n o/aoii i?ei?eoaoiuo
iai?aaeaiee. I?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oiio aeaeo
iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa), eioi?ia iaania/eaaao i?iecaiaenoai
aunieiea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia e ?acaeoea yooaeoeaiie noa?u oneoa.
Eeceiaiaue i?ioeann inouanoaeyaony, eae i?aaeei, a o?e yoaia. Nia/aea
i?iaiaeeony iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay ?aaioa ii caeeth/aieth th?eaee/aneeo
niaeaoaiee (aeiaiai?ia). Yoiio i?aaeoanoaoao iiae?iaiia eco/aiea anao
oneiaee e iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeie naeaeee. Iinea /aai ioi?ieythony:
cayaea, iieo/aaiay eeceiaiaeaoaeai io aoaeouaai eeceiaiiieo/aoaey,
caeeth/aiea i ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe eeceiaiiieo/aoaey e yooaeoeaiinoe
eeceiaiaiai i?iaeoa, caeac-ia?yae, iai?aaeyaiue iinoaaueeo iai?oaeiaaiey
eeceiaiaeaoaeai, e?aaeeoiue aeiaiai?, caeeth/aaiue eeceiaiaeaoaeai
(eeceiaiaie eiiiaieae) n aaieii i i?aaeinoaaeaiee nnoaeu aeey
i?iaaaeaiey eeceiaiauo naeaeie.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia eeceiaiaiai i?ioeanna a o?ao- e aeaoonoi?iiieo
aeiaiai?ao i?iecaiaeeony th?eaee/aneia cae?aieaiea eeceiaiaie naeaeee.
I?e yoii ioi?ieythony: aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee iai?oaeiaaiey
(eiouanoaa) a eeceia, aeo i?eaiee aai a yenieoaoaoeeth, eeceiaiaia
niaeaoaiea, aeiaiai? ia oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea ia?aaeaaaaiiai a
eeceia iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa).

O?aoee yoai eeceiaiaiai i?ioeanna ioaaouaaao ia?eiae eniieueciaaiey
iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa). I?e yoii aaaeaony aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e
io/aoiinoue ii anai eeceiaiaui iia?aoeeyi, inouanoaeyaony auieaoa
eeceiaiaeaoaeth eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae, a ii enoa/aieth n?iea eeceiaa
ioi?ieyaony aeaeueiaeoaa eniieueciaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa).

Iniiaiui aeieoiaioii eeceiaiaie naeaeee, a eioi?ii io?aaeathony iniiaiua
ioiioaiey, yaeyaony eeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea. Iii caeeth/aaony iaaeaeo
eeceiaiaeaoaeai e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, aaea oeacuaaaony, /oi
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth i?aaeinoaaeyaony a iieueciaaiea aeey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai). Eeceiaiaia
niaeaoaiea anooiaao a neeo n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey aeoa i?eaiee
iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa), eae iauaeoa naeaeee a yenieoaoaoeeth e
aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea iaiai?aiiiai a iai n?iea. Aeo i?eaiee ioi?ieyaony
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, a iiaeienuaaaony anaie noi?iiaie, o/anoieeaie
eeceiaiaie naeaeee, o.a. eeceiaiaeaoaeai, eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai e
iinoaaueeii – ecaioiaeoaeai.

Iinea ioi?ieaiey aeoa i?eaiee iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) a yenieoaoaoeeth
eeceiaiaeaoaeue ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai,
iineieueeo iineaaeiee auai? iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) inouanoaeye
naiinoiyoaeueii.

A i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue
i?ecaai eniieueciaaoue aai a niioaaonoaee n ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie e
oaoie/aneeie eino?oeoeeyie iinoaaueea, niaea?aeaoue aai a
?aaioiniiniaiii ninoiyiee, i?iecaiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiia ianeoaeeaaiea,
oaeouee ?aiiio e ana yoi ca naie n/ao.

Ana ?enee, aicieeathuea a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey
(eiouanoaa) e naycaiiua n ?ac?ooaieai, iioa?ae, i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiui
eciinii, ii?/ae eee iia?aaeaeaieai iacaaeneii io i?e/eiaiiiai oua?aa,
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue i?eieiaao ia naay.

Eae i?aaeei, iauay noiia eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae aeeth/aao: noiio,
aiciauathuoth noieiinoue eeceiaiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa), ieaoo
eeceiaiaeaoaeth ca eniieueciaaiea, e?aaeeoiua ?ano?nu ia aai
i?eia?aoaiea ii eeceiaiaiio aeiaiai?o, eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
eeceiaiaeaoaeth, ieaoo ca no?aoiaaiea eeceiaiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey
(eiouanoaa), anee iii auei cano?aoiaaii eeceiaiaeaoaeai, ieaoo ca
aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae eeceiaiaeaoaeth, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeiaiai?ii,
noiio iaeiaa ia eeceiaiaia iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai), ia i?eia?aoaiea
aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, yaeythueony i?aaeiaoii eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a,
eiua cao?aou eeceiaiaeaoaey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeiaiai?ii.

Any noiia eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae o eeceiaiiieo/aoaey ioiineony ia
naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie ei i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa). Noiia cao?ao
ca iieueciaaiea e?aaeeoaie, eniieuecoaiuie ia oeiaine?iaaiea eeceiaiauo
naeaeie, ioiineony o eeceiaiaeaoaey ia naaanoieiinoue eeceiaiauo oneoa.
Eeceiaiaia iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai) o/eouaaaony ia aaeaina
eeceiaiaeaoaey ii noieiinoe, ei aea ia/eneyaony e aii?oecaoeey
eeceiaiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) a i?aaeaeao eiyooeoeeaioia,
onoaiiaeaiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O.

N?aaiaiea aa?eaioia iieo/aiey e?aaeeoa iai?yioth e /a?ac eeceia
iieacuaaao, /oi i/aaeaeia e oeiainiaay auaiaea. E?iia oiai, iineieueeo
n?aaenoaa ii eeceiao iaoiaeyony ia aaeaina o eeceiaiaeaoaey, o
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey iiyaeythony aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe i?eaea/aiey
caaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eeceia inouanoaeyaony ?inneeneeie eeceiaiaeaoaeyie e
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeyie a oi?ia eiii?oiiai e yenii?oiiai eeceiaa. I?e yoii
oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu e iaeiae ia eeceiaiaia iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai) ia
aceiathony, anee a eeceiaiaii aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniio?ai aai aica?ao ii
enoa/aiee n?iea eeceiaa. A neo/aa anee a aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniio?ai
iineaaeothuee ia?aoiae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia eeceiaiaia iai?oaeiaaiea
(eiouanoai) ?inneeneie noi?iia (eee iaiai?io) a eiioea n?iea aeiaiai?a
oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu e iaeiae ia eeceiaiaia iai?oaeiaaiea aceiathony.

Eeceiaiaua ?an/aou i?iecaiaeyony: aeaiaaeiuie ieaoaaeaie,
eiiiainaoeeiiiuie oiaa?aie, oneoaaie e ae?., a oaeaea niaoaiiuie, eiaaea
n aeaiaaeiuie auieaoaie aeiioneathony ieaoaaee oiaa?aie e oneoaaie.
Eniieuecothony ieaoaaee n aaainii (aeaiiceoii), eiaaea
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue aiineo aaain eeceiaiaeaoaeth a iiiaio ioi?ieaiey
niaeaoaiey, a caoai iinea aaiaea iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) a
yenieoaoaoeeth auiea/eaaao niaeaniaaiiuie aeieyie inoaaoothny noiio
eeceiaiaiai ieaoaaea.

Iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oaeaea aa?eaio ?an/aoia, eioi?ue aace?oaony ia
iaeioi?ii onoaiiaeaiiii a niaeaoaiee i?ioeaioa io iauaia ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie ia eeceiaiaii iai?oaeiaaiee, io noiiu
iieo/aiiie i?eauee.

Ieaoaaee, eae i?aaeei, aiinyony ii niaeaniaaiiiio noi?iiaie a?aoeeo,
eioi?ue i?eeaaaaony e eeceiaiaiio niaeaoaieth, e iiaoo eiaoue
ia?eiaee/iinoue aaeaiany/ioth, aaeaeaa?oaeueioth eee aaeaaiaeioth.
Aaeeiia?aiaiiua ieaoaaee a aeaea aaaina inouanoaeythony a ni/aoaiee n
ia?eiaee/aneeie aciinaie, anee iie iaiai?aiu a niaeaoaiee noi?ii.

A caaeneiinoe io oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey a niaeaoaiee
iiaeao iaiaa?eaaoueny ii?yaeie auieaou eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ?aaiuie
aeieyie, n oaaee/eaathueieny eee oiaiueoathueieny ?acia?aie, a
caaeneiinoe io onoie/eainoe oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

Iia?aoeee ii eeceiao (oeiainiaiio) iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny oieueei i?e
iaee/ee niioaaonoaothuae eeoeaicee o eeceiaiaeaoaey. I?e ionoonoaee aa,
oeacaiiua iia?aoeee iiaeeaaeao io?aaeaieth a o/aoa a ii?yaeea,
i?aaeoniio?aiiii aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O, enoiaey ec
niaea?aeaiey aeiaiai?a (naeaeee ii naea/a a a?aiaeo eiouanoaa, naeaeee
eoiee-i?iaeaaee).

I?e oeiainiaii eeceiaa eeceiaiaia iai?oaeiaaiea o/eouaaaony o
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey – a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa io?aaeaaony ia n/aoa – 03
“Aeieain?i/ii a?aiaeoaiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa”. O eeceiaiaeaoaey aea
io?aaeaaony ia n/aoa 09 “A?aiaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa e iinooieaieth”. I?e
yoii i?eia?aoaiiia ii eeceiaiaiio aeiaiai?o iai?oaeiaaiea i?eoiaeoaony
ia n/aoa 09 “A?aiaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa e iinooieaieth” noan/ao “A?aiaeiua
iaycaoaeuenoaa ia ?aciauaiiua”, n ioianaieai ia oeacaiiue n/ao iiieii
aeiaiai?iie noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey, niioaaonoaothueo oaiiaeaiiuo
iioeei, nai?ia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, a oaeaea eiuo cao?ao,
oaaee/eaathueo aaeainiaoth noieiinoue iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, a niioaaonoaee
n “Iieiaeaieai ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/aoo aeieain?i/iuo eiaanoeoeee” io 30
aeaeaa?y 1993 a. ?160.

No?aoaaey e oaeoeea ieaie?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo
?uiea no?ieony ia iniiaa aecian-ieaia, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie
eiiieaeniia oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia e i?aaiecaoeeiiiia iainiiaaiea iooae
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Eae i?aaeei, aecian-ieai oi?ie?oaony n
o/anoeai niaoeeaeenoia ii ia?eaoeiao, nauoo, niaaaeaieth, i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, th?enoa e yeiiiienoa-oeiainenoa. Iineaaeiee ia iniiaa
eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeauaeny ai anao ?acaeaeao aecian-ieaia, ioeaieaaao
iaiaoiaeeiua ?ano?nu, cao?aou, iaeeaeaaiua oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou e
yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?e aua?aiiie oeiainiaie
no?aoaaee.

O/eouaay iiceoeaiua iniaaiiinoe eeceiaiaiai iaoaiecia, I?aaeoaeuenoai
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eiyei ?yae iinoaiiaeaiee, aeoeaece?othueo ?ieue
eeceiaa a yeiiiieea ?innee.

Ai eniieiaiea yoeo iinoaiiaeaiee, a oii /enea Iinoaiiaeaiey
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 29 ethiy 1995 a. ?633 “I ?acaeoee eeceiaa a
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”, ?ac?aaioaia “Oaaea?aeueiay i?ia?aiia
?acaeoey eeceiaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia 1996-2000 a.”, eioi?ay
i?ecaaia niinianoaiaaoue ?aoaieth aaaeiaeoeo caaea/, noiyueo ia?aae
yeiiiieeie no?aiu: no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea, eiiaa?ney, iaiiaeaiea
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, iiauoaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee, noeioee?iaaiea aiaae?aiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee.

Oeaeueth “Oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu ?acaeoey eeceiaa a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ia 1996-2000 a.” yaeyaony nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo i?aaiauo,
yeiiiie/aneeo, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e iaoiaee/aneeo oneiaee aeey ?acaeoey
eeceiaa, aeeth/ay nicaeaiea ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu,
niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, aiaae?aiea oeiiauo iaoiaee/aneeo
aeieoiaioia ii eeceiaiaui iia?aoeeyi, aaaaeaiea eeoeaice?iaaiey
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, i?aaiecaoeey oiiaea niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?uiea eeceiaiauo oneoa ?aaioaao aieueoia eiee/anoai
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, /enei eioi?uo iinoiyiii ?anoao. Yoe eiiiaiee
niiniaiu i?eaanoe a aeaeaeaiea aunaiaiaeaeathueany i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
iiuiinoe e cia/eoaeueii oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo e
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee a eniieueciaaiee iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa).
I?e/ai i?e aeaoeoeeoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, yoe no?oeoo?u niiniaiu
iiii/ue auaeeoue iiiaei i?aaei?eyoeyi, iaania/ea oaoiieiae/aneia
iniauaiea eo i?iecaiaenoaa, o.a. caeiaeeoue iniiau auoiaea ec e?ecena e
aoaeouaai yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia.

Aeieaieaoiee iiuo eniieueciaaiey eeceiaiaiai iaoaiecia a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaeo no?ai ie?a iicaieyao
naeaeaoue auaiae i aai yooaeoeaiinoe. Enoiaey ec yoiai e nouanoaothuaai
iieiaeaiey a ?innee a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi, ni
anaie aai i?iaeaiaie e o?oaeiinoyie, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue iiceoeaiinoue
eeceiaiaiai iaoaiecia. Iiyoiio oeaeaniia?acii ainiieueciaaoueny aai
aiciiaeiinoyie e aieaa aeoeaii aiaae?youe a i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Eeceia iaeaaeaao aunieei iioaioeeaeii yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa n
ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie, a nayce n /ai iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eeceia iieo/aao
ana aieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

I?aeiouanoaa eeceiaa ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie niiniaaie eiaanoe?iaaiey
ninoiyo a oii, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiaeao ia/aoue aeaei, ?aniieaaay
eeoue /anoueth (i?eia?ii 1/3) n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?eia?aoaiey
iiiauaiee e iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa). I?aaei?eyoeyi i?aaeinoaaeythony
ia aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, eiio?ieue ca iainiiaaiiui ?anoiaeii eioi?uo ia
anaaaea aiciiaeai, a iaiin?aaenoaaiii n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iaiiaeaiey e ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa.
I?e yoii eeceia noeioee?oao aeeoioee?iaaiea n?aaenoa /anoiuo eiaanoi?ia,
a oii /enea ianaeaiey, aeeaaeu eioi?uo a aaieao ia 1 aeaeaa?y 1995 a.
ninoaaeyee 65,0 o?ei. ?oa.

Eeceia a ?innee e ia Caiaaea, aai ianoi a eiiieaena ia? ii iiauoaieth
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe

Ia ?inneeneii eeceiaiaii ?uiea i?enoonoaotho neaaeothuea a?oiiu
eeceiaiaeaoaeae:

•eiiia?/aneea eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee – aei/a?iea eiiiaiee e?oiiuo aaieia:
?A-Eeceia (Naa?aaie), I?iino?ie-eeceia (I?iino?ieaaie), Eeceiaaecian
(Iinaecianaaie), Eieiieeceia (Eieiiaaie);

•eiiia?/aneea eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, nicaeaiiua ii io?aneaaiio eee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio i?eciaeo (Ay?ieeceia, Eoeiee-eeceia);

•iieoeiiia?/aneea eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, nicaeaiiua i?e o/anoee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eee ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?aaiia (Aa?ii?iieeceia, Iineianeay
eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey, Eeeino?ie), oeiaine?oaiua ca n/ao niioaaonoaothueo
athaeaeaoia;

•eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, nicaeaiiua oi?aiauie eiiiaieyie, e i?i/ea
eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, ia eiathuea nayce ie n aaieianeeie, ie n
i?iiuoeaiiuie, ie n ainoaea?noaaiiuie ?ano?naie (E?aeo-eeceia,
Iao?ieeceia);

•eiino?aiiua oe?iu – iinoaaueee iai?oaeiaaiey, aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa
e oaoiieiaee (IVECO, Scania, DAF).

Eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, nicaeaiiua aaieaie, i?eaioe?othony ia ieacaiea
noaiaea?oiuo eeceiaiauo oneoa oe?ieiio e?oao eeeaioia, /oi ia
eneeth/aao, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?aeiouanoaaiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia
“nianoaaiiiai” aaiea. Iau/ii aaiee ia oieueei oeiaine?otho
aeayoaeueiinoue aei/a?ieo eiiiaiee, ii e aeoeaii iinoaaeytho ei eeeaioia
ec /enea oao, eoi ia?auaaony iai?yioth a aaie ca iieo/aieai e?aaeeoa ia
i?eia?aoaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Anoanoaaiii, /oi eiiiaiee, aoiaeyuea a
no?oeoo?o e?oiiuo aaieia, e naie yaeythony iaeaieaa e?oiiuie ia ?uiea,
eiathueie aieueoie ii?ooaeue caeacia, noiaeea n caiaaeiuie, a cia/eo,
iaeaieaa nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu ?aaiou, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue ia?niiae.

Eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, nicaeaiiua ainoaea?noaaiiuie e ioieoeeiaeueiuie
no?oeoo?aie, aeanoei i?eaioe?iaaiu ia inouanoaeaiea eeceiaiauo naeaeie n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie oeiaie eeeaioia. Oneiaey eeceiaiauo naeaeie,
i?aaeeaaaaiua yoeie eiiiaieyie, a iie iau/ii eniieuecotho eueaioiia
athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea, yaeythony aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey
eeeaioia, ii n?aaiaieth n oneiaeyie, i?aaeeaaaaiuie eiiia?/aneeie
eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie, iaeiaei aeinooiiinoue eo oneoa neeueii
ia?aie/aia. *anoi ia?aae oaeeie eiiiaieyie aii?in yooaeoeaiinoe eee oioy
au iaaeaaeiinoe ?aaeecoaiuo eeceiaiauo i?iaeoia noieo ia oae ino?i, eae
aeey eiiia?/aneeo eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee.

Io?aneaaua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee i?eaioe?othony ia ianeoaeeaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee ii?aaeaeaiiie io?anee. Ii ninoiyieth ia ia/aei 1996 a.
i?aeoe/anee ana nouanoaothuea oaeea eiiiaiee aeayoaeueiinoe ia aaee. Ai
iiiaii “io?aneaaua” eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee i?eaioe?othony ia
ainoaea?noaaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo. Ia aaaeoo aeayoaeueiinoe e i?i/ea
eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, aei/a?iea i?aaei?eyoey ?acee/iuo oi?aiauo aeiiia,
oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae, a oaeaea nicaeaiiua /anoiuie eeoeaie (!). Ia eiay
aeinooia e aeinoaoi/iui oeiainiaui ?ano?nai, yoe eiiiaiee eeceiaiauo
naeaeie ia caeeth/atho. ?yae eiino?aiiuo oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae (a
iniiaiii yoi eanaaony ?uiea aieueoaa?ociuo aaoiiiaeeae) eniieuecotho
eeceia a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa nauoa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Eeceiaiaua
naeaeee, caeeth/aaiua eie, iau/ii i?aaeoniao?eaatho o/anoea ?inneeneiai
aaiea, i?eaieaiiai aeey eiino?aiiie oe?iu, auaeathuaai aa?aioeth ca
naiaai eeeaioa eiia/iiai eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

?yae eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee ia?aaia n nianoaaiii eeceiaii eniieuecoao a
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe iaoaieci eoiee-i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa a ?ann?i/eo.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ii nooe ii?aaeaeaiee eeceiaa eae aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe e aeiaiai?a eeceiaa eae iiaeaeaea aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu,
oaeea iia?aoeee ia eiatho ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e eeceiao, iie oai ia iaiaa
niioaaonoaotho “oi?iuaiiiio” iiieiaieth eeceiaa ni noi?iiu eeeaioia eae
naeaeee, a eioi?ie:

a) e?aaeeoi? oeiaine?oao i?eia?aoaiea caaiueeii iaeioi?iai eiouanoaa;

a) oeiaine?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony ia a aeaiaaeiie, a a iaoo?aeueiie
oi?ia;

a) oeiaine?oaiia eiouanoai yaeyaony iaania/aieai naeaeee /a?ac
nio?aiaiea ia iaai i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e?aaeeoi?a:

a) caaiuee iiea/eaaao ia?eiaee/anee ieaoaaee, aiciauathuea eae
n?aaenoaa, aeiaeaiiua e?aaeeoi?ii ia ia/aeueiii yoaia naeaeee, oae e
nicaeathuea aeioiae.

Iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi ?yae aaieia (Ainoie-Caiaae, ?inneeneee
e?aaeeo, Iaaei?iiaaie) aua?aee aeey naay niinia o/anoey a eeceiaiauo
naeaeeao ia /a?ac aei/a?ithth eeceiaiaoth eiiiaieth, a /a?ac iaoaieci
auaea/e aa?aioee a iieueco eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee (iau/ii eiino?aiiuo).
Oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue oaeaea ia yaeyaony eeceiaii, iaeiaei e a ioiioaiee
aeaiiuo noauaeoia ?uiea neiaeeeinue iiaiea i oii, /oi iie “caieiathony
eeceiaii”.

Ia ia/aei 1996 a. a ?innee ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 25 iaeaieaa aeoeaiuo
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee oaeea eae: AI “Aaeoeeneee eeceia”, “Eeceiaaecian”,
“Ay?ieeceia”, Iineianeay eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey, ?inneeneay annioeeaoeey
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, “?ineeceia”, Iaae?aaeiiaeueiue oeaio? niaeaenoaey
eeceiaa, eeceiaiaay oe?ia “O?aineeceia”, ?inneenei-Aa?iaineay eeceiaiaay
eiiiaiey, AI “Aa?ieeceia”, “?AI – oaoiieeceia”, “Eioa??ineeceia”,
Eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai Iineianeiai Aaiea. Aieaa 50
eiiiaieyie iiaeaiu cayaee ia eeoeaice?iaaiea eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia?auie auee ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu eiiiaiee “?inaa?iniaa” (eeceia
ioa/anoaaiiie naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oaoieee) e “Ay?ieeceia” (eeceia
naiieaoia). Iiiai eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee nicaeaii aaieaie –
“Eioa??ineeceia” (IIYENEI-aaie), “Aaeoeec” (iaoa?ao?aneee
I?iino?ieaaie), “Eeceia-aecian” (Iinaecianaaie), “Eieiieeceia”
(Eieii-aaie), “Iaaenaa?-TH?anei Eeceia” (Iaaeyeiiiinaa?-aaie) e ae?oaea.

Naaiaeiy aaia?aoey ?inneeneeo eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee ia ia?aie/eaaaony
Iineaie e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aii. A Eaeoaa, Iaica, Iiaineae?nea,
?inoiaa-ia-Aeiio, Iao?icaaiaenea, *aeyaeinea e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
?inneeneeo ai?iaeao aeaenoaotho ?aaeiiaeueiua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee.

Oi, /oi eeceiaiaua oe?iu nicaeathony a ?innee eeai i?e ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeea (eae a neo/aa n “?inaa?iniaaii”), eeai i?e iiaeaea?aeea
e?oiiiai aaieianeiai eaieoaea, aiieia iiiyoii. I?aaeiao eeceiaa –
i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea – aei?ia, a cia/eo, eeceiaiaui eiiiaieyi
iaiaoiaeei enoi/iee aieaa eee iaiaa aeaoaauo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.
Eiiaaea aeoyo “aaie – eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey” i?aa?auaaony a o?ei ca n/ao
i?eniaaeeiaiey e iaio no?aoiaie oe?iu. A niaoeeaeenou ec eiiiaiee
“Eaaiianeay ia?ea”, aei/a?iae oe?iu eaaiianeiai caaiaea “Aaoie?ai”,
niaaootho aeeth/aoue a “eeceiaiaue oieaeeia” aua e eaeia-ieaoaeue iaeia
i?aaei?eyoea (aeey onei?aiey aii?oecaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey), e
eaeia-ieaoaeue i?aaei?eyoea, iieuecothuaany iaeiaiauie eueaioaie (eae
aiai?eony, aeey iioeiecaoeee oeiainiauo iioieia).

Io?aneyie, iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai eeceiaa,
i?aeoeee n/eoatho naeueneia oicyenoai, no?ieoaeuenoai, oyaeaeia
iaoeiino?iaiea, o?ainii?o (aaea- e noaeiia?aaicee), a oaeaea iaeia e
iee?ii?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. Eiaiii caeanue, ii eo iiaieth, neaaeoao
iaeeaeaoue aeoeaecaoeee eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iinea i?eiyoey
oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu ii ?acaeoeth eeceiaa. Enoaoe, niaeanii i?iaeoo
yoie i?ia?aiiu, a ?innee aeieaeii auoue nicaeaii naiue ?aaeiiaeueiuo
eeceiaiauo oeaio?ia e aaeeiue eeceiaiaue aaieianeee eiini?oeeoi.

Niaeo? eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaaaaiiai a eeceia ?inneeneeie eiiiaieyie,
aeinoaoi/ii oe?ie. Yoi eaaeiaua e a?ociaua aaoiiiaeee, i?iiuoeaiiia,
oaoiieiae/aneia e no?ieoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea, au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea,
ioeniia iai?oaeiaaiea, ?a/iua e ii?neea noaea, naiieaou, iiaeaeaeiie
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue ninoaa. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo no?ai a ?innee iiea iao
aeaiiuo i oii, eaeie aeae eiouanoaa iieuecoaony iaeaieueoae
iiioey?iinoueth i?e eeceiaa. A Aa?iia, iai?eia?, yoi eeceia eaaeiauo
aaoiiiaeeae, ia aeieth eioi?iai i?eoiaeeony ii/oe 40% iauaia anao
eeceiaiauo naeaeie, a n o/aoii a?ociauo iaoei yoio iieacaoaeue i?aauoaao
50%.

Iaoe eiiiaiee iiea ii?aaeaeytho naith ieoo a yoii aeciana. N eaaeaeie
eeceiaiaie naeaeeie iiiieiyaony aaie aeaiiuo ii aeaeai iai?oaeiaaiey e
iaoei, oeo/oathony nayce n i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Ana yoi iicaieyao
eeceiaiaui eiiiaieyi caeoiaoue eiouanoai aeey naea/e aai a eeceia ii
aieaa ieceei oeaiai, /ai naeaeae au yoi nai iieueciaaoaeue, eo/oa
i?eaioe?iaaoueny a oeaiiaie e ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeea, i?iaiaeeiie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iinoaaueeaie iai?oaeiaaiey.

Ao?iia ?acaeoea eeceiaa ia/aeinue ia Caiaaea a 80-o aiaeao i?ioeiai
aaea. Oiaaea aia?eeaineay eiiiaiey “Aaee” noaea naeaaaoue a a?aiaeo naie
oaeaoiiiua aiia?aou, /oi aeaei noeioe auno?iio ?acaeoeth oneoa nayce.
Nionoy iieaaea Aai?e Oi?ae eniieueciaae a?aiaeo aeey ?anoe?aiey nauoa
aaoiiiaeeae.

A 50-x aiaeao a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao, a /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy e a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a eeceia noaee aeoeaii ia?aaeaaaoueny n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, e yoi i?iecaaei naioth ianoiyuoth ?aaiethoeeth a
a?aiaeiuo ioiioaieyo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy 25 – 30% eiaanoeoeee a ?acaeouo no?aiao i?eoiaeyony ia
eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee. E ieiei 80% iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaeyony
eae ?ac ia iai?oaeiaaiee, acyoii a a?aiaeo. Aieueoa anaai “eeceiaiauo
eiaanoeoeee” n?aaee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai inouanoaeytho E?eaiaeey
(46% io iauaai iauaia) e Aiaeey (35.8%), a n?aaee no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu
– *aoey.

A eaaeaeie no?aia i?aaaee?oao oa eee eiay oi?ia eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee. A
NOA, iai?eia?, yoi iacaaeneiua e aei/a?iea eiiiaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeae.
Aiciiaeii, yoi naycaii n oai, /oi a NOA aei 1963 a. aaieianeiio eaieoaeo
auei cai?auaii o/anoaiaaoue a eeceiaiaii aeciana a ea/anoaa
o/?aaeeoaeae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ia?aua ?iee a ie?iaii eeceiaiaii
aeciana auoiaeyo eiiiaiee, nicaeaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey. Ia neo/aeii a ia?aie aeanyoea aaaeoueo ie?iauo eeceiaiauo
oe?i iaoiaeyony aei/a?iea eiiiaiee oaeeo ecaanoiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eae
“Aeaeaia?ae iioi?n”, “Aeaeaia?ae yeaeo?ee”, “Ae-Oe yiae Oe”, “Ae-Ae-Yi”.
A iauae oaiaeaioeeae a ?acaeoee anao eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee yaeyaony oi,
/oi eo ooieoeee nouanoaaiii ?anoe?ythony, e iie io i?inoiai
oeiaine?iaaiey naeaeee ia?aoiaeyo e eiiieaeniiio ianeoaeeaaieth naieo
eeeaioia, i?aaeeaaay ei oe?ieee niaeo? niaoeeaeueiuo aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oneoa.

I?e yoii aieaa aeaoo o?aoae yoeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee i?eoiaeeony ia
nicaeaiea eeceiaiauo aeoeaia i?iiuoeaiiuie io?aneyie, caiyouie a
i?iecaiaenoaa eiaeono?eaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, aaoiiiaeeae
iaeiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, a oaeaea eiiiuethoa?ia e ioeniie
oaoieee. Oaeei ia?acii, yoe io?anee iieo/atho aeiiieieoaeueiue noeioe e
?acaeoeth.

A Aa?iia /aua anaai iieuecothony oneoaaie eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee /anoiue
naeoi? (42.4%), i?iiuoeaiiinoue e no?ieoaeuenoai (38.1%). A a?aiaeo /aua
anaai aa?oo iaaaceiu ?icie/iie oi?aiaee (27.1%), i?iiuoeaiiua caeaiey
(25.6%) e ioenu (19.1%). A ec iai?oaeiaaiey i?aaeii/oaiea iieo/atho
eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee (38.8%), i?iiuoeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea (24.3%), a
oaeaea eiiiuethoa?u e i?aoaoieea (13.9%).

Iiioey?iinoue eeceiaa ia Caiaaea aiieia iauynieia. Aai i?aeiouanoai ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie niiniaaie eiaanoe?iaaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
aecianiai-eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iiaeao ia/aoue aeaei, ?aniieaaay eeoue
/anoueth (i?eia?ii 1/3) n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?eia?aoaiey
iiiauaiee e iai?oaeiaaiey. A eiaanoi?-eeceiaiaeaoaeue i?aaeinoaaeyao ia
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, eiio?ieue ca iainiiaaiiui ?anoiaeiaaieai eioi?uo
ia anaaaea aiciiaeai, ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Oi
aea i?ienoiaeeo e a neo/aa, eiaaea eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue caieiaaony
iaiiaeaieai e ?anoe?aieai naiaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

AEAeU EECEIAA

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecothony o?e iniiaiuo aeaea eeceiaa –
oeiainiaue, iia?aoeaiue e ia?aoiue.

I?e oeiainiaii eeceiaa eeceiaiaeaoaeue ecaioaaeeaaao eee i?eia?aoaao a
nianoaaiiinoue oeacaiiia eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai iai?oaeiaaiea e ia?aaeaao
aio aai ca ieaoo ai aeaaeaiea e iieueciaaiea. I?e yoii n?ie, ia eioi?ue
eiouanoai ia?aaeaaony a eeceia, /anoi niaiaaeaao ni n?ieii aai iieiie
aii?oecaoeee. Eiouanoai iiaeao ia?aeoe a nianoaaiiinoue
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey eae ii enoa/aiee n?iea eeceiaa, oae e ?aiaa iinea
aianaiey ei anae onoaiiaeaiiie aueoiiie noiiu.

I?e IIA?AOEAIII EECEIAA n?ie iieueciaaiey eiouanoaii cia/eoaeueii ei?i/a
n?iea aai aii?oecaoeee, /oi iicaieyao a?aiaeiaeaoaeth iiiaie?aoii
ia?aaeaaaoue eiouanoai a eeceia. I?e yoii e a?aiaeaoi?u /anoi eiatho
i?aai aein?i/ii aica?aoeoue acyoia a eeceia eiouanoai e oai naiui
iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue iinoiyiii eniieueciaaoue a i?iecaiaenoaa naiia
nia?aiaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Yoi iauyniyao oio oaeo, /oi a ca?oaaaeiie
i?aeoeea /enei aeiaiai?ia a?aiaeu a aeanyoee ?ac i?aauoaao /enei
aeiaiai?ia oeiainiaiai eeceiaa.

I?e IA?AOIII EECEIAA nianoaaiieeii eiouanoaa ecia/aeueii yaeyaony
aoaeouee eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue. Eiaiii ii i?iaeaao aai eeceiaiaeaoaeth, a
caoai caeeth/aao n iei aeiaiai? a?aiaeu ia yoi eiouanoai. Oaeay noaia
eeceiaa iiaeao ieacaoueny /?acau/aeii ?ani?ino?aiaiiie eiaiii a
?inneeneeo oneiaeyo, iineieueeo iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeyi iieo/eoue
iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa.

Eeceiaiaue “aoi” ia ii?iaa?!

(ia?niaeoeau e i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey)

Iuiaoiaai eiee/anoaa eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, eioi?ua ?aaioatho ia
?inneeneii ?uiea, yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii. Eo eae ieieioi aeieaeii auoue ia
ii?yaeie aieueoa.

N 20 ethey 1996 aiaea Ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee i?enooieei e auaea/a
?inneeneei eiiiaieyi eeoeaicee ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea eeceiaiauo oneoa.
Noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi ieienoa?noai i?iaiaeeo oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth iieeoeeo,
aeaau “i?eaeoue” yoo oi?io aeciana a ?innee – i?aeoe/anee ana
ii?iaoeaiua e caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeieoiaiou ii yoiio aii?ino i?eieiaeenue
ii eieoeeaoeaa Ieiyeiiiieee.

?aaeecaoeey anao iieiaeaiee aeieo?eiu ieienoa?noaa a yoie iaeanoe
niiniaia i?eaanoe e ianoiyuaio “eeceiaiaiio aoio”. I?aaeiieaaaaony, a
/anoiinoe, /oi e 2000 aiaeo cia/eoaeueii aic?anoao /enei eae eiiiaiee,
i?aaeinoaaeythueo yoo oneoao (eeceiaiaeaoaeae), oae e
eiiiaiee-iieueciaaoaeae (eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae).

Ii?aaeaeaiea iiaie aeey ?innee oi?iu aeciana, acyoia ec iiaeaioiaeaiiiai
Ieiyeiiiieee Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia i eeceiaa, cao/eo neaaeothuei
ia?acii: “Eeceia – yoi aeae iaycaoaeuenoa a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia eiaanoe?iaaiea a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo eee
i?eaea/aiiuo oeiainiauo n?aaenoa a eiouanoai, ia?aaeaaaaiia ii aeiaiai?o
oece/aneei eee th?eaee/aneei eeoeii ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie ca ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo”.

?inneeneea eiiiaiee, i?aaaea, aua aeaeaee io oiai, /oiau eniieueciaaoue
ana ?aciiia?acea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a iieiie ia?a. A 1996 aiaeo iauai
eiaanoeoeee, eioi?ua aoaeoo iai?aaeaiu ia eeceia, ioeaieaaaony a 1% io
iaua?inneeneiai. Ii iiaieth caianoeoaey ia/aeueieea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
oi?aaeaiey Ieiyeiiiieee Ay/aneaaa Nieieiaa, i?eaeeaeaiea e ie?iaui
noaiaea?oai i?iecieaeao ia ?aiueoa /ai a ia/aea neaaeothuaai ouny/aeaoey
(a 2000 aiaeo iauai “eeceiaiauo” eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a ?innee ninoaaeo 20%
io iauaai).

Ia?aioeaieoue cia/aiea iiaeiaiiai oaeoa a?yae ee aiciiaeii.

Anee a ?innee no?oeoo?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey eeceiaiauo n?aaenoa iineaaeoao
caiaaeiiio ia?acoeo – a ii iiaieth yenia?oia Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee, oae
e i?iecieaeao, oi aieueoay eo /anoue aoaeao iai?aaeaia a iauaeou
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey.

I?e yoii aeiey eiaanoeoeee a oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen a ia?eiae
aei 2000 aiaea aoaeao nieaeaoueny, a a iaoeiino?iaiea, eanioth e
oeie/aneea io?anee aic?anoaoue. Yoe io?anee, ii-aeaeeiiio, e aoaeoo
iniiaiuie noauaeoaie eeceiaa i?e oneiaee aai no?aieoaeueiiai ?acaeoey.
Iaoeiino?iaiea i?e yoii noaiao iniiaiui i?iecaiaeeoaeai iai?oaeiaaiey,
caeoiaaiiai eeceiaiaeaoaeyie, a eaniie e oeie/aneee eiiieaenu aunooiyo
eae aeaaiua eeceiaiiieo/aoaee.

Ieiyeiiiieee ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie caeioa?aniaaiiuie aaaeiinoaaie i?iaiaeeo
?aaioo ii i?aaiaiio e ii?iaoeaiiio iaania/aieth oneiaee aeey a?yaeouaai
“eeceiaiaiai aoia” – ca iineaaeiea 2 aiaea ia yoo oaio auei i?eiyoi 4
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e ieiei aeanyoea ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia. A
caaa?oathuae noaaeee ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeyony caeii i eeceiaa e
oaaea?aeueiay i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey eeceiaa ia 1996 – 2000 aiaeu.

Iaeii ec i?eioeeieaeueiuo ?aoaiee aeey ?acaeoey yoiai ?uiea a ?innee
oaea i?eiyoi e eniieuecoaony – ana ieaoaaee eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae ii
eniieueciaaieth acyoiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeeth/athony a naaanoieiinoue, a
ia auiea/eaathony, eae ?aiaa, ec i?eauee (iinoaiiaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa
?1133 io 20 iiya?y 1995 aiaea). Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaoiaeeony oaeaea a
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiii iieiaeaiee e a /anoe auieaou iaeiaia – ii
nouanoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, ii inaiaiaeaeai io iaiaoiaeeiinoe
auieaou iaeiaa ia eiouanoai ii iauaeoai eeceiaa.

Neooaoeey n eeceiaiaeaoaeyie neiaeiaa. Aaaeue yoe eiiiaiee caeoiatho
iai?oaeiaaiea o i?iecaiaeeoaeae, oae neacaoue, ia naie no?ao e ?ene e ca
iieioth noieiinoue. O/eouaay, /oi i?eia?aoaaiay eeceiaiaeaoaeai oaoieea
ca/anooth noieo aeiaieueii aei?iai (iaooaoeie/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea,
naiieaou, ae?oaea o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa e o. ae.), eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee
ie/aai ia inoaaony, eae a?aoue aeaiueae a e?aaeeo. Iioeiaeueiue n?ie
iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa ia caeoieo oaoieee eeceiaiaie eiiiaieae ninoaaeyao
o?e aiaea.

I?e nio?aiythuaeny a ?innee aaieianeie i?aeoeea (e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa n?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iuo) iieo/aiea nnoaeu ia oaeie
n?ie aanueia i?iaeaiaoe/ii. Iaeaeaony ia oae iiiai aaieia, eioi?ua
aoaeoo niaeaniu “caii?iceoue” naie aeaiueae ia 3 aiaea e aeaaea
aeieueoa. I?aaaea, Ieiyeiiiieee oaea aunooieei n i?aaeeiaeaieai, eioi?ia
iicaieeo iinoaaeoue “eeceiaiaua” e?aaeeou a aieaa auaiaeiua ii
ioiioaieth e inoaeueiui oneiaeyi.

I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi aaiee-e?aaeeoi?u aoaeoo inaiaiaeaeaiu io oieaou
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue n i?ioeaioia ii yoei nnoaeai. Iaeiaei Ieienoa?noai
oeiainia, ii neiaai a-ia Nieieiaa, yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea iiea ia
iiaeaea?aeeaaao, ianiio?y ia oi /oi, anee aai iaeia?yo, “iauai
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee aic?anoao n?aco ai iiiai ?ac”.

Ieiyeiiiieee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi eeceiaiaeaoaeyie a ?innee iiaoo auoue
oieueei /anoiua oe?iu, a “ainoaea?noaaiiua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee – yoi
e?aeia a?aaeii”, iineieueeo iie aoaeoo iooyaeaaoue n?aaenoaa ec
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. A aio “caei?iaui /anoieeai” ieienoa?noai
iaia?aii ieacuaaoue any/aneoth iiaeaea?aeeo e niaeaenoaea.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, a /anoiinoe, /oi ?yaeo nouanoaothueo e aiiaue
nicaeaaaaiuo eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee aoaeao i?enaiai noaoon “ia?acoeiauo”
(eee “iiaeaeueiuo”). O naieo eiiiaiee, eioi?ua iieo/ao oaeia aeiiieiaiea
e iacaaieth, iiieii anaiauaai ii/aoa e oaaaeaiey aoaeao aua ?yae aaaeiuo
i?aeiouanoa, aieioue aei i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai iieiaeaiey i?e ?anniio?aiee
eo cayaie a eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eiieo?nao e aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey eueaioiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia.

Ni naiae noi?iiu, Ieiyeiiiieee iaia?aii io?aaaouaaoue ia yoeo eiiiaieyo
iaoiaee/aneea e ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou – i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi
“ioee/ieee” aoaeoo ?aaioaoue a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo. A inouanoaeaiea
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a iaoeiino?iaiee, aaeaoeee e, neaaeai, a naeueneii
oicyenoaa – niaa?oaiii ?aciua aaue.

Ia ia/aei 1996 aiaea eiee/anoai iaeaieaa aeoeaiuo eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee
ninoaaeyei ii?yaeea 25. Ec ieo ieienoa?noai oaea auaeaeeei ?yae
eiiiaiee, eioi?ua n/eoaao noa?aeoeie e neeueiaeoeie a iaeanoe eeceiaa.
Ia eneeth/aii, /oi iie aoaeoo e ia?auie ia?acoeiauie eeceiaiauie
eiiiaieyie.

Eae cayaee Ay/aneaa Nieieia, yoi eiiiaiee “Aaeoeec” (iiia/aeo
niaoeeaeece?iaaaoayny ia ia?aaea/a a eeceia noaeia), “Eeceiaaecian”,
“Iineianeay eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey” (eeceiaiaua oneoae a iaeanoe iaeiai
aeciana) e “?inaa?iniaa” (aa?a?ii-i?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen). Iineaaeiae
eiiiaiee, ai?i/ai, i?aaeinoaaeyao eueaiou i?e caeoiea iai?oaeiaaiey aeey
eeceiaa oaea ae?oaia ieienoa?noai – Ieinaeueoici?iae.

Eeceia, eae iiaia iai?aaeaiea a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
?innee, o?aaoao iinoiyiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey i?eieiaaiuo
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo aeoia e eo nenoaiaoe/aneie ei??aeoe?iaee, n o/aoii
iinoiyiiiai iiieoi?eiaa ca aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth nenoaiu
ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia, auyaeaiey iieiaeaiee,
i?aiyonoaothueo ?acaeoeth eeceiaa e eo naiaa?aiaiiiai ono?aiaiey.

A ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie,
nicaeathueie i?aaiaua i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
yaeythony:

•Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 17 naioya?y 1994 a. ?1929 “I
?acaeoee oeiainiaiai eeceiaa a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”;
•Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 29 ethiy 1995 a. ?633 “I ?acaeoee
eeceiaa a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe” e ooaa?aeaeaiiia ei “A?aiaiiia
iieiaeaiea i eeceiaa”; •Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 20 iiya?y
1995 a. ?1133 “I aianaiee aeiiieiaiee a Iieiaeaiea i ninoaaa cao?ao ii
i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), aeeth/aaiuo a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee;
•Oaaea?aeueiue caeii ?O io 26 yiaa?y 1996 a. ?l5-OC ” I aaaaeaiee a
aeaenoaea aoi?ie /anoe A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?O; •?anii?yaeaiea
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 12 ia?oa 1996 a. ?336-? i i?iaaaeaiee
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ii ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a ?O; •Iinoaiiaeaiea
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 26 oaa?aey 1996 a. ?167 “Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee
Iieiaeaiey i eeoeaice?iaaiee eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?O”.

A noaaeee ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeeony Caeii ?O “I eeceiaa” e i?iaeo
iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O “I oiiaea niaeaenoaeth ?acaeoey eeceiaa
a ?O”. Oi?ie?iaaiea iaeiaiaiai ?aaeeia, i?eaieaiiai aeey
eeceiaiaeaoaeae, ii?aaeaeytho a iniiaiii:

•Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 21 ethey 1995 a. ?746 “I
ia?aii/a?aaeiuo ia?ao ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee”;

•Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 29 ethiy 1995 a.
?633 “I ?acaeoee eeceiaa a eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe”;

•I?eeac Ieioeia ?innee io 25 naioya?y 1995 a. ?105 “I io?aaeaiee a
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e io/aoiinoe eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.

I?e yoii a Iinoaiiaeaiee ?633 i?aaeoniao?eaaaony auiieiaiea iaeioi?uo
iieiaeaiee i iaeiaiauo eueaioao:

•inaiaiaeaeaiea oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia – eeceiaiaeaoaeae io oieaou
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, iieo/aiioth eie io ?aaeecaoeee aeiaiai?ia
oeiainiaiai eeceiaa ni n?ieii aeaenoaey ia iaiaa 3 eao;

•inaiaiaeaeaiea aaieia e ae?oaeo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee io oieaou
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, iieo/aiioth eie io i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoia ia n?ie
3 aiaea e aieaa aeey ?aaeecaoeee iia?aoeee oeiainiaiai eeceiaa;

•inaiaiaeaeaiea oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia – eeceiaiaeaoaeae io oieaou
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue i?e auiieiaiee eeceiaiauo oneoa n
nio?aiaieai aeaenoaothuaai – oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
i?e i?eia?aoaiee eiouanoaa, yaeythuaainy iauaeoii oeiainiaiai eeceiaa.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie Oiiaea niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee yaeythony:

•o/anoea a ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii a iaeanoe eeceiaa a ?innee;

•nicaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee aeey ?acaeoey eiieo?aioeee a ?acee/iuo
noa?ao i?iecaiaenoaa iooai oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee eeceiaiauo i?iaeoia,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?acaeoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iaeiai aeciana e
i?iecaiaenoaa eiieo?aioiniiniaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

•inouanoaeaiea niaianoii n ainoaea?noaaiiuie, iauanoaaiiuie e ae?oaeie
i?aaiecaoeeyie yenia?oecu e eiieo?niiai ioai?a
eiiiaaoeeiiii-eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii, i?iaeoia e ia?ii?eyoee,
naycaiiuo n eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?aoaiea
i?iaeai niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a ?innee e o/anoea a eo
eiaanoe?iaaiee;

•iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai a iaeanoe eeceiaa;

•o/anoea a ?ac?aaioea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e i?aaiauo aeoia ii aii?inai
?acaeoey eeceiaa a ?innee; – o/anoea a i?aaiecaoeee e eiaanoe?iaaiea
i?iaaaeaiey eiiia?/aneeo aunoaaie, y?ia?ie iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee,
eiioa?aioeee, neiiiceoiia, eaeoeee, naieia?ia ii aii?inai, naycaiiui n
eeceiaii;

•i?aaiecaoeey iiaeaioiaee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee niaoeeaeenoia ii
eeceiao.

I?e yoii a i?ioeanna naiae aeayoaeueiinoe Oiiae niiaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoue
eiaanoeoeeiiiua aa?aioee noauaeoai eeceiaa, e?aaeeoiaaoue eeceiaiaua
eiiiaiee e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae, ieacuaaoue eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae ii
eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea ii iiaeai?o iaiaoiaeeiuo
oaoiieiaee e n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa ii th?eaee/aneei, eiaanoeoeeiiiui e
ae?oaei aii?inai eeceiaiauo naeaeie, a oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyoue ca?oaaaeiua
oe?iu i?e inouanoaeaiee eie aeaeiauo eiioaeoia n eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie
e o/anoaiaaoue a ?aaioa oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe i?e ianoaeaeaiee
aii?inia, io iinyueony e ?acaeoeth eeceiaa.

Aeey iaania/aiey eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth Oiiaea i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
eieeaaeaeueiue i?aai Iiia/eoaeueneee niaao Oiiaea.

Aeey ia?aaeaeaiey eeceiaiaiai ?uiea io neo/aeiuo e iaiaaeaaeiuo
o/anoieeia i?aaeoniio?aii eeoeaice?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe eeceiaiauo
eiiiaiee. A niioaaonoaee n Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee io 24 aeaeaa?y 1994 a. ?1418 “I eeoeaice?iaaiee ioaeaeueiuo
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe” Ieienoa?noai yeiiiieee ?O ?ac?aaioaei Iieiaeaiea
i eeoeaice?iaaiee aeayoaeueiinoe eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, eioi?ia
ooaa?aeaeaii Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 26
oaa?aey 1996 a. ?167. Yoei Iieiaeaieai i?aaeoniio?aia auaea/a
Ieienoa?noaii yeiiiieee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eeoeaicee eeceiaiaui
eiiiaieyi e ae?oaei i?aaiecaoeeyi ia n?ie aei 5 eao.

Ecaanoii, /oi caiaaeiua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee auneacuaaee iaaaoeaiia
iiaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eeoeaice?iaaiey eiiiaiee-ia?aceaeaioia. Iiyoiio
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaeoniio?aia oaaaeiieoaeueiay i?aeoeea, eioi?ay
caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai a iany/iue n?ie
oaaaeiieoue eiienneth, /oi ii caeeth/ee eeceiaiaue aeiaiai? n
eiiiaieae-ia?aceaeaioii.

Oaeie oaa naycai n aeaeaieai nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
i?eaea/aiey caiaaeiuo eiaanoeoeee. Io a anee o eeceiaiaie
eiiiaiee-ia?aceaeaioa aecian a ?innee aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny oniaoii e iia
?aoeo ioe?uoue o ian oeeeae eee aei/a?ithth eiiiaieth, oi oiaaea oaea ae
i?eaeaony i?ieoe eeoeaice?iaaiea.

A ia?niaeoeaa, a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e ?inoa
/enea eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, Ieiyeiiiieee ?innee i?aaeiieaaaao
aeaeaae?iaaoue i?aai eeoeaice?iaaiey iiaeiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiai aeanoe noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iaeiaei
i?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi eiiiaiee, iieo/eaoea ?aaeiiaeueiua
eeoeaicee, niiaoo aanoe eeceiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue oieueei a yoii
?aaeiia.

Noieo oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi ie aaieai, ie eiiiaieyi, caieiathueiny
iia?aoeaiui eeceiaii, iieo/aoue eeoeaiceth ia iaaei.

Eeceia a ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ioaeaeaaony a ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeea, iaiaoiaeeiinoue eioi?ie iaoneiaeaia yeiiiie/aneie
neooaoeeae a no?aia – eioeyoeeae, aunieeie noaaeaie ?aoeiaine?iaaiey,
ieceie ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth iioaioeeaeueiuo eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae.
“Oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiie ?acaeoey eeceiaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
ia 1996-2000 aa.” i?aaeoniao?eaaaony eiaanoe?iaaiea ca n/ao
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ieiei 8 o?ei. ?oa., a oaeaea i?eaea/aiea
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ca n/ao iaainoaea?noaaiiuo enoi/ieeia
eiaanoe?iaaiey aei 30 o?ei. ?oa. I?e yoii eae i?aaeei, ainoaea?noaaiiay
iiaeaea?aeea (a ?acia?a 20-50% io noieiinoe i?iaeoa) aoaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ia eiieo?niie iniiaa n?aaee eiiia?/aneeo
eiiiaaoeeiiii-eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia n eniieueciaaieai eeceiaa.

N o/aoii nouanoaothuae a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aacu eeceiaa e aa aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony oaaee/aiea aeiee eeceiaa e 2000 a. a iauai iauaia
eiaanoeoeee aei 20% ni neaaeothuae ?acaeaeie ii aiaeai:

1996 a. – 1%, 1997 a. – 5%, 1998 a. – 12%, 1999 a. – 19%, 2000 a. – 20%.

A n?aaiaiee n iiuoii ?acaeouo no?ai yoi iieiaeia aeinoeaiooiai eie a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Eeceia a aieueoeinoaa no?ai a iauai iauaia eiaanoeoeee
ninoaaeyao aieaa 30 – 40%. A iaic?eiii aoaeouai eeceia aianao
iaiaoiaeeiue aeeaae a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo.

Ia iineianeie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ii ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a ?O
iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai ii?iaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey yoiai ?uiea auei
i?eciaii ionoonoaea iaaeaaeiie ii?iaoeaiie aacu.

Iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoa caeiia aaaeaony oaea aeaa aiaea, iaeiaei ii iiea ia
i?eiyo. Ai?i/ai, ca yoi a?aiy auee nicaeaiu i?aaeiinueee aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaiaie aacu eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. Aiae iacaae
i?aaei?eieiaeanue iiiuoea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai nicaeaoue
iaiaoiaeeiia i?aaiaia iiea. Ii iiiaea i?aaeeueiua ii?o/ai/aneea ioieou
oiai iinoaiiaeaiey iiyoue aea ia auiieiaiu.

Oae, ia auee aianaiu eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey a aeaenoaothuaa iaeiaiaia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a /anoe inaiaiaeaeaiey oicyenoaothueo
noauaeoia-eeceiaiaeaoaeae io oieaou iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, iieo/aiioth eie
io ?aaeecaoeee aeiaiai?ia oeiainiaiai eeceiaa ni n?ieii aeaenoaey ia
iaiaa o?ao eao, aaieia e ae?oaeo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee io oieaou
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, iieo/aaioth eie io i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoia ia n?ie
o?e aiaea e aieaa aeey ?aaeecaoeee iia?aoeee oeiainiaiai eeceiaa,
inaiaiaeaeaiey eeceiaiaeaoaeae io oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue i?e i?eia?aoaiee eiouanoaa, yaeythuaainy iauaeoii eeceiaa. Ia
auei oaeaea aaaaeaii /anoe/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea io oieaou oaiiaeaiiuo
iioeei, iaeiaia a ioiioaiee a?aiaiii aaiceiuo oiaa?ia, yaeythueony
iauaeoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oeiainiaiai eeceiaa.

Ia i?eaaaee yniinoe A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen (/anoue aoi?ay), a eioi?ii
oeiainiaie a?aiaea (eeceiao) oaeaeaii anaai oanoue noaoae. Iie eanathony
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii iiaieth ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?yaea
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ia/aoei ?aaeaiaioe?oao
acaeiiioiioaiey noauaeoia oeiainiaiai eeceiaa. Aio ii/aio iaiaoiaeei
caeii, eioi?ue au ii?aaeaeye yeiiiieei-i?aaiaua e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?aiee
a iaeanoe iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, oaiiaeaiiuo ?aaeeiia, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe,
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee, aii?inia eeoeaice?iaaiey e iaycaoaeueiiai
no?aoiaaiey eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. Caeii i eeceiaa aeieaeai eiaoue
iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai ii?i i?yiiai aeaenoaey.

A /anoiinoe, ia eiioa?aioeee i?aaeeaaaeinue aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue
eeceiaiaeaoaeyi e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeyi ?aoaoue naiinoiyoaeueii, a ?aieao
aeiaiai?a i eeceiaa, aii?in i iinoaiiaea eeceiaiaiai eiouanoaa ia aaeain
iaeiiai ec ieo. Aeaei a oii, /oi auoaaeoee a naioya?a i?ioeiai aiaea
i?eeac Ieioeia eiae aeaaea iaia?aiey oii?yaei/eoue, a niioaaonoaee n
ie?iaie i?aeoeeie, aooaaeoa?neee o/ao eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. Iaeiaei yoio
eieaeueiue ii?iaoeaiue aeo aian aieueooth noiyoeoeo a aeayoaeueiinoue
eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, o.e. onoaoaee i?iaeaiu ia?aioeaiee noieiinoe
eiouanoaa e ii?yaeea ia/eneaiey aii?oecaoeee.

?aeiiaiaeiaaii ?ac?aaioaoue eiiieaen ia? ii iaeiaiaiio noeioee?iaaieth
eiaanoi?ia e eeceiaiaeaoaeae, inouanoaeythueo iia?aoeee oeiainiaiai
eeceiaa n oaoieeie ?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoo i?ioaeoeeiienoneoth
ia?o ioaeii aaanoe a aeiiieiaiea e ?aiaa i?aaeoniio?aiiui, ii ia
?aaeeciaaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii eueaioai o/anoieeai eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.

Na?ueaciui noeioeii iiaeao noaoue aaaaeaiea i?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii
ii?aaeaeyoue noi?iiaie a eeceiaiaii aeiaiai?a n?iee aii?oecaoeee
iai?oaeiaaiey e iaeiieaiey aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee. I?e yoii
neaaeoao i?aaeinoaaeoue aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey iaoaiecia onei?aiiie
aei o?ao ?ac aii?oecaoeee i?e ?aaeecaoeee aeiaiai?ia oeiainiaiai eeceiaa
ei anai aeaeai aeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa, ioiineiui e aeoeaiie /anoe
iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Oaeie caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?eioeei ?aaeecoaony a
Aaei?onnee, ia Oe?aeia aea e o ian a ?innee a oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
a?oiiao.

Ianooaau ?acaeoey eeceiaa a ie?a aia/aoeytho. Oae, ii eioi?iaoeee
i?aceaeaioa Aa?iiaeneie annioeeaoeee eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee Ia?ea Aaa?oa, a
i?ioeii aiaeo iauai eeceiaiauo eiio?aeoia a NOA ninoaaee ieiei $130
ie?ae. a Aa?iia – $123.5 ie?ae. a ssiiiee – $39 ie?ae.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi ?inney ia iiaeao e ia aeieaeia inoaaaoueny a noi?iia io
aunieiyooaeoeaiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eeceiaiaiai aeciana. Iaiaoiaeeii
niyoue i?aa?aaeu aeey ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oeiainiaiai eeceiaa
/a?ac iaoaieci oaiiaeaiiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. A oieona aieiaiey
oaiiaeaiieeia aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny ia noauaeo eeceiaa eeoeaice?iaaiiue
?inneeneee eeceiaiaeaoaeue, eae i?aaeeaaaao AOE, a iauaeo eeceiaa
iai?oaeiaaiea, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue iinoaaeaii a ?inneth aeey
iiaea?iecaoeee e oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey ioa/anoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. E anee i?e yoii caiaaeiay eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey aoaeao
iaoiaeeoueny ia a ?aaiii iieiaeaiee n ?inneeneie eiiiaieae, oi naeaeee
iii?inoo ia ninoiyony.

Iaeiie ec oi?i ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu iiaeao noaoue niaoeeaeueiia
?aaoee?iaaiea iaoaiecia noaeeceiaa, o.a. eiaaea caiaaeiay e
ioa/anoaaiiay eiiiaiee ?aaioatho niaianoii iaae i?iaeoaie e i?e yoii
?inneeneee o/anoiee iieo/aao aaia?aeueioth eeoeaiceth OeA, oaeoth aea,
eae i?e eeoeaice?iaaiee ae?oaeo aaieianeeo iia?aoeee.

Iaieioei iiaenii?ueai aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey oaiiaeaiiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
iia au noaoue noa?ue ii?iaoeaiue aeo, i?eiyoue iinoaiiaeaieai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a aeaeaa?a 1990 a. “I ?acaeoee eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee e
aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiie niaaonei-o?aioeocnei-aa?iaineie eiiiaiee
“Aa?ieeceia”. A iai i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue “onoaiiaeoue, /oi a i?ioeanna
inouanoaeaiey eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee n eiiiaieae iaeia ia yenii?o e eiii?o
e oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu ni noieiinoe iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, aaiceiuo a
CCCP niaeanii caeeth/aiiui eeceiaiaui eiio?aeoai, aceiathony a
onoaiiaeaiiii ?acia?a a iiiaio ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e niaaoneei
th?eaee/aneei eeoeai n inoaoi/iie noieiinoueth iai?oaeiaaiey,
en/eneaiiie ia iiiaio ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe”.

Na?ueaciui aa?aioii eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee iiaeao noaoue Oiiae niaeaenoaey
?acaeoeth eeceiaa. I?aaieciaaa aai n o/anoeai ainoaea?noaa, eeceiaiauo,
no?aoiauo eiiiaiee, aaieia, oiiae neaaeoao iaoeaeeoue ia ia
aniiiiuanoaiaaiea ioaeaeueiuo eeceiaiaeaoaeae, o.a. ia oeiaine?iaaiea
ioaeaeueiuo eeceiaiauo i?iaeoia, a ia no?aoiaaiea eeceiaoaiiai eiouanoaa
e aica?aoa eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae. Oiiae niiaeao ?anoe?eoue aiciiaeiinoe
iie?uoey no?aoiauo ?eneia e oaaee/eoue ia?eiae i?aaeinoaaeaiey n?aaenoa.
Oaaea?aeueiua aeanoe aoaeoo aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa aa?aioa ii aiciauaieth
aeiee oua?aa, /oi iiauneo caueuaiiinoue i?iaeoa. I?e yoii neaaeoao
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeoth oaaea?aeueioth e ?aaeiiaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue aeey
yoiai iiaeii eniieueciaaoue.

No?aoiaaiea ?eneia no?ieony ia iniiaa noaoenoeee ianooieaiey no?aoiauo
neo/aaa, o.a. i?aaeea no?aoiaaiey iniiaaiu ia enneaaeiaaieyo
iaauiieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa e ia iiuoa aiaeeca oeiainiauo yenia?oia.

I?aaeoaeuenoai no?aieony nae/an i?eaea/ue 15 ie?ae. eiaanoeoeee a
oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey. Ieiei $3-4 ie?ae. iieaeao
/a?ac eeceia. Yoa i?iii?oeey ai?iae?iaaia a ie?iaie i?aeoeea (aeiey
eeceiaa a eiaanoeoeeyo a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ninoaaeyao 30%, a ae?oaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao – 15 -17%). Iaiaoiaeeii a?aoiaioe?iaaii
i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue ie?iaiio oeiainiaiio niiauanoao aunieoth
iaaeaaeiinoue ?inneeneeo ia?oia?ia.

E niaeaeaieth, noaoenoeea ia?ooaiey oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ii
e?aaeeoiui eee eeceiaiaui iia?aoeeyi aioo?e ?innee eee i?e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo naeaeeao iaeiecaanoia. Oeaeaniia?acii, /oiau
i?aaeoaeuenoai (Ieioei, Ainaaie, Ieiyeiiiieee, IAYN) iioaeeeiaaei
eioi?iaoeeth i auiieiaiee iaycaoaeuenoa ii aica?aoo i?aaei?eyoeyie
e?aaeeoia iiae caeoieo iai?oaeiaaiey e aica?aoo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae,
aaea aa?aioii ia?aae eiino?aiiuie eiaanoi?aie ca iineaaeiea aiaeu
aunooiaee oaaea?aeueiia e ?aaeiiaeueiua i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Ii eioi?iaoeee Iineianeie eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, ca aeaa aiaea o ieo ia
auei aiiaua iioa?ue, naycaiiuo n aica?aoii eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeyie, e oieueei a 5% neo/aaa eiaee ianoi caaea?aeee ii
iieaoa. Oaeea iieacaoaee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aunieii o?iaia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie th?eaee/aneie i?i?aaioee eeceiaiauo i?iaeoia e oiaiee
iia?aoeaii ieacaoue iiiiuue eeceiaiiieo/aoaeyi a oiaea ?aaeecaoeee naieo
i?iaeoia. Oaeie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoueth a?yae ee niiaeao iioaaeeoueny
aieueoeinoai aa?iiaeneeo eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee.

Ia eiioa?aioeee aue aeaoaeueii ianoaeaeai i?iaeo oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu
?acaeoey eeceiaa a ?O ia 1996 – 2000 aa. A iai neiioeaio?e?iaaiu
iai?aaeaiey ainiiaeaea?aeee eeceiaiaiio aeciano. Aaaeii, /oiau
i?aaeoaeuenoai auno?aa ?anniio?aei e ooaa?aeeei yoio aeieoiaio.
“Aeaaiia, – eae auei neacaii a i?eaaonoaee eiioa?aioeee i?aceaeaioa
?innee, – ia oionoeoue a?aiy. Iiaeaea?aeea eeceiaa – yoi iao
aeieaia?aiaiiue eo?n”.

Aio iaeioi?ua oaeou, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i iieiaeeoaeueiuo
oaiaeaioeeyo. Oi?aaeythuee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui i?iiuoeaiiui aaieii Na?aae
Aa?aiaaiei ioiaoee, /oi aai aaie iaia?ai o/anoaiaaoue a i?iaaaeaiee
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee ii iinoaaeai aunieioaoiieiae/iuo iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey ec Oaeaaiy. Yoi, ii aai neiaai, iicaieeo ?inneeneei
i?aaei?eyoeyi auioneaoue eiieo?aioiniiniaioth i?iaeoeoeeth i?e
ionoonoaee nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia aeey ?aeiino?oeoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e
yoii iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe n?aco iiea/eaaoue noieiinoue eiii?oiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Aeoea-i?aceaeaio Iinaecianaaiea Aeaenae Eaauaiei niiauee, /oi aaie
iaia?ai a oaeouai aiaeo a o?e ?aca oaaee/eoue iauai e?aaeeoiaaiey
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. N?aaenoaa aoaeoo i?aaeinoaaeaiu aei/a?iei
eeceiaiaui eiiiaieyi, iinoaaeythuei ia ?inneeneee ?uiie oaoieeo aeey
ioeniuo iiiauaiee. Ii aai iiaieth, e?aaeeoiaaiea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee
naiaeeo e ioeth ?ene iaaica?aoa aeiaeaiee, iineieueeo eeeaio iieo/aao
oiaa?iue e?aaeeo. A naith i/a?aaeue caianoeoaeue ia/aeueieea oi?aaeaiey
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia aaiea “?inneeneee e?aaeeo” Aeaenae No?oieeei
ioiaoee, /oi “aaie oaea caeeth/ee niaeaoaiey n eoaeueyineei
aaoiiiaeeueiui eiioea?iii “EAAEI” (IVECO), iaiaoeeei eiioea?iii
“Ia?naaean-Aaioe” (Mercedes-Benz), aano?eeneie oe?iie “Oaeea?”
(Schaller) e oo?aoeeie oe?iie “Oo?iae” (Hurmak) aeey i?iaaaeaiey
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. Noiia iiaeiaiuo niaeaoaiee oaea i?aauneea $100
iei.”.

Aianoa n oai aaiee?u ioia/atho, /oi ?acaeoeth aeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea
ana aea iaoatho iauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, a oii /enea ?aaeueii nouanoaothuaa
aeaieiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea, a oaeaea oeaeue ?yae iao?aaoee?iaaiiuo
iiiaioia n oi/ee c?aiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Iineianeia i?aaeoaeuenoai, iiieiay auaiaeo eeceiaa aeey ai?iaea, oaea
ioe?uei n/ao a oaaeoea?neii aaiea “THIAE-NEI” (UNEXIM). “Ieii a Aa?iio”
iicaieeo i?eaeaeaoue n?aaenoaa ia ie?iauo oeiainiauo ?uieao aeey
e?aaeeoiaaiey noiee/iuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii. N/ao aoaeao naiaai
?iaea aa?aioii auiieiaiey oneiaee eeceiaiauo e ae?oaeo i?iaeoia,
niiaueea i?aaenoaaeoaeue aeaia?oaiaioa aiaoieo naycae iy?ee Naaoeaia
Eiooeia.

Noiee/iua aeanoe ieacaeenue ia aaeeinoaaiiuie, eoi aeoeaii
iiaeaea?aeeaaao eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee. ?oeiaiaeeoaee Oaoa?ee e Aaoee?ee,
a oaeaea aaeieieno?aoeey Ia?ineie iaeanoe a ia/aea ethiy iiaeienaee
niaeaoaiea i iiaeaea?aeea i?aaei?eyoee aaeaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneiai
eiiieaena. Ii neiaai aoaa?iaoi?a Ia?ineie iaeanoe Aaiiaaeey Eaoiiiaa,
oaea iiaeienai aeieoiaio, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?ac?aaioeo
eiiieaeniie i?ia?aiiu iiaeaea?aeee ?aaeiiaeueiuo aaeaeiiiaiee e
i?iecaiaeeoaeae aaeaoeeiiiie oaoieee, oaeeo, eae AI “Ia?ineea iioi?u”,
AI “Aaeaaeaeaaoaeue”, Eacaineia aaeaoeeiiiia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia
iauaaeeiaiea ei. Ai?aoiiaa, iin?aaenoaii aiaae?aiey eeceiaa. Yoei
i?aaei?eyoeyi ieaie?oaony i?aaeinoaaeoue niaoeeaeueiua eueaiou, a oii
/enea iaeiaiaua, a oaeaea ?anniio?aoue aiciiaeiinoue ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
eo athaeaeaoiuo aeieaia.

Caeeth/aiea

Iniiaiui oneiaeai auoiaea ?innee ec e?ecena yaeyaony aeoeaecaoeey
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, ia?aoiae e onoie/eaiio ?inoo eiaanoeoeee i?e
iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey
?acaeoey eiaanoeoeeiiiie noa?u iaaei nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoioth n?aaeo,
i?aaeaea anaai, aeey eiaanoeoeee /anoiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ac?aaioai eiiieaen ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia,
?aaoee?othueo eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a oneiaeyo ?uiea. Ia?yaeo
n i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai oi?ie?iaaiey ca n/?o i?eauee e
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee, ?ac?aaaouaathony e aiaae?ythony iiaua
iiaeoiaeu e noeioee?iaaieth eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe,
eeceia e eiieo?niia ?aciauaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa a
eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou.

Ii nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a eiaanoeoeeiiiie noa?a aiciiaeiu oieueei ia
iniiaa eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea, a ia oi?ne?iaaiiiai ?acaeoey eaeiai-eeai
iaeiiai ec oaeoi?ia aeoeaecaoeee eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeiaei oniaoiiio ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a ?innee i?aiyonoaoao ?yae
ianoiyoaeuenoa:

•ia oaaoaao noa?oiaiai eaieoaea aeey i?aaiecaoeee eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee,
iineieueeo iie aeieaeiu i?eia?anoe iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai) o
i?iecaiaeeoaey ca iieioth noieiinoue e ia?aaeaoue aai
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth;

•aeaieiia iaeiaeaiea iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, eioi?ue
aceiaaony ca i?eia?aoaiiia eeceiaiaeaoaeai iai?oaeiaaiea (eiouanoai).
I?e yoii aai aaee/eia, ?aaii eae e auieaou i?ioeaioia ca acyoue
eeceiaiaeaoaeai aeey iieoiee iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa) e?aaeeo,
ia?aiineony ia eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee. Niaeanii nouanoaothuaio ii?yaeeo
iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue aeiiieieoaeueii ia/eneyaony ia
eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee, o.a. ia iaeei e oio aea i?iaeoeo ii ia/eneyaony
aeaaaeaeu (a i?iaeoa oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia i eeceiaa i?aaeoniio?aii
aaeeiiaeaeu);

•ionoonoaea eio?ano?oeoo?u eeceiaiaiai ?uiea, ?acaeoie naoe eeceiaiauo
eiiiaiee, eiinaeoeiaiauo oe?i, eioi?ua ianeoaeeaaee au anao o/anoieeia
eeceiaiaiai ?uiea;

•iaaeinoaoi/iia iiieiaiea nouiinoe eeceiaa, aai aeinoieinoa eae o
iioaioeeaeueiuo eeceiaiaeaoaeae, oae e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iioaioeeaeueiuo
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeae;

•ionoonoaea nenoaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey eeceiaa, eioi?ay
iaania/eaaea au iaee/ea iinoiyiii ainiieiyaiie e aeinooiiie eioi?iaoeee
i i?aaeeiaeaieyo eeceiaiauo oneoa;

•ionoonoaea iiuoiuo eaae?ia aeey eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A?aiaea e aeoeeiia?iua ioiioaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iaoa?eaeu
naieia?a. I.: IAeIOI, 1990 a.

2. Eeceia a ?innee: i?aaiaua iniiau (eiiiaioa?ee, ioeoeeaeueiua
aeieoiaiou). Yeiiiieei-i?aaiaie atheeaoaiue, aui.9/1996a. I.: AEAeE
“Yeiiiieea e aeeciue”, 1996 a

3. “Eioa?oaen-AeO” ?34-35, 19 aaaonoa-1 naioya?y 1996 a.

4. “EOI” ?2, 1996 a.

5. “Eiiia?naiou” ?26, 16 ethey 1996 a.

6. “Eiiia?naiou” ?25, 9 ethey 1996 a.

7. “Oeiainiaua ecaanoey” ?98, 17 ieoya?y 1996 a.

8. “Oeiainiaua ecaanoey” ?70, 11 ethey 1996a.

9. “Yeiiiieea e aeeciue” ?20, iae 1996 a.

10. “Yeiiiieea e aeeciue” ?12, 22 ia?oa 1996 a.

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