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AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss AEAAeAIEss OI?AAEAIEss ei. Na?ai I?aeaeiieeeaeca

?inneenei-Aieeaiaeneee oaeoeueoao

Aeieeaae ii iieeoyeiiiiee

ia oaio: «Aaeai Nieo»

Naeae: O?ooaiia Eeuey

IINEAA 1996

A?aiee Aiia?a, Oaie?eoa; caoi /eoae Aaeaia Nieoa, e aue aeoaieee yeiiii,
oi anoue oiae noaeeoue i oii, eae ainoaea?noai aiaaoaao, e /ai aeeaao e
ii/aio ia ioaeii cieioa aio, eiaaea i?inoie i?iaeoeo eiaao.

Aeaenaiae? Iooeei

Enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue oae, /oi ii/oe iianaianoii oi?ie?iaaiea
yeiiiie/aneie iaoee /aua anaai oaycuaaaony n eiaiai e oai?/anoaii Aaeaia
Nieoa — aaee/aeoaai aiaeeeneiai o/aiiai-yeiiiienoa eiioea XVIII a. Yoa
“/aeiaa/aneay neaainoue” aoaeao i?aiaeieaia, i/aaeaeii, ianei?i, eai a
ioee/ea io anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, o?aaothueo, eae i?aaeei, i?aaenoaaeaiey i
nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ciaiee a yoie iaeanoe, yeiiiie/aneoth iaoeo aaeaa ee
iiaeii iinoe/ue, ia

iiciaeiieaoenue n oai?aoe/aneeie aicc?aieyie auaeathueony yeiiiienoia
eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. N?aaee ieo Aaeai Nieo yaeyaony,
ianiiiaiii, oeaio?aeueiie oeao?ie.

Aaeai Nieo ?iaeeeny 5 ethiy 1723 a. a Oioeaiaeee a ai?iaeea Ee?eieaea,
?aniieiaeaiiii iaiiaeaeaeo io aa noieeoeu Yaeeiao?aa, a naiuea
oaiiaeaiiiai /eiiaieea. N aeaonoaa i?iyaea niiniaiinoe e o/aaa, a 14 eao
iinooiee a Aeacaianeee oieaa?neoao, eioi?ue caeii/ee nionoy o?e aiaea a
1740 a. A /enea eo/oeo nooaeaioia ii aue oaeinoiai noeiaiaeee aeey
caaa?oaiey naiaai ia?aciaaiey a Ienoi?aeneii oieaa?neoaoa, aaea o/eeny
aieioue aei 1746 a. O?iaaiue i?aiiaeaaaiey caeanue ia ono?aeaae aai a
oii /enea e ii oie i?e/eia, /oi aieueoeinoai i?ioanni?ia aeaaea ia
/eoaee naieo eaeoeee. Ec Ienoi?aea A.Nieo aa?ioeny a Yaeeiao?a n
iaia?aieai caiyoueny naiiia?aciaaieai e /oaieai ioaee/iuo eaeoeee ii
aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?a e iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Oaea oiaaea, noaey ii aai
eaeoeeyi, ii i?eaea?aeeaaeny i?eioeeiia yeiiiie/aneiai eeaa?aeecia e
iniaaiii i?eioeeia naiaiaeu oi?aiaee. A 1751 a. A.Nieo aue iacia/ai
i?ioanni?ii eiaeee a Aeacaianeii oieaa?neoaoa (a 28 eao!), a a eiioea
oiai aea aiaea ia?aoae ia eaoaae?o ii?aeueiie oeeinioee, ia eioi?ie
i?aiiaeaaae aei 1764 a. E?oiiay iao/iay ?aaioa “Oai?ey ii?aeueiuo
/oanoa”, ecaeaiiay ei a 1759 a., i?eianea aio oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue. Ii
a aeaeueiaeoai iao/iue eioa?an A.Nieoa ana aieaa niauaaony e
yeiiiie/aneie iaoea, /oi auei naycaii io/anoe n aeoeaiui aai o/anoeai a
naiaia?aciii Aeacaianeii eeoaa iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, a io/anoe —
ae?oaeaie n oeeinioii e yeiiiienoii Aeaaeaeii THiii.

A 1764 a. a aeecie A.Nieoa i?iecioei ia?aeiiiia niauoea: ii inoaaee
eaoaae?o (eae ieaaeaony — iaanaaaea) e i?eiye i?aaeeiaeaiea
nii?iaiaeaeaoue ai a?aiy caa?aie/iiai iooaoanoaey iieiaeiai ei?aea,
ianuiea aeaeiiai iieeoe/aneiai aeayoaey — aa?oeiaa Aaeeth. Iaoa?eaeueiue
eioa?an io yoiai iooaoanoaey eiae aeey A.Nieoa ia iineaaeiaa cia/aiea;
iiacaeea aa?aioe?iaaea aio ( 800, aaeaiany/ii aei eiioea aeecie, /oi
auei yaii aieueoa aai i?ioanni?neiai aiii?a?a. Iooaoanoaea aeeeeinue n
1764 ii 1766 a., o.a. aieaa aeaoo eao, ec eioi?uo iieoi?a aiaea ii
i?iaae a Ooeoca, aeaa ianyoea a AEaiaaa, aaea aio aeiaaeinue
ano?aoeoueny n Aieueoa?ii, e aeaayoue ianyoeaa a Ia?eaea. Oaniia
ciaeiinoai ca a?aiy iiacaeee n o?aioeocneeie oeeinioaie ae’Aeaiaa?ii,
Aaeueaaoeeai, Aieueaaoii, a oaeaea n oeceie?aoaie, a oii /enea n O.Eaiy
e A.Oth?ai, io?aceeinue aiineaaenoaee a aai aeaaiii o?oaea
“Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”, e eioi?iio ii
i?enooiee aua a Ooeoca.

Ii aica?auaiee a Oioeaiaeeth A.Nieo ?aoaao iinaeeoueny o naiae iaoa?e,
aaea n 1767 a. oaaeeiyaony aeey caaa?oaiey ?aaiou iaae “Aiaaonoaii
ia?iaeia”. Eieaa auoea a naao a 1776 a. e oi?i/eea e aac oiai oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue aa aaoi?a. Iia /aou?aaeaeu ia?aecaeaaaeanue i?e aeecie
A.Nieoa e aua o?e ?aca ni aeiy aai nia?oe (1790 a.) e aei eiioea aaea.

Aeeyiea A.Nieoa ia naieo nia?aiaiieeia auei ianoieueei aaeeei, /oi
aeaaea aiaeeeneee i?aiuea?-ieieno? O.Ieoo Ieaaeoee iauyaeye naay aai
o/aieeii. Iie iaiaeiie?aoii ano?a/aeenue e ianoaeaeaee ?yae oeiainiauo
i?iaeoia. Iaeiei ec ?acoeueoaoia yoeo eiioaeoia n o/aiui yaeeinue
iiaeienaiea O.Ieooii a 1786 a. ia?aiai Eeaa?aeueiiai oi?aiaiai aeiaiai?a
n O?aioeeae — aeiaiai?a Yaeaia, eioi?ue nouanoaaiii eciaiee oaiiaeaiiua
oa?eou. ?acoeueoaoii aeeyiey oai?/aneiai ianeaaeey aaoi?a “Aiaaonoaa
ia?iaeia” iiaeii oaeaea i?eciaoue oi, /oi iaeei ec aai o/aieeia Aeoaaee
Notha?o a 1801 a. noae /eoaoue a Yaeeiao?aneii oieaa?neoaoa
naiinoiyoaeueiue eo?n iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, eioi?ue i?aaeaea aoiaeee a
ninoaa aeenoeeieei eo?na i?aanoaaiiie oeeinioee.

A yiaa?a 1778 a. A.Nieo aue iacia/ai eiienna?ii oioeaiaeneie oaiiaeie a
Yaeeiao?aa, inoaaaynue a yoie aeieaeiinoe aei naiae eii/eiu a 1790 a.

Ec iniaaiiinoae oa?aeoa?a A.Nieoa ecaanoii, /oi aio auee i?enoue
iiae/a?eiooi aeaeeeaoiia iiaaaeaiea e iaeiia?aiaiii eaaaiaea?iay
?annayiiinoue.

Ciaeiinoai n oai?/anoaii A.Nieoa ia/iai n oiai, /oi ii iiieiae iiae
i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey yeiiiie/aneie iaoee.

A naiae eieaa “Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” a
yoii ea/anoaa ii auaeaeee aa oeaio?aeueioth i?iaeaio, a eiaiii:
yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea iauanoaa e iiauoaiea aai aeaaininoiyiey.

Oaea n ia?auo neia, n eioi?uo ia/eiaaony eieaa, aiai?eony: “Aiaee/iue
o?oae eaaeaeiai ia?iaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaith ia?aiia/aeueiue oiiae,
eioi?ue aeinoaaeyao aio ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeey nouanoaiaaiey e oaeianoaa
aeecie i?iaeoeou…” Yoe neiaa iicaieytho iiiyoue, /oi yeiiiieea ethaie
no?aiu, ii Nieoo, ?acaeaaynue, i?eoiiiaeaao aiaaonoai ia?iaea ia iioiio,
/oi yoei aiaaonoaii yaeythony aeaiueae, a iioiio, /oi aai iaaei aeaeaoue
a iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nao, eioi?ua aeinoaaeyao “aiaee/iue o?oae eaaeaeiai
ia?iaea”.

Oaeei ia?acii, A.Nieo n ia?aie aea o?acu naiae eieae inoaeaeaao
ia?eaioeeenoneia iuoeaiea, auaeaeaay aeey yoiai, eacaeinue au, nianai ia
iiaue a?aoiaio i oii, /oi nouiinoueth e i?e?iaeie aiaaonoaa yaeyaony
eneeth/eoaeueii o?oae. Aeaeaa aeaiioth iuneue ii ?acaeaaao a aanueia
eioa?aniie eiioeaioeee ?inoa ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, a ii nooe aeieo?eia
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna eae iniiaiiai n?aaenoaa ?inoa aiaaonoaa “ethaie
no?aiu ai ana a?aiaia”.

Iaeiaei ia aii?in i oii, a eaeie noa?a yeiiiieee aiaaonoai ?anoao
auno?aa, niia?aaeaiey A.Nieoa ieacaeenue iaaannii?iuie. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, a naiae oai?ee i i?iecaiaeeoaeueiii o?oaea ii oaaaeaeaao
/eoaoaey a oii, /oi ia oi?aiaey e ae?oaea io?anee noa?u ia?auaiey, a
noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aiaaonoaa, a n ae?oaie
— aeey i?eoiiiaeaiey aiaaonoaa yeiau i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ?acaeoea
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, a ia i?iiuoeaiiinoe. “Eaieoae, aeeaaeuaaaiue a
caieaaeaeea… aeiaaaeyao… ai?acaei aieueooth noieiinoue e…
aeaenoaeoaeueiiio aiaaonoao e aeioiaeo…” I?e yoii A.Nieo iieaaae, /oi
n ?acaeoeai yeiiiieee oeaiu ia i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u eiatho oaiaeaioeeth
nieaeaoueny, a ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou iiaeieiaoueny,
iiyoiio, ii aai iunee, “a no?aiao, aaea naeueneia oicyenoai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaith naiia auaiaeiia ec anao i?eeiaeaiee eaieoaea…
eaieoaeu ioaeaeueiuo eeoe aoaeoo, anoanoaaiii, i?eeaaaoueny naiui
auaiaeiui aeey anaai iauanoaa ia?acii”.

Iiiyoue yoi oiouaiea aaoi?a “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” oai o?oaeiaa, /oi a oo
ii?o a Aiaeee i?ioeaaoaea iaiooaeoo?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue e ia/aee
iiyaeyoueny aeaaea ia?aua aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiua oaa?eee, ?aaioaaoea
io aiaeyiiai eieana.

Iaaeaeo oai aaee/ea A.Nieoa eae o/aiiai ninoieo a aai yeiiiie/aneeo
i?iaiicao e ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iiceoeeyo,
eioi?ua aieaa /ai ia oeaeia noieaoea i?aaeii?aaeaeeee e iineaaeothuoth
yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo iiiaeo ainoaea?noa, e iai?aaeaiea iao/iiai
iienea ia?iiiie eiai?ou o/aiuo-yeiiiienoia. *oiau iauynieoue oaiiiai
oniaoa A.Nieoa, i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoueny e iniaaiiinoyi
aai iaoiaeieiaee.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a iaoiaeieiaee enneaaeiaaiey A.Nieoa caieiaao
eiioeaioeey yeiiiie/aneiai eeaa?aeecia, a iniiao eioi?ie ii, eae e
oeceie?aou, iieiaeee eaeath anoanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, o.a. ?uii/iuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. A oi aea a?aiy a ioee/ea, neaaeai, io O.Eaiy a
iiieiaiee A.Nieoa, e ii yoi iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaaao, ?uii/iua caeiiu
eo/oei ia?acii iiaoo aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia yeiiiieeo, eiaaea /anoiue
eioa?an noieo auoa iauanoaaiiiai, o.a. eiaaea eioa?anu iauanoaa a oeaeii
?anniao?eaathony eae noiia eioa?ania ninoaaeythueo aai eeoe. A ?acaeoea
yoie eaeae aaoi? “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” aaiaeeo noaaoea caoai ciaiaieouie
iiiyoey “yeiiiie/aneee /aeiaae” e “iaaeaeeiay ?oea”.

Nouiinoue “yeiiiie/aneiai /aeiaaea” aeinoaoi/ii ?aeueaoii iieacaia oaea
ai aoi?ie aeaaa eieae I “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”, aaea iniai aia/aoeyao
iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
ii?aaeaeaiiie neeiiiinoe /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu e oi?aiaea e iaiaio.
Iaiiiiea aia/aea /eoaoaeth, /oi niaaee ae?oa n ae?oaii niciaoaeueii
einoueth ia iaiythony, A.Nieo oa?aeoa?ecoao “yeiiiie/aneiai /aeiaaea”
neiaaie: “Ii nei?aa aeinoeaiao naiae oeaee, anee ia?aoeony e eo (naieo
aeeaeieo) yaiecio e noiaao iieacaoue ei, /oi a eo nianoaaiiuo eioa?anao
naeaeaoue aeey iaai oi, /oi ii o?aaoao io ieo. Anyeee i?aaeeaaathuee
ae?oaiio naeaeeo eaeiai-eeai ?iaea, i?aaeeaaaao naeaeaoue eiaiii yoi.
Aeae iia oi, /oi iia ioaeii, e ou iieo/eoue oi, /oi oaaa ioaeii, — oaeia
niune anyeiai iiaeiaiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey… Ia io aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiinoe
iynieea, ieaiaa?a eee aoei/ieea iaeeaeaai iu iieo/eoue naie iaaae, a io
niaethaeaiey eie naieo nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania. Iu ia?auaainy ia e eo
aoiaiiinoe, a e eo yaiecio, e ieeiaaea ia aiai?ei ei i iaoeo ioaeaeao, a
ia eo auaiaeao” .

Aac iniauo eiiiaioa?eaa A.Nieo i?aiiaeiineo /eoaoaeth e iieiaeaiea i
“iaaeaeeiie ?oea”. I?e yoii iaeuecy eneeth/eoue, /oi eaeath i iae aaoi?
“Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” caeinoaiaae a iaioeaoao ia?eaioeeenoia XVII a.,
aaea i?iaiaeeeanue iuneue i oii, /oi yeiiiie/aneia iiaaaeaiea
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao i?aaeaea anaai i?eaueue, a aeey yoiai ainoaea?noao
iaiaoiaeeii caueuaoue naiaiaeioth eiieo?aioeeth a yaienoe/aneeo
eioa?anao ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Ii A.Nieo ie/ooue ia iiaoi?yao ia?eaioeeenoia. A aai eieaa niune
“iaaeaeeiie ?oee” caeeth/aaony a i?iiaaaiaea oaeeo iauanoaaiiuo oneiaee
e i?aaee, i?e eioi?uo aeaaiaea?y naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e /a?ac eo /anoiua eioa?anu ?uii/iay yeiiiieea aoaeao
iaeeo/oei ia?acii ?aoaoue iauanoaaiiua caaea/e e i?eaaaeao e aa?iiiee
ee/ioth e eieeaeoeaioth aieth n iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie auaiaeie aeey
anao e eaaeaeiai.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie, “iaaeaeeiay ?oea” iacaaeneii io aiee e iaia?aiee
eiaeeaeaea — “yeiiiie/aneiai /aeiaaea” — iai?aaeyao aai e anao ethaeae e
iaeeo/oei ?acoeueoaoai, auaiaea e e aieaa aunieei oeaeyi iauanoaa,
ii?aaaeuaay eae au oai naiui no?aieaiea /aeiaaea-yaienoa noaaeoue ee/iue
eioa?an auoa iauanoaaiiiai. Oaeei ia?acii, nieoianeay “iaaeaeeiay ?oea”
i?aaeiieaaaao oaeia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo “yeiiiie/aneei /aeiaaeii” e
iauanoaii, o. a. “aeaeeiie ?oeie” ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, eiaaea
iineaaeiyy, ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaoy iauaeoeaiui caeiiai yeiiiieee,
ia?anoaiao ia?aie/eaaoue yenii?o e eiii?o e aunooiaoue eneonnoaaiiie
i?aa?aaeie “anoanoaaiiiio” ?uii/iiio ii?yaeeo.

Noaei auoue, ?uii/iue iaoaieci oicyenoaiaaiey, a ii Nieoo — “i/aaeaeiay
e i?inoay nenoaia anoanoaaiiie naiaiaeu”, aeaaiaea?y “iaaeaeeiie ?oea”
anaaaea aoaeao aaoiiaoe/anee o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny. Ainoaea?noao aea aeey
aeinoeaeaiey i?aaiauo e einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo aa?aioee e iaicia/aiey
a?aieoe naiaai iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa inoathony “o?e aanueia aaaeiua
iaycaiiinoe”. E iei ii ioiineo: ecaea?aeee ia iauanoaaiiua ?aaiou (/oiau
“nicaeaaaoue e niaea?aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua iauanoaaiiua nii?oaeaiey e
iauanoaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey”, iaania/eaaoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, noaeae, /eiiaieeia, nayuaiieeia e ae?oaeo, eoi neoaeeo
eioa?anai “ainoaea?y eee ainoaea?noaa”); ecaea?aeee ia iaania/aiea
aiaiiie aaciianiinoe; ecaea?aeee ia ioi?aaeaiea i?aainoaeey, aeeth/ay
nthaea io?aio i?aa nianoaaiiinoe.

Eoae, “a eaaeaeii oeeaeeeciaaiiii iauanoaa” aeaenoaotho ananeeueiua e
iaioa?aoeiua yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu, — a yoii eaeoiioea iaoiaeieiaee
enneaaeiaaiey A.Nieoa.

Iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai aeey oiai, /oiau yeiiiie/aneea caeiiu aeaenoaiaaee,
yaeyaony, ii oaaaeaeaieth A.Nieoa, naiaiaeiay eiieo?aioeey. Oieueei iia,
n/eoaao ii, iiaeao eeoeoue o/anoieeia ?uiea aeanoe iaae oeaiie, e /ai
aieueoa i?iaeaaoeia, oai iaiaa aa?iyoai iiiiiieeci, eai “iiiiiieenou,
iiaeaea?aeeaay iinoiyiiue iaaeinoaoie i?iaeoeoia ia ?uiea e ieeiaaea ia
oaeiaeaoai?yy iieiinoueth aeaenoaeoaeueiue ni?in, i?iaeatho naie oiaa?u
iaiiiai aei?iaea anoanoaaiiie oeaiu e iiaeieiatho naie aeioiaeu…” A
caueoo eaeae naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee A.Nieo inoaeaeaao eneeth/eoaeueiua
i?eaeeaaee oi?aiauo eiiiaiee, caeiiu ia o/aie/anoaa, oeaoiaua
iinoaiiaeaiey, caeiiu i aaaeiuo, iieaaay, /oi iie (caeiiu) ia?aie/eaatho
?uiie o?oaea, iiaeeueiinoue ?aai/ae neeu e ianooaau eiieo?aioiie
ai?ueau. Ii oaeaea oaaaeaeai, /oi eae oieueei i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeiiai e
oiai aea aeaea oi?aiaee e ?aianea niae?athony aianoa, eo ?acaiai? ?aaeei
ia caeai/eaaaony “…caaiai?ii i?ioea ioaeeee eee eaeei-eeai niaeaoaieai
i iiauoaiee oeai”.

Auoa oaea auea ioia/aia iiceoeey A.Nieoa, niaeanii eioi?ie ia?aaeoei
enoi/ieeii aiaaonoaa yaeyaony naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e
eeoue caoai i?iiuoeaiiia. Yoi, aa?iyoii, naycaii n aai ?aaeoeeae ia
naioaioeee ia?eaioeeenoia, noaaeaoeo ia ia?aue ieai aiaoithth oi?aiaeth,
a caoai iaoeeiiaeueioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ii /oi eanaaony no?oeoo?u naiie
oi?aiaee, oi e caeanue aaoi? “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” aeaeaao naie aeoeaiou,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua i?eioeeiai ia?eaioeeecia, noaay ia ia?aia ianoi
aioo?aiithth, ia aoi?ia — aiaoithth, ia o?aouea — o?aiceoioth oi?aiaeth.
A iineaaeiae /anoe a?aoiaiou A.Nieoa oaeiau: “Eaieoae, aeeaaeuaaaiue ai
aioo?aiithth oi?aiaeth no?aiu, iau/ii iiiu?yao e niaea?aeeo aieueoia
eiee/anoai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea a yoie no?aia e oaaee/eaaao
noieiinoue aa aiaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa a aieueoae ia?a, /ai oaeeo aea
?acia?ia eaieoae, caieiathueeny aiaoiae oi?aiaeae i?aaeiaoaie
iio?aaeaiey, a eaieoae, caiyoue a yoie iineaaeiae, eiaao a iaieo yoeo
ioiioaieyo aua aieueoaa i?aeiouanoai iaae iaeeiaeiaie aaee/eiu
eaieoaeii, aeiaeaiiui a o?aiceoioth oi?aiaeth”. A yoie aea nayce A.Nieo
n/ae aeaaea oianoiui noi?ioee?iaaoue aeaaioth caaea/o iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee neaaeothuei ia?acii: “E aeaaiay caaea/a iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee
eaaeaeie no?aiu ninoieo a oaaee/aiee aa aiaaonoaa e iiaouanoaa; iiyoiio
iia ia aeieaeia aeaaaoue i?aeiouanoa eee ieacuaaoue iniaia iiiu?aiea
aiaoiae oi?aiaea i?aaeiaoaie iio?aaeaiey i?aaeii/oeoaeueii ia?aae
aioo?aiiae oi?aiaeae eee aea o?aiceoiie oi?aiaeae i?aaeii/oeoaeueii
ia?aae oie e ae?oaie”.

“Aiaaonoai ia?iaeia” A.Nieoa ia/eiaaony n i?iaeaiaoeee ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea aiana ia neo/aeii. Ia noaaoai o?anoiiaoeeiui i?eia?a,
iieacuaathuai eae a aoeaai/iie iaiooaeoo?a ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ii
iaiueoae ia?a o?iyei iiauoaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea(iiauoaiea
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia, yeiiiiey a?aiaie i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie
iia?aoeee e ae?oaie, ecia?aoaiea iaoei e iaoaieciia), ii oaeoe/anee
iiaeaioiaee “ii/ao” aeey aoaeoueo ?annoaeaeaiee e nii?ia ii iiiaei
eeth/aaui oai?aoe/aneei i?iaeaiai iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee.

Iaeiie ec oaeeo oai?ee, eiaaoeo iaiaeiicia/iia oieeiaaiea aua aei
A.Nieoa, auea oai?ey noieiinoe (oeaiiinoe) oiaa?ia e oneoa. Yoa oai?ey
aiineaaenoaee aieioue aei eiioea XIX a. inoaaaeanue oeaio?aeueiie
oai?eae yeiiiie/aneie iaoee.

Iiciaeiieiny n oai?eae noieiinoe A.Nieoa, aie?oa eioi?ie aieaa anaai
iieaiece?iaaee aai iineaaeiaaoaee e i?ioeaieee. Ioiaoea iaee/ea o
eaaeaeiai oiaa?a iio?aaeoaeueiie e iaiiaie noieiinoe, ia?aoth A.Nieo
inoaaee aac ?anniio?aiey. I?e/eia caeanue a oii, /oi a iiiyoea
“iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue” A.Nieo aeeaaeuaae niune ia i?aaeaeueiie, a
iieiie iieaciinoe, o.a. aiciiaeiinoue ioaeaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa, aeaaa
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoue /aeiaaea, i?e/ai ia eiie?aoioth, a iauoth.
Iiyoiio aeey iaai iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue ia iiaeao auoue oneiaeai
iaiiaie noieiinoe oiaa?a. Eae caiaoee a yoie nayce I.Aeaoa, “ai a?aiaia
Nieoa… ioaa?aaee oai?eth oeaiiinoe, iniiaaiioth ia iiiyoee iieaciinoe,
iineieueeo eacaeinue iaaiciiaeiui onoaiiaeoue eiee/anoaaiioth naycue
iaaeaeo iieaciinoueth e oeaiie, — ia yoie o?oaeiinoe oiaaea i?inoi ia
caaeoiuaaeenue. Nei?aa, a oi a?aiy i?inoi ia aeaeaee nayce iaaeaeo
iieaciinoueth a oii niunea, a eaeii iu aa iiieiaai, e oeaiie” .

Ioiaaeaaaaoenue io ?anniio?aiey iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe, A.Nieo
ia?auaaony e auyniaieth i?e/ei e iaoaiecia iaiaia, nouiinoe iaiiaie
noieiinoe. Ii ioia/aao, /oi iineieueeo oiaa?u /aua anaai iaiaieaathony,
oi “…aieaa anoanoaaiiui yaeyaony ioeaieaaoue eo iaiiaoth noieiinoue
eiee/anoaii eaeiai-ieaoaeue oiaa?a, a ia eiee/anoaii o?oaea, eioi?ia
iiaeii ia ieo eoieoue”. Ii oaea ia neaaeothuae no?aieoea aaoi?
“Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” aneaae ca iai?eyoeai aa?nee eiee/anoaa “o?oaea, ia
eioi?ia iiaeii… eoieoue oiaa?”, ii?iaa?a e aa?neth ii?aaeaeaiey
noieiinoe “eiee/anoaii eaeiai-ieaoaeue oiaa?a”, iiae/a?eioa, /oi “oiaa?,
eioi?ue nai iinoiyiii iiaeaa?aaaony eieaaaieyi a naiae noieiinoe (eiay a
aeaeo cieioi e na?aa?i), ieeiei ia?acii ia iiaeao auoue oi/iui ia?eeii
noieiinoe ae?oaeo oiaa?ia”. Caoai A.Nieo cayaeyao, /oi noieiinoue
iaeeiaeiaiai eiee/anoaa o?oaea ?aai/aai “ai ana a?aiaia e ai anao
ianoao” iaeeiaeiaa, e iiyoiio “eiaiii o?oae ninoaaeyao eo (oiaa?ia)
aeaenoaeoaeueioth oeaio, a aeaiueae ninoaaeytho eeoue eo iiieiaeueioth
oeaio”.

*oi eanaaony nieoianeie naioaioeee i iinoiyinoaa noieiinoe o?oaea,
eioi?ay ii nooe icia/aao oneiaea i?iecaiaenoaa eaaeaeie aaeeieoeu oiaa?a
i?e iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeeao, oi iia, eiia/ii, ia auaea?aeeaaao ieeaeie
e?eoeee, oae eae a caaeneiinoe io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa oaeaeueiua
ecaea?aeee, eae ecaanoii, iiaeaa?aeaiu eciaiaieth. A ae?oaie naie oacen,
niaeanii eioi?iio o?oae “ninoaaeyao aeaenoaeoaeueioth oeaio” oiaa?ia,
A.Nieo ?acaeaaao n aeaienoaaiiuo iiceoeee, neaaeoy eioi?ui aiineaaenoaee
iaeie nieoeaioeu oaeaeaee “o?oaeiaoth” i?e?iaeo i?ienoiaeaeaiey
noieiinoe oiaa?ia, a ae?oaea — /a?ac ecaea?aeee. Naia aea
aeaienoaaiiinoue ?acaeoey oacena ninoieo a neaaeothuai.

Aaoi? “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” aoaeoi au naeaeae ieii/aoaeueiue auaiae,
aiai?y, /oi “o?oae yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui anaiauei, ?aaii eae e
aaeeinoaaiiui oi/iui, ia?eeii noieiinoe, eee aaeeinoaaiiie ia?ie,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie iu iiaeai n?aaieaaoue iaaeaeo niaith noieiinoe
?acee/iuo oiaa?ia ai ana a?aiaia e ai anao ianoao”. Ii aoeaaeueii /a?ac
ianeieueei no?aieoe iineaaeiaaee aeaa ooi/iaiey. A niioaaonoaee n ia?aui
ec ieo oieueei “a iauanoaa ia?aiauoiii e iaei?acaeoii, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoai
iaeiieaieth eaieoaea e ia?auaieth caiee a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue,
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eiee/anoaaie o?oaea… auei, ii-aeaeeiiio,
aaeeinoaaiiui iniiaaieai… aeey iaiaia eo ae?oa ia ae?oaa”. A
niioaaonoaee ni aoi?ui ooi/iaieai — noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia
aeioiaeia (ca?aaioiay ieaoa, i?eaueue e ?aioa), iineieueeo “a eaaeaeii
?acaeoii iauanoaa ana yoe o?e ninoaaiua /anoe a aieueoae eee iaiueoae
ia?a aoiaeyo a oeaio a?iiaaeiiai aieueoeinoaa oiaa?ia”.

Eoae, ii i?eaaaeaiiui auoa ooi/iaieyi, naycaiiui n oai?eae noieiinoe
(oeaiiinoe), iiaeii auei au i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi A.Nieo aue neeiiai ia e
o?oaeiaie oai?ee, a e oai?ee ecaea?aeae. Ii a aeaienoaaiiinoe aai
iiceoeee ia inoaaony niiiaiee, eiaaea ii ooaa?aeaeaao i o?oaeiaii
i?ienoiaeaeaiee anao aeioiaeia, ec eioi?uo neeaaeuaaaony oeaia, a ia i
noiia ecaea?aeae, iaoneiaeeaathueo yoe aeioiaeu, eae ninoaaeythuea
oeaiu. Aaaeue ii neiaai aaoi?a “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”, ?aioa — yoi “ia?aue
au/ao ec i?iaeoeoa o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai ia ia?aaioeo caiee”; i?eaueue —
“aoi?ie au/ao ec i?iaeoeoa o?oaea, cao?a/eaaaiiai ia ia?aaioeo caiee”;
ca?aaioiay ieaoa — “i?iaeoeo o?oaea”, eioi?ue “…ninoaaeyao
anoanoaaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca o?oae”.

A /enea oai?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai, ioaa/aiiuo A.Nieoii, iaeuecy iaieoe aac
aieiaiey aai eiioeaioeeth i i?iecaiaeeoaeueiii o?oaea. Yoi aaaeii
ianiio?y aeaaea ia oi, /oi nia?aiaiiay yeiiiie/aneay iaoea ioaa?aaao aa
iniiaiua iinooeaou. Aeaei a oii, /oi aaoi? “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”, aaaaey
iiiyoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea, noi?ioee?iaae aai eae o?oae, eioi?ue
“…oaaee/eaaao noieiinoue iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua ii ia?a?aaaouaaao”, a
oaeaea “…cae?aieyaony e ?aaeecoaony a eaeii-eeai ioaeaeueiii i?aaeiaoa
eee oiaa?a, eioi?ue iiaeii i?iaeaoue e eioi?ue nouanoaoao, ii e?aeiae
ia?a, iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea oiai, eae caeii/ai o?oae”. Niioaaonoaaiii
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiue o?oae, ii Nieoo, — yoi oneoae, eioi?ua, “en/acatho
a naiue iiiaio eo ieacaiey”, a o?oae aeey auiieiaiey (ieacaiey) eioi?uo
“ie/aai ia aeiaaaeyao e noieiinoe;… eiaao naith noieiinoue e
caneoaeeaaao aiciaa?aaeaeaiey;… ia cae?aieyaony e ia ?aaeecoaony a
eaeii-eeai ioaeaeueiii i?aaeiaoa eee oiaa?a, i?eaiaeiii aeey i?iaeaaee”.

Iaaeaeo oai ?acee/ea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai e iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai o?oaea
ii i?eioeeio — nicaeaao eee ia nicaeaao aeaiiue aeae o?oaea inycaaiue
iaoa?eaeueiue i?iaeoeo (iauaeo) — eiaao ia i?inoi eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneia
cia/aiea. A yoii iniaaiii oaaaeaeatho aeiaiaeu aiaeeeneiai yeiiiienoa
Eaeiiaeea ?iaaeina a eieaa “Ynna i i?e?iaea e cia/aiee yeiiiie/aneie
iaoee” (1935). A aeaaa “I?aaeiao yeiiiie/aneie iaoee” oeacaiiie ?aaiou
ii ieoao, /oi aeaaea “o?oae iia?iiai iaaoea eee aaeaoiiai oaioeiaueea”
aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny eae «”i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue” iioiio, /oi ii
oeaieony, iioiio, /oi ii iaeaaeaao niaoeeoe/aneie oeaiiinoueth aeey
?acee/iuo “yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia”», eai, i?iaeieaeaao o/aiue, “oneoae
aaeaoiiai oaioeiaueea ninoaaeytho /anoue aiaaonoaa, e yeiiiie/aneay
iaoea enneaaeoao ia?aciaaiea oeai ia ieo oi/ii oae aea, eae, iai?eia?,
ia oneoae iiaa?a.

Oai?ey aeaiaa A. Nieoa ia auaeaeyaony eaeeie-eeai iiauie iieiaeaieyie.
Ii eae e ae?oaea aai oai?ee, iia i?eaeaeaao ianooaaiinoueth e aeoaeiie
aiaeeca, eiae/anee a?aoiaioe?iaaiiuie iaiauaieyie. Ii ioia/aao, /oi
aeaiueae naeaeaeenue iauai?eiyoui n?aaenoaii oi?aiaee n oao ii?, “eae
i?ae?aoeeanue iaiiaay oi?aiaey”, ii, “iiaeiaii anai ae?oaei oiaa?ai,
cieioi e na?aa?i iaiythony a naiae noieiinoe”. Caoai iu aeaeei
enoi?eei-yeiiiie/aneee yeneo?n a iieueco eiee/anoaaiiie oai?ee aeaiaa.
Caeanue, a /anoiinoe, aiai?eony, /oi “o?oae, a ia eaeie-eeai iniaue
oiaa? eee a?oiia oiaa?ia yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueiui ia?eeii noieiinoe
na?aa?a” (aeaiaa); inoaeaeaaony ia?eaioeeenoneay nenoaia acaeyaeia,
niaeanii eioi?ie “iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai caeeth/aaony a eciaeeee
cieioa e na?aa?a, a iaoeeiiaeueiay aaaeiinoue — a eo iaaeinoaoi/iii
eiee/anoaa”.

Iaeiaei niaoeeaeueii i?iaeaiaoeea aeaiaa A.Nieo iinayoee oeaeoth aeaao.
Eiaiii caeanue i?iecianaia iaeia ec aai e?ueaouo o?ac: “Aeaiueae — yoi
aaeeeia eieani ia?auaiey”. A auneacaiiia a yoie aeaaa iieiaeaiea i oii,
/oi “iaaeaiea eo?na aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa ieaea noieiinoe cieioie e
na?aa?yiie iiiaou ioithaeue ia aucuaaao iaaeaiey noieiinoe yoeo
iaoaeeia”, — eiia/ii, iaaacuioa?anii e a iaoa a?aiy. Iaeiiaoe, neaaeoao
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aaoi? “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” ?anniao?eaaao aeaiueae,
eae e ana eeanneee, ia eia/a eae oaoie/aneia i?oaeea aeey iaiaia,
oi?aiaee, noaay ia ia?aia ianoi eo ooieoeeth n?aaenoaa ia?auaiey.

Anee aiai?eoue i oai?ee aeioiaeia, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi o A.Nieoa iia
aace?oaony eneeth/eoaeueii ia eeanniaii iiaeoiaea. Ii Nieoo, aiaee/iue
i?iaeoeo ?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo o?aiy eeannaie (?aai/ea, eaieoaeenou e
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu). I?e yoii yeiiiie/aneia aeaaiiieo/ea no?aiu ii n/eoae
caaeneiui io aeayoaeueiinoe caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, a ia i?iiuoeaiieeia.

Aeioiae ?aai/eo — ca?aaioiay ieaoa — a ?anniio?aiee A.Nieoa iaoiaeeony a
i?yiie caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa no?aiu.
Aeinoieinoai aai oai?ee ca?aaioiie ieaou ninoieo i?aaeaea anaai a oii,
/oi a ioee/ea, neaaeai, io O.Iaooe, oeceie?aoia, a caoai e Ae.?eea?aei
ii io?eoeae oae iacuaaaioth caeiiiia?iinoue nieaeaiey aaee/eiu iieaou
o?oaea aei o?iaiy i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia. Aieaa oiai, ii aai
oaaaeaeaieth, “i?e iaee/ee aunieie ca?aaioiie ieaou iu anaaaea iaeaeai
?aai/eo aieaa aeayoaeueiuie, i?eeaaeiuie e niuoeaiiuie, /ai i?e ieceie
ca?aaioiie ieaoa…” ?acaa /oi, — i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao aaoi? “Aiaaonoaa
ia?iaeia”, — “oicyaaa anaaaea e iianaianoii iaoiaeyony a naiaai ?iaea
iie/aeeaie, ii iinoiyiiie e aaeeiiia?aciie noa/ea n oeaeueth ia
iiauoaoue ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/eo auoa aa nouanoaothuaai ?acia?a”.

I?eaueue eae aeioiae ia eaieoae ii?aaeaeyaony, eae ieoao A.Nieo,
“noieiinoueth oiio?aaeaiiiai a aeaei eaieoaea e auaaao aieueoa eee
iaiueoa a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?ia yoiai eaieoaea” e aa ia neaaeoao
iooaoue n ca?aaioiie ieaoie, onoaiaaeeaaaiie a “niioaaonoaee n
eiee/anoaii, oyaeanoueth eee neiaeiinoueth… i?aaeiieaaaaiiai o?oaea ii
iaaeci?o e oi?aaeaieth”. Ii aai iiaieth, noiia i?eauee
“i?aaei?eieiaoaey, ?eneothuaai naiei eaieoaeii”, — yoi /anoue nicaeaiiie
?aai/eie noieiinoe, iai?aaeyaiay “ia iieaoo i?eauee eo i?aaei?eieiaoaey
ia aanue eaieoae, eioi?ue ii aaaine?iaae a aeaea iaoa?eaeia e ca?aaioiie
ieaou”.

Aua iaeiiio aeaeo aeioiaeia — ?aioa niaoeeaeueii iinayuaia aeaaa eieae.
Iia ai?acaei neaaaa enneaaeiaaia, /ai, neaaeai, o Ae.?eea?aei, ii
ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey ana aea caneoaeeaatho aieiaiey. A /anoiinoe, ii
Nieoo, ieuaaua i?iaeoeou yaeytho niaie “aaeeinoaaiiue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue i?iaeoeo, eioi?ue anaaaea e iaiaoiaeeii aeaao
iaeioi?oth ?aioo caieaaeaaeaeueoeo”. I?eaeiaeueia caeanue e aai
iiaeneacea /eoaoaeth: “No?aieaiea e ieua ia?aie/eaaaony o eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea iaaieueoie aianoeiinoueth /aeiaa/aneiai aeaeoaeea…”

A oai?ee eaieoaea A.Nieoa i/aaeaeia aai aieaa i?ia?anneaiay iiceoeey ii
n?aaiaieth n oeceie?aoaie. Eaieoae oa?aeoa?ecoaony ei eae iaeia ec aeaoo
/anoae caiania, “io eioi?ie iaeeaeatho iieo/aoue aeioiae”, a “ae?oaay
/anoue, — ieoao ii, — yoa oa, eioi?ay eaeao ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiia…
iio?aaeaiea…” A ioee/ea io oeceie?aoia, ii Nieoo, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui
yaeyaony eaieoae, caiyoue ia oieueei a naeueneii oicyenoaa, ii e ai anae
noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. E?iia oiai, ei aaiaeeony aeaeaiea
eaieoaea ia iniiaiie e iai?ioiue, iieacuaaaony ?acee/ea a niioiioaiee
iaaeaeo yoeie /anoyie eaieoaea a caaeneiinoe io io?anee oicyenoaa.
Iniiaiie eaieoae, ii iiaieth aaoi?a “Aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”, ninoieo a
/enea i?i/aai “ec i?eia?aoaiiuo e iieaciuo niiniaiinoae anao aeeoaeae
eee /eaiia iauanoaa”, o.a. eae au aeeth/aao a naay “/aeiaa/aneee
eaieoae”.

Ia inoaeanue ia cao?iiooie A.Nieoii e oai?ey aini?iecaiaenoaa,
aeenoaoaeueii aia?aua aaaaeaiiay aei iaai a iao/iue iai?io O.Eaiy.
Ecaanoii, /oi iiceoeeth A.Nieoa ii yoie i?iaeaiaoeea E.Ia?en ioeaiee
e?eoe/anee e iacaae aa “aaniineiaiie aeiaiie Nieoa”. E?eoeea E.Ia?ena ia
yoio n/ao aeaenoaeoaeueii cia/eia, iineieueeo aaoi? “Aiaaonoaa
ia?iaeia”, oa?aeoa?ecoy oi, ec /aai ninoieo iiaeeaaeauay ?ani?aaeaeaieth
“any oeaia aiaee/iiai i?iaeoeoa o?oaea”, oeaeeeii naiaeeo iineaaeithth e
aeioiaeai, ec eioi?uo neeaaeuaaaony, eae ii iieaaaao, oeaia oiaa?a. I?e
yoii ii cayaeyao oae: “Oeaia anyeiai oiaa?a a eiia/iii n/aoa aeieaeia
ana aea naiaeeoueny… ei anai yoei o?ai /anoyi, oae eae anyeay aeiey
oeaiu… aeieaeia ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe ieacaoueny /ueae-eeaie i?eaueueth”.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. ss. N. ssaeaa?ia, «Enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee», Iineaa, Yeiiiieea,
1996.

2. «Aioieiaey Yeiiiie/aneie Eeanneee», Yeiiia, Iineaa, 1993.

3. Eiiae?aoueaa I. Ae., «Eca?aiiua ni/eiaiey», Iineaa, Yeiiiieea, 1993.

4. Aeaoa I., «Yeiiiie/aneay iuneue a ?ao?iniaeoeaa», Iineaa, Aeaei Eoae,
1994.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

1. E?aoeay aeia?aoey.

2. «Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia».

3. «Yeiiiie/aneee /aeiaae» e «iaaeaeeiay ?oea».

4. Oai?ey noieiinoe Aaeaia Nieoa.

5. «Ie? aeaiaa Aaeaia Nieoa».

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