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Защита окружающей среды от разливов нефтепродуктов

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IAUEA NAAAeAIEss I AeIAU*A IIEACIAUO

ENEIIAAIUO.

Aeiau/a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, eo ia?a?aaioea e o?ainii?oe?iaea oyaeaei
neacuaathony ia ninoiyiee e ieiaei?iaeee ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa Caiee.
Iauaecaanoii, /oi oi?ioea ii/au – yoi iaeeueiia ieiaei?iaeea. Ii ii/au
ia iaoae ieaiaoa ea?atho e ae?oaoth, iaiaa ecaanoioth, ii ia iaiaa
aaaeioth ?ieue. A ii/aaiiii iie?iaa Caiee e aa aoioniaie iaiei/ea
nin?aaeioi/aia iniiaiay aeiey aeeaiai aauanoaa nooe e aai aeiaaiiie
yia?aee. Ionthaea yeieiae/aneay nenoaia “ ii/aa – i?aaieciu “
ieacuaaaony iaeiei ec aeaaiaeoeo iaoaieciia oi?ie?iaaiey anae aeinoa?u,
aa noaaeeueiinoe e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe a oeaeii. (A. O. Aa?aaaiia 1992 ).

Iu i?eaueee ianeaaeaeaoueny iuneueth i iaiaic?eiinoe iaoeo i?inoi?ia.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii no?aia o ian ia?iiiay ! Aa oa??eoi?ey 2227, 6 iei. aa.
Ii aaaeiaeoea naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey – iaoie, naiieinu, ianoaeua
– ia yoeo i?inoi?ao caieiatho i?eia?ii eeoue iaeio /aoaa?oue , a o?e
/aoaa?oe i?eoiaeeoueny ia ooiae?o, oaeao, ionouie. I?aa?aoeoue eo a
ieiaei?iaeiua caiee aeaei iaiuneeiia. Ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oi
/aeiaa/anoai aaeaaiaeii oa?yao ieiei 50 – 70 oun. ei2 caiaeueiuo
?ano?nia (TH. E. Neo?eaoia, A. A. Aeoea 1994 ).

Eoaea aea aeaaathony iaoe ii/au?

Aeey i?eia?a, a 1986 aiaeo ec iaae? iaoae ieaiaou auei ecaea/aii 250
iei. o aeaeaciie ?oaeu, 615 iei. o iaooe, 751 iei. o oaey, ieeeeiiu oiii
ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee e ?oae oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia. Ii i?e yoii iiiooii a
?acoeueoaoa ai?iuo ?aaio ecaea/aiu e na?ioaiu a ioaaeu aieaa 8 ie?ae. o
?acee/iuo ai?iuo ii?iae. Anee eo ?annuiaoue neiai a iaeei iao?, ii
iie?iao anth ieiuaaeue, caieiaaioth iuia Aaeaea?eae. E yoi “?acoeueoao”
eeoue iaeiiai aiaea ?aaiou aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. (A. O Aa?aaaiia.
1989)

Ioaaoeoue aanue eiiieaen i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n caa?yciaieai ii/aaiiuo
aeioeaiicia, caaea/a i/aiue neiaeiay e iiiaiia?aciay. A ii/aa,
ianaeaiiie ie?eaaeaie i?aaieciia, – io aaeoa?ee aei ieaeiieoathueo,
aeeth/eoaeueii, – i?ioeannu iaiaia noieue iiiaiia?aciu e neiaeiu, /oi iu
aua oieueei iiaeoiaeei e eo iiieiaieth.

A nayce n yoei, aaoi?o aeaiiiai ?aoa?aoa i?aaenoaaeyaony i/aiue
aeooaeueiie e ianouiie i?iaeaia caa?yciaiey ii/a iaooueth e
iaooai?iaeoeoaie. Ia nae?ao, /oi yia?aaoe/aneay i?ia?aiia ?innee ia
aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaaee/aiea aeiau/e “/a?iiai
cieioa”, a yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aaaeao e ?anoe?aieth naoe
o?oaii?iaiaeia, aic?anoaao eiee/anoai ia?aaicie iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaaiciiaeii iieiinoueth eneeth/eoue aa?iyoiinoue iiauo
aaa?ee, ?aceeaia iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia. A oi aea a?aiy ii?iaoeau
eiio?iey i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey noaiiayony n eaaeaeui aiaeii ana aeano/a,
niioaaonoaaiii aic?anoatho ?acia?u oo?aoia. Eae i?aaenoaaeyaony aaoi?o
aeaiiiai ?aoa?aoa, oieueei iao/ii – enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou iiaoo
iiii/ue a ?aoaiee noieue neiaeiie e iiiaiieaiiaie caaea/e, eae
caa?yciaiea ii/a iaooueth e iaooai?iaeoeoaie. I?aaeeaaaaiue ?aoa?ao
?anniao?eaaao iaeaieaa aaaeiua ?aaiou, aaaeoueany a oeacaiiii
iai?aaeaiee.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ?anniao?eaaoue ethaoth yeieiae/aneoth i?iaeaio,
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai ciaoue “ o/anoieeia “ yoie i?iaeaiu. A iaoai
neo/aa “ o/anoieeaie “ yoie i?iaeaiu yaeythony: iaooue e ii/aa. Aeaaaeoa
?anniio?ei eo iiaieiaoaeueiaa n oi/ee c?aiey eo acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Aii?in?2

IAOOUe E A? NINOAA.

INIIAIUA OAEOI?U CAA?ssCIAIEss.

Iaooue – yoi aeeaeeee i?e?iaeiue ?anoai?, ninoiyuee ec aieueoiai /enea
oaeaaiaei?iaeia (OA) ?aciiia?aciiai no?iaiey e aunieiiieaeoey?iuo
niieenoi-anoaeueoaiiauo aauanoa. A iai ?anoai?aii iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai
aiaeu, nieae, iee?iyeaiaioia. Aeaaiua yeaiaiou: N – 83-87%, I – 12-14%,
N, S, O – 1-2%, ?aaea 3-6% ca n/ao S. Aeanyoua e nioua aeiee i?ioeaioa
iaooe ninoaaeytho iiiai/eneaiiua iee?iyeaiaiou.

A ea/anoaa yeieiai-aaioeie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iniiaiiai ninoaaa iaooe
i?eiyou [TH.E. Ieeianeee, 1988] niaea?aeaiea eaaeie o?aeoeee (ia/aei
eeiaiey 2000N), iaoaiiauo OA (aeeth/ay oaa?aeua ia?aoeiu), oeeeee/aneeo
OA, niie, anoaeueoaiia e na?ienouo niaaeeiaiee.

Eaaeay o?aeoeey iaooe

Aeeth/aao ieceiiieaeoey?iua iaoaiiaua (aeeaiu), iaooaiiaua
(oeeeeiia?aoeiiaua) e a?iiaoe/aneea OA – iaeaieaa iiaeaeaeiay /anoue
iaooe.

Aieueooth /anoue eaaeie o?aeoeee ninoaaeytho iaoaiiaua OA (aeeaiu n
N5-N11 – iaioai, aaenai …). Iaoaiiaua OA, iaoiaeynue a ii/aao, aiaeiie
eee aicaeooiie n?aaeao, ieacuaatho ia?eioe/aneia e oiene/aneia aeaenoaea
ia aeeaua i?aaieciu. Iniaaiii auno?i aeaenoaotho ii?iaeueiua aeeaiu n
ei?ioeie oaeaaiaei?iaeiie oeaiueth. Iie eo/oa ?anoai?eiu a aiaea, eaaei
i?iieeatho a eeaoee i?aaieciia /a?ac iaia?aiu, aeaci?aaiecotho
oeeoiieaciaiiua iaia?aiu i?aaiecia. Aieueoeinoaii iee?ii?aaieciia
ii?iaeueiua aeeaiu, niaea?aeauea a oeaii/ea iaiaa 9 aoiiia N, ia
anneieee?othony, oioy e iiaoo auoue ieeneaiu. Aneaaenoaea eaoo/anoe e
aieaa aunieie ?anoai?eiinoe ieceiiieaeoey?iuo aeeaiia eo aeaenoaea
iau/ii ia auaaao aeieaia?aiaiiui. A nieaiie aiaea ii?iaeueiua aeeaiu n
ei?ioeeie oeaiyie ?anoai?ythony eo/oa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aieaa
yaeiaeou. Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee [A. I. Na?aaeeia 1984, I. A. Aeacianeay
1980] ioia/atho neeueiia oiene/aneia aeaenoaea eaaeie o?aeoeee ia
iee?iaiua niiauanoaa e ii/aaiiuo aeeaioiuo. Eaaeay o?aeoeey iea?e?oao ii
ii/aaiiiio i?ioeeth e aiaeiiiniui ai?eciioai, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yy
a?aae ia?ae/iiai caa?yciaiey. N oiaiueoaieai niaea?aeaiey eaaeie
o?aeoeee oiene/iinoue iaooe nieaeaaony, ii aic?anoaao oiene/iinoue
a?iiaoe/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, ioiineoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo ?anoao.
Iooai enia?aiey ec ii/au oaeaeyaony io 20 aei 40% eaaeeo o?aeoeee
[McGill, 1977].

IaoaiiauaOA

A iaooyo, aiaaouo eaaeie o?aeoeeae, nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ea?atho aieaa
aunieiiieaeoey?iua iaoaiiaua OA (N12-N27), ninoiyuea ec ii?iaeueiuo
aeeaiia e eciaeeaiia a niioiioaiee 3:1. Iaoaiiaua OA n oaiia?aoo?ie
eeiaiey auoa 2000N i?aeoe/anee ia?anoai?eiu a aiaea. Eo oiene/iinoue
au?aaeaia ai?acaei neaaaa, /ai o OA n aieaa ieceiiieaeoey?iie
no?oeoo?ie.

Niaea?aeaiea oaa?aeuo iaoaiiauo OA (ia?aoeiia) a iaooe – aaaeiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea i?e eco/aiee iaooyiuo ?aceeaia ia ii/aao. Ia?aoeiu ia
oiene/iu aeey aeeauo i?aaieciia e a oneiaeyo caiiie iiaa?oiinoe
ia?aoiaeyo a oaa?aeia ninoiyiea, eeoay iaooue iiaeaeaeiinoe.

Aeeaiu anneieee?othony iiiaeie iee?ii?aaieciaie (ae?iaeaee, a?eau,
aaeoa?ee). Eaaeea iaooai?iaeoeou oeia aeecaeueiiai oiieeaa i?e
ia?aiia/aeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee a ii/aa 0,5% ca 1,5 ianyoea
aeaa?aaee?otho ia 10-80% io enoiaeiiai eiee/anoaa a caaeneiinoe io
niaea?aeaiey eaoo/eo OA. Aieaa iieiay aeaa?aaeaoeey i?ienoiaeeo i?e ?I
7,4 (64,3-90%), a eeneie n?aaea (?I 4,5) aeaa?aaee?otho eeoue aei 18,8%
[TH. E. Ieeianeee 1988].

Oaa?aeue ia?aoei i/aiue o?oaeii ?ac?ooaaony, n o?oaeii ieeneyaony ia
aicaeooa. Ii iaaeieai iiaeao “caia/aoaoue” ana ii?u ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa,
eeoea ii/ao aiciiaeiinoe naiaiaeiiai aeaaiiaiaia e aeuoaiey. Yoi, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, i?eaiaeeo e iieiie aeaa?aaeaoeee aeioeaiica.

Oeeeee/aneea OA

E iei a iaooe ioiinyony iaooaiiaua e a?iiaoe/aneea OA.

Iaooaiiaua OA ninoaaeytho io 35 aei 60 %

I oiene/iinoe iaooaiia naaaeaiee ii/oe ia eiaaony. Aianoa n oai eiathony
aeaiiua i iaooaiao eae i noeioee?othueo a-aao i?e aeaenoaee ia aeeaie
i?aaieci.( ea/aaiay iaooue Iaooaeaineiai iano-y a
Aca?aaeaeaeaia).Aeieiae/anee aeoeaiui oaeoi?ii yoie iaooe neoaeao
iieeoeeeee/aneea iaooaiiaua no?oeoo?u. Iniiaiua i?iaeoeou ieeneaiey
iaooaiiauo OA- eeneiou e ieneeeneiou.

E a?iiaoe/aneei OA (a?aiai) ioiinyony eae nianoaaiii a?iiaoe/aneea
no?oeoo?u – 6-oe /eaiiua eieueoea ec ?aaeeeaeia -NI-, oae e “aea?eaeiua”
no?oeoo?u, ninoiyuea ec a?iiaoe/aneeo e iaooaiiauo eieaoe. Niaea?aeaiea
a iaooe a?iiaoe/aneeo OA io 5 aei 15 %, /aua anaai io 20 aei 40 %.
Iniiaiay ianna a?iiaoe/aneeo no?oeoo? ninoaaeytho iiiiyaea?iua OA –
aiiieiae aaiciea. Iieeoeeeee/aneea a?iiaoe/aneea OA (IAO) n aeaoiy e
aieaa a?iiaoe/aneeie eieueoeaie niaea?aeaony a iaooe io 1 aei 4 %.
N?aaee aieiyaea?iuo IAO aieueoia aieiaiea iau/ii oaeaeyaony
3,4-aaicie?aio eae iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio i?aaenoaaeoaeth
eaioea?iaaiiuo aauanoa.

A?iiaoe/aneea OA – iaeaieaa oiene/iua eiiiiiaiou iaooe. A eiioeaio?aoeee
anaai 1 % a aiaea iie oaeaatho ana aiaeiua ?anoaiey. Iaooue niaea?aeauay
io 30 aei 40 % a?iiaoe/aneeo OA cia/eoaeueii oaiaoaao ?ino aunoeo
?anoaiee. Iiiiyaea?iua OA – aaicie e aai aiiieiae ieacuaatho aieaa
auno?ia oiene/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia i?aaieciu /ai IAO oae eae IAO
iaaeeaiiaa i?iieeatho /a?ac iaia?aiu eeaoie. Iaeiaei, a oeaeii, IAO
aeaenoaotho aieaa aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, yaeyynue o?iie/aneeie
oieneeaioaie.

A?iiaoe/aneea OA o?oaeii iiaeaeathony ?ac?ooaieth. Yenia?eiaioaeueii
iieacaii, /oi aeaaiui oaeoi?ii aeaa?aaeaoeee IAO a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea,
a iniaaiiinoe a aiaea e aicaeooa, yaeyaony oioieec, eieoeee?iaaiiue
oeueo?aoeieaoiaui eceo/aieai.[ A.E. Oeeeia]. A ii/aa yoio i?ioeann
iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue oieueei ia aa iiaa?oiinoe.

Niieu e anoaeueoaiu

Niieu e anoaeueoaiu – yoi aunieiiieaeoey?iua iaoaeaaiaei?iaeiua
eiiiiiaiou iaooe. Niieu – ayceea iacaiiaeiaiua a-aa, anoaeueoaiu –
oaa?aeua, ia?anoai?eiua a ieceiiieaeoey?iuo OA. Ii niaea?aeaieth niie e
anoaeueoaiia iaooe iiae?acaeaeythony ia:

iaeiniieenoua ( io 1 – 2 aei 10 % niie e anoaeueoaiia )

niieenoua ( 10 – 20 % )

aunieiniieenoua ( 23 – 40 % )

Niieu e anoaeueoaiu niaea?aeao iniiaioth /anoue iee?iyeaiaioia iaooe, a
oii /enea ii/oe ana iaoaeeu. N?aaee iaoiene/iuo e iaeioiene/iuo iaoaeeia
iiaeii auaeaeeoue: Si, Fe, Al, Mn, Ca, Mg, P. Ae?oaea iee?iyeaiaiou: V,
Ni, Co, Pb, Cu, U, As, Hg, Mo, a neo/aa iiauoaiiuo eiioeaio?aoeee iiaoo
ieacuaaoue oiene/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia aeioeaiic.

A?aaeiia yeieiae/aneia aeeyiea niieenoi – anoaeueoaiiauo eiiiiiaioia ia
ii/aaiiua yeinenoaiu caeeth/aaony ia a oeie/aneie oiene/iinoe, a a
cia/eoaeueiii eciaiaiee aiaeii – oece/aneeo na – a ii/a. Anee iaooue
i?ina/eaaaony naa?oo, aa niieenoi – anoaeueoaiiaua eiiiiiaiou
ni?ae?othony a iniiaiii a aa?oiai, aoioniaii ai?eciioa eiiaaea i?i/ii
oeaiaioe?oy aai. I?e yoii oiaiueoaaony ii?iaia i?ino?ainoai ii/a.

Niieenoi – anoaeueoaiiaua eiiiiiaiou aeae?ioiaiu. Iaaieaeeaay ei?ie
?anoaiee, iie ?acei oooaeoatho iinooieaiea e iei aeaae a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai ?anoaiey iiaeaatho. Yoe a- aa iaeiaeinooiiu iee?ii?aaieciai,
i?ioeann eo iaoaaieecia eaeao i/aiue iaaeeaiii, eiiaaea aeanyoee eao. A
oeaeii i?e ieeneeoaeueiie aeaa?aaeaoeee iaooe a ii/aao, iacaaeneii io
oiai, i?ienoiaeeo iaoaie/aneia auiuaaiea caa?yciythueo a – a eee iao,
eaeao iaeiieaiea niieenoi – anoaeueoaiiauo a – a. ?ac?ooaiea e auiin
eiiiiiaioia OA o?aeoeee i?ienoiaeyo ai?acaei auno?aa.

Ca oa 400 iei. Eao, /oi aeeciue ia Caiea auoea ia nooo, n iiaa?oiinoueth
iaoae ieaiaou i?iecioee aieueoea eciaiaiey: eaiaienoua e
aeeienoi-ian/aiua ionouie iie?ueenue oiieie iaiei/eie n?aaeu iaeoaiey
iacaiiuo aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee. Ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee yoie
aeeaie iaiei/ee Caiee nua?aee oioineioace?othuea ?anoaiey. Aneaaenoaea
eo aeayoaeueiinoe iiaa?oiinoiue neie Caiee iaiaaoeeny i?aaie/aneeie
aauanoaaie, ianuoeeny iiiaeanoaii aaoa?io?ioiuo iee?ii?aaieciia,
noi?ie?iaaeenue ii/aaiiua yeinenoaiu, aeathuea ieuo aeey aeeaioiuo. Iie
aea neoaeao iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie ieue e aeey /aeiaaea.

Aii?in?3

II*AA.

Oaeei ia?acii ii/aa – yoi naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo aoiinoa?ie,
aeae?inoa?ie, eeoinoa?ie e aeeauie i?aaieciaie e ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a
i?ioeannao iaiaia aauanoaaie e yia?aeae iaaeaeo eiiiiiaioaie aeinoa?u.
Ii/aa – yoi n?aaeioi/ea aeecie, n?aaea iaeoaiey iiiaeo aeeauo
i?aaieciia.

“Aeuoaiea” ii/au nouanoaaiii eciaiyao ninoaa i?ecaiiiai neiy aoiinoa?u.
Ii/aaiiay aeaaa, oi?ie?oynue ec aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia, a aeaeueiaeoai
ii?aaeaeyao oeie/aneee ninoaa a?oioiauo, ?a/iuo, ica?iuo e a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?neeo aiae. A ii/aa iinoiyiii e iaeiia?aiaiii
i?ioaeatho oeie/aneea, oece/aneea e aeieiae/aneea i?ioeannu.
Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue caeanue ea?atho i?ioeannu oa?iaioaoeaiiai e
eaoaeeoe/aneiai ieeneaiey, ainnoaiiaeaiey e aeae?ieeca. A ?acoeueoaoa
ii/aa iaiaauaaony iaiaoiaeeiuie iai?aaie/aneeie e i?aaie/aneeie
aauanoaaie, i?ienoiaeeo oeie/aneee e?oaiai?io aauanoa – nouiinoue
?acaeoey ii/au, aa ieiaei?iaeey.

Iiae ieiaei?iaeeai iiieiatho naienoai ii/au oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe
?anoaiee a yeaiaioao ieoaiey e aiaea, niaaaeaoue ei?iaaua nenoaiu
iaiaoiaeeiui eiee/anoaii aicaeooa e oaieiou, iaania/eaay oai naiui
ii?iaeueioth aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ?anoaiee.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey inouanoaeaiey ii/aaiiuo i?ioeannia eiaao no?oeoo?a
ii/au. Ethaoth ii/ao iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae aaoa?iaaiioth,
iiiaioacioth nenoaio, ninoiyuoth ec oaa?aeie ( ieia?aeueiue “neaeao”,
i?aaie/aneee e aeieiae/aneee eiiiiiaiou ), aeeaeeie ( ii/aaiiue ?anoai?
) e aaciia?aciie ( ii/aaiiue aicaeoo ) oac. Ii/aa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeiieia?aeueioth ( aeieinioth ) aeeiaie/aneoth nenoaio, iaoiaeyuothny a
iaoa?eaeueiii e yia?aaoe/aneii acaeiiaeaenoaee n aiaoiae n?aaeie e
/anoe/ii caieioooth /a?ac aeieiae/aneee e?oaiai?io aauanoa.

Ieia?aeueiue ninoaa ii/a neeaaeuaaaony a iniiaiii ec eaa?oea ( SiO2) e
aethiineeeeaoia ( SiO2 . Al2O3 . H2O ) a ?acee/iuo niioiioaieyo.

Oaa?aeay oaca ii/a e ii/aiia?acothueo ii?iae ninoieo ec ?aciiia?iuo
/anoeoe ( iaaeia ) – iaoaie/aneeo yeaiaioia. Ioiineoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea
a ii/aa oaeeo yeaiaioia ii?aaeaeyao aa a?aioeiiao?e/aneee ninoaa. A
caaeneiinoe io ?acia?ia /anoeoe ?acee/atho ian/aiua, noaeeienoua e
aeeienoua ii/au.

Io iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa ii/a e ii/aiia?acothueo ii?iae a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a caaeneo eioaineaiinoue iiiaeo ii/aaiiuo i?ioeannia, naycaiiuo n
i?aa?auaieyie, ia?aiinii e iaeiieaieai a ii/aa i?aaie/aneeo e
ieia?aeueiuo niaaeeiaiee.

I?aaie/aneee eiiiiiaio ii/a i?aaenoaaeai aoioniauie aauanoaaie,
neoaeaueie enoi/ieeaie ieoaiey aeey ii/aaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia e
no?oeoo?aoi?aie ii/a. Aoioniia?aciaaiea i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa
i?aa?auaiey i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeia, iinooiathueo a ii/ao iinea ioie?aiey
?anoaiee.

Aeieiae/aneay ninoaaeythuay ii/aaiiuo yeinenoai i?aaenoaaeaia caeaiuie
?anoaieyie, iee?ii?aaieciaie e aeeaioiuie. I?e aicaeaenoaee i?aaieciia
ia ii/ao a i?ioeanna eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe inouanoaeythony aaaeiaeoea
caaiuey ii/aiia?aciaaiey – neioac e ?ac?ooaiea i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa,
ecae?aoaeueiia eiioeaio?e?iaaiea aeieiae/anee aaaeiuo iee?iyeaiaioia,
?ac?ooaiea e iiaiia?aciaaiea ieia?aeia e aeeoioeyoeee aauanoa.

Iniiaiay ii/aiia?acothuay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo eaniie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. Aa
aeiiannu ia iiaa?oiinoe nooe ninoaaeyao 1011 – 1012 o. Inoaoee
?anoeoaeueiinoe iinooiatho ia iiaa?oiinoue ii/au a iniiaiii a aeaea
iiaaea. Ia aoi?ii ianoa ii aeiianna ii/aiia?acothueo caeaiuo ?anoaiee –
o?aayienoay ?anoeoaeueiinoue ( 1010 – 1011 o ). I?e yoii aeiianna ei?iae
iau/ii i?aauoaao aeiianno iacaiiie /anoe o?aayienoie ?anoeoaeueiinoe.

A oi?ie?iaaiee ieiaei?iaeey ii/a i?eiaaeeaaeeo ii/aaiiui
iee?ii?aaieciai. Caeanue iaeoatho a aieueoii eiee/anoaa aaeoa?ee,
iee?ineiie/aneea a?eau e aiaei?inee. Iauaa /enei iee?ii?aaieciia a ii/aa
en/eneyaony ieeeea?aeaie a 1 a?. Iee?ioei?a ii/au ii iauaio ninoaaeyao
ieiei 0,1% aa iauaia, 7 – 10 o ia 1 aa eee a nooii aana i?eia?ii 2 o
aeeaiai aauanoaa ia aaeoa?.

Iniaaiii aaaeioth ?ieue a ii/aaiiii e?oaiai?ioa aauanoa ea?atho
aaeoa?ee. Aaoa?io?ioiua aaeoa?ee ?aceaaatho i?aaie/aneea inoaoee aei
i?inouo ieia?aeueiuo niaaeeiaiee. Aooio?ioiua aaeoa?ee inouanoaeytho a
ii/aa i?ioeannu ieeneaiey ieia?aeueiuo niaaeeiaiee – i?iaeoeoia
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aaoa?io?ioia. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a ii/aao
na?iaaeoa?ee ieeneytho I2S, S, e oeiniaaeeiaiey aei I2SO4 (i?ioeann
noeueoioeeaoeee). I?e o/anoee aeaeaciieeneythueo aaeoa?ee, iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a caaiei/aiiuo ii/aao, i?ienoiaeeo ieeneaiea nieae Fe
(II). A ii/aa niaea?aeeony iiiai aaeoa?ee – aciooeenaoi?ia: naiaiaeii
aeeaoueo e eeoaaiueeiauo. Ia ioie?athueo i?aaie/aneeo inoaoeao aeeaoo
nai?ioeoiua aaoa?io?ioiua aaeoa?ee e a?eau. Iee?ineiie/aneea a?eau
(ieaniaaua, aeoeiiieoeaou) a ay?iaiuo oneiaeyo iiaoo ?aceaaaoue
eeao/aoeo, eeaiei e ae?oaea noieeea i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, o/anoaotho
a ieia?aeecaoeee aoiona. Eo aeou aeinoeaatho ianeieueeeo ouny/ iao?ia ia
1 a ii/au. Ia?yaeo n aaeoa?eyie e a?eaaie a ii/aa i?enoonoaoao
aieueoia eiee/anoai aiaei?ineae, a iniiaiii a iiaa?oiinoiii neia e ia
?anoaieyo.

Ieiaei?iaeea ii/au ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeaieai a iae aoioniauo aauanoa.
Yoe aauanoaa oeie/anee e iee?iaeieiae/anee onoie/eau. Iie yaeythony
i?iiaaeooi/iuie i?iaeoeoaie a i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey oaey. C?aeua
aoioniaua ii/aaiiua ai?eciiou oi?ie?othony ca nioie eao, a ieia?aeueiua
– ca ouny/e e ieeeeiiu eao.

Iioa?e ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa ai anai ie?a aaeeee. Iauay ieiuaaeue ii/a,
?ac?ooaiiuo ca anth enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa, aeinoeaea 20 iei. ei2, /oi
iaiiiai i?aauoaao ieiuaaeue anae iaoioiie caiee, eniieuecoaiie a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy. A ?acoeueoaoa cano?ieee, i?iecaiaenoaa ai?iuo ?aaio,
iionouieaaiey e canieaiey ii/a ie?iaia naeueneia oicyenoai aaeaaiaeii
oa?yao ieiei 50 – 70 oun. ei2 (TH. E. Neo?eaoia 1994).

Oaeei ia?acii, iinea e?aoeiai ciaeiinoaa n “ o/anoieeaie “ yoie
yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiu, iiaeii ia?aeoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii e eco/aieth
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ii/aie e iaooueth, eioi?ua, eae yoi ia
ia?aaeienaeueii cao/eo, aiana ia yaeythony “ ninaaeyie “, ii noaaoea
oaeiauie a ?acoeueoaoa “ oicyenoaaiiie “ aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

Aii?in?4

ANOANOAAIIAss O?AINOI?IAOeEss IAOOE A II*AA.

Enneaaeiaaiea o?ainoi?iaoeee iaooe, iiiaaoae a ii/ao a ?acoeueoaoa
?aceeaia eee ooa/ae a ianoao o?aiaiey eee o?ainii?oe?iaee, iaiaoiaeeii
aeey iiieiaiey iaoaieciia naiii/euaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey ii/a, ia?ooaiiuo
oaoiiaaiacii. Ciaiea noaaeee o?ainoi?iaoeee iaooe iicaieeo ii?aaeaeeoue
aeaaiinoue caa?yciaiey e n?iee ainnoaiiaeaiey ii/a, iiauneoue
yooaeoeaiinoue eiio?iey ca caa?yciaieai n?aaeu iaooueth e
iaooai?iaeoeoaie. Ieeneaiea ioaeaeueiuo eeannia OA, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa
iaooe, a /anoiinoe iee?iaeieiae/aneia ieeneaiea, eco/aaony a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aeiaieueii iiae?iaii, nouanoaoao aeinoaoi/ii iiiai ?aaio ii yoei
aii?inai (I. I. Eniaeeia 1985, O. O. Oaceaa 1981, I. A.Aeacianeay 1979 e
ae?. ). Aaoi?u auaeaeytho neaaeothuea iaeaieaa iauea yoaiu
o?ainoi?iaoeee iaooe:

Oeceei-oeie/aneia e /anoe/ii iee?iaeieiae/aneia ?ac?ooaiea

aeeoaoe/aneeo OA.

Iee?iaeieiae/aneia ?ac?ooaiea ieceiiieaeoey?iuo no?oeoo? ?aciuo eeannia,
iiaiia?aciaaiea niieenouo aauanoa.

O?ainoi?iaoeey aunieiiieaeoey?iuo niaaeeiaiee – niie, anoaeueoaiia,
iieeoeeeee/aneeo OA.

A niioaaonoaee n yoaiaie aeiaeaa?aaeaoeee i?ienoiaeeo ?aaaia?aoeey
aeioeaiicia. I?ioeannu eaeoo ?aciuie oaiiaie ia ?aciuo y?onao yeinenoai.
Cia/eoaeueii iaaeeaiiaa, /ai iee?ioei?a e ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia,
oi?ie?oaony nai?ioeoiue eiiieaen aeeaioiuo. Iieiie ia?aoeiinoe
i?ioeanna, eae i?aaeei, ia iaaethaeaaony. Iaeaieaa neeueiay aniuoea
iee?iaeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe i?eoiaeeony ia aoi?ie yoai
aeiaeaa?aaeaoeee iaooe. I?e aeaeueiaeoai nieaeaiee /eneaiiinoe anao
a?oii iee?ii?aaieciia aei eiio?ieueiuo cia/aiee, /eneaiiinoue
oaeaaiaei?iaeieeneythueo i?aaieciia ia iiiaea aiaeu inoaaony aiiiaeueii
aunieie ii n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieai.

TH.E. Ieeianeee (1988) ioia/aao, /oi i?e iaooyiii caa?yciaiee
acaeiiaeaenoaotho o?e yeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?a: a) neiaeiinoue, oieeaeueiay
iieeeiiiiiaioiinoue ninoaaa iaooe, iaoiaeyuaainy a ninoiyiee iinoiyiiiai
eciaiaiey; a) neiaeiinoue, aaoa?iaaiiinoue ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u ethaie
yeinenoaiu, iaoiaeyueeny a i?ioeanna iinoiyiiiai ?acaeoey e eciaiaiey;
a) iiiaiia?acea e eciai/eainoue aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, iiae aicaeaenoaeai
eioi?uo iaoiaeeony yeinenoaia: oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeaiea, aeaaeiinoue,
ninoiyiea aoiinoa?u, aeae?inoa?u e ae?. Enoiaey ec yoiai, ioeaieaaoue
iineaaenoaey iaooyiiai caa?yciaiey iaiaoiaeeii n o/aoii eiie?aoiiai
ni/aoaiey yoeo o?ao a?oii oaeoi?ia.

?anniao?eaay iauea caeiiiia?iinoe o?ainoi?iaoeee iaooe a ii/aa, TH.E.
Ieeianeee (1988) ioia/aao, /oi iaooue – yoi aunieii?aaieciaaiiay
noanoaioeey, ninoiyuay ec iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia. Iia
aeaa?aaee?oao a ii/aa i/aiue iaaeeaiii, i?ioeannu ieeneaiey iaeieo
no?oeoo? eiaeae?othony ae?oaeie no?oeoo?aie, o?ainoi?iaoeey ioaeaeueiuo
niaaeeiaiee eaeao ii iooe i?eia?aoaiey oi?i, o?oaeiiieeneyaiuo a
aeaeueiaeoai. Ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe iaooue ieacuaaaony a ae?oaie
ianoaiiaea – a ay?e?oaiie n?aaea. Iniiaiie iaoaieci ieeneaiey OA ?aciuo
eeannia a ay?iaiie n?aaea neaaeothuee: aiaae?aiea eenei?iaea a iieaeoeo,
caiaia naycae n iaeie yia?aeae ?ac?uaa (N-N, N-I) naycyie n aieueoie
yia?aeae, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ioeann i?ioaeaao naiii?iecaieueii.

Aeaaiue aaeioe/aneee oaeoi? o?ainoi?iaoeee – oeueo?aoeieaoiaia
eceo/aiea. Oioioeie/aneea i?ioeannu iiaoo ?aceaaaoue aeaaea iaeaieaa
noieeea iieeoeeeee/aneea OA ca ianeieueei /ania.

Eiia/iua i?iaeoeou iaoaaieecia iaooe a ii/aa neaaeothuea:

Oaeaeeneioa, eioi?ay iiaeao naycuaaoueny a ea?aiiaou, e aiaea.

Eenei?iaeiua niaaeeiaiey (nie?ou, eeneiou, aeueaeaaeaeu, eaoiiu),
eioi?ua /anoe/ii aoiaeyo a ii/aaiiue aoion, /anoe/ii ?anoai?ythony a
aiaea e oaeaeythony ec ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey.

Oaa?aeua ia?anoai?eiua i?iaeoeou iaoaaieecia – ?acoeueoao aeaeueiaeoaai
oieioiaiey aunieiiieaeoey?iuo i?iaeoeoia eee naycuaaiey eo a
i?aaii-ieia?aeueiua eiiieaenu.

Oaa?aeua ei?i/ee aunieiieia?aeueiuo eiiiiiaioia iaooe ia iiaa?oiinoe
ii/au (ee?u).

Aianoa n oai eco/aieth o?ainoi?iaoeee anae nenoaiu niaaeeiaiee,
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa iaooe, ia i?e?iaeiuo iiaeaeyo oaeaeyeinue aua iaei
aieiaiey. I. A Aeacianeay., TH. E Ieeianeee. (1985) ioia/atho, /oi
aeaaiie oeaeueth eco/aiey caa?yciaiee i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu yaeyaony
auno?aeoee aica?ao iai?eaiaeiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey caiaeue a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, ainnoaiiaeaiea eo ia?aiia/aeueiie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe eee ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ea/anoa. Nei?inoue ?aceiaeaiey iaooe
ii aeaiiui ?aciuo aaoi?ia ?acee/aaony a iyoue e aieaa ?ac,
ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?aiia/aeueiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe caiaeue i?e aeoeaiie
?aeoeueoeaaoeee i?ienoiaeeei a iaeieo neo/ayo a oa/aiea aiaea, a ae?oaeo
?anoyaeaaeinue io ianeieueeeo eao aei 12 e aieaa. Oae, A. A Iai?ei., E.
A Eaei/ieeiaa., O. A Ianeeaaoe. (1988), eco/ay i?ioeannu naiii/euaiey
iaooacaa?yciaiiuo ii/a I?aaeo?aeuey e Caiaaeiie Neae?e ia i?eia?a
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo i?iaiuo ieiuaaeie, auaeaeeee neaaeothuea yoaiu
aeaa?aaeaoeee iaooe a ii/aa:

I yoai (ia?aua 1-1,5 aiaea). Eiatho ianoi oeceei-oeie/aneea i?ioeannu:
?ani?aaeaeaiea OA ii i?ioeeth, enia?aiea, auiuaaiea, oeueo?aoeieaoiaia
iaeo/aiea. E eiioeo ia?aiai aiaea iieiinoueth en/acatho i-aeeaiu. Aeioa
iiaeaaeaia, eaeao aaeaioaoeey e iiaui oneiaeyi e iinoaiaiiia iiauoaiea
eiee/anoaa iee?ii?aaieciia, iniaaiii oaea?iaeieeneythueo.

II yoai (3-4 aiaea). *anoe/iay aeioeie/aneay aeano?oeoeey neiaeiuo
aea?eaeiuo iieaeoe, eciaiaiea ninoaaa iaooe. Aniuoea /eneaiiinoe
iee?ii?aaieciia, e eiioeo yoaia – aa nieaeaiea.

III yoai (aeey enneaaeoaiuo cii /a?ac 58-62 ianyoea). En/aciiaaiea
inoaoi/iie iaooe a enoiaeiuo e aoi?e/iuo ia?aoeiiauo OA.

Yoe eaaeoueany ?acee/ey iauyniythony ?acee/iuie ii/aaiii –
eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie, a eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeeenue iaaethaeaiey.
I/aaeaeii, /oi aeey oaeie iaoe?iie oa??eoi?ee, eae iaoa no?aia ia iiaeao
auoue ?ac?aaioaii aaeeiuo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey anao ?aeiiia ii caueoa e
?aeoeueoeaaoeee caiaeue ia?ooaiiuo i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea, aeiau/a e
ia?a?aaioea iaooe. A ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa iiaeii i?eaanoe i?eia?
?aeoeueoeaaoeee n i?eiaiaieai auaeeaa iaooe. Aeiionoeiue aeey iaeieo
?aeiiia ii iiaeao auoue iaaoaiui aeey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a ae?oaeo (
aneaaenoaea, iai?eia?, aeaa?aaeaoeee ia?ceiai neiy ). I?iaaaeaiiay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oa??eoi?ee neoaeeo iao/iui iainiiaaieai ia?ii?eyoee ii
caueoa e ainnoaiiaeaieth i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. *oiau naeaeaoue yoe
ia?ii?eyoey iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie, aeey eaaeaeiai eaiaeoaooiiai ?aeiia
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue i?e?iaeiua iaoaieciu naiii/euaiey, oaeoi?u,
onei?ythuea yoio i?ioeann, eiee/anoaaiiua e?eoa?ee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
?aciua noaaeee eciaiaiey iaooe, ii/a, ?anoeoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea
nei?inoue ainnoaiiaeaiey iineaaeieo. Iieo/eoue oaeea aeaiiua (ia eioi?ua
aeieaeai i?eaioe?iaaoueny eiio?ieue ca caa?yciaieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
iaooueth e iaooai?iaeoeoaie) iiaeii iooai iinoaiiaee niaoeeaeueiuo
yenia?eiaioia ia i?e?iaeiuo iiaeaeyo. Nooue yenia?eiaioa ninoieo a
neaaeothuai. A i?aaeaeao aua?aiiuo i?e?iaeiuo iiaeaeae ia
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ieiuaaeeao, a ii/ao n iiaa?oiinoe aiineony
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai iaooe oiai ninoaaa eioi?ue iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiai a aeaiiii ?aeiia. *a?ac oeene?iaaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie
ia caa?yciaiiii e eiio?ieueiii o/anoeao i?iaiaeyony iaaethaeaiey ca
ninoiyieai ?anoeoaeueiinoe e ioae?athony i?iau ii/a ii aaiaoe/aneiio
i?ioeeth aeey enneaaeiaaiey a eaai?aoi?ee. Ioee/ea i?aaeeiaeaiiiai
Aeacianeie I. A. e ae?. 1985 yenia?eiaioa i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi
aia?aua caaeoiaia nenoaia iiuoia, ioaaouaathueo ?acee/iua i?e?iaeiua
ciiu, ?acei eiio?anoiua a eeeiaoe/aneii ioiioaiee. A yoeo iiuoao ?aaiia
cia/aiea eiatho aeieiai – ii/aaiiua, aaioeie/aneea, aeooieiieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua aeey anao ?aeiiia auiieiythony ia aaeeiie
iaoiaee/aneie iniiaa. Ii a?aiaie a eaaeaeii ?aeiia yenia?eiaio ?ann/eoai
ia ianeieueei eao ( ia iaiaa o?ao ). Ia?aua ?acoeueoaou ?aaio ii
eiiieaeniiio yenia?eiaioo auee iieo/aiu ia oeaeeiiuo o/anoeao a
neaaeothueo i?e?iaeiuo ciiao: eaniooiae?a a ieciauea ?. Iae ( ooiae?iai
– aeaaaua ii/au), n?aaeiyy oaeaa a N?aaeiai I?eiauea ( ian/aii –
iiaecieenoua ii/au ), thaeiay oaeaa a Ia?ineii I?eeaiuea (aea?iiai –
iiaecieenoua ii/au ), nooea noao?iieee Aioa?iineiai i – aa (naaoeua na?i
– ei?e/iaaua ii/au ). Enneaaeiaaiey aaaeoony oaeaea a Aaei?onnee,
Oaoa?ee, Aaoee?ee, iaia/aaony ?ani?ino?aieoue yenia?eiaio e ia ae?oaea
?aeiiu. I?iaaaeaiiua iaaethaeaiey iicaieeee auyaeoue iaeioi?ua iauea
/a?ou i?ioeanna naiii/euaiey ii/a e aai iniaaiiinoe a i?e?iaeiuo ciiao.

Ia anao yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ieiuaaeeao niaea?aeaiea iaooe a ii/aa ?acei
nieaeaeinue a ia?aua o?e ianyoea iinea ia/aea iiuoia e a aeaeueiaeoai
i?iaeieaeaei nieaeaoueny, ii n iaiueoae nei?inoueth. Iniiaiua i?e/eiu
nieaeaiey niaea?aeaiey iaooe neaaeothuea: enia?aiea eaaeeo o?aeoeee,
ieia?aeecaoeey iaooe, oece/aneee auiin aiaeiuie iioieaie, eeieoeeaoeey
(i?aa?auaiea a ia?anoai?eiua a iaeo?aeueiuo i?aaie/aneeo ?anoai?eoaeyo
i?iaeoeou iee?iaeieiae/aneiai iaoaaieecia). Niioiioaiea yoeo oaeoi?ia
naiii/euaiey caaeneo io ii/aaiii – eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee, ninoaaa e
naienoa naiie iaooe e aeoaeiu aa i?iieeiiaaiey a ii/ao.

Iineieueeo aeey aaoi?a aeaiiiai ?aoa?aoa iiaeaeueiua yenia?eiaiou,
oiiiyiooua auoa, i?aaenoaaeythony iiae/an aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii a
iiieiaiee noieue neiaeiie i?iaeaiu eae caa?yciaiea ii/au iaooueth e
iaooai?iaeoeoaie, oioaeinue au aieaa iiae?iaii inoaiiaeoueny ia iaeiii
ec iiaeiaiuo yenia?eiaioia, auiieiaiiuo Ieeianeei TH. E, Eaei/ieeiaie E.
A. 1985. Aaoi?u i?iaaee iaaethaeaiey ca eciaiaieai ninoaaa o?ao
?aciiaeaeiinoe iaooe: oyaeaeie iaooe Aeiaaaaeeineiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey
Aca?aaeaeaeaia (?-0,935), iaooe ss?eii- Eaiaiiieiaeneiai iano-y Ia?ineie
iaeanoe (?-0,820) e iaooe Oaaei?ianeiai iano-y Caiaaeiie Neae?e
(?-0,840). Ia?aua aeaa iacaaiiua iaooe auee aianaiu niioaaonoaaiii ia
iiaa?oiinoe naaoeie na?i-ei?e/iaaie e aea?iiai-iiaecieenoie ii/a aaeece
iano aeiau/e. Oaaei?ianeay iaooue aiineeanue a ii/ao ?aciuo i?e?iaeiuo
cii: eaniooiae?u, n?aaeiae e thaeiie oaeae.

A oa/aiea ianyoea a naaoeie na?i-ei?e/iaaie ii/aa a?eaeiie ciiu iaooue
i?iieeea ia aeoaeio 10-13 ni., a iiaecieenoie e aea?iiai-iiaecieenoie
ii/aa aoieaeiie ciiu ia aeoaeio 30-40 ni. Ninoaa iaooe, aieoaaoaeny a
ii/ao ia?eiaee/anee enneaaeiaaeny (ia/eiay io aeaoo iaaeaeue aei aeaoo
eao iinea caa?yciaiey). Ninoaa iaooe, aieoaaoaeny a ii/ao ia?eiaee/anee
enneaaeiaaeny (ia/eiay io aeaoo iaaeaeue aei aeaoo eao iinea
caa?yciaiey). Inoaoi/iay iaooue yeno?aae?iaaeanue ec ii/aaiiuo i?ia
oei?ioi?iii aac iaa?aaaiey. ?anoai?eoaeue ioaiiyeny i?e eiiiaoiie
oaiia?aoo?a. Aauanoai o?iiaoia?aoe?iaaeinue a iacae?aieaiiii neia
neeeeaaaey n auaeaeaieai iaoaii-iaooaiiaie, iaooaii-a?iiaoe/aneie OA
o?aeoeee, niie e anoaeueoaiia. Iaoaiiai-iaooaiiaay o?aeoeey
enneaaeiaaeanue iaoiaeii aaciaeeaeeinoiie o?iiaoia?aoee,
iaooaii-a?iiaoe/aneay – iaoiaeii ieceioaiia?aoo?iie niaeo?ioeoi?eiao?ee
i?e oaiia?aoo?a 77E. Iao?aeoeeiie?iaaiiay iaooue enneaaeiaaeanue
iaoiaeii eio?ae?aniie niaeo?iiao?ee.

Eciaiaiey oeie/aneiai ninoaaa iaooe, i?ienoiaeyuea ia?aeeaeueii ni
nieaeaieai aa niaea?aeaiey a ii/aa, caiaoiu oaea a ia?aua o?e ianyoea
iinea ia/aea iiuoa. Ii aeaiiui eco/aiey eio?ae?aniuo niaeo?ia a iaooe
ioiineoaeueii aic?anoaao eiee/anoai eenei?iaeiniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee e
iiyaeythony na?ii?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey. Ni a?aiaiai iaoeeiiii
i?ienoiaeeo ioiineoaeueiia oiaiueoaiea a?oii NI2 e NI3 (iieinu 1470 e
1380 ni -1). I?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai eciaiaiey ninoaaa iaooe a ii/aao ai
a?aiaie io/aoeeai i?ineaaeeaaaony ii eciaiaieth niaea?aeaiey e ninoaaa
aa a?oiiiauo eiiiiiaioia. Ii enoa/aiee n?iea yenia?eiaioa auee iieo/aiu
neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

Ia oiia iauaai nieaeaiey eiioeaio?aoeee iaooe a ii/aa nieaeaiea
niaea?aeaiey aa a?oiiiauo eiiiiiaioia i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaiiia?ii. Auno?aa
ae?oaeo eiiiiiaioia oiaiueoaaony ioiineoaeueiia e aaniethoiia
niaea?aeaiea iaoaiiai-iaooaiiaie o?aeoeee. Yoe OA eaa/a iiaeaeathony
aeiaeaa?aaeaoeee, e?iia oiai, iie aieaa ?anoai?eiu a aiaea, /oi
iaeaa/aao eo auiin ca i?aaeaeu o/anoeia caa?yciaiey.

Iaeiia?aiaiii a iaooe oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea niieenouo a-a. Yoi
oaaee/aiea i?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey aeiee ae?oaeo
eiiiiiaioia e aieaa aunieie onoie/eainoe niie, ii e ca n/ao eo
iiaiia?aciaaiey a i?ioeanna o?ainoi?iaoeee iaooe.

Ioiineoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea iaooaii-a?iiaoe/aneie o?aeoeee e
anoaeueoaiia a iaooe ai a?aiaie iaiyaony iacia/eoaeueii, oioy eo
aaniethoiia niaea?aeaiea a ii/aa oaeaea nieaeaaony.

?anniao?eaay eciaiaiea ninoaaa ioaeaeueiuo a?oiiiauo eiiiiiaioia iaooe
auei iieacaii, /oi oaea a ia?aua o?e ianyoea caiaoiu i?eciaee
iee?iaeieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia iaoaii-iaooaiiaoth o?aeoeeth.
Ioiineoaeueii oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai ecii?aiieaeiuo no?oeoo? –
iaianuuaiiuo OA oeia i?enoaia n /eneii oaea?iaeiuo aoiiia a iieaeoea –
19 e oeoaia n /eneii oaea?iaeiuo aoiiia – 20. A oa/aiea iineaaeothuaai
aiaea ia/eiaao nieaeaoueny ioiineoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea ecii?aiieaeia
oeia oeoaia. E?iia oiai, a ninoaaa yoie o?aeoeee n oa/aieai a?aiaie
nieaeaaony niaea?aeaiea OA (N20-N24) e oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea
oyaeaeuo (N27-N31) OA.

A ninoaaa iaooaii-a?iiaoe/aneie o?aeoeee anao eco/aaoeony
?aciiaeaeiinoae iaooe onoaiiaeai iaeei e oio aea iaai? iieeoeeeee/aneeo
a?iiaoe/aneeo OA. Yoe OA i?aaenoaaeaiu oe?ieei aeeaiaciiii
aeeeecaiauaiiuo no?oeoo? – io iecei-eieue/aouo (iaooaeeiu e oaiaio?aiu)
aei iiiaieieue/aouo ni no?oeoo?ie 3,4-aaic(a)ie?aia. Iaaethaeaiey
iieacaee, /oi ai a?aiy eieoaaoeee iaooe a ii/aa i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiia
nieaeaiea ai o?aeoeee anao a?oii iieeoeeeee/aneeo a?iiaoe/aneeo OA.
Iaeaieaa auno?i nieaeaaony niaea?aeaiea OA n iaiueoei e-aii yaea? a
no?oeoo?a: iaooaeeiia, aaicoeoi?aiia, oaiaio?aiia, o?ecaiia. Iaaeeaiiaa
anaai i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea ie?aiia, eioi?ua yaeythony , ii aeaeeiiio,
iaeaieaa onoie/eauie n?aaee OA aeaiiiai eeanna.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?eaaaeaiiua Ieeianeei TH. E., Eaei/ieeiaie E. A. 1985,
aeaiiua iieacaee iaeaieaa iauea oaiaeaioeee a o?ainoi?iaoeee
caa?yciythueo ii/au iaooae a ?acee/iuo i?e?iaeiuo ciiao. Yoa
o?ainoi?iaoeey a ?aciuo i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo eaeao n
?acee/iie nei?inoueth. Oae, niaea?aeaiea iaoaiiai-iaooaiiaie o?aeoeee
Oaaei?ianeie iaooe ca iaeei aiae a oneiaeyo eaniooiae?u nieceeinue ia
34%, a n?aaeiae oaeaa- ia 46%, a oneiaeyo thaeiie oaeae- ia 55%.

Aiciiaeiinoe aeaa?aaeaoeee i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu i?e aeiau/a e
o?ainii?oe?iaea iaooe iiaoo io?aaeaoueny ia eaiaeoaooii-aaioeie/aneeo
i?iaiiciuo ea?oao. I.A. Aeacianeay, A.A. Aaoiyi e ae?. (1985),
caieiaynue ninoaaeaieai oaeeo ea?o, auynieee, /oi iianiinoue caa?yciaiey
e aiciiaeiinoue naii/euaiey ii/a io i?iaeoeoia iaooaaeiau/e a
ioaeaeueiuo ciiao e iaeanoyo no?aiu ?acee/athony. Iianiinoue inoaoi/iiai
iaeiieaiey iaooai?iaeoeoia aic?anoaao n thaa ia naaa?. A i?aaeaeao
ioaeaeueiuo aeieeeiaoe/aneeo cii iianiinoue aic?anoaao io ian/aiuo ii/a
e aeeienoui, io iaciii?oiuo e aeae?iii?oiui, io ?aniaoaiiuo e oeaeeiiui.
I?e ninoaaeaiee i?iaiicia aeaa?aaeaoeee aaoi?u ?aeiiaiaeotho
iieueciaaoueny iiiyoeai EEAN – eaneaaeiie eaiaeoaooii-aaioeie/aneie
nenoaiu. EEAN – yoi niaieoiiinoue ianoiuo eaiaeoaooia, iaoiaeyueony a
iaeiii aannaeia noiea ia ?aciuo aeiniiao?e/aneeo o?iaiyo e naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie iioieaie aauanoaa, yia?aee e eioi?iaoeee. I?iaiic aeey
ethaiai ?aeiia iaiaoiaeeii no?ieoue n o/aoii anae EEAN. Oa?aeoa?
oaoiiaaiiuo aicaeaenoaee ia EEAN ii?aaeaeyaony iieiaeaieai i/aaia yoeo
aicaeaenoaee (iaooaaaciiiniuo aannaeiia). *ai ieaea iaoiaeeony i/aa
oaoiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey a oeaii/ea caaiueaa eaneaaea, oai aeeyiea
iaooacaa?yciaiiuo oa??eoi?ee ia EEAN iaeiaiueoaa. Aaoi?u auaeaeeee
oanoue ?aiaia ii noaiaie iianiinoe aeaa?aaeaoeee n?aaeu. Iie
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi aiaeec aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia n?aaeo anaaaea
aeieaeai auoue nenoaiiui, o.a. o/eouaaoue ia oieueei o/anoie
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey, ii e eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea i?e yoii
ai anae eaiaeoaooii-aaioeie/aneie nenoaia eee iiaenenoaia.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue auoa, ii/aaiiua “ aeeoaee “ yoi iniiaa ii/aaiiiai
ieiaei?iaeey. Aac iee?ii?aaieciia ii/aa ia?oaa. Iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n ii/aaiiie oei?ie e oaoiie i?e aiacaiiii
aoi?aeaiee noieue aa?anneaiiai iieethoaioa, eae iaooue.

Aii?in?5

IAOOssIIA CAA?ssCIAIEA.

Iaooyiia caa?yciaiea nicaeaao iiaoth yeieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e aeoaieiio eciaiaieth anao caaiueaa anoanoaaiiuo aeioeaiicia
eee eo iieiie o?ainoi?iaoeee. Iauay iniaaiiinoue anao iaooacaa?yciaiiuo
ii/a – eciaiaiea /eneaiiinoe e ia?aie/aiea aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey
iaaeiaeiioia (ii/aaiiie iaci- e iee?ioaoiu e iee?ioei?u). Oeiu ioaaoiuo
?aaeoeee ?aciuo a?oii iaaeiaeiioia ia caa?yciaiea iaiaeiicia/iu (I. I.
Eniaeeia 1985):

I?ienoiaeeo ianniaay aeaaeue ii/aaiiie iacioaoiu: /a?ac o?e aeiy iinea
aaa?ee aieueoeinoai aeaeia ii/aaiiuo aeeaioiuo iieiinoueth en/acaao eee
ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 1% eiio?iey. Iaeaieaa oiene/iuie aeey ieo
ieacuaathony eaaeea o?aeoeee iaooe.

Eiiieaen ii/aaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia iinea e?aoeia?aiaiiiai eiaeae?iaaiey
ioaa/aao ia iaooyiia caa?yciaiea iiauoaieai aaeiaie /eneaiiinoe e
oneeaieai aeoeaiinoe. I?aaeaea anaai yoi ioiineony e
oaeaaiaei?iaeiieeneythuei aaeoa?eyi, eiee/anoai eioi?uo ?acei aic?anoaao
ioiineoaeueii iacaa?yciaiiuo ii/a. ?acaeaathony “niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua “
a?oiiu, o/anoaothuea ia ?aciuo yoaiao a ooeeecaoeee OA.

Iaeneioi /eneaiiinoe iee?ii?aaieciia niioaaonoaoao ai?eciioai
oa?iaioaoeee e nieaeaaony a ieo ii i?ioeeth ii/a ii ia?a oiaiueoaiey
eiioeaio?aoeee OA. Iniiaiie “ ac?ua “ iee?iaeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe
iaaeaao ia aoi?ie yoai anoanoaaiiie aeaa?aaeaoeee iaooe.

A i?ioeanna ?aceiaeaiey iaooe a ii/aao iauaa eiee/anoai iee?ii?aaieciia
i?eaeeaeaaony e oiiiaui cia/aieyi, ii /eneaiiinoue iaooaieeneythueo
aaeoa?ee aua aeieaia a?aiy i?aauoaao oa aea a?oiiu a iacaa?yciaiiuo
ii/aao (thaeiay oaeaa 10 – 20 eao).

Eciaiaiea yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee i?eaiaeeo e iiaeaaeaieth
oioineioace?othuae aeoeaiinoe ?anoeoaeueiuo i?aaieciia. I?aaeaea anaai
yoi neacuaaaony ia ?acaeoee ii/aaiiuo aiaei?ineae: io eo /anoe/iiai
oaiaoaiey e caiaiu iaeieo a?oii ae?oaeie aei auiaaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo
a?oii eee iieiie aeaaee anae aeueaioei?u. Iniaaiii cia/eoaeueii
eiaeae?oao ?acaeoea aiaei?ineae nu?ay iaooue e ieia?aeueiua aiaeu.

Eciaiythony oioineioace?othuea ooieoeee aunoeo ?anoaiee, a /anoiinoe
ceaeia. Yenia?eiaiou iieacaee, /oi a oneiaeyo thaeiie oaeae i?e aunieeo
aeicao caa?yciaiey – aieaa 20 e/i2 ?anoaiey e /a?ac aiae ia iiaoo
ii?iaeueii ?acaeaaoueny ia caa?yciaiiuo ii/aao.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi a caa?yciaiiue ii/aao nieaeaaony
aeoeaiinoue aieueoeinoaa ii/aaiiuo oa?iaioia (I. I. Eniaeeia, TH. E.
Ieeianeee 1985). I?e ethaii o?iaia caa?yciaiey eiaeae?othony aeae?ieacu,
i?ioaacu, ieo?ao?aaeoeoacu, aeaaeae?iaaiacu ii/a, ianeieueei iiauoaaony
o?aaciay e eaoaeaciay aeoeaiinoe ii/a.

Aeuoaiea ii/a oaeaea /ooei ?aaae?oao ia iaooyiia caa?yciaiea. A ia?aue
ia?eiae, eiaaea iee?ioei?a iiaeaaeaia aieueoei eiee/anoaii OA,
eioaineaiinoue aeuoaiey nieaeaaony, n oaaee/aieai /eneaiiinoe
iee?ii?aaieciia eioaineaiinoue aeuoaiey aic?anoaao.

Eoae, i?ioeannu anoanoaaiiie ?aaaia?aoeee aeiaaioeaiicia ia caa?yciaiiuo
oa??eoi?eyo eaeoo iaaeeaiii, i?e/ai oaiiu noaiiaeaiey ?acee/iuo y?onia
yeinenoai ?acee/iu. Nai?ioeoiue eiiieaen aeeaioiuo oi?ie?oaony
cia/eoaeueii iaaeeaiiaa, /ai iee?ioei?a e ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia.
Ieiia?aie ca?anoaiey ia?ooaiiuo ii/a /anoi yaeythony aiaei?inee.

Aii?in?6

AINNOAIIAEAIEA CAA?ssCIAAIUO II*A.

Aiai?y i i?ioeannao ainnoaiiaeaiey iaooacaa?yciaiiuo ii/aaiiuo
yeinenoai, iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee (iai?eia?, O.I. Neaaeia, I.E. Eaoaoeeia
e ae?., 1986) ia?auatho aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iau/iua ?aeoeueoeaaoeeiiiua
ia?ii?eyoey eiatho ?yae iaaeinoaoeia – ia anaaaea niinianoaotho
ainnoaiiaeaieth ii/a e ?anoeoaeueiinoe e /anoi naie iaiinyo
aeieaia?aiaiiue a?aae i?e?iaea. Caieaaaiea caiaaeeyao i?ioeannu
?aceiaeaiey iaooe. Auaic caa?yciaiiiai neiy nicaeaao iiaua i/aae
aoi?e/iiai caa?yciaiey. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi i?e naeeaaiee
iaooe n?iee anoanoaaiiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey iaooacaa?yciaiiuo ii/a
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaathony, i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea iieeoeeeee/aneeo
a?iiaoe/aneeo OA, iaeaaeathueo eaioea?iaaiiuie naienoaaie,
neaaeiaaoaeueii oaaee/eaaaony oiene/iinoue ii/a, caoi?iaaeeaaaony
ainnoaiiaeaiea anao aeieia yeinenoaiu.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iao/ii iainiiaaiiua iaoiaeu eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee
caa?yciaiey ionoonoaotho. Aeey iaeneiaeueiiai oiaiueoaiey
iaaeaaii?eyoiiai aicaeaenoaey iaiaoiaeeii ciaiea caeiiia o?ainoi?iaoeee
caa?yciaiiuo yeinenoai e caa?yciythueo aauanoa, i?iaiic eo eciaiaiey ai
a?aiaie.

I.I. Eniaeeia, TH.E. Ieeianeee (1988) n/eoatho, /oi eiioeaioeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey caa?yciaiiuo yeinenoai aeieaeia iie?aoueny ia neaaeothuee
i?eioeei: ia iaianoe yeinenoaia aieueoee a?aae, /ai oio, eioi?ue oaea
iaianai i?e caa?yciaiee. Nooue eiioeaioeee – iaeneiaeueiay iiaeeecaoeey
aioo?aiieo ?ano?nia yeinenoaiu ia ainnoaiiaeaiea naieo ia?aiia/aeueiuo
ooieoeee. ?aeoeueoeaaoeey, ii ii?aaeaeaieth enneaaeiaaoaeae, – yoi
i?iaeieaeaiea i?ioeanna naiii/euaiey, i?e eioi?ii eniieuecothony
i?e?iaeiua ?aca?au yeinenoaiu: eeeiaoe/aneea, iee?iaeieiae/aneea,
eaiaeoaooii-aeioeie/aneea.

Eiioeaioeey ainnoaiiaeaiey caa?yciaiiuo caiaeue enoiaeeo ec iieiaeaiey,
/oi a ?aciuo ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo e eaiaeoaooii-aaioeie/aneeo oneiaeyo
i?ioeannu o?ainoi?iaoeee caa?ycieoaeae aiaeiae/iiai oeia a iaeieo e oao
aea aeicao i?ienoiaeyo n ?aciie nei?inoueth e inoaiaaeeaathony ia ?aciuo
noaaeeyo. ?acee/athony e ?acoeueoaou aicaeaenoaey ?aciuo aeic
caa?ycieoaeae ia yeinenoaiu. Naiii/euaiea e naiiainnoaiiaeaiea yeinenoai
– noaaeeeiue aeioeie/aneee i?ioeann o?ainoi?iaoeee caa?yciythueo
aauanoa, nii?yaeaiiue ni noaaeeeiui ainnoaiiaeaieai aeioeaiica.

A niioaaonoaee n yoaiaie aeiaeaa?aaeaoeee i?ienoiaeeo ?aaaia?aoeey
aeioeaiicia. I?ioeannu eaeoo ?aciuie oaiiaie ia ?aciuo y?onao yeinenoai.
Cia/eoaeueii iaaeeaiiaa, /ai iee?ioei?a e ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia,
oi?ie?oaony nai?ioeoiue eiiieaen aeeaioiuo. Iieiie ia?aoeiinoe
i?ioeanna, eae i?aaeei, ia iaaethaeaaony. Iaeaieaa neeueiay aniuoea
iee?iaeieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe i?eoiaeeony ia aoi?ie yoai
aeiaeaa?aaeaoeee iaooe. I?e aeaeueiaeoai nieaeaiee /eneaiiinoe anao
a?oii iee?ii?aaieciia aei eiio?ieueiuo cia/aiee, /eneaiiinoue
oaeaaiaei?iaeiieeneythueo i?aaieciia ia iiiaea aiaeu inoaaony aiiiaeueii
aunieie ii n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieai.

I.I. Eniaeeia, TH.E. Ieeianeee (1988) iaiaeiie?aoii iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi
iaoaie/aneea e oece/aneea iaoiaeu ?aeoeueoeaaoeee ia iiaoo iaania/eoue
iieiia oaeaeaiea iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia ec ii/au. ?aceiaeaiea iaooe a
ii/aa a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo – i?ioeann aeiaaioeie/aneee, a eioi?ii
aeaaiia e ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaao ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeoeaiinoue
eiiieaena ii/aaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia, iaania/eaathueo iieioth
ieia?aeecaoeeth iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia aei oaeaeeneiai aaca e aiaeu.
Onei?eoue i/enoeo ii/a n iiiiuueth iee?ii?aaieciia iiaeii a iniiaiii
aeaoiy niiniaaie: aeoeaecaoeeae iaoaaiee/aneie aeoeaiinoe iee?ioei?u
ii/a iooai eciaiaiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo oneiaee n?aaeu ( aa?ioaoie/aneea
i?eaiu ) eee aianaieai niaoeeaeueii iiaeia?aiiuo aeoeaiuo
iaooaieeneythueo iee?ii?aaieciia a caa?yciaiioth ii/ao.

Aiaeec iiiai/eneaiiuo ?aaio ii ?aeoeueoeaaoeee iaooacaa?yciaiiuo ii/a
aeaao i?ioeai?a/eaua ?acoeueoaou – iaeie e oa aea ia?ii?eyoey a ?aciuo
oneiaeyo i?eaiaeyo e iaiaeeiaeiaui iineaaenoaeyi. Auoaoiiiyiooua aaoi?u
iaia/atho iaeaieaa iauea i?eioeeiu eioaineoeeaoeee naiii/euathuae
niiniaiinoe ii/a. Ia ia?aii yoaia, eiaaea aaioeie/aneay ianoaiiaea
iaeaieaa oiene/ia, oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua
ia?ii?eyoey: ay?aoeeth, oaeaaeiaiea, eieaeecaoeeth caa?yciaiey. Ia
aoi?ii yoaia aiciiaeai i?iaiue iinaa eoeueoo? n oeaeueth ioeaiee
inoaoi/iie oioioiene/iinoe ii/a, ?aaiou ii ?aaoee?iaaieth aiaeiiai
?aaeeia e eeneioiuo oneiaee, a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe – ?annieaiea. Ia
o?aoueai yoaia ainnoaiaaeeaathony anoanoaaiiua ?anoeoaeueiua aeioeaiicu,
nicaeathony eoeueoo?iua oeoioeaiicu, i?aeoeeoaony iinaa iiiaieaoieo
?anoaiee. Aeeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna ?aeoeueoeaaoeee caaeneo io
ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee e oa?aeoa?a caa?yciaiiinoe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana niiniau ?aeoeueoeaaoeee ii/a ia yaeythony

aeinoaoi/ii i?eaieeiuie.?anniio?ei eo iniiaiua iaaeinoaoee:

I?aaioea ii/au nieueaaioaie i?eaiaeeo e /anoe/iiio eee iieiiio

oie/oiaeaieth a ii/aa eieiiee iee?ii?aaieciia,/oi i?eaiaeeo
niioaaonoaaiii e iaaaeiaieth ii/aaiiiai ninoaaa e oie/oiaeaieth anao

ieiaei?iaeiuo naienoa ii/au.A ?acoeueoaoa auia?eaaiey,eioi?ia i?i-

enoiaeeo i?e oaiia?aoo?a ia ieaea 700-800N any ii/aaiiay i?aaieea

nai?aao a i?yiii niunea neiaa.A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo ia? i/enoee ii/au

iu eiaai iieiinoueth noa?eeueioth ii/ao,eioi?ay ia i?eaiaeia aeey aeec-

ie ?anoaiee e inoaiaony oaeie aua a oa/aiee iiiaeo eao,aeaaea anee iu-

oaoueny noeioee?iaaoue ?ino aaeoa?ee,aiiny a ii/ao iiaua ooaiiu iee?i
i?aaieciia eee i?iecaiaey niaoeaaiea “ionoie” ii/au n ii/aaiiuie
eoeueoo?aie,acyouie ec ae?oaeo iaeanoae.

N yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey aeaiiue iaoiae oaeaea yaeyaony
iaau-

aiaeiui,o.e. aauanoaa,eioi?uie ia?aaaouaaaony ii/aa eniieuecothony a

aieueoeo eiee/anoaao e yaeythony aei?iainoiyueie.

N?acea ca?aaeaiiiai a?oioa i?eaiaeeo i?aaeaea anaai e ia?aciaaaieth

iiauo i/aaia caa?yciaiey.A ?acoeueoaoa n?acee iiyaeythony ianoa n
ii/aaiiui aieiaeaieai,/oi iniaaiii aeooaeueii a ianoao iaeaieaa /anouo
?aceeaia iaooe,o.a. ca Iiey?iui e?oaii.I?e auiieiaiee yoeo ?aaio
cao?a/eaaaony aieueoie iau?i n?aaenoa,o.e. iaiaoiaeeii yaaeoe?iaaoue
aieueoia eiee/anoai ca?aaeaiiiai a?oioa,/oi i?eaiaeeo e caiyoinoe
aieueoiai /enea ethaeae e oaoieee.

Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui iaoiaeii iaacca?aaeeaaiey ii/a,ii iiaieth

aaoi?a aeaiiiai aeieeaaea yaeyaony i?eioaeeoaeueiia ieeneaiea iaooe e
iaooai?iaeoeoia i?e iiiiue ii/aaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia.I?aeoeea aianaiey a
ii/ao aaeoa?eaeueiuo ooaiiia nae/an iiea aua ia i/aiue
?ani?ino?aiaia.Yoiio eiaaony iiiai i?e/ei,iaeiie ec eioi?uo yaeyaony
ianiaianoeiinoue oneiaee ii?iaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aaeoa?ee n
oneiaeyie aeaiiiai ?aaeiia.Iai?eia? a ianoao iniiaiie iaooaaeiau/e,o.a.
a oneiaeyo e?aeiaai naaa?a,iiiaea aeaeu aaeoa?ee ia aeecianiiniaiu a
neaaenoaee ieceeo oaiia?aoo? e niaoeeoe/aneiai ii/aaiiiai
ninoaaa.Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaiaeeoue enneaaeiaaiey aeey auyaeaiey
aiciiaeiuo aaeoa?eaeueiuo ooaiiia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeoony enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe enneonoaaiiiai
noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa aaeoa?eaeueiuo ooaiiia.Ecaanoiu aeaa iniiaiuo
iai?aaeaiey.

Ia?aia: aianaiea a ii/ao,caa?yciaiioth iaooueth aiaeiae/iie
iacaa?yciaiiie ii/au aeey ia?aciaaiey naiaenoa aaeoa?ee e noeioeyoeee eo
?inoa.

Aoi?ia: Eniieueciaaiea iaoae-eeaaiaeiuo niaaeeiaiee. A ii/ao a
aeaea noniaicee aaiaeyony iaoaeee/aneea niaaeeiaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa
aie?oa eaoeiia iaoaeea ia?acoaony iaaieoiia iiea a eioi?ii iieaeoeu
aiaeu , eenei?iaea , acioa i?eaioe?othony iniaui ia?acii , /oi nicaeaao
iniaue aiaeii-eenei?iaeiue ?aaeei , ec-ca eioi?iai cia/eoaeueii
oeo/oathony oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa ii/a . E?iia yoiai a iaaieoiii
iiea eaoeiia ai?acaei eo/oa ?acaeaathony aaeoa?ee , a ?acoeueoaoa
aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?uo eaeao i?ioeann ieeneaiey iaooe . A i?e?iaeiuo
oneiaeyo A ea/anoaa eaoeiiiuo oeaio?ia iau/ii aunooiatho uaei/iua
iaoaeeu Ca , K ,Na . Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho , /oi iioaioeeae
ia?aoiaeiuo iaoaeeia ai?acaei aieueoa , /oi e o/eouaaaony a
i?eaioiaeaiee ii/aaiiuo aeiaaaie . Iau/ii eniieuecothony oa??eou
Fe-S,Fe2-S2 e o.ae. A yoii neo/aa eiaaony aua iaeei iethn a oii /oi yoe
aaoanoaa a ia?iiiuo eiee/anoaao ano?a/athony a ioaaeao
oaieiyeaeo?inoaioeee e i?e eo ioaeaeaiee iie iieo/athony ii/oe /enouie .
Aianaiea eo a ca?aaeaiioth ii/ao eiaao aeaiyeee yooaeo ai-ia?auo
noeioeyoeey ?inoa aaeoa?eaeueiuo naiaenoa , ai-aoi?uo ieoeueoo?eaaiea
ii/a.

Caeanue i?aaenoaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey , i?iaaaeaiiua aaoi?aie yoiai
aeieeaaea . Ia?aia enneaaeiaaiea iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao noa?eeueiinoue
ca?aaeaiiie ii/au . Aoi?ia ii?aaeaeaiea Ninoaaa caa?ycieoaeae i?e iiiiue
niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca.

AeEAA?AIIA 1

AeEAA?AIIA 2

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