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Ядерный терроризм в современном мире

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai

ia?aciaaiey ?O

Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao Oi?aaeaiey

EINOEOOO IAIAAeAEIAIOA A NO?IEOAEUeNOAA E OI?AAEAIEss I?IAEOII

EAOAAe?A OI?AAEAIEss YEIEIAE*ANEIE AACIIANIINOUeTH

AeENOeEIEEIA: AACIIANIINOUe A *A?ACAU*AEIUO NEOOAOeEssO

?AOA?AO IA OAIO:

“ssaea?iue oa??i?eci a nia?aiaiiii ie?a”

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Ia/eiieeia A.A.

Auiieiee: Nooaeaio 4-ai eo?na 2-ie a?oiiu

niaoeeaeueiinoe IIN ?inoiaoeaa A.E.

Iineaa 1998.

Niaea?aeaiea:

Anooieaiea.

Aeieiae/aneea iniiau aeaenoaey eiiece?othuaai eceo/aiey ia /aeiaaea.

Oa?icu oa??i?ecia.

Caueoa io yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia.

*a/aineee eiioeeeo e ?aaeueiay oa?ica yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia.

Caueoa io oa??i?ecia.

Caeeth/aiea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Anooieaiea:

A ?innee oa??i?eci i?aa?aoeeny a ?aaeueiue aeeciaiiue oaeoi?. Aai
iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie yaeythony yoie/aneea eiioeeeou, a iniaaiiinoe
aieia a *a/ia, ?ino i?anooiiinoe, iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e
yeiiiie/aneie aeenoeeieeiu. Ana aieaa caiaoiuie noaiiayony oa?icu
yaea?iui iauaeoai. A nienie iaaeaaieo niauoee aoiaeyo, iai?eia?: Oa?ica
ac?uaa ia Eaiaeeineie AYN iinea auianaiey noaeii Eeoau nia?oiiai
i?eaiai?a iaeiiio ec eeaea?ia i?anooiiie a?oiie?iaee (iiya?ue 1994 a.).
(Ac?uaiia ono?ienoai iaia?oaeaii ia auei). Oa?ica ac?uaa a oeaoa n
?aaeoi?aie ia caaiaea ?aiiioa iiaeaiaeiuo eiaeie, naeaeaiiay
nio?oaeieeii i?aaei?eyoey ii i?e/eia iiiaiiany/iie caaea?aeee ca?ieaou
(1). ?aciauaiea /a/aineeie yeno?aienoaie eiioaeia?a n ?aaeeiaeoeaiui
ecioiiii oeacee-137 a Eciaeeianeii ia?ea a Iineaa (iiya?ue 1995 a.). (E
auaiaeo i aiciiaeiinoe yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia i?ioea ?inneeneeo iauaeoia
ni noi?iiu /a/aineeo aiaaeeia i?eoee oaeaea yenia?ou ioaeaea aiaeeca
oa?ic ieienoa?noaa yia?aaoeee NOA).

I?iaeaiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e aioo?aiiaai oa??i?ecia aeooaeueiu aeey
iiiaeo no?ai n ?acaeoie yaea?iie yia?aaoeeie. Na?ueaciuie eiaeeeaoi?aie
neoaeao ac?uau a aeiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa a ai?iaea Ieeaoiia-Neoe (1995 a.)
e a iueth-ei?eneii Oeaio?a anaie?iie oi?aiaee (1994 a.) a NOA. Ai
O?aioeee, a oiaea aieiu i?iiuoeaiiuo i?ioanoia (aeaeaa?ue 1995 a.),
naaioaaeieeaie auea canuiaia nieue ai aoi?ie ioeaaeaeathuee eiioo?
o?aoueaai yia?aiaeiea AYN Aeyen. (Oa?ica oa??i?ecia ai O?aioeee, eae
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaaeaaiyy na?ey oa?aeoia a iiaecaiiii iao?iiieeoaia a
Ia?eaea, ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaeyie yeno?aienoia ec n?aaeu aeaee?neeo
eiiea?aioia). I?eiaiaiea io?aaeythueo aauanoa ?aeeaeiciie naeoie Aoi
Nei?eea (ia?o 1995 a.) a Oieeeneii iao?i oeacuaaao ia ?aaeueiinoue
eniieueciaaiey oa??i?enoaie i?oaeey ianniaiai ii?aaeaiey.

A ioee/ea io ?innee, i?iaeaia yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia a no?aiao Caiaaea
auea iniciaia a 70-o aiaeao. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie a yoeo no?aiao
neiaeeeanue yooaeoeaiay, yoaeiie?iaaiiay nenoaia caueou yaea?iuo
iauaeoia e iaoa?eaeia, iaeiieai cia/eoaeueiue iiuo ai?ueau n
oa??i?eciii. A ?innee, aaea aei ia/aea 90-o aiaeia i?iyaeaiey oa??i?ecia
i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaiaaee, ?aaiou a yoii iai?aaeaiee ia/aeenue
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii.

Aeieiae/aneea iniiau aeaenoaey eiiece?othuaai eceo/aiey ia /aeiaaea:

Aeieiae/aneia aeaenoaea eiiece?othuaai eceo/aiey ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea,
niaeanii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi, i?iyaeyaony aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuie e
noioanoe/aneeie yooaeoaie. Aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua yooaeou – eo/aaua
ii?aaeaiey i?aaiia e oeaiae -eiatho ii?iaiaue oa?aeoa? e iiaoo
eeeie/anee i?iyaeyoueny i?e o?iaiyo iaeiie?aoiiai iaeo/aiey ioaeaeueiuo
i?aaiia a aeica aieaa 0,15 A?**, eeai o?iie/aneiai iiiaieaoiaai
iaeo/aiey i?e iiuiinoe yooaeoeaiie aeicu aieaa 0,15 Ca/aiae. Eo/aaay
aieaciue /aeiaaea iiaeao ?acaeoueny i?e iaeo/aiee einoiiai iicaa a aeica
aieaa 0,5 A?, eeai o?iie/aneii iiiaieaoiai iaeo/aiee i?e iiuiinoe
yooaeoeaiie aeicu aieaa 0,4 Ca/aiae.

Aaeeieoea iiaeiuaiiie aeicu a nenoaia NE – A?ae, A? (1 A?=1 Aeae/ea=100
?aae). Ia?ie noiia?iiai yooaeoa o?iie/aneiai iaeo/aiey /aeiaaea a iaeuo
aeicao yaeyaony yooaeoeaiay aeica, ecia?yaiay a Ceaa?oao, Ca (1 Ca = 100
ay?). N iiiiuueth yoie oieaa?naeueiie aaee/eiu o/eouaathony iniaaiiinoe
aeieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey ia /aeiaaea aiaoieo enoi/ieeia eiiece?othuaai
eceo/aiey e eiei?ii?e?iaaiiuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia n ?acee/iie eieaeecaoeeae
a i?aaiecia (ecioiiu eiaea, oeacey, no?iioeey, ieooiiey e ae?.).

A niioaaonoaee n iauai?eiyoie eiina?aaoeaiie ?aaeeiaeieiae/aneie
aeiioacie ethaie neieue oaiaeii iaeue o?iaaiue iaeo/aiey iaoneiaeeaaao
ii?aaeaeaiiue ?ene aicieeiiaaiey noioanoe/aneeo yooaeoia. E iei ioiinyo
eiaeoeoeeth: ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee (eaioea?iaaiiia aeaenoaea),
iaeioi?uo a?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ieia ?acaeoey (oa?aoiaaiiia aeaenoaea) e
aieaciae o iioiieia iaeo/aiiuo (aaiaoe/aneia aeaenoaea). Aeey
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee /anoiou aiciiaeiuo noioanoe/aneeo yooaeoia
eniieuecoaony oiiiyiooay auoa aeiioaca i eeiaeiie aanii?iaiaie
caaeneiinoe aa?iyoiinoe ioaeaeaiiuo iineaaenoaee io aeicu eceo/aiey n
eiyooeoeeaioii ?enea 7 10 -2 Ca.

Oa?icu oa??i?ecia:

Iino?iaiea yooaeoeaiie e yeiiiie/iie nenoaiu aaciianiinoe yaea?iiai
eiiieaena aeieaeii iie?aoueny ia aiaeec iioaioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee
oa??i?enoe/aneiai aeoa. Oycaeiinoue yaea?iuo iauaeoia oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii
?anniao?eaaoue a eiioaenoa caueou ae?oaeo aaaeiuo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. (E?oiiiianooaaiay eaoano?ioa, iai?eia?, iiaeao auoue
aucaaia ?ac?ooaieai o?aieeeua oiene/iuo e ac?uai /iiaea?iiianiuo
oeie/aneeo ?aaaaioia, oaeeo eae yoee a?iieaea, aeaoieenue oei?a,
iaooai?iaeoeou e o.ae.). Aeou oa??i?ecia a ioiioaiee yaea?iuo iauaeoia e
iaoa?eaeia iiaoo auoue oneiaii eeanneoeoee?iaaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Iiae?ua (eee oa?ica iiae?uaa) yaea?iiai ac?uaiiai ono?ienoaa. ssaea?iue
ac?ua i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeaieaa no?aoiia i?iyaeaiea oa??i?ecia. A
neeo yoiai, nio?aiiinoue no?aoaae/aneeo yaea?iuo iaoa?eaeia
(aunieiiaiaauaiiiai o?aia e ieooiiey) e i?oaeey yaeyaony aeeciaiiui
aii?inii iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe e aeieaeia auoue aeaaiui
i?ei?eoaoii a i?aaiecaoeee caueou yaea?iiai eiiieaena. Iieiaeaiea aeae a
yoie iaeanoe a ?innee i?iaeieaeaao auoue iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui e
o?aaoao eni?aaeaiey . A aeiiieiaiea e i?aaaioeaiui ia?ai eiio?iey e
caueou iaoa?eaeia, iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa e
?ac?aaioaoue i?ioeaaeo?u ii iieneo e iaeo?aeecaoeee yaea?iuo ac?uaiuo
ono?ienoa, eiio?ieth e?eceniie neooaoeee. E n/anoueth, oa?ica i?eiaiaiey
yaea?iiai i?oaeey oa??i?enoaie inoaaony iiea aeiioaoe/aneie.

Ca?aaeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie iaoa?eaeaie. Eniieueciaaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
iaoa?eaeia (oeacey-137, ieooiiey, eiaaeueoa-60 e o.ae.) a
oe?ieiianooaaiuo oa?aeoao iiae?acoiaaaao eo ?aniueaiea a aeaea ay?icieae
eee ?anoai?aiea a aiaeienoi/ieeao. Eeeaeaeaoeey iineaaenoaee iiaeiaiie
aeoeee iio?aaoao cia/eoaeueiuo oneeee. Iaeiaei a aieueoeinoaa noeaia?eaa
oa??i?enoe/aneeo aoae (?anoai?aiea ieooiiey a aiaeiaia eee aai
ay?icieueiia ?aniueaiea, iiae?ua eiioaeia?a n oeaceai-137)
?aaeeiaeoeaiia ca?aaeaiea inoaiaony eieaeueiui e ia i?eaaaeao e
eaoano?ioe/aneiio oua?ao.

Aeeaa?ney ia yaea?iuo iauaeoao. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa, iineaaenoaey
iia?aaeaeaiey onoaiiaie enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo oeaio?ia eee i?aaei?eyoee
oiieeaiiai oeeeea aoaeoo iineoue eieaeueiue oa?aeoa? (a i?aaeaeao
i?iiieiuaaeee). Aeiaaeueiay eaoano?ioa aiciiaeia i?e aeeaa?nee ia
?aaeoi?a AYN, ioee/athuainy io ae?oaeo yaea?iuo onoaiiaie niaea?aeaieai
aieueoeo eiee/anoa ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia e aunieei aioo?aiiei
yia?aiauai?aieai. A ?innee iiauoaiioth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeytho 25
yia?aiaeieia ainueie AYN (6 AAY?-440, 7 AAY?-1000, 11 ?AIE-1000 e 1
AI-600) e i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aaeoi?ia a cae?uouo ai?iaeao Ieiaoiia (ii 2 a
Oiinea-7 e *aeyaeinea-65 e iaeei a E?aniiy?nea-26) .

I?e iaiaaeaiee ia ?aaeoi? oaoie/anee a?aiioiue i?ioeaiee nei?aa anaai
aoaeao no?aieoueny e iia?aaeaeaieth aai nenoai aeeciaiaania/aiey n
oeaeueth ?anieaaeaiey ?aaeoi?iie ciiu. Aeey ?aaeoi?ia oeia AAY?
aiciiaeia neaaeothuay oeaii/ea niauoee: – iia?aaeaeaiea nenoai
ioeaaeaeaiey ?aaeoi?a (iniiaiuo o?oaii?iaiaeia, ianinia e o.ae.); –
iioa?y oaieiiineoaey e ?anieaaeaiea ?aaeoi?iie ciiu, nii?iaiaeaeaaiua
ia?iaui ac?uaii i?e eiioaeoa ?anieaaeaiiiai oiieeaa n inoaoeaie aiaeu a
?aaeoi?iii ei?iona; – ?ac?ooaiea ei?iona ?aaeoi?a e ?aaeoi?iiai caeaiey
n iineaaeothuei aua?inii ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey.

Aiaeiae/iua niauoey iiaoo auoue eieoeee?iaaiu a aiaeia?aoeoiauo
?aaeoi?ao oeia ?AIE e a i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aaeoi?ao.

Iaeiei ec iaeooaeoeo aiciiaeiuo ?acoeueoaoia oa??i?enoe/aneie aeoeee
yaeyaony iiaoi?aiea *a?iiaueueneie o?aaaaeee, iiaeaeoae ca niaie oua?a
caei?iaueth ouny/ ethaeae, auaiae ec iai?ioa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oaiaeee, iioa?th yia?aienoi/ieea e cao?aou ia eeeaeaeaoeeth iineaaenoaee
aaa?ee. Aeaaea a oneiaeyo i?aaeioa?auaiey cia/eoaeueiiai aua?ina
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe aeieaia?aiaiiay inoaiiaea yia?aiaeiea niiniaia aucaaoue
aieueoea yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea iioa?e .

Caueoa io yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia:

Ai?ueaa n yaea?iui oa??i?eciii o?aaoao ?aaiou ii iiiaei iai?aaeaieyi.
Aaaeiui aeeaaeii, iai?eia?, neoaeeo ?aaioa i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo e
niaoeeaeueiuo neoaea ii iaeo?aeecaoeee oa??i?enoe/aneeo a?oii.
Niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeiie yaeyaony nenoaia ca?aiaa iiaeaioiaeaiiuo ia? ii
ia?aie/aieth oua?aa e eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee aiciiaeiuo yaea?iuo
i?ienoanoaee. Iaeiaei aeaaiui yeaiaioii ii naea?aeeaaieth e i?ana/aieth
aii?oaeaiiiai iaiaaeaiey ia yaea?iue iauaeo yaeyaony aai nenoaia
oece/aneie caueou. I?aaeiaoii aeaeueiaeoaai ?anniio?aiey yaeyaony
i?aaiecaoeey caueou AYN . I?iaeaiu ?inneeneeo onoaiiaie ianoaeaeathony a
eiioaenoa iiuoa, iaeiieaiiiai ia AYN NOA.

Ia?aue oaa iino?iaiey nenoaiu aaciianiinoe AYN ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee
e?oaa e ?ieae ioaaonoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. A ?innee aeaaiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aaciianiinoue aoiiiuo noaioeee eaaeeo ia naieo AYN e
eo ?oeiaiaeyuae i?aaiecaoeee – eiioea?ia ?inaoiiyia?ai (Ieiaoii). ?aaioa
ii iaania/aieth aaciianiinoe aaaeaony i?e aeoeaiii nio?oaeie/anoaa n
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie e eiio?iee?oaony (iiea /oi a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a oai?aoe/anee) Ainaoiiiaaeci?ii.

*a/aineee eiioeeeo e ?aaeueiay oa?ica yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia:

A nayce n ecaanoiuie niauoeyie a *a/ia nae/an iniaaiii aeooaeueiie
noaea i?iaeaia yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia. Oi, /oi eacaeinue iaeiaa?iyoiui
anaai 2-3 aiaea iacaae, noaei ia?aoaoue ceiaaua ?aaeueiua i/a?oaiey.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aua a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia ia/aee nicaeaaaoueny
niaoeeaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey ii ai?ueaa n i?aaieciaaiiie
i?anooiiinoueth e auea iaaeaaeaea, /oi n iae oaeanony ni?aaeoueny, a?aiy
iieacaei, /oi yoi aue ioeai/iue auaiae, aa ?ino inoaiiaeoue ia oaeaeinue
e iaeaieaa y?eee i?eia? ia?aciaaiey iiauo i?anooiiuo no?oeoo? e
e?eieiaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaa – *a/iy.

?acia?aoueny a enoieao eiioeeeoa – aeaei enoi?eeia, ii n ia/aeii
aii?oaeaiiuo noieeiiaaiee noaei ynii, /oi oa??i?eci – ia i?inoay oa?ica.
Oa?aeou ni noi?iiu /a/aineeo a?oiie?iaie aiciiaeiu e ii ieii/aiee
aiaiiuo aeaenoaee, eae ianoue ca nia?oue ?iaenoaaiieeia e iioa?th
eiouanoaa. Niauoey a Aoaeaiiianea e Eecey?a y?ei iiaeoaa?aeeee yoi.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee io?aaae?iaaei ia oa?icu oa??i?enoia oai, /oi
iinea ioeoeeaeueiiai ia/aea aiaauo aeaenoaee a Iineao auea aaaaeaia
a?iiaoaoieea, oneeaia io?aia E?aiey e oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ai?iaea.
Iiaeiaiua ia?ii?eyoey auee i?iaaaeaiu e a ae?oaeo ai?iaeao ?innee. A
*aeyaeinea, iai?eia?, auea oneeaia io?aia aeeciaiii aaaeiuo iauaeoia e
i?aaieciaaii niaoeeaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea i?e iaeanoiii Eiieoaoa ii
/?acau/aeiui neooaoeeyi.

Na?ueaciuo oa?aeoia a Iineaa ia i?iecioei, nio?aiyaony ioiineoaeueiia
niieienoaea. Ii iiecoo neooe i aiciiaeiii na?ueaciii oa?aeoa ia O?aea.

O?ae – n?aaeioi/aiea ioa/anoaaiiie yaea?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e iiyoiio
yooaeo io i?iecaaaeaiiiai caeanue oa?aeoa iiaeao auoue cia/eoaeai. E?iia
ecaanoiiai i?aaei?eyoey Iaye, i?iecaiaeeaoaai yaea?ioth ia/eieo aeey
aiia e aiaaieiaee ?aniieiaeaiiiai a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io aeaoo
e?oiiuo ai?iaeia O?aea, a yoii ?aaeiia iaoiaeyony iiiai/eneaiiua
o?aieeeua ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia, iieo/eaoea ecaanoiinoue aeaaiaea?y
Euoouineiio ac?uao 1957 a., e o?aieeeua 30 oiii ieooiiey, au?aaioaiiiai
Iayeii e iaeniieueciaaiiiai aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?oaeey. A yoii ?aaeiia
oaeaea ieaie?oaony ?acianoeoue o?aieeeua aeey aeaiiioe?iaaiiuo
aiaaieiaie. Iaaeaeaei io Aeaoa?eiao?aa ?aniieiaeaia Aaeiy?neay AYN.
Iaeiiaoe, ?aee, aieioa e ica?a – ioe?uoua o?aieeeua ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
iooiaeia, naiuie ecaanoiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony ?aea Oa/a e ica?i
Ea?a/ae. *ai ia iauaeou aeey oa?aeoa? ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue oieueei oaa?aeuo
e aeeaeeeo iooiaeia, nin?aaeioi/aiiuo ia ia?aie/aiiie ieiuaaee,
i?aauoaao 1 ie?ae. eth?e , /oi naii ii naaa iaaaciianii, a a neo/aa
eaeeo-eeai aeeaa?nee iieiaeaiea iiaeao noaoue eaoano?ioe/aneei.

Aeey oa??i?enoia iniaaiii i?eaeaeaoaeueiu iauaeou, iaoiaeyueany ia
oa??eoi?ee Iayea, oae eae ?ac?ooaiea eo iiaea/ao ca niaie aeiaaeueiua
iineaaenoaey, n?aaieiua eeoue n yaea?iui ac?uaii eee aeaaea eieaeueiie
yaea?iie aieiie. ?ac?ooaiea o?aieeeu ieooiiey ia Iayea i?eaaaeao e
?ani?ino?aiaieth ieooiiey a ?aaeiia, oaaee/eo nia?oiinoue io ?aeiauo
caaieaaaiee e iiaea/ao ca niaie oyaeaeua iineaaenoaey aeey ianaeaiey
yoiai ?aaeiia. E?iia oiai, iieiinoueth aueeth/aiiuie ec oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ieaaeoony ia?iiiua oa??eoi?ee, i?iaeeaaiea ia eioi?uo
oaeaea noaiao iaaiciiaeiui. E?iia oiai, ?ac?ooaiea Iayea a?iceo
inoaiiaeie ?aaeoi?a ii ia?a?aaioea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia, /oi noaiao
i?e/eiie ?aceiai iaeiieaiey iooiaeia e caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

A neo/aa aea aeeaa?nee ia Aaeiy?neie AYN, iiaeao i?iecieoe
?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, io eioi?iai a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iino?aaeatho aeeoaee Aeaoa?eiao?aa, *aeyaeinea e aeeceaaeaueo
iaaieueoeo ai?iaeia.

Aio iaeioi?ua oaeou, iicaieythuea n/eoaoue, /oi oa?aeou aiciiaeiu:
Ai-ia?auo, io?aia. ?aiaa a ea/anoaa io?aiieeia eniieueciaaeenue
aiaiiineoaeauea – auoiaeoeu ec N?aaeiae Acee e Eaaeaca – eae i?aaeei,
ionoeueiaineia ianaeaiea, iiiaea – ec *a/ie . Yoe ethaee i?ae?anii
inaaaeiieaiu i oiieinoyo io?aiiiai ?aaeeia, aai neaauo ianoao e ciatho,
eae iiaeii aani?aiyonoaaiii i?iieeiooue ia oa??eoi?eth Iayea. Ai-aoi?uo,
ieioay aeenoeeieeia: a a?iee ia auiieiythony i?eeacu eiiaiaee?ia,
?ani?ino?aiaii aeaca?oe?noai , ei??oioeey n?aaee iiiaeo nieaeao e
ioeoea?ia aeinoeaea aunieiai o?iaiy, anoue aiciiaeiinoue iiaeeoia
io?aiieeia. A-o?aoueeo, ei??oioeey n?aaee oaiiaeaiieeia e /eiiaieeia.
Yoi iicaieyao aani?aiyonoaaiii ia?anaeaoue a?aieoeu e ia?aaiceoue
i?oaeea e aiai?eianu. A-/aoaa?ouo, neiieaiea iau/iiai i?oaeey e
aiai?eiania. Ia O?aea – i?iecaiaeeoaea i?oaeey – aai iiaeii aeinoaoue a
ethauo eiee/anoaao. E?iia oiai caeanue ?aniieiaeaiu neeaaeu o/aaiuo
aeeaecee. Oae /oi aiai?eianu e i?oaeea ia iaaei i?eaiceoue n niaie – aai
iiaeii eoieoue ia ianoa. (Aaeaaeiaaii i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua neoaeau
*aeyaeinea ecuiatho o ianaeaiey iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiia i?oaeea e
aiai?eianu). A-iyouo, yeiiiie/aneea o?oaeiinoe. Nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue
iiaeeoia nio?oaeieeia, eioi?ua ianyoeaie ia iieo/atho ca?ieaou, a oaeaea
eniieueciaaiea eo ?aeeaeiciuo eee iaoeeiiaeueiuo /oanoa. Ecaanoiu
iiiai/eneaiiua oaeou o/anoey nio?oaeieeia ieeeoeee a i?aaieciaaiiuo
e?eieiaeueiuo a?oiiao [6,7]. A-oanouo, ionoonoaea caeiiia ia io?aia
aaaeiaeoeo iauaeoia e ionoonoaea iiuoa ?aaiou a yeno?aiaeueiuo
neooaoeeyo . A-naaeueiuo, a *a/ia noaei ii/aoiui eniieueciaaiea
nia?oieeia e ia eneeth/aii, /oi iiaeuai ii?aeueiiai aeooa o aiaaeeia
iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aeey aeeaa?neiiiuo aeoia ia yaea?iuo iauaeoao
[8].

?aaeueiinoue aeoaeaaaneeo oa?ic iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ianeieueeeie
iineaaeieie niauoeyie: no?aieaieai i?eaeaoue eiioeeeoo caoyaeiie
oa?aeoa? e aiaea/ue a iaai ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa, ia?aianaieai aeoeaioia
ia iaoeeiiaeueiua e ?aeeaeiciua aniaeou eiioeeeoa, i?iaeieaeaieai
aiaiiuo aeaenoaee. Aiciiaeii, /oi ac?ua a?ociaeea n aiai?eianaie a
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii yoaeiia ia noaioeee Oaeiaay, ia?aaiceaoai
iiae?acaeaeaiea ec Aeaoa?eiao?aa [9], yaeyaony ia/aeii oa??i?enoe/aneeo
aeoia ia O?aea.

Ianoiia ?oeiaiaenoai ano?aaiaeaii iieiaeaieai e iiyoiio i?eieiaao
aeiiieieoaeueiua ia?u ii oneeaieth io?aiu Iayea e i?aaiecoao
niaoeiiae?acaeaeaiey n eco/aieai iiuoa a NOA. Oaea acyou iiae eiio?ieue
eeoea /a/aineie iaoeeiiaeueiinoe e eeoea, eiathuea ?iaenoaaiieeia e
ciaeiiuo a *a/ia [3], i?aaei?eiyou e ae?oaea ia?u a cae?uouo ai?iaeao
Niaaeeinea e Ica?nea. Oai ia iaiaa, o?aiaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia,
ieooiiey e aeaiiioe?iaaiiuo yaea?iuo aiaaieiaie ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
noaiiaeony ana aieaa iianiui.

Nouanoaoao e ae?oaay iianiinoue. Io?aia yaea?iiai eiiieaena o?aaoao
ia?iiiuo aeaiaa, e aeaiueae aeey io?aiu no?iyuaeny iiaie AYN ia THaeiii
O?aea iiaoo noaoue aua iaeiei iainiiaaieai aeey aa no?ieoaeuenoaa. Ia
?ac noi?iiieee no?ieoaeuenoaa AYN i?eaiaeeee yoio aaneee aeiaiae:
a?iiaaeiua n?aaenoaa oaea iio?a/aiu – iaiaoiaeeii aa caeai/eaaoue.

Eaeia aea auoiae ec ianoiyuaai iieiaeaiey? Iaaa?iia, oieueei iaeei –
aeaai?acoiea iieeoeeia, eo niiniaiinoue i?eieiaoue eiii?iienniua
?aoaiey, a oaeaea niiniaiinoue i?aaeaeaeaoue e i?iaiice?iaaoue ?acaeoea
neooaoeee, ia iicaieyy ae aueoe ec-iiae eiio?iey.

Naie ?aaioieee eiiaeiaoa Iaye ino?i aini?eieiatho oa?ico yaea?iiai
oa??i?ecia e ia aii?in ei??aniiiaeaioa: “*aai aieueoa anaai Au
aieoanue?” iaeciaiii ioaa/atho: “Aeoaeaaaa”. Oioy naiua oyaeaeua
yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu aeey ieo – ia?niaeoeaa iioa?youe
?aaioo e iianiinoue auoue iaeo/aiiuie – eae ieeiaaea aeooaeueiu [12].

Caueoa io oa??i?ecia:

Au?aaioea o?aaiaaiee e nenoaia oece/aneie caueou ia/eiaaony n
ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia aa?iyoiie oa?icu. Oae iacuaaaiay iiaeaeue
aaciaie oa?icu au?aaaouaaaony ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeeca i?anooiiie
aioeyaea?iie aeayoaeueiinoe aioo?e no?aiu e ca ?oaaaeii e aeeth/aao a
naay oaeea oa?aeoa?enoeee eae ?acia? oa??i?enoe/aneie a?oiiu,
eniieuecoaiia i?oaeea e nia?yaeaiea, oaeoeea aeaenoaee, e o.ae. (9).
Iiaeaeue iinoiyiii ia?aniao?eaaaony. Iai?eia?, a NOA, iinea i?i?uaa
a?ociaeea ia oa??eoi?eth AYN O?e-Iaee-Aeeyiae (ia?o 1993 a.), Eiienneae
ii yaea?iiio ?aaoee?iaaieth (NRC) auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i aianaiee a
iiaeaeue aiciiaeiinoe i?i?uaa ia/eiaiiuo ac?ua/aoeie o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa. Niioaaonoaaiii, ia?u ii caueoa io oaeiai i?i?uaa auee i?eiyou
ia aoiiiuo noaioeeyo no?aiu.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaiecaoeey oece/aneie caueou yaea?iuo
iauaeoia i?aaeiieaaaao ianoaiiaeo ioiineoaeueiiai ii?yaeea e ionoonoaea
aiaauo aeaenoaee. A /anoiinoe, ?aeae /a/aineeo aiaaeeia ia ai?iae
Aoaeaiiiane a ethia 1995 a. aeaeaei auoiaeeo ca ?aiee iiaeaee aaciaie
oa?icu. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii caueoa io aoae iiaeiaiiai ianooaaa eaaeeo ia
ia aoiiiuo noaioeeyo, a ia neeiauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo?ao.

A ?innee i?eiaiaiea iiaeaee aaciaie oa?icu ia/aeinue n?aaieoaeueii
iaaeaaii (a i?ioeii, iniiaiie oeaeueth ia? io?aiu AYN auei
i?aaeioa?auaiea oeuaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e caueoa noaioeee a
neo/aa aieiu). A aa ninoaaeaiee o/anoaotho niaoeeaeenou 2-ai AO
Ieiaoiia, ONA e ae?oaeo aaaeiinoa. Aneaaenoaea ionoonoaey eioi?iaoeee i
iaoiaeieiaeyo iiaeoiaea e no?oeoo?a iiaeaee, ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aa
i?eiaiaiey ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiie.

Neaaeothuei oaaii i?iaeoe?iaaiey nenoai caueou AYN yaeyaony aiaeec aa
aeeciaiii aaaeiuo yeaiaioia e aiciiaeiuo iooae eo ii?aaeaiey. Nienie
e?eoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ii?aaeaeyaiue a oaniii acaeiiaeaenoaee n
?aaioieeaie AYN e niaoeeaeenoaie eiino?oeoi?nei-i?iaeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
iau/ii aeeth/aao o?aieeeua io?aaioaiiiai oiieeaa e e?eoe/aneea yeaiaiou
?aaeoi?iie onoaiiaee – oeaio?aeueiue cae oi?aaeaiey, iniiaiua e caianiua
nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey (ianinu, o?oaii?iaiaeu), nenoaiu yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey
(?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua ueou, eaaaeueiua iaaeno?aee, aeecaeue aaia?aoi?u)
(10). Ia yoii yoaia inouanoaeyaony eioaa?aoeey aniaeoia oaoie/aneie
aaciianiinoe ?aaeoi?a e oece/aneie caueou. A oiaea aiaeeca auyaeythony
aiciiaeiua ia?o?oou i?iaeaeaeaiey oa??i?enoia e niioaaonoaothuea
cao?aou. A?aiy yaeyaony e?eoe/aneei ia?aiao?ii. Eiioeao?aoeey nenoaiu
caueou, aa i?eai?iia ioi?ieaiea, o?aaiaaiea e neeai io?aiu
ii?aaeaeythony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau oaea?aeaoue i?ioeaieea aei iiaeoiaea
iniiaiuo nee.

A ?innee, aaea aei iaaeaaiaai i?ioeiai oa?ica aeeaa?nee ia AYN ia
?anniao?eaaeanue, eiioeaioeee aeeciaiii aaaeiuo cii e nenoaiiiai aiaeeca
ii ?ac?aaioea oece/aneie caueou yaeythony ioiineoaeueii iiauie. Yoe
?aaiou i?iaiaeyony niaoeeaeenoaie NIII Yea?ii (Ieiaoii) ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n aoiiiuie noaioeeyie. Eo auiieiaiea oi?iiceony
ionoonoaeai n?aaenoa o AYN. Acaeiiaeaenoaea n AYN ca i?aaeaeaie ?innee
oaeaea cao?oaeiyaony ionoonoaeai iaeaaeaiiiai iaoaiecia iaiaia nae?aoiie
eioi?iaoeeae.

?aaeueiay io?aia AYN iaania/eaaaony nenoaiie eiaeaia?iuo aa?uea?ia,
oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie e ia?niiaeii io?aiu. Caaea/a oaoie/aneeo nenoai
ia?eiao?a noaioeee (aeeth/athueo aeaieiia ia?aaeaeaiea, inaauaiea,
nenoaio aeao/eeia aeey iaia?oaeaiey iiiuoee i?iieeiiaaiey e oaeaeaia?u)
ninoieo a i?aaeinoaaeaiee iieiie e naiaa?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeee i
iaiaaeaiee, ia iniiaa eioi?ie i?aaiecoaony iai?iia e aucuaaaony
iiaee?aieaiea (11). E?eoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie yaeythony aeaenoaey e auo/ea
aii?oaeaiiie io?aiu, aa iaania/aiiinoue iai?iieoaeueiuie iiceoeeyie e
oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie. Aac aeoeaiiai i?ioeaiaeaenoaey io?aiu, ii
ioeaieai yenia?oia NOA, oa??i?enoai, iniauaiiui eiiiaeoiuie ac?uaiuie
ono?ienoaaie (eaiooeaoiuie, eeiaeiuie, iiaa?oiinoiuie e o.ae.) e
a?aiaoiiaoaie oeia ?IA-7, iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny anaai eeoue iieoi?u
ieioou aeey i?iieeiiaaiey a aeeciaiii aaaeiua ciiu ?aaeoi?a e ?ac?ooaiey
e?eoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

Aieueoia aieiaiea a NOA oaeaeyaony aii?inai iaeo?aeecaoeee aiciiaeiie
iiiiue oa??i?enoai ni noi?iiu nio?oaeieea(ia) noaioeee. Iau/iuie ia?aie
yaeythony i?iaa?ea aeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe, eiio?ieue iio?aaeaiey aeeiaiey e
ia?eioeeia, caueoa eioi?iaoeee. Inouanoaeyaony no?iaee eiio?ieue
aeinooia ia oa??eoi?eth AYN e a aa aeeciaiii aaaeiua ciiu. I?e aoiaea ia
oa??eoi?eth noaioeee ana nio?oaeieee iaycaiu i?ieoe /a?ac iiieoi?u (oeia
ay?iii?oianeeo oo?ieeaoia) iaia?oaeaiey i?oaeey e ac?ua/aouo aauanoa
(12).

I?aaiecaoeey oece/aneie caueou yaea?iuo iauaeoia a ?innee ano?a/aaony
ni cia/eoaeueiuie neiaeiinoyie. Aoiiiua noaioeee i?iaeoe?iaaeenue e
no?ieeenue aac o/aoa o?aaiaaiee oece/aneie caueou (13). Ia
i?iiieiuaaeeao AYN iaoiaeyony iiiai/eneaiiua aniiiiaaoaeueiua neoaeau,
/oi cao?oaeiyao iaania/aiea eiio?iey aeinooia e aeiniio?a. Aieueoea
oa??eoi?ee ieiuaaeie AYN ineiaeiytho eiio?ieue aiaoiaai ia?eiao?a.
Aeaeaee io niaa?oainoaa oaoie/aneea nenoaiu. I?aeoe/anee ia
eniieuecothony noaiaea?oiua aeey caiaaeiuo noaioeee aeaeaieaia?u,
eio?ae?aniua e iee?iaieiiaua aeaoaeoi?u. Iaaeinoaoi/ii eniieueciaaiea
iaoaeee/aneeo aeaoaeoi?ia ia eiio?ieueii-i?iioneiuo ioieoao. A
oeaio?aeueiuo ea?aoeueiuo noaioeeyo ionoonoaotho nia?aiaiiua nenoaiu
ioia?aaeaiey e aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee. Iiiauaiey io?aiu ia oe?aieaiu e
eaaei oycaeiu i?e ii?aaeaiee no?aeeiaui i?oaeeai; ionoonoaotho
caa?aaeaeaiey i?ioea i?i?uaa aaoio?ainii?oa. Aieueoie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony
ionoonoaea nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa nayce: iniiaiui n?aaenoaii
aioo?eiauaeoiie e aiaoiae nayce ii-i?aaeiaio inoathony iacaueuaiiua
oaeaoiiiua eeiee. Nouanoaotho neo/ae iaoeiiieaeoiaaiiinoe iaania/eaaaiie
aioo?aiieie aieneaie IAAe io?aiu. (Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ii
/eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea io?aiu ia yaea?iuo iauaeoao ?inney cia/eoaeueii
i?aainoiaeeo NOA e ae?oaea no?aiu Caiaaea). Iaeiiaoe, inoaaony iaiieiie
nenoaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ?aaoee?othuay i?aaiecaoeeth e i?eiaiaiea
oece/aneie caueou ia yaea?iuo iauaeoao, nouanoaotho i?iaeaiu a
i?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaaiiiai eiio?iey yooaeoeaiinoe nenoai oeccaueou ni
noi?iiu Ainaoiiiaaeci?a (14).

Caeeth/aiea:

Iaino?aiea aiaauo aeaenoaee a *a/ia ceiie e aaniie 1995 a., ethiueneee
?aeae io?yaea Aanaaaa ia Aoaeaiiiane e yiaa?neia iaiaaeaiea ?aaeoaaa ia
Eecey? canoaaeee ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai oneeeoue iai?iio yaea?iuo
iauaeoia. Aeiiieieoaeueiua a?oiiu oaeoe/aneiai ?aaae?iaaiey iiyaeeenue
ia aoiiiuo noaioeeyo. I?iecioei oneeaiea ?aaeeia a cae?uouo ai?iaeao
Ieiaoiia. Iaeiaei ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth aunieiyooaeoeaiie e yeiiiie/iie
nenoaiu aaciianiinoe yaea?iiai eiiieaena aeaeaea io caaa?oaiey.
I?aaenoieo inaieoue iiaua iaoiaeeee, nicaeaoue iaoa?eaeueioth aaco e
nia?aiaiiua o/aaiua oeaio?u, ?ac?aaioaoue niioaaonoaothuaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aai
auiieiaiey.

A ea/anoaa iniiaiie i?iaeaiu /anoi oeacuaaaony aunieay noieiinoue
caueou yaea?iiai eiiieaena. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe
iauaeoia ieienoa?noaa yia?aaoeee NOA aaeaaiaeii iaoiaeeony aia?eeaineei
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai a 600 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia (15). Iaeiaei nouanoaotho
iooe nieaeaiey cao?ao. Ionoonoaea aei?iaeo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa iiaeao
auoue eiiiaine?iaaii eniieueciaaieai ia?niiaea io?aiu. Cao?aou n?aaenoa
e a?aiaie iiaoo auoue oaeaea cia/eoaeueii nie?auaiu iin?aaenoaii
nio?oaeie/anoaa ni no?aiaie Caiaaea. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea iiiieoue i oii,
/oi oeiainiaay e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay oeaia eeeaeaeaoeee
iineaaenoaee oniaoiiai aeoa yaea?iiai oa??i?ecia iiaeao iaiiiai
i?aauneoue noieiinoue i?aaaioeaiuo ia? caueou.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1.ssaea?iay aaciianiinoue ? 6 1998

ssaea?iay aaciianiinoue ? 7 1998

3. ssaea?iue Eiio?ieue ?17 (Iaic?aiea ii i?iaeaiai i?oaeey ianniaiai
oie/oiaeaiey a ?innee e iiauo iacaaeneiuo ainoaea?noaao)

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