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Воздействие атомных станций на окружающую среду

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IINE

oaeoeueoao
ineoieiaee

?aoa?ao ii yeieiaee

ia oaio:

Aicaeaenoaea

aoiiiuo noaioeee

ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo

Eocueie/aaie E.A.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue

Nieiaueaa N.N.

Iineaa, 1998a.

Niaea?aeaiea:

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu………………………..…..3

Aicaeaenoaea aoiiiuo noaioeee ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo………….….….5

ia?aiin ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea…………….……6

aicaeaenoaea ?aaeeaoeee ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea……………….…….7

/aeaeu ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey

/iooe i?iieeiiaaiey ?aaeeaoeee a i?aaieci /aeiaaea

/i?aaiu, iiaeaa?aathueany iaeo/aieth

Ia?aie/aiea iianiuo aicaeaenoaee AN ia yeinenoaiu……………….8

Oie/oiaeaiea iianiuo iooiaeia…………………………………….…..10

I ii?ie?iaaiee o?iaiy caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu……….…..11

Eeoa?aoo?a………………………………………………………….……13

1. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io iianiuo
oaoiiaaiiuo aicaeaenoaee i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia yeinenoaiu

Yeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea iiiaeo ?aeiiia iaoae no?aiu aucuaaao
caeiiioth o?aaiao iauanoaaiiinoe. A iiiai/eneaiiuo ioaeeeaoeeyo
iieacaii, /oi ai iiiaeo ?aaeiiao iaoae no?aiu iaaethaeaaony onoie/eaay
oaiaeaioeey e iiiaie?aoiiio, a aeanyoee e aieaa ?ac i?aauoaieth
naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo ii?i ii niaea?aeaieth a aoiinoa?a ai?iaeia
ieeneia oaea?iaea, acioa, iuee, oiene/iuo niaaeeiaiee iaoaeeia, aieiia e
ae?oaeo a?aaeiuo aauanoa. Eiathony na?ueaciua i?iaeaiu n iaeei?aoeeae
caiaeue, aaneiio?ieueiui i?eiaiaieai a naeueneii oicyenoaa ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee, /?acia?iui eniieueciaaieai ianoeoeeaeia, aa?aeoeeaeia.
I?ienoiaeeo caa?yciaiea noi/iuie aiaeaie i?iiuoeaiiuo e eiiioiaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee aieueoeo e iaeuo ?ae, ica?, i?ea?aaeiuo ii?neeo aiae. Ec-ca
iinoiyiiiai caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa, iiaa?oiinoiuo e
iiaecaiiuo aiae, ii/a, ?anoeoaeueiinoe i?ienoiaeeo aeaa?aaeaoeey
yeinenoai, nie?auaiea i?iaeoeoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoae aeinoa?u.

Caa?yciaiea n?aaeu iaeoaiey a?aaeii io?aaeaaony ia caei?iauea
ethaeae, i?eiineo cia/eoaeueiua oauoee ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao. A
iineaaeiaa a?aiy ianoaiiaea oooaeoeeanue ianoieueei, /oi iiiaea ?aeiiu
iauyaeaiu ?aeiiaie yeieiae/aneiai aaaenoaey. Iauea aua?inu aeaoieene
acioa ioeaieaathony a 6,5o108 o/aiae, aua?inu na?u ninoaaeytho 2,4o108
o/aiae, i?iiuoeaiiinoue aua?anuaaao 5,2o107 o/aiae anaaiciiaeiuo
iooiaeia. Aua?inu oaeaeeneiai aaca, na?ienouo niaaeeiaiee a aoiinoa?o a
?acoeueoaoa i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
yia?aaoe/aneeo, iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee aaaeoo e aicieeiiaaieth
ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa e naycaiiiai n iei iioaieaiey eeeiaoa. Ii ioeaieai
o/aiuo aeiaaeueiia iioaieaiea aac i?eiyoey ia? ii nie?auaieth aua?inia
ia?ieeiauo aacia ninoaaeo io 2-o aei 5 a?aaeonia a oa/aiea neaaeothuaai
noieaoey, /oi yaeony aani?aoeaaeaioiui yaeaieai ca iineaaeiea aeanoue
ouny/ eao. Iioaieaiea eeeiaoa, oaaee/aiea o?iaiy ieaaia ia 60-80 ni e
eiioeo neaaeothuaai noieaoey i?eaaaeoo e yeieiae/aneie eaoano?ioa
iaaeaeaiiiai ianooaaa, oa?iaeathuae aeaa?aaeaoeeae /aeiaa/aneiio
niiauanoao.

Ae?oaay iianiinoue naycaia n aeaoeoeeoii /enoie i?aniie aiaeu.
Ecaanoii, /oi i?iiuoeaiiinoue iio?aaeyao 3000 eoa. ei i?aniie aiaeu a
aiae, ec eioi?uo i?eia?ii 40% aica?auaaony a oeeee, ii n aeeaeeeie
iooiaeaie, niaea?aeaueie i?iaeoeou ei??icee, io?aaioaiiia ianei,
i?aaieeo, /anoeoeu cieu, niie, oaoiieiae/aneea na?inu, a oii /enea
a?aaeiua eiiiiiaiou oeia oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia e ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa. Yoe
aeeaeeinoe ?anoaeathony ii aiaeiui nenoaiai, i?e/ai a?aaeiua aauanoaa
aeaiiie?othony a oeoioeaiicao, aeiiiuo ioeiaeaieyo, ?uaao,
?ani?ino?aiythony ii ieuaaui oeaiyi, iiiaaeatho ia noie /aeiaaea.
?anoiae i?aniie aiaeu ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu – i?ioaiea,
e??eaaoeeth noae a iaeioi?uo ?aeiiao noieue aaeee, /oi aucaae e?oiiua
iaia?aoeiua naeaeae a yeieiae/aneii ?aaiiaanee oeaeuo ?aaeiiia. N?aaee
ae?oaeo yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n aio?iiiaaiiui aicaeaenoaeai
ia aeinoa?o, neaaeoao oiiiyiooue ?ene ia?ooaiey iciiiaiai neiy,
caa?yciaiea Ie?iaiai ieaaia, aeaa?aaeaoeeth ii/a e iionouieaaiea
ca?iii?iecaiaeyueo ?aeiiia, caeeneaiea i?e?iaeiuo n?aae, eciaiaiea
yeaeo?e/aneeo naienoa aoiinoa?u.

Oa?aeoa?iua aio?iiiaaiiua ?aaeeaoeeiiiua aicaeaenoaey ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo:

caa?yciaiea aoiinoa?u e oa??eoi?ee i?iaeoeoaie yaea?iuo ac?uaia i?e
eniuoaieyo yaea?iiai i?oaeey

io?aaeaiea aicaeooiiai aannaeia aua?inaie iuee, caa?yciaiea oa??eoi?ee
oeaeaie, niaea?aeaueie ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa i?e naeeaaiee eneiiaaiuo
oiieea a eioeao yeaeo?inoaioeee,

caa?yciaiea oa??eoi?ee i?e aaa?eyo ia aoiiiuo noaioeeyo e i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Aieaa eieaeueiua, ii ia iaiaa iai?eyoiua iineaaenoaey – aeaaeue ica?,
?ae ec-ca iai/euaiiuo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo na?inia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Cia/eoaeueioth iianiinoue aeey aeeauo nouanoa, aeey iiioeyoeee
i?aaieciia a yeinenoaiao i?aaenoaaeytho aaa?ee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
oeie/aneie, aoiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?e o?ainii?oe?iaaiee iianiuo e
a?aaeiuo aauanoa. Ecaanoiua aaa?ee ia oeie/aneii caaiaea a Aoiiaea
(Eiaeey), ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN, ia II «Iaye», aaa?ee n iaooaiaeeaiuie
noaeaie e.ae. aiai?yo i oii, /oi iaiaoiaeei ?aaeeeaeueiue ia?aniio?
iaoeo ioiioaiee n i?e?iaeie, oneeaiea ia? aicaeaenoaey ii?iaoeaiuo
?u/aaia ia oicyenoaaiioth i?aeoeeo. Niaa?oaiii iaaeiionoeii, /oiau
onoaiiaeaiiua ii?iaoeaaie i?aaeaeueiua eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa a
aicaeooa, aiaea ?aaeueii i?aauoaeenue a nioie ?ac. Ioaeii naeaeaoue
iaauaiaeiui eee aeaaea ?aci?eoaeueiui i?aiaa?aaeaiea e io?aia
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. I?aai ethaeae ia /enoue aicaeoo, /enoua ?aee e
ica?a aeieaeii ia oieueei aeaeea?e?iaaoueny, ii e ?aaeueii
iaania/eaaoueny anaie aeinooiiuie aeey ainoaea?noaa n?aaenoaaie.

Iniai aeooaeueiuie noaiiaeony aii?inu ?aaoee?iaaiey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oua?a, a oii /enea ca yeieiae/aneee oua?a i?e
nicaeaiee a iaoae no?aia iniia i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa, i?e ia?aoiaea e
?uii/iui ioiioaieyi a yeiiiieea. Caeanue aaaeii iaeoe ?acoiiua
yeiiiie/aneea ?u/aae, i?aaeeueii niioiineoue auaiaeu e iioa?e, aeioiaeu
e ?anoiaeu ia eiiiainaoeeth oua?aa. Aaaeiie caaea/ae yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea
aii?inia ii?iaoeaiiai ?aca?aie/aiey aeiionoeiuo e iaaeiionoeiuo
aicaeaenoaee, ioeaieaaiey noieiinoe yeieiae/aneiai oua?aa.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie a ia?aie/aiee a?aaeiuo oaoiiaaiiuo
aicaeaenoaee ia aeinoa?o yaeythony ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea e ?ac?aaioea
yeieiae/anee /enouo eee aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee. *enoioo aiae iiaeii
oeo/oeoue iaoiaeaie aeioaoiieiaee. ?aaeeeaeueiue iooue icaei?iaeaiey
yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee – nie?auaiea a?aaeiuo aua?inia e na?inia,
oaaee/aiea aacaaa?eeiinoe e aaciianiinoe iianiuo i?iecaiaenoa, ia?aoiae
ia aaciooiaeiua oaoiieiaee, eiioeaio?aoeey e iaaeaaeiia caoi?iiaiea
a?aaeiuo iooiaeia, ?acoiiia nio?oaeie/anoai e iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
acaeiiiiiiuue i?e yeieiae/aneeo eaoano?ioao.

A ?aaioa ii icaei?iaeaieth ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, ia?aie/aieth
aicaeaenoaee a?aaeiuo aauanoa ia aeinoa?o aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho neoaeau
eiio?iey ninoiyiey i?e?iaeu, n?aaeu iaeoaiey ethaeae, eieaeueiiai e
?aaeiiaeueiiai iiieoi?eiaa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Yoe neoaeau,
aii?oaeaiiua nia?aiaiiie ecia?eoaeueiie oaoieeie e i?eai?aie eiio?iey
aeieaeiu iia?aoeaii iiiaauaoue ianaeaiea i anao neo/ayo i?eaeeaeaiey
ia?aiao?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e iianiiio o?iaith. Aaaeioth ?ieue a
caueoa n?aaeu iaeoaiey /aeiaaea io caa?yciaiey aeieaeia nua?aoue
aeiaaeueia nenoaia iiieoi?eiaa ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
ioaaouaathuay Ie?iaie ieaai e ana eiioeiaiou, iniiaaiiay ia
iaoeeiiaeueiuo nenoaiao, ii iaoiaeyuayny iiae yaeaeie III. A nie?auaiee
aua?inia oaeaeeneiai aaca, ?ac?aoaiee iiiaeo yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai ana
aieaa nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ea?aao caiauaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiie yia?aaoeee ia
yia?aaoeeo aoiiioth. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iauai?eciaiii, /oi aoiiiua
yeaeo?inoaioeee iiaoo auoue nicaeaiu n aunieeie iieacaoaeyie
iaaeaaeiinoe e aaciianiinoe, iaania/eaathueie auiieiaiea naiuo no?iaeo
o?aaiaaiee iaaeci?iuo i?aaiia, a oii /enea ii io?aia aeinoa?u io
caa?yciaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie e ae?oaeie a?aaeiuie aauanoaaie. Iaeiaei
neaaeoao i?aaei?eiyoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oneeey aeey oiai, /oiau nieceoue
?ene aaa?ee ia AYN. A /anoiinoe ?aoaiea yoie caaea/e aeaeeony ia iooe
?ac?aaioee iiaiai iieieaiey ?aaeoi?ia n aioo?aiia i?enouae
aaciianiinoueth, o.a. ?aaeoi?ia n iiuiuie aioo?aiieie ia?aoiuie naycyie
naiicaueou e naiieiiiainaoeee.

2. Aicaeaenoaea aoiiiuo noaioeee ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo

Oaoiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo i?e
no?ieoaeuenoaa e yenieoaoaoeee aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee iiiaiia?aciu.
Iau/ii aiai?yo, /oi eiathony oece/aneea, oeie/aneea, ?aaeeaoeeiiiua e
ae?oaea oaeoi?u oaoiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey yenieoaoaoeee AYN ia iauaeou
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua oaeoi?u –

eieaeueiia iaoaie/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia ?aeueao – i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa,

iia?aaeaeaiea iniaae a oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoaiao – i?e yenieoaoaoeee,

noie iiaa?oiinoiuo e a?oioiauo aiae, niaea?aeaueo oeie/aneea e
?aaeeiaeoeaiua eiiiiiaiou,

eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a caieaiieueciaaiey e iaiaiiuo i?ioeannia a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io AYN,

eciaiaiea iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eeaaeaueo ?aeiiia.

Aicieeiiaaiea iiuiuo enoi/ieeia oaiea a aeaea a?aaee?ai,
aiaeiaiia – ioeaaeeoaeae i?e yenieoaoaoeee AYN iau/ii caiaoiui ia?acii
eciaiyao iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eeaaeaueo ?aeiiia.
Aeaeaeaiea aiaeu a nenoaia aiaoiaai oaieiioaiaea, na?inu oaoiieiae/aneeo
aiae, niaea?aeaueo ?aciiia?aciua oeie/aneea eiiiiiaiou ieacuaatho
o?aaie?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia iiioeyoeee, oei?o e oaoio yeinenoai.

Iniaia cia/aiea eiaao ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa a
ie?oaeathuai i?ino?ainoaa. A eiiieaena neiaeiuo aii?inia ii caueoa
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aieueooth iauanoaaiioth cia/eiinoue eiatho i?iaeaiu
aaciianiinoe aoiiiuo noaioeee (AN), eaeoueo ia niaio oaieiaui noaioeeyi
ia i?aaie/aneii eneiiaaiii oiieeaa. Iauai?eciaiii, /oi AN i?e eo
ii?iaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee iaiiiai – ia iaiaa /ai a 5-10 ?ac “/eua” a
yeieiae/aneii ioiioaiee oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee (OYN) ia oaea. Iaeiaei
i?e aaa?eyo AN iiaoo ieacuaaoue nouanoaaiiia ?aaeeaoeeiiiia aicaeaenoaea
ia ethaeae, yeinenoaiu. Iiyoiio iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe yeinoa?u e
caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io a?aaeiuo aicaeaenoaee AN – e?oiiay iao/iay
e oaoiieiae/aneay caaea/a yaea?iie yia?aaoeee, iaania/eaathuay aa
aoaeouaa.

Ioiaoei aaaeiinoue ia oieueei ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia aiciiaeiuo
a?aaeiuo aicaeaenoaee AN ia yeinenoaiu, ii e oaieiaia e oeie/aneia
caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iaoaie/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia iaeoaoaeae
aiaeiaiia-ioeaaeeoaeae, eciaiaiey aeae?ieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?eeaaeaueo e AN ?aeiiia, o.a. aanue eiiieaen oaoiiaaiiuo aicaeaenoaee,
aeeythueo ia yeieiae/aneia aeaaiiieo/ea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Aua?inu e na?inu a?aaeiuo aauanoa i?e yenieoaoaoeee AN
Ia?aiin ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea

Enoiaeiuie niauoeyie, eioi?ua ?acaeaaynue ai a?aiaie, a eiia/iii
n/aoa iiaoo i?eaanoe e a?aaeiui aicaeaenoaeyi ia /aeiaaea e
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, yaeythony aua?inu e na?inu ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe e
oiene/aneeo aauanoa ec nenoai AN. Yoe aua?inu aeaeyo ia aaciaua e
ay?icieueiua, aua?anuaaaiua a aoiinoa?o /a?ac o?oao, e aeeaeeea na?inu,
a eioi?uo a?aaeiua i?eiane i?enoonoaotho a aeaea ?anoai?ia eee
iaeeiaeenia?niuo nianae, iiiaaeathuea a aiaeiaiu. Aiciiaeiu e
i?iiaaeooi/iua neooaoeee, eae i?e iaeioi?uo aaa?eyo, eiaaea ai?y/ay
aiaea aua?anuaaaony a aoiinoa?o e ?acaeaeyaony ia ia? e aiaeo.

Aua?inu iiaoo auoue eae iinoiyiiuie, iaoiaeyueieny iiae eiio?ieai
yenieoaoaoeeiiiiai ia?niiaea, oae e aaa?eeiuie, caeiiauie. Aeeth/aynue a
iiiaiia?aciua aeaeaeaiey aoiinoa?u, iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo iioieia,
?aaeeiaeoeaiua e oiene/aneea aauanoaa ?ani?ino?aiythony a ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea, iiiaaeatho a ?anoaiey, a i?aaieciu aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea. Ia
?enoiea iieacaiu aicaeooiua, iiaa?oiinoiua e iiaecaiiua iooe iea?aoeee
a?aaeiuo aauanoa a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Aoi?e/iua, iaiaa cia/eiua aeey
ian iooe, oaeea eae aao?iaie ia?aiin iuee e enia?aiee, eae e eiia/iua
iio?aaeoaee a?aaeiuo aauanoa ia ?enoiea ia iieacaiu.

Aicaeaenoaea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aua?inia ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea

?anniio?ei iaoaieci aicaeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee ia i?aaieci
/aeiaaea: iooe aicaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa ia
i?aaieci, eo ?ani?ino?aiaiea a i?aaiecia, aeaiiie?iaaiea, aicaeaenoaea
ia ?acee/iua i?aaiu e nenoaiu i?aaiecia e iineaaenoaey yoiai
aicaeaenoaey. Nouanoaoao oa?iei «aoiaeiua ai?ioa ?aaeeaoeee»,
iaicia/athuee iooe iiiaaeaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa e eceo/aiee eioiiia
a i?aaieci.

?acee/iua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa ii – ?aciiio i?iieeatho a
i?aaieci /aeiaaea. Yoi caaeneo io oeie/aneeo naienoa ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
yeaiaioa.

Aeaeu ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey

PRIVATE Aeueoa-/anoeoeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aoiiu aaeey aac
yeaeo?iiia, o.a. aeaa i?ioiia e aeaa iaeo?iia. Yoe /anoeoeu
ioiineoaeueii aieueoea e oyaeaeua, e iiyoiio eaaei oi?iicyo. Eo i?iaaa a
aicaeooa ninoaaeyao ii?yaeea ianeieueeeo naioeiao?ia. A iiiaio inoaiiaee
iie aua?anuaatho aieueoia eiee/anoai yia?aee ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee, e
iiyoiio iiaoo i?eianoe aieueoea ?ac?ooaiey.Ec-ca ia?aie/aiiiai i?iaaaa
aeey iieo/aiey aeicu iaiaoiaeeii iiianoeoue enoi/iee aioo?ue i?aaiecia.
Ecioiiaie, enioneathueie aeueoa- /anoeoeu, yaeythony, iai?eia?, o?ai
(235U e 238U) e ieooiiee (239Pu). Aaoa-/anoeoeu – yoi
io?eoeaoaeueii eee iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua yeaeo?iiu (iieiaeeoaeueii
ca?yaeaiiua yeaeo?iiu iacuaathony iiceo?iiu). Eo i?iaaa a aicaeooa
ninoaaeyao ii?yaeea ianeieueeeo iao?ia. Oiieay iaeaaeaea niiniaia
inoaiiaeoue iioie ?aaeeaoeee, e, /oiau iieo/eoue aeico iaeo/aiey,
enoi/iee ?aaeeaoeee iaiaoiaeeii iiianoeoue aioo?ue i?aaiecia, ecioiiu,
enioneathuea aaoa-/anoeoeu – yoi o?eoee (3H) e no?iioeee (90Sr).
Aaiia-?aaeeaoeey – yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey, a
oi/iinoe iioiaeay ia aeaeeiue naao. Iaeiaei yia?aey aaiia-/anoeoe
ai?acaei aieueoa yia?aee oioiiia. Yoe /anoeoeu iaeaaeatho aieueoie
i?iieeathuae niiniaiinoueth, e aaiia-?aaeeaoeey yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
ec o?ao oeiia ?aaeeaoeee, niiniaiie iaeo/eoue i?aaieci nia?oaee. Aeaa
ecioiia, eceo/athueo aaiia-?aaeeaoeeth, – yoi oeacee (137Ns) e eiaaeueo
(60Ni).

Iooe i?iieeiiaaiey ?aaeeaoeee a i?aaieci /aeiaaea

?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu ?aaeeiaeoeaiua /anoeoeu ec
Ecioiiu, iaoiaeyueany a caiea

iiaoo i?iieeaoue a i?aaieci aicaeooa ai a?aiy aeuoaiey
eee ia aa iiaa?oiinoe, enion-

aianoa n ieuae eee aiaeie. iiaoo iiianoue a eaaeea. Ii
eay aaiia-eceo/aiea, niiniaiu

*a?ac i?aaiu ieuaaa?aiey iie iaeo/atho ia oieueei
iaeo/eoue i?aaieci nia?oaee. Yoe

iie ?ani?ino?aiythony ii eaaeea, a oaeaea ?ani?i-
ecioiiu oaeaea ia?aiinyony aoii-

anaio i?aaiecio. no?aiythony ii i?aaiecio.
noa?iuie inaaeeaie.

I?aaiu, iiaeaa?aathueany iaeo/aieth

Ia?aie/aiea iianiuo aicaeaenoaee AN ia yeinenoaiu

AN e ae?oaea i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ?aaeiia ieacuaatho
?aciiia?aciua aicaeaenoaey ia niaieoiiinoue i?e?iaeiuo yeinenoai,
ninoaaeythueo yeinoa?iue ?aaeii AN. Iiae aeeyieai yoeo iinoiyiii
aeaenoaothueo eee aaa?eeiuo aicaeaenoaee AN, ae?oaeo oaoiiaaiiuo
iaa?ocie i?ienoiaeeo yaiethoeey yeinenoai ai a?aiaie, iaeaieeaathony e
cae?aieythony eciaiaiey ninoiyiee aeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney. Ethaeyi
niaa?oaiii iaaac?acee/ii a eaeoth noi?iio iai?aaeaiu yoe eciaiaiey a
yeinenoaiao, ianeieueei iie ia?aoeiu, eaeiau caianu onoie/eainoe aei
cia/eiuo aiciouaiee. Ii?ie?iaaiea aio?iiiaaiiuo iaa?ocie ia yeinenoaiu e
i?aaeiacia/aii aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaeioa?auaoue ana iaaeaaii?eyoiua
eciaiaiey a ieo, a a eo/oai aa?eaioa iai?aaeyoue yoe eciaiaiey a
aeaaii?eyoioth noi?iio. *oiau ?acoiii ?aaoee?iaaoue ioiioaiey AN n
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie ioaeii eiia/ii ciaoue ?aaeoeee aeioeaiicia ia
aiciouathuea aicaeaenoaey AN. Iiaeoiae e ii?ie?iaaieth aio?iiiaaiiuo
aicaeaenoaee iiaeao auoue iniiaai ia yeieiai-oieneeiaaiiie eiioeaioeee,
o.a. iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaeioa?aoeoue “io?aaeaiea” yeinenoai a?aaeiuie
aauanoaaie e aeaa?aaeaoeeth ec-ca /?acia?iuo iaa?ocie. Ae?oaeie neiaaie
iaeuecy ia oieueei o?aaeoue yeinenoaiu, ii e eeoaoue eo aiciiaeiinoe
naiaiaeii ?acaeaaoueny, iaa?oaeay ooiii, iueueth, ioa?inaie, ia?aie/eaay
eo a?aaeu e ieuaaua ?ano?nu.

*oiau ecaaaeaoue o?aaie?iaaiey yeinenoai aeieaeiu auoue
ii?aaeaeaiu e ii?iaoeaii caoeene?iaaiu iaeioi?ua i?aaeaeueiua
iinooieaiey a?aaeiuo aauanoa a i?aaieciu iniaae, ae?oaea i?aaeaeu
aicaeaenoaee, eioi?ua iiaee au aucaaoue iai?eaieaiua iineaaenoaey ia
o?iaia iiioeyoeee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie aeieaeiu auoue ecaanoiu
yeieiae/aneea aieinoe yeinenoai, aaee/eiu eioi?uo ia aeieaeiu
i?aauoaoueny i?e oaoiiaaiiuo aicaeaenoaeyo. Yeieiae/aneea aieinoe
yeinenoai aeey ?acee/iuo a?aaeiuo aauanoa neaaeoao ii?aaeaeyoue ii
eioaineaiinoe iinooieaiey yoeo aauanoa, i?e eioi?uo oioy au a iaeiii ec
eiiiiiaioia aeioeaiica aicieeiao e?eoe/aneay neooaoeey, o.a. eiaaea
iaeiieaiea yoeo aauanoa i?eaeeceony e iianiiio i?aaeaeo, aoaeao
aeinoeaaoueny e?eoe/aneay eiioeaio?aoeey. A cia/aieyo i?aaeaeueiuo
eiioeaio?aoeee oieneeiaaiia, a oii /enea ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, eiia/ii,
aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue e ia?ae?anoiua yooaeou. Iaeiaei yoiai, ii-aeaeeiiio,
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Aeey yooaeoeaiie caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iaiaoiaeeii
caeiiiaeaoaeueii aaanoe i?eioeei ia?aie/aiey a?aaeiuo oaoiiaaiiuo
aicaeaenoaee, a /anoiinoe aua?inia e na?inia iianiuo aauanoa. Ii
aiaeiaee n i?eioeeiaie ?aaeeaoeeiiiie caueou /aeiaaea, oiiiyioouie auoa,
iiaeii neacaoue, /oi i?eioeeiu caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ninoiyo a oii,
/oi

aeieaeiu auoue eneeth/aiu iaiainiiaaiiua oaoiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey,

iaeiieaiea a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aeioeaiicao, oaoiiaaiiua iaa?ocee ia
yeaiaiou yeinenoai ia aeieaeiu i?aauoaoue iianiua i?aaeaeu,

iinooieaiea a?aaeiuo aauanoa a yeaiaiou yeinenoai, oaoiiaaiiua iaa?ocee
aeieaeiu auoue ianoieueei ieceeie, ianeieueei yoi aiciiaeii n o/aoii
yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia.

AN ieacuaatho ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo – oaieiaia, ?aaeeaoeeiiiia,
oeie/aneia e iaoaie/aneia aicaeaenoaea. Aeey iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe
aeinoa?u ioaeiu iaiaoiaeeiua e aeinoaoi/iua caueoiua n?aaenoaa. Iiae
iaiaoiaeeiie caueoie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aoaeai iiieiaoue nenoaio ia?,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia eiiiainaoeeth aiciiaeiiai i?aauoaiey aeiionoeiuo
cia/aiee oaiia?aoo? n?aae, iaoaie/aneeo e aeiciauo iaa?ocie,
eiioeaio?aoeee oieneeiaaiiuo aauanoa a yeinoa?a. Aeinoaoi/iinoue caueou
aeinoeaaaony a oii neo/aa, eiaaea oaiia?aoo?u a n?aaeao, aeiciaua e
iaoaie/aneea iaa?ocee n?aae, eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa a n?aaeao
ia i?aainoiaeyo i?aaeaeueiuo, e?eoe/aneeo cia/aiee.

Eoae, naieoa?iua ii?iaoeau i?aaeaeueii – aeiionoeiuo
eiioeaio?aoeee (IAeE), aeiionoeiua oaiia?aoo?u, aeiciaua e iaoaie/aneea
iaa?ocee aeieaeiu auoue e?eoa?eai iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey ia?ii?eyoee
ii caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Nenoaia aeaoaeece?iaaiiuo ii?iaoeaia ii
i?aaeaeai aiaoiaai iaeo/aiey, i?aaeaeai niaea?aeaiey ?aaeeiecioiiia e
oiene/iuo aauanoa a eiiiiiaioao yeinenoai, iaoaie/aneei iaa?oceai iiaea
au ii?iaoeaii cae?aieoue a?aieoeo i?aaeaeueiuo, e?eoe/aneeo aicaeaenoaee
ia yeaiaiou yeinenoai aeey ieo caueou io aeaa?aaeaoeee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie
aeieaeiu auoue ecaanoiu yeieiae/aneea aieinoe aeey anao yeinenoai a
?anniao?eaaaiii ?aaeiia ii anai oeiai aicaeaenoaee.

?aciiia?aciua oaoiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo
oa?aeoa?ecothony eo /anoioie iiaoi?aiey e eioaineaiinoueth. Iai?eia?,
aua?inu a?aaeiuo aauanoa eiatho iaeioi?oth iinoiyiioth ninoaaeythuoth,
niioaaonoaothuoth ii?iaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee, e neo/aeioth
ninoaaeythuoth, caaenyuoth io aa?iyoiinoae aaa?ee, o.a. io o?iaiy
aaciianiinoe ?anniao?eaaaiiai iauaeoa. ssnii, /oi /ai oyaeaeaa, iianiaa
aaa?ey, oai aa?iyoiinoue aa aicieeiiaaiey ieaea. INCLUDEPICTURE \d
“/pics/atom/fig2.gif” Iai ecaanoii nae/an ii ai?ueeiio iiuoo *a?iiauey,
/oi niniiaua eana eiatho ?aaeei/oanoaeoaeueiinoue iioiaeoth ia oi, /oi
oa?aeoa?ii aeey /aeiaaea, a niaoaiiua eana e eonoa?ieee – a 5 ?ac
iaiueooth. Ia?u i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey iianiuo aicaeaenoaee, eo
i?aaeioa?auaiey i?e yenieoaoaoeee, nicaeaiey aiciiaeiinoae aeey eo
eiiiainaoeee e oi?aaeaiey a?aaeiuie aicaeaenoaeyie aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny
ia noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey iauaeoia. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao ?ac?aaioeo e
nicaeaiea nenoai yeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa ?aaeiiia, ?ac?aaioeo
iaoiaeia ?an/aoiiai i?iaiice?iaaiey yeieiae/aneiai oua?aa, i?eciaiiuo
iaoiaeia ioeaieaaiey yeieiae/aneeo aieinoae yeinenoai, iaoiaeia
n?aaiaiey ?aciioeiiuo oua?aia. Yoe ia?u aeieaeiu nicaeaoue aaco aeey
aeoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey ninoiyieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Oie/oiaeaiea iianiuo iooiaeia

Iniaia aieiaiea neaaeoao oaeaeyoue oaeiio ia?ii?eyoeyi, eae
iaeiieaiea, o?aiaiea, ia?aaicea e caoi?iiaiea oiene/iuo e ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
iooiaeia.

?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu, yaeythony ia oieueei i?iaeoeoii
aeayoaeueiinoe AN ii e iooiaeaie i?eiaiaiey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a
iaaeeoeeia, i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneii oicyenoaa e iaoea. Nai?, o?aiaiea,
oaeaeaiea e caoi?iiaiea iooiaeia, niaea?aeaueo ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa,
?aaeaiaioe?othony neaaeothueie aeieoiaioaie:

NII?I-85 Naieoa?iua i?aaeea ia?auaiey n ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie iooiaeaie.
Iineaa: Ieienoa?noai cae?aaiio?aiaiey NNN?, 1986;

I?aaeea e ii?iu ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe a aoiiiie yia?aaoeea. Oii
1. Iineaa: Ieienoa?noai cae?aaiio?aiaiey NNN? (290 no?aieoe), 1989;

INI 72/87 Iniiaiua naieoa?iua i?aaeea.

Aeey iaaca?aaeeaaiey e caoi?iiaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia auea
?ac?aaioaia nenoaia “?aaeii”, ninoiyuay ec oanoiaaeoeaoe iieeaiiia
caoi?iiaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia. ?oeiaiaenoaoynue Iinoaiiaeaieai
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ?1149-a io 5.11.91a.,Ieienoa?noai
aoiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a nio?oaeie/anoaa n
ianeieueeeie caeioa?aniaaiiuie ieienoa?noaaie e o/?aaeaeaieyie
?ac?aaioaei i?iaeo ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiiu ii ia?auaieth n
?aaeeiaeoeaiuie iooiaeaie n oeaeueth nicaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai o/aoa ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia, iiaea?iecaoeee
aeaenoaothueo n?aaenoa o?aiaiey iooiaeia e i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiauo
iieeaiiia caoi?iiaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia.

Auai? caiaeueiuo o/anoeia aeey o?aiaiey, caoi?iiaiey eee
oie/oiaeaiey iooiaeia inouanoaeyaony i?aaiaie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ii
niaeaniaaieth n oa??eoi?eaeueiuie i?aaiaie Ieii?e?iaeu e
Ainnaiyieaeiaaeci?a.

Aeae oa?u aeey o?aiaiey iooiaeia caaeneo io eo eeanna iianiinoe: io
aa?iaoe/iuo noaeueiuo aaeeiiia aeey o?aiaiey iniai iianiuo iooiaeia aei
aoiaaeiuo iaoeia aeey o?aiaiey iaiaa iianiuo iooiaeia. Aeey eaaeaeiai
oeia iaeiieoaeae i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia (o.a. oainoi- e oeaiio?aieeeua,
iaeiieoaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noi/iuo aiae, i?oaeu-ionoieieee,
iaeiieoaee-enia?eoaee) ii?aaeaeaiu o?aaiaaiey ii caueoa io caa?yciaiey
ii/au, iiaecaiiuo e iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae, ii nieaeaieth eiioeaio?aoeee
a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aicaeooa e niaea?aeaieth iianiuo aauanoa a
iaeiieoaeyo a i?aaeaeao eee ieaea IAeE. No?ieoaeuenoai iiauo iaeiieoaeae
i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia aeiioneaaony oieueei a oii neo/aa, eiaaea
i?aaenoaaeaiu aeieacaoaeuenoaa oiai, /oi ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui
ia?aeoe ia eniieueciaaiea iaeiiooiaeiuo eee aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee eee
eniieueciaaoue iooiaeu aeey eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo oeaeae.

Caoi?iiaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia i?ienoiaeeo ia niaoeeaeueiuo
iieeaiiao. Oaeea iieeaiiu aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny a aieueoii oaeaeaiee io
ianaeaiiuo ioieoia e e?oiiuo aiaeiaiia. I/aiue aaaeiui oaeoi?ii caueou
io ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aaeeaoeee yaeyaony oa?a, a eioi?ie niaea?aeaony
iianiua iooiaeu. Aa ?acaa?iaoecaoeey eee iiauoaiiay i?iieoeaaiinoue

iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea iianiuo iooiaeia ia
yeinenoaiu.

5. I ii?ie?iaaiee o?iaiy caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu

A ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eiathony aeieoiaiou,
ii?aaeaeythuea iaycaiiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaiecaoeee ii
nio?aiiinoe, caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Oaeea aeou, eae Caeii ia io?aia
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, Caeii i caueoa aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa,
I?aaeea io?aiu iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae io caa?yciaiey noi/iuie aiaeaie
ea?atho ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a naa?aaeaiee yeieiae/aneeo oeaiiinoae.
Iaeiaei a oeaeii yooaeoeaiinoue i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a no?aia,
ia? ii i?aaeioa?auaieth neo/aaa aunieiai eee aeaaea yeno?aiaeueii-
aunieiai caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ieacuaaaony i/aiue ieceie.

I?e?iaeiua yeinenoaiu iaeaaeatho oe?ieei niaeo?ii oece/aneeo,
oeie/aneeo e e aeieiae/aneeo iaoaieciia iaeo?aeecaoeee a?aaeiuo e
caa?yciythueo aauanoa. Iaeiaei i?e i?aauoaiee cia/aiee e?eoe/aneeo
iinooieaiee oaeeo aauanoa, aiciiaeii ianooieaiea aeaa?aaeaoeeiiiuo
yaeaiee – ineaaeaiea auaeeaaaiinoe, nieaeaiea ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee, oiaiueoaiea eioaineaiinoe ?inoa, aeaeaaoaeueiie
aeoeaiinoe iniaae. A oneiaeyo aeeaie i?e?iaeu, iinoiyiiie ai?ueau ca
?ano?nu oaeay iioa?y aeecianoieeinoe i?aaieciia a?iceo iioa?ae
ineaaeaiiie iiioeyoeee, ca eioi?ie iiaeao ?acaeoueny oeaiue iioa?ue
ae?oaeo acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iiioeyoeee. E?eoe/aneea ia?aiao?u
iinooieaiey aauanoa a yeinenoaiu i?eiyoi ii?aaeaeyoue n iiiiuueth
iiiyoey yeieiae/aneeo aieinoae. Yeieiae/aneay aieinoue yeinenoaiu –
iaeneiaeueiay aianoeiinoue eiee/anoaa caa?yciythueo aauanoa,
iinooiathueo a yeinenoaio ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
?ac?ooaia, o?ainoi?ie?iaaia e auaaaeaia ec i?aaeaeia yeinenoaiu eee
aeaiiie?iaaia ca n/ao ?acee/iuo i?ioeannia aac nouanoaaiiuo ia?ooaiee
aeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney a yeinenoaia. Oeie/iuie i?ioeannaie,
ii?aaeaeythueie eioaineaiinoue “ia?aiaeuaaiey” a?aaeiuo aauanoa,
yaeythony i?ioeannu ia?aiina, iee?iaeieiae/aneiai ieeneaiey e
aeinaaeeiaioaoeee caa?yciythueo aauanoa. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee yeieiae/aneie
aieinoe yeinenoai aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny eae ioaeaeueiua eaioea?iaaiiua e
iooaaaiiua yooaeou aicaeaenoaee ioaeaeueiuo caa?ycieoaeae, oae e eo
oneeeoaeueiua yooaeou ec-ca niaianoiiai, ni/aoaiiiai aeaenoaey.

Eaeie aea aeeaiacii eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa iaaeeaaeeo
eiio?iee?iaaoue? I?eaaaeai i?eia?u i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiuo
eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa, eioi?ua aoaeoo neoaeeoue i?eaioe?aie a
aiaeeca aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeeaoeeiiaeueiiai iiieoi?eiaa ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu. A iniiaiii ii?iaoeaiii aeieoiaioa ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe
– Ii?iao ?aaeeaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe (I?A-76/87) aeaiu cia/aiey
i?aaeaeueii-aeiionoeiuo eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa a aiaea e
aicaeooa aeey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ?aaioieeia e ia?aie/aiiie /anoe
ianaeaiey. Aeaiiua ii iaeioi?ui aaaeiui, aeieiae/anee aeoeaiui
?aaeeiioeeeaeai i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea.

Cia/aiey aeiionoeiuo eiioeaio?aoeee aeey
?aaeeiioeeeaeia.

PRIVATE Ioeeeae,

N Ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea,

O1/2 eao Auoiae i?e aeaeaiee o?aia,

% Aeiionoeiay eiioeaio?aoeey,

Ku/e

Aeiionoeiay eiioeaio?aoeey

a aicaeooa a aicaeooa a aicaeooa, Ae/i3 a aiaea, Ae/ea

O?eoee-3

(ieenue) 12,35 – 3*10-10 4*10-6 7,6*103 3*104

Oaea?iae-14 5730 – 1,2*10-10 8,2*10-7 2,4*102 2,2*103

AEaeaci-55 2,7 – 2,9*10-11 7,9*10-7 1,8*102 3,8*103

Eiaaeueo-60 5,27 – 3*10-13 3,5*10-8 1,4*101 3,7*102

E?eioii-85 10,3 0,293

3,5*102 2,2*103

No?iioeee-90 29,12 5,77 4*10-14 4*10-10 5,7 4,5*101

Eiae-129 1,57*10+7 – 2,7*10-14 1,9*10-10 3,7 1,1*101

Eiae-131 8,04 noo 3,1 1,5*10-13 1*10-9 1,8*101 5,7*101

Oeacee-135 2,6*10+6 6,4

1,9*102 6,3*102

Naeiaoe-210 22,3 – 2*10-15 7,7*10-11 1,5*10-1 1,8

?aaeee-226 1600 – 8,5*10-16 5,4*10-11 8,6*10-3 4,5

O?ai-238 4,47*10+9 – 2,2*10-15 5,9*10-10 2,8*101 7,3*10-1

Ieooiiee-239 2,4*10+4 – 3*10-17 2,2*10-9 9,1*10-3 5

Aeaeii, /oi ana aii?inu caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ninoaaeytho
aaeeiue iao/iue, i?aaiecaoeeiiii – oaoie/aneee eiiieaen, eioi?ue
neaaeoao iacuaaoue yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoueth. Neaaeoao
iiae/a?eeaaoue, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i caueoa yeinenoai e /aeiaaea, eae /anoe
yeinoa?u io aiaoieo oaoiiaaiiuo iianiinoae, o.a. /oi yeinenoaiu e ethaee
yaeythony noauaeoii caueou. Ii?aaeaeaieai yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe
iiaeao auoue ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi

yeieiae/aneay aaciianiinoue – iaiaoiaeeiay e aeinoaoi/iay caueuaiiinoue
yeinenoai e /aeiaaea io a?aaeiuo oaoiiaaiiuo aicaeaenoaee

Iau/ii auaeaeytho caueoo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu eae caueuaiiinoue
yeinenoai io aicaeaenoaee AN i?e eo ii?iaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee e
aaciianiinoue eae nenoaio caueoiuo ia? a neo/ayo aaa?ee ia ieo. Eae
aeaeii, i?e oaeii ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey “aaciianiinoue” e?oa aiciiaeiuo
aicaeaenoaee ?anoe?ai, aaaaeaiu ?aiee aeey iaiaoiaeeiie e aeinoaoi/iie
caueuaiiinoe, eioi?ua ?aca?aie/eaatho iaeanoe iacia/eiuo e cia/eiuo,
aeiionoeiuo e iaaeiionoeiuo aicaeaenoaee. Ioiaoei, /oi a iniiaa
ii?iaoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe (?A) eaaeeo eaeay
i oii, /oi neaaaeoei caaiii aeinoa?u yaeyaony /aeiaae, eioi?iai e ioaeii
caueuaoue anaie aiciiaeiuie niiniaaie. N/eoaaony, /oi anee /aeiaae
aoaeao aeieaeiui ia?acii caueuai io a?aaeiuo aicaeaenoaeeAN, oi e
ie?oaeathuay n?aaea oaeaea aoaeao caueuaia, iineieueeo
?aaeei?acenoaioiinoue yeaiaioia yeinenoai eae i?aaeei nouanoaaiii auoa
/aeiaaea.

ssnii, /oi yoi iieiaeaiea ia yaeyaony aaniethoii aannii?iui,
iineieueeo aeioeaiicu yeinenoai ia eiatho oaeeo aiciiaeiinoae, eaeea
anoue o ethaeae – aeinoaoi/ii auno?i e ?acoiii ?aaae?iaaoue ia
?aaeeaoeeiiiua iianiinoe. Iiyoiio aeey /aeiaaea a iuiaoieo oneiaeyo
iniiaiay caaea/a – naeaeaoue ana aiciiaeiia aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeieiae/aneeo nenoai e ia aeiioneaoue
ia?ooaiee yeieiae/aneiai aaeeaina.

6. Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ae. Ieeeoei, TH. Iiaeeia

“Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea e /aeiaae”, 1986 a.

2. TH.A. Ec?ayeue

“I?iaeaiu ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e i?eioeeiu
eiiieaeniiai iiieoi?eiaa”

Eaieia?aae, 1988 a.

3. A.A. Aaaeaa, TH.A. Aai?ia, N.A. Eacaeia

“Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu i?e yenieoaoaoeee AYN”,

Iineaa, Yia?aiaoiiecaeao, 1990 a.

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