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Влияние состава природных вод на здоровье

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

OTHIAINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE IAOOAAACIAUE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eniieieoaeue:

Canaeeia Ae.A.,

IIN-95-I

I?iaa?eea:

Eiayoeeia E.A.

Othiaiue -1999

Ieai:

Aiaeiay n?aaea.

Aiaeiue aaeain caiee.

Oeie/aneee ninoaa aiaeu.

Iauea naienoaa aiaeu.

Eiiiue ninoaa aiaeu.

Iiaecaiiua aiaeu.

Aeeyiea ninoaaa aiae ia caei?iauea /aeiaaea.

5.1.Iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee.

5.2.Naycue caa?yciaiiie aiaeu a ia?aceoa?iie e eioaeoeeiiiie
caaieaaaaiinoueth ianaeaiey.

5.3.Aeeyiea eiiiiiaioia oeie/aneiai ninoaaa ieoueaaie aiaeu ia
caei?iauea ianaeaiey.

5.4.Iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey ?eneia ieoueaaiai
aiaeiiieueciaaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

AIAeIAss N?AAeA.

Aiaeiay n?aaea aeeth/aao iiaa?oiinoiua e iiaecaiiua aiaeu.
Iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu a iniiaiii nin?aaeioi/aiu a ieaaia, niaea?aeaieai 1
ie?ae. 375 iei. eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia–ieiei 98% anae aiaeu ia Caiea.
Iiaa?oiinoue ieaaia (aeaaoi?ey) ninoaaeyao 361 iei. eaaae?aoiuo
eeeiiao?ia. Iia i?eia?ii a 2,4 ?aca aieueoa ieiuaaee nooe oa??eoi?ee,
caieiathuae 149 iei. eaaae?aoiuo eeeiiao?ia (ni.ea?oo). Aiaea a ieaaia
nieaiay, i?e/ai aieueoay aa /anoue (aieaa 1 ie?ae. eoae/aneeo
eeeiiao?ia) nio?aiyao iinoiyiioth nieaiinoue ieiei 3,5% e oaiia?aoo?o,
i?eia?ii ?aaioth 3,7oN. Caiaoiua ?acee/ey a nieaiinoe e oaiia?aoo?a
iaaethaeathony ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii a iiaa?oiinoiii neia aiaeu, a
oaeaea a ie?aeiiuo e iniaaiii a n?aaeecaiiuo ii?yo. Niaea?aeaiea
?anoai?aiiiai eenei?iaea a aiaea nouanoaaiii oiaiueoaaony ia aeoaeia
50-60 iao?ia.

Iiaecaiiua aiaeu auaatho nieaiuie, nieiiiaaouie (iaiueoae nieaiinoe) e
i?aniuie; nouanoaothuea aaioa?iaeueiua aiaeu eiatho iiauoaiioth
oaiia?aoo?o(aieaa 30`N). Aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaa/anoaa e aai oicyenoaaiii-auoiauo ioaeae o?aaoaony i?aniay aiaea,
eiee/anoai eioi?ie ninoaaeyao anaai eeoue 2,7% iauaai iauaia aiaeu ia
Caiea, i?e/ai i/aiue iaeay aa aeiey (anaai 0,36%) eiaaony a
eaaeiaeinooiiuo aeey aeiau/e ianoao. Aieueoay /anoue i?aniie aiaeu
niaea?aeeony a niaaao e i?aniiaiaeiuo aenaa?aao, iaoiaeyueony a ?aeiiao
a iniiaiii THaeiiai iiey?iiai e?oaa. Aiaeiaie ie?iaie ?a/iie noie
i?aniie aiaeu ninoaaeyao 37,3 oun. eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia. E?iia oiai,
iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny /anoue iiaecaiiuo aiae, ?aaiay 13 oun.
eoae/aneei eeeiiao?ai. E niaeaeaieth, aieueoay /anoue ?a/iiai noiea a
?innee, ninoaaeythuay ieiei 5000 eoae/aneeo eeeiiao?ia, i?eoiaeeony ia
iaeiieiaei?iaeiua e iaeicanaeaiiua naaa?iua oa??eoi?ee. I?e ionoonoaee
i?aniie aiaeu eniieuecotho nieaioth iiaa?oiinoioth eee iiaecaiioth
aiaeo, i?iecaiaey aa ii?aniaiea eee aeia?oeeueo?aoeeth: i?iioneatho iiae
aieueoei ia?aiaaeii aeaaeaiee /a?ac iieeia?iua iaia?aiu n
iee?ineiie/aneeie ioaa?noeyie, caaea?aeeaathueie iieaeoeu niee (ni.
noaio).

Iaa yoe i?ioeanna aanueia yia?aiaiee, iiyoiio i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an
i?aaeeiaeaiea, ninoiyuaa a eniieueciaaiee a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea i?aniie
aiaeu i?aniiaiaeiuo aenaa?aia (eee eo /anoe), eioi?ua n yoie oeaeueth
aoene?otho ii aiaea e aa?aaai, ia eiathuei i?aniie aiaeu, aaea
i?aaiecotho eo oayiea. Ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui ?an/aoai ?ac?aaio/eeia yoiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, iieo/aiea i?aniie aiaeu aoaeao i?eia?ii aaeaia iaiaa
yia?aiaiee ii n?aaiaieth n ii?aniaieai e aeia?oeeueo?aoeeae. Aaaeiui
ianoiyoaeuenoaii, i?enouei aiaeiie n?aaea, yaeyaony oi, /oi /a?ac iaa a
iniiaiii ia?aaeathony eioaeoeeiiiua caaieaaaiey (i?eia?ii 80% anao
caaieaaaiee). Ai?i/ai, iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iai?eia? eieetho, aao?yiea,
ooaa?eoeac, ia?aaeathony e /a?ac aicaeooioth n?aaeo. N oeaeueth ai?ueau
n ?ani?ino?aiaieai caaieaaaiee /a?ac aiaeioth n?aaeo Anaie?iay
i?aaiecaoeey cae?aai io?aiaiey (AIC) iauyaeea oaeouaa aeanyoeeaoea
aeanyoeeaoeai ieoueaaie aiaeu.

Aiaeiue aaeain caiee.

*oiau i?aaenoaaeoue, neieueei aiaeu o/anoaoao a e?oaiai?ioa,
ioa?aeoa?ecoai ?acee/iua /anoe aeae?inoa?u. Aieaa 94% aa ninoaaeyao
Ie?iaie ieaai . Ae?oaay /anoue(4%)-iiaecaiiua aiaeu. I?e yoii neaaeoao
o/anoue ,/oi aieueoay eo /anoue ioiineony e aeoaeiiui ?annieai, a
i?aniua aiaeu ninoaaeytho 1/15 aeieth. Cia/eoaeai oaeaea iauai eueaea
iiey?iuo eaaeieeia: n ia?an/aoii ia aiaeo ii aeinoeaaao 24 iei. eoa.
ei., eee 1,6% iauaia aeae?inoa?u. Ica?iie aiaeu a 100 ?ac iaiueoa -230
oun. ei3 , a a ?oneao ?ae niaea?aeeony anaai eeoue 1200 ei3 aiaeu, eee
0,0001% anae aeae?inoa?u. Iaeiaei , ianiio?y ia iaeue iauai aiaeu, ?aee
ea?atho i/aiue aieueooth ?ieue: iie, eae e iiaecaiiua aiaeu,
oaeiaeaoai?ytho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey ,
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?ioaaiiai caieaaeaeey. Aiaeu ia Caiea aeiaieueii iiiai
. Aeae?inoa?a ninoaaeyao ieiei 1/4180 /anoe anae iannu iaoae ieaiaou.
Iaeiaei ia aeieth i?aniuo aiae, eneeth/ay aiaeo, neiaaiioth a iiey?iuo
eaaeieeao, i?eoiaeeony iaiiiaei aieaa 2 iei. ei3, eee oieueei 0,15%
anaai iauaia aeae?inoa?u.

Oeie/aneee ninoaa aiaeu.

Ia?iiiay ?ieue aiaeu a aeecie /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu iineoaeeea i?e/eiie
oiai, /oi iia auea iaeiei ec ia?auo niaaeeiaiee, i?eaeaeoeo aieiaiea
o/?iuo. Oai ia iaiaa eco/aiea aiaeu au? aeaeaei ia caeii/aii.

Iauea naienoaa aiaeu.

Aiaea a neeo iiioey?iinoe a? iieaeoe niinianoaoao ?aceiaeaieth
eiioaeoe?othueo n iae iieaeoe nieae ia eiiu, ii naia aiaea i?iyaeyao
aieueooth onoie/eainoue e a oeie/anee /enoie aiaea niaea?aeeony i/aiue
iaei eiiia

ii H+ e OH-.

Aiaea – eia?oiue ?anoai?eoaeue; oeie/anee ia eciaiyaony iiae aeaenoaeai
aieueoeinoaa oaoie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua iia ?anoai?yao. Yoi i/aiue
aaaeii aeey anao aeeauo i?aaieciia ia iaoae ieaiaoa, iineieueeo
iaiaoiaeeiua eo oeaiyi ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa iinooiatho a aiaeiuo
?anoai?ao a n?aaieoaeueii iaei eciaiaiiii aeaea. A i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo
aiaea anaaaea niaea?aeeo oi eee eiia eiee/anoai i?eianae,
acaeiiaeaenoaey ia oieueei n oaa?aeuie e aeeaeeeie aauanoaaie, ii
?anoai?yy oaeaea e aacu.

Aeaaea ec naaaeaauiaaoae aeiaeaeaaie aiaeu iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei
aeanyoeia ieeeea?aiiia ?acee/iuo ?anoai?aiiuo a iae aauanoa ia eaaeaeue
eeo? iauaia. Aaniethoii /enooth aiaeo ieeiaaea e ieeiio au? ia
oaeaaaeinue iieo/eoue ie a iaeiii ec a? aa?aaaoiuo ninoiyiee; oeie/anee
/enooth aiaeo, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eeoaiioth ?anoai?aiiuo aauanoa,
i?iecaiaeyo iooai aeeeoaeueiie e e?iiioeeaie i/enoee a eaai?aoi?eyo eee
ia niaoeeaeueiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo onoaiiaeao.

A i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo aiaea ia iiaeao nio?aieoue “oeie/aneoth /enoioo”.
iinoiyiii nii?eeanaynue ni anaaiciiaeiuie aauanoaaie, iia oaeoe/anee
anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?anoai? ?acee/iiai, ca/anooth i/aiue
neiaeiiai naienoaa. A i?aniie aiaea niaea?aeaiea ?anoai?aiiuo aauanoa
iau/ii i?aauoaao 1 a./e. Io ianeieueeeo aaeeieoe aei aeanyoeia a?aiiia
ia eeo? eieaaethony niaea?aeaiea nieae a ii?neie aiaea: iai?eia?, a
Aaeoeeneii ii?a eo anaai 5 a./e., a *??iii – 18, a a E?aniii ii?a –
aeaaea 41 a./e.

Nieaaie ninoaa ii?neie aiaeu a iniiaiii ia 89% neaaaaony ec oei?eaeia
(i?aeiouanoaaiii oei?eaea iao?ey, eaeey e eaeueoeey), 10% i?eoiaeeony ia
noeueoaou (iao?ey, eaeey, iaaiey) e 1% – ia ea?aiiaou (iao?ey,
eaeueoeey) e ae?oaea niee. I?aniua aiaeu niaea?aeao iau/ii aieueoa anaai
– aei 80% ea?aiiaoia (iao?ey e eaeueoeey), ieiei 13% noeueoaoia (iao?ey,
eaeey, iaaiey) e 7% oei?eaeia (iao?ey e eaeueoeey).

Aiaea oi?ioi ?anoai?yao aacu (iniaaiii i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao),
aeaaiui ia?acii eenei?iae, acio, aeeieneae oaea?iaea, na?iaiaei?iae.
Eiee/anoai eenei?iaea eiiaaea aeinoeaaao 6 ia./e. A ieia?aeueiuo aiaeao
oeia ia?cai iauaa niaea?aeaiea aacia iiaeao ninoaaeyoue aei 0,1%. A
i?e?iaeiie aiaea i?enoonoaotho aoioniaua aauanoaa – neiaeiua
i?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, ia?acothueany a ?acoeueoaoa iaiieiiai ?aniaaea
inoaoeia ?anoeoaeueiuo e aeeaioiuo oeaiae, a oaeaea niaaeeiaiey oeia
aaeeia, naoa?ia, nie?oia.

Aiaea iaeaaeaao eneeth/eoaeueii aunieie oaieiaieinoueth. Oaieiaieinoue
aiaeu i?eiyoa ca aaeeieoeo. Oaieiaieinoue ianea, iai?eia?, ninoaaeyao
0,2, a aeaeaca – eeoue 0,107 oaieiaieinoe aiaeu. Niiniaiinoue aiaeu
iaeaieeaaoue aieueoea caianu oaieiaie yia?aee iicaieyao naeaaeeaaoue
?aceea oaiia?aoo?iua eieaaaiey ia i?ea?aaeiuo o/anoeao Caiee a ?acee/iua
a?aiaia aiaea e a ?acee/ioth ii?o nooie: aiaea aunooiaao eae au
?aaoeyoi?ii oaiia?aoo?u ia anae iaoae ieaiaoa.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iniaia naienoai aiaeu – a? aunieia iiaa?oiinoiia
iaoyaeaiea – 72,7 y?a/ni2 (i?e 20i N). A yoii ioiioaiee ec anao aeaeia
aeeaeeinoae aiaea onooiaao oieueei ?oooe. Iiaeiaiia naienoai aiaeu ai
iiiaii iaoneiaeaii aiaei?iaeiuie naycyie iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iieaeoeaie
H2O. Iniaaiii iaaeyaeii i?iyaeyaony iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea a
i?eeeiaiee aiaeu ei iiiaei iiaa?oiinoyi – nia/eaaiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
aauanoaa – aeeia, ianie, noaeei, oeaie, aoiaaa e iiiaea ae?oaea, eaaei
nia/eaaaiua aiaeie, iai?aiaiii eiatho a naiai ninoaaa aoiiu eenei?iaea.
Oaeie oaeo ieacaeny eeth/aaui i?e iauyniaiee i?e?iaeu nia/eaaiey:
yia?aaoe/anee ia o?aaiiaaoaiiua iieaeoeu iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy aiaeu
iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue ia?aciaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua nayce n “/oaeeie”
aoiiaie eenei?iaea.

Nia/eaaiea e iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea eaaeao a ninoaaa yaeaiey,
iacaaiiiai eaieeey?iinoueth: a oceeo eaiaeao aiaea niiniaia
iiaeieiaoueny ia aunioo ai?acaei aieueooth, /ai oa, eioi?oth “
iicaieyao” neea oyaeanoe aeey noieaeea aeaiiiai na/aiey.

A eaieeey?ao aiaea iaeaaeaao ii?aceoaeueiuie naienoaaie. A.A.Aea?yaei
onoaiiaee, /oi a eaieeey?ao aiaea, neiiaeaine?iaaaoayny ec aiaeyiiai
ia?a, ia caia?caao i?e 00 e aeaaea i?e nieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u ia aeanyoee
a?aaeonia.

Iieaeoeu aiaeu ioee/athony aieueoie oa?ie/aneie onoie/eainoueth, i?e
aeano?oeoeee ii noaia: 2H2O ( 2H2 + O2 + 2 ( 245,6 Eaeae.

ia/eiaaony i?e oaiia?aoo?a auoa 10000N, e i?e 20000N ninoaaeyao eeoue
1,8%. I?e 50000N aiaeyiie ia? ni ac?uaii iaoeaei ?aceaaaaony ia
aiaei?iae e eenei?iae.

Aiaea ioiineony e neaaui yeaeo?ieeoai.

H2O ( H+ + OH-

Kaeenn=

= 1,8(10-16

[H+][OH-]

[H2O]

Aiaea aanueia ?aaeoeeiiii-niiniaiia aauanoai: iiaeao i?iyaeyoue eae
ieeneeoaeueiua, oae e ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua naienoaa. Oae, iiae aeaenoaeai
neeueiuo ainnoaiiaeoaeae aiaea i?iyaeyao ieeneeoaeueiua naienoaa: ia
oieiaea ieeneyao uaei/iua e uaei/iicaiaeueiua iaoaeeu, a i?e oaiia?aoo?a
iaeaeeaaiey – aeaeaci, oaea?iae e ae?.

2Na + 2H2O ( 2NaOH + H2(

3Fe + 4H2O ( Fe3O4 + 4H2(

Iiae aeaenoaeai neeueiuo ieeneeoaeae (ooi?, oei?, yeaeo?e/aneee oie)
aiaea i?iyaeyao ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua naienoaa. Oae, ?aaeoeeth
acaeiiaeaenoaey ni ooi?ii iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

2F2+2H2O ( 2H2F2+O2(

Nouanoaoao o?e oeia i?eniaaeeiaiey aiaeu e iieaeoeai ae?oaeo aauanoa:
ii eiiiiio, eii?aeeiaoiiio e aaeni?aoeeiiiiio oeio.

I?eniaaeeiaiea ii eiiiiio oeio i?ienoiaeeo e ieneaeai uaei/iuo,
uaei/iicaiaeueiuo e ?aaeeicaiaeueiuo iaoaeeia, a oaeaea e eeneioiui
ieneaeai:

CaO + H2O ( Ca (OH)2

P2O5 + 3H2O ( 2H3PO4

Aiaea, i?eniaaeeiyaiay ii eiiiiio oeio, iacuaaaony eiinoeoooeeiiiie.
Iia oaeaeyaony i?e iaa?aaaiee n aieueoei o?oaeii. Oae iouaieaiea io
aaeeiai iao?a ia/eiaaony i?e 1388oN :

2NaOH ( Na2O + H2O

E eiiai iaoaeeia – eiiieaeniia?aciaaoaeae i?eniaaeeiaiea eae?o ii
eii?aeeiaoiiio oeio :

[

]

CaCl2 + CH2O ( Ca(H2O)6 ( Cl2

Iieo/aiiua niaaeeiaiey iacuaathony aeaaeiiieaenaie, a aiaea, aioaaeoay
a eo ninoaa, – e?enoaeeecaoeeiiiie. E?enoaeeecaoeeiiiay aiaea
oaeaeyaony eaa/a, /ai eiinoeoooeeiiiay, iai?eia?, i?e auaao?eaaiee.

?acee/iua aauanoaa aaeni?ae?otho ia naiae iiaa?oiinoe iaeioi?ia
eiee/anoai aiaeu ca n/ao iaaeiieaeoey?iuo nee i?eoyaeaiey. Aiaea,
i?eniaaeeiaiiay ii aaeni?aoeeiiiiio oeio, iacuaaaony aea?ineiie/aneie;
iia oaeaeyaony eaa/a, /ai e?enoaeeecaoeeiiiay.

Eiiiue ninoaa i?e?iaeiuo aiae.

I?ienoiaeyuaa a ii/aao i?ioeannu ieeneaiey i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa
aucuaatho ?anoiae eenei?iaea e auaeaeaiea oaeaeeneiou, iiyoiio a aiaea
i?e oeeueo?aoeee a? /a?ac ii/ao aic?anoaao niaea?aeaiea oaeaeeneiou, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iaiaauaieth i?e?iaeiuo aiae ea?aiiaoaie eaeueoeey, iaaiey e
aeaeaca, n ia?aciaaieai ?anoai?eiuo a aiaea eeneuo nieae oeia:

CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 ( Ca(HCO3)2

Aeea?aiiaou i?enoonoaotho ii/oe ai anao aiaeao a oao eee eiuo
eiee/anoaao. Aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aiaeu
ea?atho iiaenoeeathuea ii/ao a?oiou, n eioi?uie aiaea anooiaao a
nii?eeiniiaaiea, oeeueo?oynue e ?anoai?yy iaeioi?ua ieia?aeu. Iniaaiii
eioaineaii iaiaauatho aiaeu inaaei/iua ii?iaeu, oaeea, eae ecaanoiyee,
aeieiieou, ia?aaee, aein, eaiaiiay nieue e ae?. A naith i/a?aaeue ii/aa
e ii?iaeu iaeaaeatho niiniaiinoueth aaeni?ae?iaaoue ec i?e?iaeiie aiaeu
iaeioi?ua eiiu ( iai?eia?, Ca2+ , Mg2+ ), caiauay eo yeaeaaeaioiui
eiee/anoai ae?oaeo eiiia ( Na+ , K+ ).

Iiaeii/aaiiuie aiaeaie eaa/a anaai ?anoai?ythony oei?eaeu e noeueoaou
iao?ey e iaaiey, oei?eae eaeueoeey. Neeeeaoiua e aethiineeeeaoiua
ii?iaeu (a?aieou, eaa?oeaaua ii?iaeu e o.ae.) ii/oe ia?anoai?eiu a aiaea
e niaea?aeauae oaeaeeneioo e i?aaie/aneea eeneiou.

,Na+ ,Mg2+ ,Ca2+ ,H+.

Eii oei?a i?enoonoaoao ii/oe ai anao i?e?iaeiuo aiaeiaiao, i?e/ai aai
niaea?aeaiea iaiyaony a i/aiue oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. Noeueoao – eii oaeaea
?ani?ino?aiai iianaianoii. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ?anoai?aiiuo a aiaea
noeueoaoia yaeyaony aein. A iiaecaiiuo aiaeao n niaea?aeaieai noeueoao –
eiia iau/ii auoa, /ai a aiaea ?ae e ica?. Ec eiiia uaei/iuo iaoaeeia a
i?e?iaeiuo aiaeiaiao a iaeaieueoeo eiee/anoaao iaoiaeeony eii iao?ey,
eioi?ue yaeyaony oa?aeoa?iui eiiii neeueiiieia?aeeciaaiiuo aiae ii?ae e
ieaaiia.

Eiiu eaeueoeey e iaaiey a iaeiieia?aeeciaaiiuo aiaeao caieiatho ia?aia
ianoi. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eiiia eaeueoeey yaeyaony ecaanoiyee, a

iaaiey – aeieiieou (MgCO3 ,CaCO3). Eo/oay ?anoai?eiinoue noeueoaoia e
ea?aiiaoia iaaiey iicaieyao i?enoonoaiaaoue eiiai iaaiey a i?e?iaeiuo
aiaeao a aieueoeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo, /ai eiiia eaeueoeey.

Eiiu aiaei?iaea a i?e?iaeiie aiaea iaoneiaeaiu aeennioeeaoeeae
oaieueiie eeneiou. Aieueoeinoai i?e?iaeiuo aiae eiatho pH a i?aaeaeao
6,5 – 8,5. Aeey iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae a nayce n iaiueoei niaea?aeaieai a
ieo oaeaeeneiou pH iau/ii auoa, /ai aeey iiaecaiiuo.

Niaaeeiaiey acioa a i?e?iaeiie aiaea i?aaenoaaeaiu eiiaie aiiiiey,
ieo?eoiuie, ieo?aoiuie eiiaie ca n/ao ?aceiaeaiey i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa
aeeaioiiai e ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Eiiu aiiiiey, e?iia oiai,
iiiaaeatho a aiaeiaiu ni noi/iuie i?iiuoeaiiuie aiaeaie.

Niaaeeiaiey aeaeaca i/aiue /anoi ano?a/athony a i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao,
i?e/ai ia?aoiae aeaeaca a ?anoai? iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iiae aeaenoaeai
eenei?iaea eee eeneio ( oaieueiie, i?aaie/aneeo(. Oae iai?eia?, i?e
ieeneaiee aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai a ii?iaeao ie?eoa iieo/aaony
na?iieeneia aeaeaci:

a i?e aeaenoaee oaieueiie eeneiou – ea?aiiao aeaeaca:

FeS2 + 2H2CO3 ( Fe2+ + 2HCO3 + H2S + S.

. *anoue e?aiiey iaoiaeeony a eieeieaeiii ninoiyiee, n /anoeoeaie
ninoaaa HSiO2(H2O , a oaeaea a aeaea iieee?aiiaeaie eeneiou:
X(SiO2(y(H2O. A i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao i?enoonoaotho oaeaea Al3+ ,Mn2+ e
ae?oaea eaoeiiu.

Iiieii aauanoa eiiiiai oaia i?e?iaeiua aiaeu niaea?aeao oaeaea aacu e
i?aaie/aneea e a?oaiaeenia?niua acaane. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie a
i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao aacaie yaeythony eenei?iae e oaeaeeneue aac.
Enoi/ieeii eenei?iaea yaeyaony aoiinoa?a, oaeaeeneiou – aeioeie/aneea
i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a aeoaeiiuo neiyo caiiie ei?u, oaeaeeneioa ec
aoiinoa?u.

Ec i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, iiiaaeathueo ecaia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue
aoieiiaua aauanoaa, auiuaaaiua aiaeie ec aoioniauo ii/a (oi?oyieeia,
nai?iiaeeoia e ae?.). Aieueoay /anoue ec ieo iaoiaeeony a eieeieaeiii
ninoiyiee. A naieo aiaeiaiao i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa iai?a?uaii iinooiatho
a aiaeo a ?acoeueoaoa ioie?aiey ?acee/iuo aiaeiuo i?aaieciia. I?e yoii
/anoue ec ieo inoaaony acaaoaiiie a aiaea, a ae?oaay iioneaaony ia aeii,
aaea i?ienoiaeeo eo ?aniaae.

A?oaiaeenia?niua i?eiane, iaoneaaeeaathuea iooiinoue i?e?iaeiuo aiae,
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aauanoaa ieia?aeueiiai e i?aaie/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, niuaaaiua n aa?oiaai iie?iaa caiee aeiaeaeyie eee
oaeuie aiaeaie ai a?aiy aanaiieo iaaiaeeia.

Iiaecaiiua aiaeu.

Niaaoneee o/aiue Eaaaaeaa ia iniiaa iiiai/eneaiiuo yenia?eiaioia
?ac?aaioae eeanneoeeaoeeth aeaeia aiaeu a ii/aao e a?oioao.
I?aaenoaaeaiey A.O.Eaaaaeaaa, iieo/eaoea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a aieaa
iicaeieo enneaaeiaaieyo, iicaieeee auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea aeaeu aiaeu a
ai?iuo ii?iaeao: a oi?ia ia?a, naycaiioth, naiaiaeioth, a oaa?aeii
ninoiyiee.

Ia?i-ia?aciaaiiay aiaea caieiaao a ii?iaea ii?u, ia caiieiaiiua
aeeaeeie aiaeie, e ia?aiauaaony ca n/ao ?acee/iie aaee/eiu oi?oainoe
ia?a eee iioieii aicaeooa. Eiiaeaine?oynue ia /anoeoeao ii?iaeu,
aiaeyiua ia?u ia?aoiaeyo a ae?oaea aeaeu aeaae.

?acee/atho ianeieueei aeaeia naycaiiie aiaeu. Ni?ae?iaaiiay aiaea
oaea?aeeaaaony /anoeoeaie ii?iaeu iiae aeeyieai nee, aicieeathueo i?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee iieaeoe aiaeu n iiaa?oiinoueth yoeo /anoeoe e n
iaiaiiuie eaoeiiaie. Ni?ae?iaaiioth aiaeo ?acaeaeytho ia
i?i/iinaycaiioth e ?uoeinaycaiioth. Anee aeaaeioth aeeio iiaeaa?aaoue
aeaaeaieth, oi aeaaea iiae aeaaeaieai a ianeieueei ouny/ aoiinoa? /anoue
aiaeu iaaiciiaeii oaeaeeoue ec aeeiu. Yoi i?i/iinaycaiiay aiaea. Iieiia
oaeaeaiea oaeie aiaeu aeinoeaaaony eeoue i?e oaiia?aoo?a 150 – 300iN.
*ai iaiueoa ieia?aeueiua /anoeoeu, neaaathuea ii?iaeo, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, auoa eo iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey, oai aieueoaa eiee/anoai
i?i/iinaycaiiie aiaeu a yoie ii?iaea. ?uoeinaycaiiay, eee ieaii/iay,
aiaea ia?acoao ie?ieo aie?oa ieia?aeueiuo /anoeoe. Iia oaea?aeeaaaony
neaaaa e aeiaieueii eaaei oaeaeyaony ec ii?iaeu iiae aeaaeaieai.
Iniaaiii aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao ni?ae?iaaiiay aiaea a aeeienouo ii?iaeao.
Iia aeeyao ia i?i/iinoiua naienoaa aeei e oeeueo?aoeeiiioth
niiniaiinoue.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, naycaiiay aiaea o/anoaoao a no?iaiee
e?enoaeee/aneeo ?ao?oie iaeioi?uo ieia?aeia. E?enoaeeecaoeeiiiay aiaea
aoiaeeo a ninoaa e?enoaeee/aneie ?ao?oee. Aein, iai?eia? niaea?aeeo aeaa
iieaeoeu aiaeu CaSO4(2H2O. I?e iaa?aaaiee aein oa?yao aiaeo e
i?aa?auaaony a aiaeae?eo (CaSO4).

Ecaanoii, /oi i?e oaiia?aoo?a ieiei 4iN aiaea eiaao iaeneiaeueioth
ieioiinoue 1,000 a/ni3. I?e 100iN a? ieioiinoue – 0,958 a/ni3, i?e 250iN

0,799 a/ni3. Ca n/ao iiieaeaiiie ieioiinoe i?ienoiaeeo eiiaaeoeaiia,
ainoiaeyuaa aeaeaeaiea iaa?aouo iiaecaiiuo aiae.

I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi aiaea i?aeoe/anee ianaeeiaaia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
eiyooeoeeaio naeeiaaiinoe aiaeu, iieacuaathuee, ia eaeoth aeieth
ia?aiia/aeueiiai iauaia oiaiueoeony iau?i aiaeu i?e oaaee/aiee aeaaeaiey
ia I ao, i/aiue iae. Aeey /enoie aiaeu ii ?aaai 5(10-5 I/ao. Iaeiaei
oi?oaea naienoaa aiaeu, a oaeaea aiaeiaiauathueo ii?iae ea?atho
aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a iiaecaiiie aeae?iaeeiaieea. Ca n/ao nee oi?oainoe
nicaeaaony iaii? iiaecaiiuo aiae. Oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeaiea aeaenoaotho ia
ieioiinoue aiaeu a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

Ieioiinoue iiaecaiiuo aiae caaeneo oaeaea io eo oeie/aneiai ninoaaa e
eiioeaio?aoeee nieae. Anee i?aniua iiaecaiiua aiaeu eiatho ieioiinoue,
aeeceoth e

1 a/ni3, oi ieioiinoue eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?annieia aeinoeaaao 1,3 – 1,4
a/ni3. Iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u i?eaiaeeo e cia/eoaeueiiio oiaiueoaieth
ayceinoe iiaecaiiuo aiae e, oaeei ia?acii, iaeaa/aao eo aeaeaeaiea /a?ac
iaeue/aeoea ii?u.

Iiaecaiiua aiaeu eneeth/eoaeueii ?aciiia?aciu ii naiaio oeie/aneiio
ninoaao. Aunieiai?iua enoi/ieee iau/ii aeatho i/aiue i?anioth aiaeo n
ieceei niaea?aeaieai ?anoai?aiiuo nieae, eiiaaea iaiaa 0,1 a. a 1 e., a
a iaeiie ec neaaaeei a Oo?eiaienoaia aue ?annie n ieia?aeecaoeeae 547
a/e.

Aeeyiea ninoaaa aiaeu ia caei?iauea.

Caei?iauea ianaeaiey iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa
i?e?iaeiuo aiae a enoi/ieeao, ec eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony ?aaoey?iia
aiaeiniaaaeaiea aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Aaeaaeiaaii oiio?aaeyaiua eaaeaeui /aeiaaeii 1,5-2,5 eeo?a aiaeu ia
aeieaeiu, a eaeaaea, niaea?aeaoue ieeaeeo a?aaeiuo i?eianae, a?aaeii
aicaeaenoaothueo ia caei?iauea /aeiaaea. A oi aea a?aiy, i?e?iaeiua
aiaeu aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai iee?iyeaiaioia,
o/anoaothueo a iaiaiiuo i?ioeannao /aeiaaea. Oae, iai?eia?, iiieaeaiiia
niaea?aeaiea ooi?a a ieoueaaie aiaea niinianoaoao ?ac?ooaieth coaiie
yiaee e ?acaeoeth noiiaoieiae/aneie iaoieiaee. Iaaeinoaoie eiaea, /oi
oa?aeoa?ii aeey iaoaai yiaeaie/iiai a yoii ieaia ?aaeiia, aucuaaao
caaieaaaiey ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu.

Aaeoa?eaeueiia caa?yciaiea i?e?iaeiuo aiae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iianiinoue aicieeiiaaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioaeoeeiiiuo caaieaaaiee,
aeeth/ay iniai iianiua eioaeoeee.

Niaea?aeaiea a i?e?iaeiuo aiaeao nieae oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, inoaoeia
iaooai?iaeoeoia e i?i/eo a?aaeiuo i?eianae iiaeao aucuaaoue
iieieiae/aneoth iaoieiaeth e iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo iianiuo aieaciae.
Iaeaieaa iiaeaa?aeaii ianaeaiea ii/a/ii-eaiaiiie aieacie,
i?aaeii?aaeaeyaiie ninoaaii oiio?aaeyaiie aiaeu.

Iaoiaeu i/enoee aiaeu a iaoai ?aaeiia, e niaeaeaieth, iiea ia
niaa?oaiiu. Nouanoaoao iaaeaaeaea ia iniciaiea yoie i?iaeaiu aeanoiuie
no?oeoo?aie e eiaanoi?aie, /oi iicaieeo inouanoaeoue no?ieoaeuenoai a
Othiaie noaioeee ii iciiaoeee aiaeu, /oi yaeyaony, ia naaiaeiyoiee
aeaiue, nia?aiaiiui e i?ia?anneaiui iaoiaeii ii n?aaiaieth n
i?eiaiyaiuie o ian a ai?iaea.

Iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee.

Iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee yaeyaony ia/aeueiui
yoaiii oi?ie?iaaiey e ioeaiee aeiioac i oaeoi?ao ?enea caaieaaaaiinoe
oaie aieaciyie, i?e?iaea eioi?uo iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aia.

Aeaiiua ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeee e ?acoeueoaou niaoeeaeueiuo
yieaeaieieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia oooaeoaiee ca
iineaaeiea 5-7 eao iieacaoaeae caei?iauey ianaeaiey ?innee.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho yeieiae/anee iaoneiaeaiiua i?e/eiu
oooaeoaiey caei?iauey ianaeaiey e, a /anoiinoe, aucaaiiua caa?yciaieai
aiaeiuo iauaeoia.

Ana yoi ii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeieiaee
aeeyiey aiaeiiai oaeoi?a ia caei?iauea ianaeaiey. Iineieueeo
aiaeiiio?aaeaiea e aiaeiioaaaeaiea inouanoaeyaony a a?aieoeao aannaeiia
?ae. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiatho aii?inu niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia
?aeiie?iaaiey oa??eoi?ee yoeo aannaeiia ii aeaiia?aoe/aneei iieacaoaeyi
e iieacaoaeyi eoaeoeeiiiie, ia?aceoa?iie e iaeioaeoeeiiiie
caaieaaaaiinoe ianaeaiey, naycaiiui n i?e?iaeiui ninoaaii, aeieiae/aneei
e oeie/aneei caa?yciaieai aiae.

?aeiie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee i?aaeoniao?eaaao aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth eo ia aieaa
iaeeea o/anoee – oaeniiu n iaeeiaeiauie naienoaaie eee i?eciaeaie.

I?e ?aeiie?iaaiee aannaeia ?ae ii iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneei iieacaoaeyi
(i?e?iaeiiio ninoaao, aeieiae/aneiio e oeie/aneiio caa?yciaieth aiae)
iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee noaoenoeee caei?iauey
ianaeaiey.

E?eoa?eaeueiinoue aeaiia?aoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae e iieacaoaeae
caaieaaaaiinoe, naycaiiuo n caa?yciaieai aiae, ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii
aa aeieiae/aneeo yooaeoia, o?iaiai e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth
aicaeaenoaey. Oa?aeoa? aeieiae/aneeo yooaeoia iiaeao i?iyaeyoueny a
aeaea niaoeeoe/aneeo e ianiaoeeoe/aneeo ioaaoiuo ?aaeoeee i?aaiecia. I?e
yoii oaeoi?u caa?yciaiey aiae, aicaeaenoaothuea ia i?aaieci,
iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa a?oiiu. A ia?aoth a?oiio aoiaeyo oaeoi?u,
eioi?ua iiaoo aucaaoue niaoeeoe/aneea ioaaoiua ?aaeoeee:
i?aaiieaioe/aneea, ?acae?aaeaiey neecenouo iaiei/ae, ino?ua e
o?iie/aneea io?aaeaiey, caaieaaaiey ?acee/iuo nenoai i?aaiecia,
aaiaoe/aneea ioeeiiaiey, ii?iee ?acaeoey, iiaiia?aciaaiey,
niaoeeoe/aneea eioaeoeeiiiua, ia?aceoa?iua e i?e?iaeii-i/aaiaua
caaieaaaiey. Ei aoi?ie a?oiia ioiinyo oaeoi?u, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e
nieaeaieth eiioiiaeieiae/aneie ?aaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecia, eciaiytho
aeioeie/aneee e oeceieiae/aneee iieacaoaeue, niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth oie
eee eiie iaoieiaee.

Naycue caa?yciaiiie aiaeu n ia?aceoa?iie e eioaeoeeiiiie

caaieaaaaiinoueth ianaeaiey.

Ec noiiu i?aaenoaaeaiee i iaoiaaiaoe/aneie cia/eiinoe caa?yciaiee aiaeu
neaaeoao auaeaeeoue aeieacaiiua aaconeiaiua i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce
?yaea iicieiae/aneeo oi?i eioaeoeeiiiie eeoa/iie iaoieiaee e iaeioi?uo
ia?aceoicia n aeieiae/aneei caa?yciaieai aiae.

N aiaeiui oaeoi?ii naycaiu iiiaea eeoa/iua eioaeoeee, eioi?ua ioiinyo e
a?oiia eioaeoeeiiiuo aieaciae, aucuaaaiuo iaoiaaiiuie iee?ii?aaieciaie,
oa?aeoa?ecothueany «ca?aceoaeueiinoueth» e, eae i?aaeei, ino?ui
oa/aieai. E eeoa/iui eioaeoeeyi, aicaoaeeoaee eioi?uo ia?aaeathony /a?ac
aiaeo, ioiinyo: a?thoiie oeo, ia?aoeou, aeecaioa?eth, oiea?o,
naeueiiiaeeac, ae?oniue aaiaoeo e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea, ?aaea
ano?a/athueany caaieaaaiey.

Caa?yciaiea aiaeiaiia eioeoee?iaaiiuie auoiauie noi/iuie aiaeaie
yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiiie i?e/eiie iiiaeo aniuoae eioaeoeee. Aiciiaeiinoue
aiaeiiai iooe ?ani?ino?aiaiey yoeo eioaeoeee nae/an aiieia aeieacaia.

N aeae?iyeieiae/aneei oaeoi?ii oaeaea oanii naycaiu iiiaea ia?aceoicu,
aucuaaaiua iaoiaaiiuie eeoa/iuie i?inoaeoeie ( eyiaeeic, aiaaeac e
ae?.); i?inoaeoeie ia?aceoaie e?iae (iaey?ey); aaeueieioaie (iienoi?oic,
aeeoeeeiaio?eic e ae?.).

Naiay oaniay naycue iiiaeo ia?aceoicia n aeae?iyeieiae/aneei oaeoi?ii
ii?aaeaeyaony aua e oai, /oi aeeciaiiua oeeeeu eo aicaoaeeoaeae
i?ioaeatho n iaycaoaeueiui o/anoeai ?acee/iuo aeeaioiuo, auiieiythueo
?ieue i?iiaaeooi/iuo oicyaa e ia?aiin/eeia ia?aceoia (?ua, iieethneia,
?aeiia?aciuo, eiia?ia e o.ae.), yaeythueony ianniauie aiaeiuie
i?aaieciaie. Noaaeee ?acaeoey aicaoaeeoaeae, iiiaaeathueo ai aiaoithth
n?aaeo, a naith i/a?aaeue, oaniaeoei ia?acii naycaiu n
aeae?iyeieiae/aneei oaeoi?ii.

N?aaee ia?aceoa?iuo aieaciae iniaaiiia ianoi caieiaao eyiaeeic –
caaieaaaiea, aucuaaaiia aicaoaeeoaeai oeia i?inoaeoeo, niiniaiui
aucaaoue o /aeiaaea ii?aaeaiea eeoa/ieea e ia/aie. Nia?aiaiiua
yieaeaieieiae/aneea aeaiiua ioiinyo ieoueaaoth aiaeo e iniiaiiio iooe
ia?aaea/e aicaoaeeoaey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeia iio?aaiinoue iaoaai ianaeaiey a
/enoie, i?ic?a/iie, aac oeaaoa, aeona e caiaoa, ieoueaaie aiaea. Yoi
iicaieeo nio?aieoue caei?iauea ieeeeiiia ethaeae, aeano yeiiiieth
ia?iiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iioaioeeaeueii i?aaenoieo
cao?aoeoue ia ieacaiea iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue i?e caaieaaaieyo,
aicieeathueo iiae aicaeaenoaeai oiio?aaeaiey iaea/anoaaiiie aiaeu.

EEOA?AOO?A:

1. “Ninoaa, naienoaa e iaoiaeu i/enoee noi/iuo aiae i?aaei?eyoee ai?iie

i?iiuoeaiiinoe” A.O. Iaieia, I., «Yeieiaey»,1995 a., ?4.

2) E.O.Eea/ae, TH.A.Ai?iiia “Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”, N-Ia, 1996.

3) I.I.*a?iiaa,A.I.Aueiaa “Yeieiaey”, «Ciaiea», 1997 a..

4) AEo?iae “CIAIEA” (ia?iaeiue oieaa?neoao anoanoaaiiiiao/iue
oaeoeueoao), “Caiey ethaeae”, ?2, 1997 a.

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