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Умягчение воды

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20

Aaaaeaiea.

Ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa eiathony i?aaei?eyoey, aeey ?aaiou
eioi?uo o?aaoaony aiaea n iaeie aeanoeinoueth.

Ecaanoii, /oi aeanoeinoue aiaeu iaoneiaeaia iaee/eai a iae nieae
eaeueoeey e iaaiey. Eniieueciaaiea aeanoeie aiaeu i?eaiaeeo e
ia?aciaaieth iaeeie ia aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe eioeia e oaieiiaiaiiuo
aiia?aoia, /oi nieaeaao yooaeoeaiinoue eo ?aaiou.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo niiniaia oiya/aiey
aiaeu yaeyaony iaoiae eiiiiai iaiaia. Nieaeaiea aeanoeinoe aiaeu eiiiui
iaiaiii iniiaaii ia niiniaiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiuo eee iaeioi?uo
eneonnoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia (eaoeiieoia) eioi?ua eiatho a naiai ninoaaa
iaiaiiua eiiu Na+, I+. Niiniaiua iaiaieaaoueny ia eiiu Na2+, Ig2+.
?aaeoeey iaiaia:

2 Na [Eao.] + Ca (HCO3)2 Ca [Eao.] + 2 NaHCO3

2 H [Eao.] + MgCl2 Mg [Eao.]2 + 2 HCl

E eaoeiieoai ioiinyony aeaoeiieoiaue ianie, aoioniaua oaee,
noeueoioaieue, eneonnoaaiiua niieu (EO-1, EO-2).

A i?ioeanna oeeueo?aoeee aiaeu /a?ac eaoeiieoioth caa?oceo aa iaiaiiay
niiniaiinoue oiaiueoaaony, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ia?eiaee/anee
?aaaia?e?iaaoue (ainnoaiaaeeaaoue oeeueo?e?othuee iaoa?eae). ?aaeoeee
?aaaia?aoeee:

Ca [Eao.]2 + 2 NaCl 2 Na [Eao.] + CaCl2

Na – eaoeiieaeiua oeeueo?u ?aaaia?e?othony ?anoai?ii NaCl

Mg [Eao.]2 + H2SO4 = 2 H [Eao.] + MgSO4

I – eaoeiieaeiua oeeueo?u ?aaaia?e?othony ?anoai?ii na?iie eeneiou –
I2SO4.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiiuo oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia ono?aeaatho
niaoeeaeueiia nii?oaeaiea – noaioeeth oiya/aiey aiaeu.

Oeaeueth eo?niaiai i?iaeoa yaeyaony ?an/ao iniiaiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey – I-Na- eaoeiieoiuo oeeueo?ia e aniiiiaaoaeueiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey – eeneioiia oicyenoai, nieaaia, aeaaacaoi? aeey oaeaeaiey
aacia – NI2.

1. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ia?aaioea enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo.

I?iaa?ea aeaiiuo oeie/aneiai aiaeeca aiaeu i?iecaiaeeony iooai
niiinoaaeaiey noiiu eaoeiiia: Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, E+ n noiiie aieiiia: Cl-,
SO4-2, INI3-:

(1). E = [Ca+2] + [Mg+2] + [Na+] + [K+] = 4.0 + 2.4 + 0.9 =
7.3 ia-yea/e

(2). A = [HCO3-] + [Cl-] + [SO4-2] = 5.1 + 0.7 + 1.5 = 7.3
ia-yea/e

Auaiae: Noiia eaoeiiia ?aaia noiia aieiiia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaiiua
oeie/aneiai aiaeeca aiaeu aa?iu.

1.1. Ii?aaeaeyaony iauay aeanoeinoue enoiaeiie aiaeu.

AEi = [Ca+2] + [Mg+2] = 4.0 + 2.4 = 6.4 ia-yea/e (3).

1.2. Ii?aaeaeyaony ea?aiiaoiay aeanoeinoue enoiaeiie aiaeu.

AEe = [HCO3-] = 5.1 ia-yea/e
(4).

1.3. Ii?aaeaeyaony uaei/iinoue enoiaeiie aiaeu.

Ui = AEe = 5.1 ia-yea/e
(5).

1.4. Ii?aaeaeyaony ia ea?aiiaoiay aeanoeinoue.

AEie = AEi – AEe = 6.4 – 5.1 = 1.3 ia-yea/e (6).

2. Auai? e iainiiaaiea i?eioeeieaeueiie noaiu oiya/aiey aiaeu.

Oiya/aiea aiaeu iaoiaeii eiiiiai iaiaia iiaeao inouanoaeyoue:
ia?aeeaeueiui eaoeiie?iaaieai, iineaaeiaaoaeueiui eaoeiie?iaaieai,
niaianoiui H-Na-eaoeiie?iaaieai.

Auai? noaiu oiya/aiey aiaeu inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaaiee niiinoaaeaiey
aeaiiuo oeie/aneiai aiaeeca enoiaeiie aiaeu.

Ia?aeeaeueiia H-Na-eaoeiie?iaaiea i?eiaiyaony i?e oneiaee:

AEe / AEi 0,5 5.1 / 6.4 = 0.79
0.5 +

AEie 3.5 ia-yea/e AEie = 1.3 3.5 ia-yea/e +

SO4-2 + Cl- 3 … 4 ia-yea/e 1.5 + 0.7 = 2.2 3 ia-yea/e +

Na+ + K+ 1 …2 ia-yea/e 0.9 2 ia-yea/e +

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia H-Na-eaoeiie?iaaiea i?eiaiyaony i?e oneiaee:

AEe / AEi 0.5 5.1 / 6.4 = 0.79
> 0.5 –

AEie 3.5 ia-yea/e AEie = 1.3 3,5 ia-yea/e –

SO4-2 + Cl- 3 … 4 ia-yea/e 1.5 + 0.7 = 2.2 3 ia-yea/e –

Na+ + K+ ia eeieoe?othony –

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?eieiaaony ia?aeeaeueiay noaia
H-Na-eaoeiie?iaaiey.

Oaoie/aneay noaia ia?aeeaeueiiai H-Na-eaoeiie?iaaiey:

3. ?an/ao iniiaiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey
noaioeee oiya/aiey aiaeu

E iniiaiiio oaoiieiae/aneiio iai?oaeiaaieth noaioeee oiya/aiey

Aiaeu I-Na-eaoeiieoiua oeeueo?u.

?an/ao aaaeaony ia iniiaaiee ii?iaoeaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

3.1. Ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaiea ?anoiaeia aiaeu iiaeaaaaiie ia
I-Na-eaoeiieoiua oeeueo?u.

I?e ia?aeeaeueiie noaia I-Na-eaoeiie?iaaiey ?an/ao aaaeaony niaeanii
[1,i?ee.7,i.25]:

Ii?aaeaeyaony ?anoiae aiaeu iiaeaaaaiie ia I-eaoeiieoiua oeeueo?u.

qHiie.= qiie.( Ui-Uo ) / ( A+Ui ) i3//an
(7)

aaea qiie.- iieaciay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue I-Na-eaoeiieoiuo oeeueo?ia,

qiie.= Qnoo. / 24=1100/24=45.8 i3//an,

Ui- uaei/iinoue enoiaeiie aiaeu,

Ui=5.1 a?-yea/i3,

Uo- uaei/iinoue oiya/aiiie aiaeu,

A- noiia eiioeaio?aoeee aieiiia,

A= 7.3 a?-yea/i3,

qHiie.= 45.8*( 5.1-0.35 ) / ( 7.3+5.1 ) = 17.5 i3//an

Ii?aaeaeyaony ?anoiae aiaeu ia Na-eaoeiieoiua oeeueo?u:

qNaiie.= qiie.- qHiie.
i3//an (8)

qNaiie.= 45.8 – 17.5 = 28.3 i3//an

3.2. Auae?aaony eaoeiieo aeey caa?ocee oeeueo?ia ii [6]:

I?eieiaaony noeueoaoaieue iaeeee 1 ni?oa n oaoie/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie:

Aiaoiee aeae eaoeiieoa – /a?iua ca?ia iai?aaeeueiie oi?iu.

Aeeaiao? ca?ai eaoeiieoa – 0.25…0.7 ii.

Iieiay iaiaiiay niiniaiinoue – Aiiei. = 570 yea/i3

3.3. Ii?aaeaeyaony iauai eaoeiieoa a I-Na-eaoeiieoiuo oeeueo?ao.

Iauai eaoeiieoa a I- eaoeiieoiuo oeeueo?ao, au/eneyaony

ii [1,i?ee.7,i.26]:

WH = 24*qHiie.(AEi+NNa)/(nHp*EH?aa.) i3
(9)

aaea NNa- eiioeaio?aoeey a enoiaeiie aiaea,

NNa=0.9 a?-yea/i3 ,

nHp- /enei ?aaaia?aoeee eaaeaeiai I-eaoeiieoiiai oeeueo?a a nooee,

i?eieiaaony ii [1,i?ee.7,i.14]: io 1…2.

nHp=2,

EH?aa.- ?aai/ay iaiaiiay aieinoue I-eaoeiieoa, au/eneyaony ii

Oi?ioea [1,i?ee.7,i.27]:

EH?aa.= i* Aiiei. – 0.5*qoae.*Ne a?-yea/i3
(10)

Aaea i- eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaaia?aoeee I-eaoeiieoiuo

oeeueo?ia, i?eieiaaony ii [1,i?ee.7,i.27,oaae.4]:

I?e oaeaeueiii ?anoiaea I2SO4 ia ?aaaia?aoeeth 100 a?./a?.-yea.

i=0.85,

qoae.- oaeaeueiue ?anoiae aiaeu ia ioiuaeo 1 i3 eaoeiieoa (aeey
noeueoi-

oaey i?eieiaaony 4 i3),

qoae.=4 i3,

Ne – iauaa niaea?aeaiea a aiaea eaoeiieaeia,

Ne =7.3 a?-yea/i3 ,

EH?aa.= 0.85*570 – 0.5*4*7.3 = 469.9
a?-yea/i3,

WH = 24*17.5(6.4+0.9)/(2*469.9) = 3.6 i3,

Iauai eaoeiieoa a Na-eaoeiieoiuo oeeueo?ao au/eneyaony ii

oi?ioea [1,i?ee.7,i.26]:

WNa = 24*qNaiie.(AEi* nNap)*ENa?aa. i3
(11)

Aaea nNap- /enei ?aaaia?aoeee eaaeaeiai Na-eao. oeeueo?a a
nooee

i?eieiaaony niaeanii [1,i?ee.7,i.14] io 1…3.

nNap=2,

ENa?aa.- ?aai/ay iaiaiiay aieinoue Na-eaoeiieo. oeeueo?a

au/eneyaony ii [1,i?ee.7,i.15]:

ENa?aa.= Na*Na*Aiiei. – 0.5*qoae.*AEi
a?-yea/i3 (12)

Aaea Na – eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaaia?aoeee Na-eaoeii.

oeeueo?ia i?eieiaaony i?e oaeaeueii ?anoiaea iiaa?aiiie niee

NaCl 100 a?./a?.-yea.
Na=0.62

Na- eiyoo. O/eouaathuee nieaeaiea iaiaiiie aieinoe,

i?eieiaaony [1,i?ee.7,i.15,oaae.2] ec niioiioaiey:

NNa / AEi= 0.1 Na= 0.83

ENa?aa.= 0.62*0.83*570 – 0.5*4*6.4 = 293.3-12.8 a?-yea/i3,

WNa = 24*28.3(6.4/2)*280.5=7.7 i3.

3.4. Ii?aaeaeyaony ieiuaaeue H-Na-eao. oeeueo?ia.

Ieiuaaeue I-eao. oeeueo?ia ii?aae. ii [1,i?ee.7,i.16]:

Fi = Wi/He, i2
(13)

aaea He- aunioa neiy eaoeiieoa a oeeueo?ao,

Ieiuaaeue Na-eao. oeeueo?ia ii?aaeaeyaony ii [1,i?ee.7,i.16]:

FNa = WNa/He, i2
(14)

Oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee H-Na-eao. oeeueo?ia i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea:

Aeeaiao?

Oeeueo?a,

Ii.Aunioa eaoe-

iieoa,

Ie, i.Iniiaiua ?acia?uAan,

o.No?ieoaeueiay

AunioaAeeaiao? i?iai-aeyuaai iao?oaeaI-eaoeiieoiua
oeeueo?u.70018003200401.770020003200402.1100020003600505.315002000395080
1020002500487012515Na-eaoeiieoiua
oeeueo?u.100020003597505150020003924801020002500487012515

Fi = Wi/He = 3.6/2 = 1.7 i2

Ieiuaaeue iaeiiai I-eaoeii. oeeueo?a:

fi = (d2)/4 = 0.785 i2 ,

Eiee/anoai ?aai/eo I-eaoeii. oeeueo?ia:

Fi/ fi = 1.7/0.785 = 2 oo.

I?eieiaaony 2 ?aai/eo I-eaoeiieae. oeeueo?a.

FNa = WNa/He = 7.7/2 = 3.85 i2

Ieiuaaeue iaeiiai Na-eaoeii. oeeueo?a:

fi = (d2)/4 = 1.76 i2

Eiee/anoai ?aai/eo Na-eaoeii. oeeueo?ia:

FNa/ f Na= 3.85/1.76 = 2 oo.

I?eieiaaony 2 ?aai/eo Na-eaoeiieae. oeeueo?a.

3.5. Ii?aaeaeyaony nei?inoue oeeueo?iaaiey aiaeu /a?ac

eaoeiieoiua oeeueo?u i?e ii?iaeueiii ?aaeeia

?aaiou (?aaioatho ana ?aai/ea oeeueo?u).

Aeey I-eaoeiieo. oeeueo?ia:

Vii?. = qHiie./( fi*ni) i//
(15)

Aaea fi- ieiuaaeue iaeiiai I- eao. oeeueo?a,

ni- eiee/anoai ?aai/eo I-eao. oeeueo?ia.

Vii?. = 17.5/(0.785*2) = 11 i//

Aeey Na-eaoeiieo. oeeueo?ia:

Vii?. = qNaiie./( fNa*nNa) i//
(16)

Vii?. = 28.3/(1.76*2) = 8 i//

Nei?inoue oeeueo?iaaiey aiaeu /a?ac eaoeiieo i?e ii?iaeueiii ?aaeeia,

ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue i?e iauae aeanoeinoe aiaeu aei 10 a?-yea/i3
(6.4),

nei?inoue ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 15 i// 22
i3

H = 1.6

4.3. Ono?ienoai aeey oaeaeaiey ec aiaeu oaeaeeneiou.

Aeey oaeaeaiey CO2 ec I-Na-eao. Aiaeu i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aeaaacaoi?

N ianaaeeie ec eieaoe ?aoaaa – eeneioioii?iuo ea?aie/aneeo

[1.i?ee.?7.,i.34]

4.3.1. Ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeaiea CO2 eee aeaoieene oaea?iaea a aiaea
iiaeaaaaiie ia aeaaacaoi?.

(CO2 )na. = (CO2 )i + 44*Ui , a/i3
(34)

aaea (CO2 )i- niaea?aeaiea CO2 a enoiaeiie aiaea.

(CO2 )i = (CO2 )**

(CO2 )*- niaea?aeaiea oaea?iaea a aiaea a caaeneiinoe io pH

?I = 6.8…7.5

(CO2 )* = 80 a/i3

= 0.5

(CO2 )i = 40 a/i3

(CO2 )na. = 40+44*5.1 = 264.4 a/i3

Ii iieo/aiiiio cia/aieth niaea?aeaiea CO2 a aiaea

Ii?aaeaeyaony aunioa neiy ianaaeee hi , i iaiaoiaeeiay aeey iiieaeaiey

Niaea?aeaiey CO2 a eaoeiie?iaaiiie aiaea [1.i?ee.?7.,i.34,oaae.5]

Aeey (CO2 )na. = 264.4 a/i3 hi =5.7

Ieaii/iue aeaaacaoi? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eieiiio caa?oaeaiioth

ianaaeeie ec ea?aie/aneeo eeneioioii?iuo eieaoe ?aoeaa,

ii eioi?ui aiaea noaeaao oiieie ieaieie, ia ano?a/o iioieo

aiaeu iioie aicaeooa iaaiaoaaiie aaioeeyoi?ii.

4.3.2. Ii?aaeaeyaony S iiia?a/iiai na/aiey aeaaacaoi?a.

ec oneiaey ieioiinoe i?ioaiey niaeanii

[1.i?ee.?7.,i.34,oaae.5].

Ieioiinoue i?ioaiey i?e ea?aie/aneie ianaaeea = 60 i3/a ia 1i2

Fg = qiie. / , i2,
(35)

qiie. – iieaciay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue H-Na-eao.o.

Fg = 45.8/60 = 0.76 i2

Ii?aaeaeyaony iauai neiy ianaaeee:

Vi = Fg * hi , i3
(36)

Vi = 0.76*5.7 = 4.3 i3

Ii?aae. Aeeaiao? aeaaacaoi?a:

D = (4* Fg )/ = 0.96 i
(37)

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ianaaeee eieaoe ?aoeaa:

?acia?u ye-oa ianaaeee: 25*25*4 ii

Eie-ai ye-ia a 1 i3 : 55 oun.

Oaeaeueiay iia-oue ianaaeee: 204 i2/i3

Aan ianaaeee: 532 ea

Aaioeeyoi? aeaaacaoi?a aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue iiaea/o aicaeooa ec
?an/aoa

15 i3 aicaeooa ia 1 i3 aiaeu ii [1.i?ee.?7.,i.34], oiaaea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aaioeeyoi?a ii?aaeaeyaony:

Qaaio. = qiie. * 15 , i3//an
(38)

Qaaio. = 45.8*15 = 687 i3//an

Iaii? aaioeeyoi?a ii?aaeaeyaony n o/aoii nii?ioeaeaiey a

ea?aie/aneie ianaaeea:

Si = 30 ii aiaeyiiai noieaa ia 1 i.

I?i/ea nii?ioeaeaiey i?eieiathony ii [1.i?ee.?7.,i.34]

Si? = 30…40 ii aiae. Noieaa.

Iaii?: Haaio. = Sian. * hi +
Si?i/ea (39)

Haaio. = 30*5.7 + 35 = 206 ii

5.0. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?anoiaeia aiaeu.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ?anoiaeia aiaeu neaaaaony ec iio?aaeaiey aiaeu ia

neaaeothuea i?ioeannu:

– ac?uoeaiea eao. o-?a ia?aae ?aaaia?aoeeae (Q1)

– i?eaioiaeaiea ?aaaia?aoe. ?-ia e-ou e niee (Q2)

– ioiuaea eaoeiieoa iinea ?aaaia?aoeee (Q3)

Ia ana oaoiieiae/. i?ioe. Eniieuecotho enoiaeioth iaoiya/aiioth aiaeo.

Qoao. = Q1 + Q2 + Q3, i3/noo
(40)

5.1. Ii?aaeaeyaony ?anoiae aiaeu ia ac?uoeaiea eaoeiieoa o.

ia?aae ?aaaia?aoeeae.

Q1 = (Wac?. * f * ni * n?i * nNa *npNa * tac?. * 60) /1000
(41)

Q1 = (4 * 1.76 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 25 * 60) / 1000 = 169
i3/noo

5.2. Ii?aaeaeyaony ?anoiae aiaeu ia i?eaioiaeaiea

?aaaia?aoeeiiiuo ?anoai?ia eeneiou e niee.

Q2 = q1% * ni * ni? + (q26% + q8%)*nNa * n?Na, i3/noo
(42)

q1% = 7.3 i3/noo

q26% = 0

q8% = (Win * 26%) / 8% * 1000 = 1.3
i3/noo

Q2 = 7.3 * 2 * 2 + (0 + 1.3) * 2 * 2 = 34.4
i3/noo

5.3. Ii?aaeaeyaony ?anoiae aiaeu ia ioiuaeo eaoeiieoa iinea
?aaaia?aoeee.

Q3 = Wioi. * f * He * ni * ni? * nNa * nNa?
i3/noo (43)

Wioi. – oae. ?anoiae ioiuai/iie aiaeu i?eiei. ii [1.i?ee.?7.,i.21]:

Wioi. = 5…6 i3 ia 1i3 eaoeiieoa.

Q3 = 5 * 1.76 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 = 281.6 i3/noo

Qoao. = Q1+Q2+Q3 = 485 i3/noo

6. ?an/ao aeeaiao?ia o?oaii?iaiaeia

noaioeee oiya/aiey aiaeu.

Ii?aaeaeaiey aeeaiao?ia o?oaii?iaiaeia aeea o?ainii?oe?iaee aiaeu,

?anoai?ia eeneiou e niee ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?iecaiaeeoue ec aaee/ei

niioaaonoaothueo ?anoiaeia e nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey aeeaeeinoe,

i?eieiaaony a i?aaeaeao 1…1,5 i/nae.

?an/ao aaaeaony n eniieueciaaieai eeoaaoo?u [4] e naiaeeony

a oaaeeoeo:

Iacia/aiea

O?oaii?iaiaeia?anoiae,

e/nNei?inoue,

i/nAeeaiao?,

iiIaoa?eae1. O?oaii?iaiae iiaea/e

enoiaeiie aiaeu ia

noaioeeth oiya/aiey.18.81.04150*oaoi2. O?oaii?iaiae iiaea/e e

ioaiaea aiaeu aeey

ac?uoeaiey.1.91.4450Iieeyoeeai3. O?oaii?iaiae iiaea/e e

ioaiaea 1% ?aaaia?aoe. ?-?a

na?iie eeneiou.0.341.0725Iieeyoeeai4. O?oaii?iaiae iiaea/e e

ioaiaea 8% ?aaaia?a-

oeeiiiiai ?-?a niee.0.061.1912Iieeyoeeai5. O?oaii?iaiae iiaea/e
100%

eeneiou.0.0020.476Noaeue6. O?oaii?iaiae ioaiaea

oiya/aiiie aiaeu.12.71125*oaoi

Aeey ia?aea/ee ?-ia eeneio e uaei/ae i?eiaiythony o?oau ec ia?aeaaathuae
noaee eee iieeyoeeaia .

Aeey ia?aea/ee eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ia eeneio e uaei/ae

(aieaa 80%) eniieuecothony o?oau ec oaea?iaeenoie noaee eee
ieanoianniaua.

Aeey ia?aea/ee aiaeu eniieuecothony o?oau /oaoiiua, anaanoi-oeaia-

ioiua e aeaeaciaaoiiiua.

7. Eiiiiiiaea iniiaiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iiiauaiee noaioeee oiya/aiey
aiaeu.

E iniiaiiio iiiauaieth noaioeee ioiineony aeaaiue cae

?aciauaiey H-Na-eao. o.

Cae eiaao aunioo ia 2-2.5 i auoa iieiie auniou oeeueo?ia.

A ieaia oeeueo?u ?aniieiaathony a 2 ?yaea.

?annoiyiea i/o oeeueo?aie ia

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