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Термальное загрязнение

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Iaeaaeaiea:

Eniieueciaaiea aiaeu ec anoanoaaiiuo

aiaei?iia a ea/anoaa ioeaaeeoaey_________________3 TOC \o
“1-3”

Iineaaenoaey oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey

anoanoaaiiuo aiaei?iia_________________________4

Oaoiieiae/aneea iooe ?aoaiey

i?iaeaiu ioeaaeaeaiey ia

yeaeo?inoaioeeyo_______________________________7

Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeoeaiinoue

i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee

ai ecaaaeaiea oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey_____________8

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u_____________13

Aiaea – aaaeiaeoee ieia?ae ia Caiea, eioi?ue iaeuecy caiaieoue
ieeaeei ae?oaei aauanoaii. Iia ninoaaeyao aieueooth /anoue ethauo
i?aaieciia, eae ?anoeoaeueiuo, oae e aeeaioiuo, a /anoiinoe, o /aeiaaea
ia a? aeieth i?eoiaeeony 60-80% iannu oaea. Aiaea yaeyaony n?aaeie
iaeoaiey iiiaeo i?aaieciia, ii?aaeaeyao eeeiao e eciaiaiea iiaiaeu,
niinianoaoao i/euaieth aoiinoa?u io a?aaeiuo aauanoa, ?anoai?yao,
auuaea/eaa-ao ai?iua ii?iaeu e ieia?aeu e o?ainii?oe?oao eo ec iaeieo
iano a ae?oaea e o.ae. Aeey /aeiaaea aiaea eiaao aaaeiia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiia cia/aiea: iia e o?ainii?oiue iooue, e enoi/iee
yia?aee, e nu?uea aeey iieo/aiey i?iaeoeoeee, e ioeaaeeoaeue
aeaeaaoaeae, e i/enoeoaeue e o.ae.

I?iaeaia nio?aiaiey ea/anoaa aiaeu yaeyaony ia aeaiiue iiiaio
naiie aeooaeueiie. Iaoea ecaanoii aieaa 2,5 oun. caa?ycieoaeae
i?e?iaeiuo aiae. Yoi iaaoaii aeeyao ia caei?iauea ianaeaiey e aaaeao e
aeaaee ?ua, aiaeiieaaathueo ioeoe e ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea e aeaaee
?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a aiaei?iia. I?e yoii ia oieueei yaeiaeoua oeie/aneea
e iaooyiua caa?yciaiey, ecauoie i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa,
iinooiathueo ni niuaii oaeia?aiee n iieae, iianiu aeey aiaeiuo
yeinenoai. I/aiue aaaeiui aniaeoii caa?yciaiey aiaeiiai aannaeia Caiee
yaeyaony oaieiaia caa?yciaiea, eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie na?in
iiaeia?aoie aiaeu n i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee
a ?aee e ica?a.

Eniieueciaaiea aiaeu ec anoanoaaiiuo aiaei?iia a ea/anoaa
ioeaaeeoaey.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiua i?iaeaiu oa?iaeueiiai caa?yciaiey naycaiu n
oaieiauie yeaeo?inoaioeeyie. Au?aaioea yeaeo?e/anoaa n iiiiuueth ia?a
iayooaeoeaia, iineieueeo a yoii neo/aa eniieuecoaony 37-39% yia?aee,
caeeth/?iiie a oaea, e 31% yaea?iie yia?aee. Ianiio?y ia ana
iaaeinoaoee, oaieiaua yeaeo?inoaioeee i?iaeieaeatho nouanoaiaaoue.

Aieueoay /anoue yia?aee oiieeaa, eioi?ay ia iiaeao auoue
i?aa?auaia a yeaeo?e/anoai, oa?yaony a aeaea oaiea. Iaeaieaa i?inoui
niiniaii ecaaaeaiey io yoiai oaiea yaeyaony aua?in aai a aoiinoa?o. Ii
aieaa yeiiiie/iue iooue ninoieo a eniieueciaaiee a ea-/anoaa ioeaaeeoaey
aiaeu n a? niiniaiinoueth aeeoioee?iaaoue ia?iiiia eiee/anoai oaiea n
iacia/eoaeueiui iiauoaieai nianoaaiiie oaiia?aoo?u, /oiau caoai iia
naia iinoaiaiii ioaeaaaea oaiei a aicaeoo.

Na?ue?ciie yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony oi, /oi iau/iui
niiniaii eniieueciaaiey aiaeu aeey iiaeiuaiey oaiea yaeyaony i?yiay
i?iea/ea i?aniie ica?iie eee ?a/iie aiaeu /a?ac ioeaaeeoaeue e caoai
aica?auaiea a? a anoanoaaiiua aiaei?iu aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
ioeaaeaeaiey. Aeey yeaeo?inoaioeee iiuiinoueth 1000 IAo o?aaoaony
ica?i ieiuaaeueth 810 aa, aeoaeiie ieiei 8,7 i.

Yeaeo?inoaioeee iiaoo iiauoaoue oaiia?aoo?o aiaeu ii n?aaiaieth
n ie?oaeathuae ia 5-15 N. Anee oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu a aiaei?ia
ninoaaeyao 16 N, oi oaiia?aoo?a io?aaioaiiie ia noaioeee aiaeu aoaeao
io 22 aei 28 N. A eaoiee ia?eiae iia iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 30-36
N.

Iineaaenoaey oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey anoanoaaiiuo aiaei?iia.

Iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u a aiaei?iao iaaoaii aee-yao ia aeeciue
aiaeiuo i?aaieciia. A oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiie yaiethoeee oieiaeiie?iaiua
iaeoaoaee aiaeiie n?aaeu i?eniiniaeeenue e ii?aaeae?iiiio eioa?aaeo
oaiia?aoo?. Aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea nouanoaoao oaiia?aoo?iue iioeioi ,
eioi?ue ia ii?aaeae?iiuo noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea iiaeao ianeieueei
eciaiyoueny. A ii?aaeae?iiuo i?aaeaeao yoe i?aaieciu niiniaiu
i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e aeecie i?e aieaa aunieeo eee aieaa ieceeo
oaiia?aoo?ao. Anee i?aaieci aeeaao a oneiaeyo naiuo aunieeo oaiia?aoo?
i?enouaai aio eioa?aaea, ii ianoieueei e iei i?eniinaaeeaaaony, /oi
aeaaeue aai iiaeao ianooiaoue i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ianeieueei aieaa aunieeo,
/ai aeey i?aaiecia, iinoiyiii aeeaouaai a oneiaeyo aieaa ieceeo
oaiia?aoo?. Aieueoay /anoue aiaeiuo i?aaieciia auno?aa
i?eniinaaeeaaaony e aeecie a aieaa o?ieie aiaea, iaaeaee a aieaa
oieiaeiie. Iaeiaei yoa niiniaiinoue e aaeaioaoeee ia eiaao aaniethoiuo
iaeneiaeueiuo eee ieieiaeueiuo i?aaeaeia e iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io
aeaea.

A anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo i?e iaaeeaiiuo iiauoaieyo eee iiieaeaieyo
oaiia?aoo? ?uau e ae?oaea aiaeiua i?aaieciu iinoaiaiii
i?eniinaaeeaathony e eciaiaieyi oaiia?aoo?u ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ii
anee a ?acoeueoaoa na?ina a ?aee e ic??a ai?y/eo noieia n i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee auno?i onoaiaaeeaaaony iiaue oaiia?aoo?iue ?aaeei, a?aiaie
aeey aeeeeiaoecaoeee ia oaaoaao, aeeaua i?aaieciu iieo/atho oaieiaie
oie e iiaeaatho.

Oaieiaie oie – yoi e?aeiee ?acoeueoao oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey.
?acoeueoaoii na?ina a aiaei?iu iaa?aouo noieia iiaoo auoue eiua, aieaa
eiaa?iua iineaaenoaey. Iaeiei ec ieo yaeyaony aeeyiea ia i?ioeannu
iaiaia aauanoa. Niaeanii caeiio Aai Oiooa, nei?inoue oeie/aneie
?aaeoeee oaeaaeaaaony n oaaee/aieai oaiia?aoo?u ia eaaeaeua 10 N.
Iineieueeo oaiia?aoo?a oaea oieiaeiie?iaiuo i?aaieciia ?aaoee?oaony
oaiia?aoo?ie ie?oaeathuae aiaeiie n?aaeu, iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu
oneeeaaao nei?inoue iaiaia aauanoa o ?ua e aiaeiuo aaniicaiii/iuo. A
naith i/a?aaeue yoi iiauoaao eo iio?aaiinoue a eenei?iaea. A oi aea
naiia a ?acoeueoaoa iiauoaiey oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu niaea?aeaiea a iae
eenei?iaea iaaeaao, oiaaea eae iio?aaiinoue a i?i aeeauo i?aaieciia
aic?anoaao. Aic?inoay iio?aaiinoue a eenei?iaea, aai iaoaaoea
aucuaatho aeanoieee oeceieiae/aneee no?ann e aeaaea nia?oue. A eaoiaa
a?aiy

iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu anaai ia ianeieueei a?aaeonia iiaeao
aucaaoue 100%-ioth aeaaeue ?ua e aaniicaiii/iuo , iniaaiii oao, eioi?ua
iaeoatho o thaeiuo a?aieoe oaiia?aoo?iiai eioa?aaea.

Eneonnoaaiiia iiaeia?aaaiea aiaeu iiaeao nouanoaaiii eciaieoue e
iiaaaeaiea ?ua – aucaaoue ianaiaa?aiaiiue ia?ano, ia?ooeoue iea?aoeeth .
Anee ?ac?ooathuay neea yeaeo?inoaioeee i?aauoaao niiniaiinoue aeaeia e
naiiainnoaiiaeaieth, iiioeyoeey i?eoiaeeo a oiaaeie.

Iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu niiniaii ia?ooeoue no?oeoo?o
?anoeoaeueiiai ie?a aiaei?iia. Oa?aeoa?iua aeey oieiaeiie aiaeu
aiaei?inee caiaiythony aieaa oaieiethaeauie e, iaeiiaoe, i?e aunieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao iieiinoueth eie auoaniythony.

Anee oaieiaia caa?yciaiea onoaoaeyaony iinooieaieai a aiaei?i
i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa (niua oaeia?aiee n iieae, iaaica n
oa?i, auoiauo noieia), i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann yao?ioeeaoeee, oi anoue
?aceiai iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aiaei?ia. Acio e oinoi?, neoaea
ieoaieai aeey aiaei?ineae, a oii /enea iee?ineiie/aneeo, iicaieyao
iineaaeiei ?acei oneeeoue naie ?ino. ?aciiiaeeaoenue, iie ia/eiatho
cae?uaaoue ae?oa ae?oao naao, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eae?o i?ioeann eo
ianniaiai ioie?aiey e aieaiey, nii?iaiaeaeathueeny onei?aiiui
iio?aaeaieai eenei?iaea, aieioue aei iieiiai aai en/a?iaiey. A a yoii
neo/aa, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, any yeinenoaia iiaeao iiaeaiooue.

E?iia eciaiaiey n?aaeu iaeoaiey aiaeiuo i?aaieciia yeaeo?inoaioeee
iiaoo ieacuaaoue ia ieo e oece/aneia aeeyiea. Nie?iay aiaea,
eniieuecothuayny aeey ioeaaeaeaiey, ieacuaaao neeueiia ei??ice?othuaa
aeeyiea ia iaoaeee/aneea iiaa?oiinoe e aucuaaao aunaiaiaeaeaiea eiiia
iaoaeeia, iniaaiii iaaee, a aiaeo. ?aeooa/iua aeeaioiua iaeaieeaatho
iaaeue a oaeeo eiee/anoaao, /oi noaiiayony iai?eaiaeiuie aeey
eniieueciaaiey eo /aeiaaeii.

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua auoa iineaaenoaey oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey aiaei?iia
iaiinyo ia?iiiue a?aae i?e?iaeiui yeinenoaiai e i?eaiaeyo e iaaoaiiio
eciaiaieth

n?aaeu iaeoaiey /aeiaaea. Oua?au, ia?aciaaaoeany a ?acoeueoaoa
oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey, iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia: – yeiiiie/aneea (iioa?e
aneaaenoaea nieaeaiey

i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aiaei?iia, cao?aou ia eeeaeaea-

oeeth iineaaenoaee io caa?yciaiey);

– nioeeaeueiua (ynoaoe/aneee oua?a io aeaa?aaeaoeee

eaiaeoaooia);

– yeieiae/aneea (iaia?aoeiua ?ac?ooaiey oie-

eaeueiuo yeinenoai, en/aciiaaiea aeaeia, aaiaoe-

/aneee oua?a).

Oaoiieiae/aneea iooe ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu ioeaaeaeaiey ia yeaeo?inoaioeeyo
.

Aianoi eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa ioeaaeeoaey aiaeu ec
anoanoaaiiuo aiaei?iia eiaeaia?aie ?ac?aaioai iaoiae, iicaieythuee
?aoeoue aeaiioth i?iaeaio aac a?aaea aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Yoi
iaoiae enia?eoaeueiuo eee ioeaaeeoaeueiuo aaoai. Aianoi nionea iaa?aoie
aiaeu a ?aeo yeaeo?inoaioeey ia?aea/eaaao yoo aiaeo a ieaeithth /anoue
90-150-iao?iaie ioeaaeeoaeueiie aaoie ni neioaiiuie noaieaie. Iaa?aoay
aiaea ec o?oa ?aca?ucaeaaaony ia aiaeioeiaeoaeue e ioeaaeaeaaony, noaeay
/a?ac ?yae ia?ai?iaeie e ieaiie. Oaiia?aoo?iua e aoiinoa?iua ?acee/ey,
nicaeaiiua iaa?aoie aiaeie, aucuaatho i?eoie aicaeooa, eioi?ue
ananuaaaony nieco, i?ioiaeeo iaaeaeo ieaieaie e ia?aai?iaeeaie e
auoiaeeo /a?ac aa?oiaa ioaa?noea aaoie. Aiaea neaieeaaaony a aannaeia
iiae aeieuai aaoie e aiiaue aica?auaaony a eiiaeainaoi?.
Iacia/eoaeueiay /anoue aiaeu , i?eia?ii 2,8-4,0 % , oa?yaony i?e
enia?aiee.

Ae?oaei oeiii ioeaaeeoaeueiie aaoie yaeyaony enia?ythuay
oee?eoeyoeeiiiay nooay eieiiia. A iae eniieuecothony
aicaeooii-ioeaaeeoaeueiua aaoa?ae, /a?ac eioi?ua i?e iiiiue anoanoaaiiie
oyae eee i?e iiiiue iaoaie/aneeo aaioeeyoi?ia, i?eaiaeeiuo a aeaenoaea
naiie noaioeeae, i?ioiaeyo aieueoea iau?iu aicaeooa. Iioa?e aiaeu ia
enia?aiea a ?aaioa oaeie eieiiiu ionoonoaotho.

I?e eniieueciaaiee ioeaaeeoaeueiuo aaoai iieiinoueth eneeth/aaony
oaieiaia caa?yciaiea n?aaeu, ii aeaiiia i?e?iaeiio?aiiia ia?ii?eyoea
o?aaoao ii?aaeae?iiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao.

Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeoeaiinoue

i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ai ecaaaeaiea

oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey.

Yooaeoii io aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a no?ieoaeuenoai ioeaaeeoaeueiuo
aaoai yaeyaony oiaiueoaiea ia iiaeaeathuaainy eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea
yeieiae/aneiai oua?aa, a oaeaea yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa io caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. I/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao iino?ieea
oaeeo nii?oaeaiee a oao ?aeiiao , aaea iuouaaony iaaeinoaoie aiaeu. A
iineaaeiaa a?a-iy eiee/anoai eniieuecoaiie aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai
ioeaaeaeaiey aiaeu cia/eoaeueii aic?inei e, anee ia aoaeoo aiaae?youeny
nouanoaothuea e ?ac?aaaouaaoueny iiaua iaoiaeu ioeaaeaeaiey,
aaeaaeiaaiay iio?aaiinoue yeaeo?inoaioeee a aiaea e 2000 a. ninoaaeo
4750 i .

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, a /anoiinoe,
iino?ieee ioeaaeeoaeueiuo aaoai ia yeaeo?inoaioeeyo iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
a aeaea ioiioaiey :

– oiaiueoaiea yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa a ?acoeueoaoa

nieaeaiey noaiaie caa?yciaiee

– i?eaaae?iiua aiaeiaua cao?aou ia inouanoaeaiea

i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee

Iiae noiia?iui oiaiueoaieai yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa a ?acoeueoaoa
nieaeaiey eee iieiiai ono?aiaiey oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey anoanoaaiiuo
aiaei?iia iiae?acoiaaaaony aeaiaaeiay ioeaiea oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
?uaiiai oicyenoaa, oiaiueoaiea cao?ao ia eeeaeaeaoeeth iineaaenoaee
caa?yciaiee, a /anoiinoe, ia i/enoeo aiaei?iia io ecauoi/iie e
ioie?athuae aeiiannu.

Oaeaea oiaiueoaieai yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa iiaeii auei au n/eoaoue
oiaiueoaiea noiiu oo?aoiuo naieoeee, iaeeaaeuaaaiuo ainoaea?noaii ia
i?aaei?eyoey, caa?yciythuea ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. Iaeiaei yoio aniaeo
i/aiue ?aaeei ea?aao ?aoathuoth ?ieue, iineieueeo, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
i?e?iaeiio?aiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia aeaiiue
iiiaio e yaeyaony aeiaieueii iaoe?iui e ?aciinoi?iiiei, ia i?aeoeea iii
aeaenoaoao iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii. I?e/ei yoiio iiiai, ii iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo yaeyaony ianiioaaonoaea oyaeanoe iaeacaiey oyaeanoe
i?anooieaiey , a /anoiinoe ieceea noaaee aceiaaiuo oo?aoia.

Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue e aiciauaiea iaian?iiiai oua?aa i?eiaiythony
i/aiue ?aaeei. Aea e iaaiciiaeii yoio oua?a iieiinoueth aicianoeoue, oae
eae /anoi ii aeinoeaaao ia?iiiuo ?acia?ia eee aiiaua ia iiaeaea?ony
aeaiaaeiiio ecia?aieth.

?anniio?ei ae?oaie aniaeo i?iaeaiu i?iaaaeaiey i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, oi anoue i?eaaae?iiua cao?aou ia eo inouanoaeaiea.

I?eaaae?iiua cao?aou neeaaeuaathony ec oaeoueo cao?ao ia
niaea?aeaiea i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey ( yeaeo?iyia?aey aeey
enia?ythueo eieiii, ca?aaioiay ieaoa ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea e
ae?oaea) e eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao ia no?ieoaeuenoai nii?oaeaiee e iieoieo
i?e?iaeiio?aiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Iaeiaei iineieueeo iai?oaeiaaiea e
nii?oaeaiey ooieoeeiie?otho ia iaeei aiae, oi e iauoth aaee/eio
eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao i?eaiaeyo e aiaeiaie ?acia?iinoe n iiiiuueth
ii?iaoeaiiai eiyooeoeeaioa yooaeoeaiinoe. Oi?ioea i?eaaae?iiuo cao?ao
auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

– oaeouea cao?aou

– eaieoaeueiua cao?aou

– ii?iaoeaiue eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe,

iau/ii ?aaai 0,12.

Iaeiaei oaeiai ?iaea ?an/aou aeiaieueii neiaeiu a /anoe ii?aaeaeaiey
oua?aa io caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e aaee/eiu a? i?aaeioa?auaiey.
Eae i?aaeei, iie eniieuecothony ia o?iaia ?aaeiiia eee io?aneae
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

I?e?iaeiio?aiiua ia?ii?eyoey, iai?aaeaiiua ia ono?aiaiea oaieiaiai
caa?yciaiey yeaeo?inoaioeeyie, o?aaotho aieueoeo n?aaenoa, iai?eia?,
anee ia yeaeo?inoaioeee onoaiaaeeaaaony enia?ythuay oee?eoeyoeeiiiay
nooay eieiiia, oi i?eaaae?iiua cao?aou ia a? no?ieoaeuenoai e
niaea?aeaiea aoaeoo ninoaaeyoue ieiei 30%

noieiinoe anaai iai?oaeiaaiey. Iniaaiiinoue i?iaeaiu caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi aanue yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen e, a /anoiinoe, oaieiaua
yeaeo?inoaioeee, aoiaeeo a ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? yeiiiieee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii,

n?aaenoaa ia i?e?iaeiio?aiioth aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeii iieo/eoue oieueei
ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee ioieoeeiaeueiiai athaeaeaoa. Ii, e
niaeaeaieth, cao?aou ia io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu noiyo a yoeo
athaeaeaoao ioithaeue ia ia?aie no?ieie.

A iaoae no?aia ia aeaiiue iiiaio ana cao?aou ia i?e?iaeiio?aiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ninoaaeytho iaiaa 1%

aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. A oi a?aiy, eae noiia oua?aa
niioaaonoaoao i?eaeeceoaeueii 8-9 % AII.

Iaaeaeo oai ia i?eaaae?iiii ieaea a?aoeea aeaeii, /oi aeey
aeinoeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai iioeioia (oi anoue iaeeo/oaai niioiioaiey
cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia) yoe noiiu aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu ae?oa ae?oao, a
aeey aeinoeaeaiey yeieiae/aneiai iioeioia, eiaaea o?iaaiue caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao IAeE (i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie
eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa, a a neo/aa oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey –
i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu, nioneaaiie a aiaei?i),
cao?aou aeieaeiu auoue oaeeie, /oiau oua?aa ia aicieeaei aiiaua.

Niioiioaiea yeieiae/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai iioeioiia aeiaeaiee
n?aaenoa a i?e?iaeiio?aiioth aeayoaeueiinoue.

cao?aou

3

2

1

0 IAeE 4 eiioeaio?aoeey caa?yciaiee

1 – e?eaay ?anoiaeia ia eeeaeaeaoeeth oua?aa io caa?yc-

iaiee

2 – e?eaay cao?ao ia i?e?iaeiio?aiioth aeayoaeueiinoue,

oi anoue ia i?aaeioa?auaiea oua?aa io caa?yciaiee

3 – noiia?iua cao?aou

IAeE – oi/ea yeieiae/aneiai iioeioia

4 – oi/ea yeiiiie/aneiai iioeioia – iaeiaiueoea noi-

ia?iua cao?aou

A eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie iauanoai ian?o cao?aou, neeaaeuaathueany
ec n?aaenoa, cao?a/aiiuo ia i?aaeioa?auaiea caa?yciaiey ( e aucuaaaiiai
ei oua?aa) e eeeaeaeaoeeth iineaaenoaee io oao caa?yciaiee, eioi?uo ia
oaeaeinue ecaaaeaoue. *ai aieueoa n?aaenoa aeeaaeuaaaony a
i?e?iaeiio?aiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ( e?eaay 2), oai iaiueoa eo
iiiaaeiaeony aeey eeeaeaeaoeee oua?aa io caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
( e?eaay 1 ), e iaiai?io. I?e yoii iauay noiia cao?ao aoaeao iaeiaiueoae
i?e oaeii o?iaia caa?yciaiey ( oi/ea 4 ), i?e eioi?ii ia?aua cao?aou
?aaiu aoi?ui.

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio a iaoae no?aia noiia oua?aa io oaieiaiai
caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia ii?yaeie auoa noiiu i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo
cao?ao. Ianiio?y ia neiaeiinoe ?an/aoia ii ii?aaeaeaieth aaee/eiu oua?aa
io caa?yciaiey anoanoaaiiuo aiaei?iia, iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue,
/oi aeey nieaeaiey yoiai oua?aa iaiaoiaeeii aeeaaeuaaoue ia 8-10
ie?ae. ?oa. ( a oeaiao 1990 a. ), a 100-300 ie?ae. ?oa. aaeaaiaeii,
/oi aeey iuiaoiae yeiiiieee yaeyaony neiaeiie caaea/ae.

Iniiaiui ioo?i i?eaeeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai iioeioia e
yeieiae/aneiio, /oi naeaeaao i?e?iaeiio?aiioth aeayoaeueiinoue aieaa
auaiaeiie, yaeyaony oiaiueoaiea ?anoiaeia ia aeiaaaeaiea aiaeu aei
ii?iaeueiie oaiia?aoo?u aac oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Iiii/ue a yoii aeieaeai iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann i?e
oneiaee aai yeieiaecaoeee, niinianoaothuae ?ac?aaioea iiauo oaoiieiaee
ioeaaeaeaiey eee aieaa aeaoaauo iaoiaeia e iai?oaeiaaiey ii ono?aiaiey
oaieiaiai caa?yciaiey.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Aeaieia O.A. Yeieiaey, i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea,

io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Iineaa, Aniaeo i?ann,

1995.

2. Nieo ?iaa?o E. Iao aeii ieaiaoa Caiey.

Iieaie/aneea i/a?ee ia yeieiaee /aeiaaea.

Iineaa, Iuneue, 1992.

3. Yia?aaoe/aneia i?iecaiaenoai n caieiooui

aiaeiiai?ioiui oeeeeii. Iineaa, IEOI, 1991.

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