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Строительство и наладка системы обеззараживания питьевой воды

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss AEAAeAIEss OI?AAEAIEss

eiaie NA?AI I?AeAEIIEEEAeCA

Eaoaae?a eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

E O ? N I A I E I ?
I A E O

ii eo?no : Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoaie

ia oaio: Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoii no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee nenoaiu
iaacca?aaeeaaiey ieoueaaie aiaeu ia ai?iaeneeo aiaeieaiaeao.

Auiieieea:

I?iaa?eea: O?ieiaa I.A.

Iineaa
1997 a.

N I Ae A ? AE A I E A

I Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea oe?iu eae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iu inouanoaeaiey
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

1.1 Yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?uii/iie
n?aaeu……………………….. 3

1.2 I?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea
oe?iu……………… 5

1.2.1 Aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe………………………………………………….
……… 5

1.2.2 Eiouanoai
oe?iu………………………………………………………….
.. 6

1.2.3 I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a
oe?iu…………………………………… 7

1.2.4 Aiaeec iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
iioaioeeaea
oe?iu………………………………………………………….
……………………. 9

1.3 Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ii
inouanoaeaieth eiiiaaoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia……………………………………………………….
…. 12

1.3.1 Aaeain
oe?iu………………………………………………………….
…….. 12

1.3.2 Iieacaoaee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe
oe?iu………………………………………………………….
12

1. 4 No?aoaaey oe?iu e aa ?aaeecaoeey a ioai?a
i?iaeoia………………..14

1.4.1 Ii?ooaeue i?iaeoia………
………………………………………………… 14

1.4.2 Auai?
i?iaeoa………………………………………………………..
………..16

II ?ac?aaioea aecian – ieaia i?iaeoa.

2.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeoa ( ?acthia
)……………………………………………… 25

2.2 Ioeaiea eiieo?aioeee e ?uieia
nauoa……………………………………….. 27

2.3 No?aoaaey
ia?eaoeiaa……………………………………………………..
………..28

2.4 Ieai no?ieoaeuenoaa e
yenieoaoaoeee………………………………………….30

2.5 I?aaiecaoeeiiii-th?eaee/aneee
ieai…………………………………………..31

2.6 Ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?enea e
no?aoiaaiea……………………………..33

2.7 Oeiaine?iaaiea e oeiainiaue ieai.
………………………………………34

Auaiae…………………………………………………………
……………………. 36

III Iino?iaiea e ?an/ao naoaaiai a?aoeea ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa 37

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u
………………………………………………………………
…… 39

I Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea oe?iu eae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iu
inouanoaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

1.1 Yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?uii/iie n?aaeu.

N?aaee iiiaeo io?aneae nia?aiaiiie oaoieee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiauoaiea
o?iaiy aeecie ethaeae, aeaaiono?ienoaa ianaeaiiuo iano e ?acaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aiaeiniaaaeaiea caieiaao aieueoia e ii/aoiia ianoi.

I?iaeaiu aiaeiniaaaeaiey – yoi i?iaeaiu nioeeaeueii cia/eiua.
I?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeythuea caai? aiaeu ec aiaeienoi/ieeia, aa
i/enoeo, ii o?iaith ?aoaaiuo caaea/ e iai?ioo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
caieiatho iaeii ec aaaeoueo iano a ?aaeiia. A noaei auoue yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a aeaiiie io?anee oae eee eia/a
neacuaaaony ia iauai o?iaia aeaaininoiyiey e caei?iauey ethaeae,
i?iaeeaathueo ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ieacaee aeeyiea ia
naeoi? aiaeiniaaaeaiey e eaiaeecaoeee ii ?aciui iai?aaeaieyi.
O?iie/aneee iaaeiai? iaeiaia e aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa i?aiyonoaotho
i?aaeinoaaeaieth i?aaeoaeuenoaii e?oiiuo noaneaeee, eioi?ua
iiaeaea?aeeaaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoai aiaeiniaaaeaiey a i?ioeii.
Nie?auathueany aeioiaeu aeiiioicyenoa e iauaiu i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aie/eaatho o?iaaiue oa?eoia, eioi?ua iiaee au auoue
onoaiiaeaiu aeey iio?aaeoaeae. A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeieaiaeu –
ioieoeeiaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeythuea niaea?aeaiea e
yenieoaoaoeeth nenoai aiaeiniaaaeaiey – ia eiatho aeinoaoi/iuo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aeey iaania/aiey aaeaeaaoiiai o?iaiy niaea?aeaiey e
oae iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?aiiioa nenoaiu. Eiaanoeoeee a iiaua
nii?oaeaiey i?aeoe/anee inoaiiaeaiu. Oeiainiaue aieiae i?eaae e
noieeiio oooaeoaieth ea/anoaa e nieaeaieth aaciianiinoe oneoa. A
iaeioi?uo ianoao ieioia ninoiyiea neoaea aiaeiniaaaeaiey nicaeaao oa?ico
caei?iaueth ianaeaiey, aaa?eeiinoue a 2,5 ?aca aieueoa, /ai a no?aiao
Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. Iaiaaeaaeiinoue ieacaiey oneoa aiaeiniaaaeaiey
ii?iaeeei iauoth iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue ni noi?iiu ianaeaiey.

Oaoiieiaey i/enoee e iiaeaioiaee ieoueaaie aiaeu aeeth/aao a naay aa
iaacca?aaeeaaiea.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaacca?aaeeaaiea noaei /ooue ee ia aaeeinoaaiiui
iaycaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a iiiainooiai/aoie nenoaia i/enoee aiaeu
ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey. Eiaaoee?iaaiea e oeeueo?iaaiea aiaeu /a?ac
ianie inaiaiaeaeatho aa io noniaiaee?iaaiiuo i?eianae e /anoe/ii
nieaeatho aa aaeoa?eaeueioth caa?yciaiiinoue. Ii oieueei
iaacca?aaeeaaieai aiaeu iiaeii ia 98% i/enoeoue aiaeo io iaoiaaiiuo (
aieaciaoai?iuo ) iee?ii?aaieciia. A nayce n yoei iiene e aiaae?aiea
iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai niiniaa iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu ec i?iaeaiu
aeooaeueiie ia?aoiaeeo a ?acaeae nioeeaeueii cia/eiuo.

CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ i?aaeeaaaao naie oneoae i?aaei?eyoeyi AEO (
aiaeii?iaiaeiiai e eaiaeecaoeeiiiiai oicyenoaa ) aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai
?acaeoey e ?aeiino?oeoeee i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee , a /anoiinoe, a
no?ieoaeuenoaa e yenieoaoaoeee nenoai iaacca?aaeeaaiey ieoueaaie aiaeu.

1.2 I?aaiecaoeeiiii – yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea oe?iu.

1.2.1 Aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe.

CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ – i?aaii?aaiiee o?anoa “ ?inaiaeieaiaeiaeaaeea ”,
aeaaii ia?aoaaioe o?aaeeoeeiiiua ?aiee naiae aeayoaeueiinoe e ia?yaeo n
ionei-iaeaaei/iuie ?aaioaie oniaoii inouanoaeyao ooieoeee, naienoaaiiua
aaiiiae?yaeiui i?aaiecaoeeyi.

A iaaeaeaeii i?ioeii eiaiii ?aciauaiiinoue i?iaeoiuo, iiae?yaeiuo e
noaiiae?yaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee noaiiaeeanue i?e/eiie iayooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. I?e yoii ioaaonoaaiiinoue, eae
i?aaeei, eiaeeeanue ia iea/e “ Caeac/eea “. Aeieaino?ie e ieceia
ea/anoai – oeaia iiaeiaiuo acaeiiioiioaiee.

CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ eiaao ?acaeooth naoue ciiaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
ioaaouaathueo naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth anth ?inneth.

No?oeoo?a CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “

Iineianeia i?aaei?eyoea a. Iineaa

O?aeueneia i?aaei?eyoea a. Ooa

Naaa?i-Eaaeacneia i?aaei?eyoea a. ?inoia ia Aeiio

Naaa?i-caiaaeiia i?aaei?eyoea a. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

Aeaeueia-Ainoi/iia i?aaei?eyoea a. Oaaa?iane

Aa?oia-Aieaeneia i?aaei?eyoea a. Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae

Ieaeia-Aieaeneia i?aaei?eyoea a. Aieaia?aae

Neae?neia i?aaei?eyoea a. Iiaineae?ne

Eacaineia aei/a?iaa i?aaei?eyoea a. Eacaiue

OII “ Noie “ a. Ineia

Ana oa??eoi?eaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ i?iecaiaeyo
neaaeothuea aeaeu ?aaio:

1. Ooieoeee aaiiiae?yae/eea e aaii?iaeoe?iaueea i?e ?aeiino?oeoeee e
?acaeoee nenoai aiaeii?iaiaea e eaiaeecaoeee, a oaeaea eo ioaeaeueiuo
nii?oaeaiee. ( Eeoeaicey Ieino?iy ?O OEOe ?00326 io 27.12.96a. )

2. ?ac?aaioea oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee i?e ?aeiino?oeoeee, ?anoe?aiee nenoai
e nii?oaeaiee aiaeii?iaiaea e eaiaeecaoeee.

3. Iaeaaeea oaoiieiaee i/enoee aiaeu e noi/iuo aiae aeaenoaothueo e
aaiaeeiuo nii?oaeaiee.

4. Aiaae?aiea oaoiieiaee, eioaineoeoee?othueo ?aaioo nenoai
aiaeii?iaiaea e eaiaeecaoeee.

5. Iaeaaeea yeaeo?e/aneiai e iaoaienoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey
aeaenoaothueo e aiiaue aaiaeeiuo nii?oaeaiee aiaeii?iaiaea e
eaiaeecaoeee.

6. Aiaae?aiea nenoai ANO e aeeniao/a?neiai eiio?iey ia nii?oaeaieyo
aiaeii?iaiaea e eaiaeecaoeee.

7. ?aeiino?oeoeey oei?iiai oicyenoaa.

8. Iaeaaeea i?ioeannia iaacca?aaeeaaiey iaoiaeaie oei?e?iaaiey,
aiiiiecaoeee e o.ae.

9. Iaeaaeea nenoaiu iiaea/e e ?ani?aaeaeaiey aiaeu, ia?aaiae ia ciiioth
noaio aiaeiniaaaeaiey.

10. Iinoaiiaea o/aoa iiaea/e e iio?aaeaiey aiaeu, iinoaiiaea ?aaiou
aaiiaioneie neoaeau ia aaca YAI.

11. Ainnoaiiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo (
a?oaceaineeo ) neaaaeei iaoiaeii aaci-eiioeueniie ia?aaioee.

12. No?ieoaeuenoai iaeiaaaa?eoiuo nenoai aeieiae/aneie i/enoee e
aeii/enoee oicyenoaaiii-auoiauo noi/iuo aiae caaiaeneiai ecaioiaeaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 10-1200 i3/nooee.

13. No?ieoaeuenoai INE aeey i/enoee iaooaniaea?aeaueo noieia.

1.2.2 Eiouanoai oe?iu.

a) o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa :

Aaoiiaoeia OAC 469 – 3 oo.

Yeaeo?ioaeueoa? – 2oo.

O?ainoi?iaoi? naa?i/iue OAeI – 317 – 1oo.

a) i?a. oaoieea :

Ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u : IBM PS AT 486 – 6 oo.

IBM PS AT Pentium
– 1 oo.

Ena?ien : Sharp SF – 780 – 1 oo.

I?eioa? : Apson – 1700 – 1oo.

a) eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa :

– eiouanoai i?eiaaeeaaeeo oece/aneei eeoeai;

– caiey a?aiaeoaony o Aineiicai;

– aeiey ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a onoaaiii
eaieoaea ionoonoaoao;

a) ionoonoaotho aeiee e iae a ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo.

Oneoae CAI iiaoo auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu n auaeaeaieai cao?ao, e aeeth/ay
ioeaiee aeeyiey eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e ae?oaeo iieacaoaeae, eioi?ua
iaiauaiu a oaae.

Oaaeeoea

Neeueiua noi?iiu Neaaua noi?iiu

Aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue ia?niiae. Ia i?aaeinoaaeythony eueaioiua
e?aaeeou.

Oeiainiaay iieeoeea auno?i aaeaioe?oaony e nia?aiaiiui ?uii/iui
oneiaeyi. E?aeia ?aaeei iieo/aai i?aaeiieaoo ca i?aaeinoaaeyaiua oneoae.

Iaaeinoaoie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Ionoonoaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey.

Aunieea ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

1.2.3 I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oe?iu.

Ia ?en. 1 ecia?aaeaia aeaenoaothuay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oe?iu.

?en 1. Aeaenoaothuay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey CAI “
?inaiaeieaiae “.

Aeaenoaothuay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oe?iu “ ?inaiaeieaiae “
iicaieyao i?aaenoaaeoue oe?oiiaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ninoaaa
iiae?acaeaeaiee, o/anoaothueo a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, e iiae/a?eiooue eo
iniaaiiinoe. Neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey
i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae.

Oaaeeoea

Neeueiua noi?iiu Neaaua noi?iiu

?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaei?eyoey eiaao aunoaa ia?aciaaiea. Ionoonoaea
ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa.

?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey eiaao nayce n ae?oaeie oe?iaie a ?acee/iuo
?aaeiiao no?aiu.

Ioeaaeaia nenoaia eiiioieeaoeee

Oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay iieeoeea ?oeiaiaenoaa

Ia iaeiaaaeiui aniaeoii oniaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu yaeyaony
oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?eaoeiaa, oae eae oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai iai?aaeaiii,
i?aaeaea anaai, ia iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee, /oi aoaeao aiciiaeii
i?e iieiii iauaia e a n?ie ?aaeecoaiuo oneoaao ( oaae. ).

Oaaeeoea

Neeueiua noi?iiu Neaaua noi?iiu

Ionoonoaea i?aaei?eyoey, i?eicaiaeyueo aiaeiae/iua oneoae. Ionoonoaea
ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaiaiai aiaeeca enneaaeiaaiee ?uiea.

Aunieee o?iaaiue ea/anoaa oneoa. Ionoonoaea ?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee.

Aunieee o?iaaiue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oneoa. Ionoonoaea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeaca ia i?iecaiaeeiua oneoae.

Nio?aiaiea noa?uo caeac/eeia ia i?aaeinoaaeyaiua oneoae. Iaee/ea naiaa a
?aaeecaoeee oneoa.

Ioeaaeaia nenoaia eco/aiey ?uiea.

Iio – oao oneoa ( iai?eia?, oei?aaciianiinoue a auai?a iioeiaeueiie
noaiu iaacca?aaeeaaiey).

1.2.4 Aiaeec iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea oe?iu.

Eaae?iaue ninoaa CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ?ac?aaioee e
?aaeecaoeee anao aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaenoaaeai a oaae. .

Oaaeeoea

*eneaiiinoue oe?iu ii ioaeaeaieyi ia 01.01.97aiaea.

Iiae?acaeaeaiey Anaai ?oeiaiaeeoaee Niaoeeaeenou Neoaea- uea

?an/aoii-eiino?oeoi?neia 4 1 3 –

Oi?aaeai/aneia 9 4 2 3

Oaoiieiae/aneia 21 4 17 –

Ia?eaoeia 4 1 3 –

Aia iiae?acaeaeaiee 2 – 2 –

EOIAI 40 10 27 3

Oaaeeoea

Neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu eaae?iaiai aniaeoa oe?iu.

Neeueiua noi?iiu Neaaua noi?iiu

Iiuoiue e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue ninoaa oe?iu. Iaaeinoaoie eaae?ia.

Aieiaiea e eioa?an ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ei anai iiaoanoaai a iaeanoe
oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii.

Caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia a ?acoeueoaoao naiaai o?oaea e nio?aiaiey
?aai/eo iano.

Iiiu?aiea eieoeeaoeau ?aaioieeia.

?oeiaiaenoai no?aieony e iaeaieaa iieiiio eniieueciaaieth ciaiee,
iaaueia, niiniaiinoae e oiaiee ia?niiaea.

Aeey aiaeeca iieacaoaeae iao/ii – oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea
ainiieuecoainy aeaiiuie ec oaae. .

Oaaeeoea

Iniiaiua oaoieei – yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee aeey ?an/aoa

Iieacaoaee 1996

N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia (IIO), o.?
2881728

N?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo (?), /ae. 40

*eneaiiinoue aeeieiie?iaaiiuo oaoie/aneeo niaoeeaeenoia (Aeon), /.
22

Iauai oneoa (I), oun.?oa. 2670921

Iauai i?ioeeueiie i?iaeoeoeee (Ii), oun. ?oa. 1083000

Iauaa /enei no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey (Ni),
2

*eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey (?a), /ae 9

Noiia cao?ao ia niaea?aeaiea aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey (C), oun. ?oa. 419121

a) iieacaoaeue oiiaeiaii?oaeiiinoe o?oaea (O):

O = IIO/? = 72043,2 oun.?oa.//ae.

Oaii ?inoa = 109 %

a) auione i?iaeoeoeee ia 1 ?oa. IIO (I1):

I1 = I/IIO = 0,92 ?oa./?oa.

Oaii ?inoa = 56 %

a) au?aaioea i?iaeoeoeee ia 1 ?aaioathuaai (I2):

I2 = I/? = 66773,03 oun. ?oa.

Oaii ?inoa = 164 %

a) eiyooeoeeaio niaoeeaeecaoeee (En):

En = Ii/I = 0,41

ae) cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea ?aaioieeia aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey (C1):
C1 = C/?a = 46569 oun. ?oa.//ae.

1.3 Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ii inouanoaeaieth
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

1.3.1 Aaeain oe?iu.

AEOEA Io/. aiae, o.?

I Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e i?i/ea aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau

1. Iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau 16 657

2. Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa 493 520

3. Aeieain?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey 90

Eoiai ii I ?acaeaeo 510 267

II Caianu e cao?aou

4. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu 100 172

5. IAI 3 007

6. Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey 23 302

Eoiai ii II ?acaeaeo 126 481

III Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa

7. ?an/aou n aeaaeoi?aie 1 185 196

8. Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa 332 796

Eoiai ii III ?acaeaeo 1 517 992

AAEAIN 2 154 740

IANNEA

IV Enoi/ieee nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa

1. Onoaaiue eaieoae 7 640

2. Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao 181 557

Eoiai ii IV ?acaeaeo 189 197

V ?an/aou e i?i/ea ianneau

3. Aeieain?i/iua caeiu 6

4. ?an/aou n e?aaeeoi?aie 1 338 541

5. I?i/ea e?aoein?i/iua ianneau 626 996

Eoiai ii V ?acaeaeo 1 965 543

AAEAIN 2 154 740

1.3.2 Iieacaoaee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe oe?iu.

Iieacaoaee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe :

1.Iauee eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey : E1= 1 644 473/626 996 = 2,6

– iieacuaaao eaeay /anoue oaeoueo iaycaoaeuenoa ii e?aaeeoai e ?an/aoai
iiaeii iiaaneoue, iiaeeeciaaa ana iaiaoiaeeiua n?aaenoaa. ( Iioeiaeueiia
cia/aiea E1( 2 ).

2.Eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiinoe : E2 = 1 517 992/1 965 537 = 0,7

– iieacuaaao eaeay /anoue oaeoueo iaycaoaeuenoa ii e?aaeeoai e ?an/aoo
iiaeii iiaaneoue, iiaeeeciaaa iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa , e?iia oiaa?i –
iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania. ( Ii. cia/aiea 0,2 – 0,7).

3.Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe : E3 = 332 796/626 996 = 0,5

– niiniaiinoue iaeaieaa auno?i iiaaoaoue e?aoein?i/ioth caaeieaeaiiinoue
aac i?eaea/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa. (0,2 – 0,7)

Iieacaoaee oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe:

4.Eiyooeoeeaio aaoiiiiee : E4 = 189 197/2 154 740 = 0,08

– iieacuaaao oaeaeueiue aan nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa a iauae noiia
enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa, iaoiaeyueony a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey
(Iioeiaeueiia cia/aiea > 0,5).

5. Eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?eiiinoe : E5 = 1 644 473/189 197 = 8,7

– noaiaiue iiaeeueiinoe eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

6.Eiyooeoeeaio ?aaeueiie noieiinoe iniiaiuo, iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa a eiouanoaa oe?iu : E6 = 620 001/2 154 740 = 0,3

– iieacuaaao oaeaeueiue aan cao?ao, aeiaeaiiuo a i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
iioaioeeae oe?iu, a iauai iauaia aeoeaia.

1.4 No?aoaaey oe?iu e aa ?aaeecaoeey a ioai?a i?iaeoia.

1.4.1 Ii?ooaeue i?iaeoia.

Iaacca?aaeeaaiea aiaeu iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaiii i?e iiiiue ?acee/iuo
iaoiaeia, eioi?ua e aoaeoo ninoaaeyoue ii?ooaeue i?iaeoia.

I?iaeo ?1: Iaacca?aaeeaaiea aiaeu oeueo?aoeieaoiauie eo/aie.

Aaeoa?eoeeaeiia aeaenoaea oeueo?aoeieaoiauo eo/ae iauyniyaony eo
aeeyieai ia i?ioiieacio e oa?iaiou iee?iaiuo eeaoie, /oi aucuaaao eo
aeaaeue. Iaeaieueoei aicaeaenoaeai ia aaeoa?ee iaeaaeatho eo/e n
aeeeiaie aiei io 2000 aei 2950A. A i?ioeanna ioie?aiey aaeoa?ee iiae
aeaenoaeai aaeoa?eoeeaeiie yia?aee aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao noaiaiue
nii?ioeaeyaiinoe eo aeaenoaeth eo/ae, eioi?ay iaiaeeiaeiaay aeey
?acee/iuo aeaeia. Yooaeoeaiinoue yoiai iaoiaea caaeneo io eiee/anoaa
iiaeaiiie aaeoa?eoeeaeiie yia?aee, io iaee/ey acaane, io eiee/anoaa
iee?ii?aaieciia e eo ii?oieiae/aneeo e oeceieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae e io
iioe/aneie ieioiinoe aiaeu, eee aa iiaaoathuae niiniaiinoe.

Enoi/ieeii oeueo?aoeieaoiauo eo/ae neoaeao ?oooiua eaiiu, ecaioiaeaiiua
ec eaa?oeaaiai eee oaeieaaiai noaeea. Eaiiu eiatho oi?io o?oaee
aeeaiao?ii 15 – 20 ni n ieneaeiuie yeaeo?iaeaie ia eiioeao. Iiae
aeaenoaeai yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea ?oooiua ia?u aeatho y?eee
caeaiiaaoi-aaeue naao, aiaaoue oeueo?aoeieaoiauie eo/aie.

Iiuo yenieoaoaoeee onoaiiaie aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu
aaeoa?eoeeaeiuie eo/aie iieacuaaao, /oi yoio iaoiae iaania/eaaao
iaaeaaeioth aeaceioaeoeeth aiaeu. Aiaea, iaaca?aaeaiiay yoei iaoiaeii,
ia eciaiyao ie oece/aneeo, ie oeie/aneeo naienoa. Yenieoaoaoeeiiiua
?anoiaeu ia iaacca?aaeeaaiea aiaeu iaeo/aieai ia i?aauoatho cao?ao ia
oei?e?iaaiea. E iaaeinoaoeai ?anniao?eaaaiiai iaoiaea iaacca?aaeeaaiey
neaaeoao ioianoe ionoonoaea iiea iia?aoeaiiai niiniaa eiio?iey ca
yooaeoii iaacca?aaeeaaiey, iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey iaoiaea aeey
iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiae, ioee/athueony iiauoaiiie iooiinouethe
oeaaoiinoueth, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue iineaaeothuaai ca?aaeaiey aiaeu.

I?iaeo ?2: Iciie?iaaiea aiaeu.

Aaeoa?eoeeaeiia aeaenoaea iciia naycaii n aai aunieei ieeneeoaeueiui
iioaioeeaeii e eaaeinoueth aai aeeooocee /a?ac eeaoiniua iaiei/ee
iee?iaia. Ii ieeneyao i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa iee?iaiie eeaoee e i?eaiaeeo
aa e aeaaee. Iaacca?aaeeaaiea aiaeu n iiiiuueth iciia eiaao ?yae
i?aeiouanoa:

1 – icii oeo/oaao i?aaiieaioe/aneea naienoaa aiaeu e ia caa?yciyao aa
aeiiieieoaeueii oeie/aneeie aauanoaaie;

2 – iciie?iaaiea ia o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo iia?aoeee aeey oaeaeaiey ec
i/euaiiie aiaeu ecauoea aaeoa?eoeeaea, eae aeaoei?e?iaaiea i?e oei?a,
yoi iicaieyao iieueciaaoueny iiauoaiiuie aeicaie iciia;

3 – icii au?aaaouaaaony ia ianoa; aeey aai iieo/aiey o?aaoaony eeoue
yeaeo?iyia?aey, ec oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeaia iieuecothony oieueei neeeeaaaeai
a ea/anoaa aani?aaioa aeaae ( aeey iiaenooeaaiey aicaeooa ).

Oe?ieiio eniieueciaaieth iaoiaea iciie?iaaiey iaoaao neiaeiinoue
iieo/aiey iciia, naycaiiay n cao?aoie aieueoeo eiee/anoa yeaeo?iyia?aee
aunieie /anoiou e aunieiai iai?yaeaiey. Iciii-aicaeooiay eee
iciii-eenei?iaeiay niane, niaea?aeauea aieaa 10% iciia, ac?uaiiianiu.
*enoue icii ac?uaaaony n ia?iiiie neeie io naiuo ie/oiaeiuo eiioeuenia.
E?iia oiai, icii oiene/ai: i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiia niaea?aeaiea aai a
aicaeooa iiiauaiee, aaea iaoiaeyony ethaee, ninoiaeyao 0,00001 ia/e.
Ia?aaioea aiaeu iciiii oneiaeiyaony oaeaea aai ei??iceiiiie
aeoeaiinoueth. Icii e aai aiaeiua ?anoai?u ?ac?ooatho noaeue, /oaoi,
iaaeue, ?aceio e yaiieo. Iiyoiio ana yeaiaiou iciiaoi?iuo onoaiiaie e
o?oaii?iaiaeu, ii eioi?ui o?ainii?oe?othony aai aiaeiua ?anoai?u,
aeieaeiu ecaioiaeyoueny ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee eee aethieiey. A yoeo
oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue neoaeau onoaiiaie e o?oaii?iaiaeia ec
noaee 15-20 eao, a aethieiey 5-7 eao.

I?iaeo ?3: Oei?e?iaaiea aiaeu.

Nouiinoue iaacca?aaeeaathuaai aeaenoaey oei?a caeeth/aaony a
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo i?ioeannao, i?ienoiaeyueo i?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee oei?a e aai niaaeeiaiee n i?aaie/aneeie aauanoaaie
iee?iaiie eeaoee. Oei?iiaaoenoay eeneioa anooiaao a ?aaeoeeth n
oa?iaioaie aaeoa?ee e oai naiui ia?ooaao iaiai aauanoa a aaeoa?eaeueiie
eeaoea.

Ia?yaeo n iieiaeeoaeueiuie ea/anoaaie oei?e?iaaiea eiaao nouanoaaiiua
iaaeinoaoee, iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony:

1 – i?e oei?e?iaaiee ia oie/oiaeathony nii?iia?acothuea aaeoa?ee;

2 – i?e ?aaioao naycaiiuo n aeice?iaaieai oei?a, o?aaoaony iinoiyiiue
eaai?aoi?iue eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai oei?iiiaeauaaiinoe aiaeu,inoaoi/iui
oei?ii a oei?e?oaiie aiaea, iniaaiii a iaeaieaa ioaeaeaiiuo oi/eao
aiaeii?iaiaeiie naoe, e o.ae.

3 – ?aaioa oei?aoi?ueeia a?aaeia aeey caei?iauey e o?aaoao io ieo
iniaiai aieiaiey e inoi?iaeiinoe. Aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann
oei?e?iaaiey aeiaieueii neiaeii;

4 – o?aieoue iieo/aaiua n caaiaeia ?aaaaiou iaiaoiaeeii a niaoeeaeueiuo
neeaaeneeo iiiauaieyo. ?acaiceoue oei? e ianoai iio?aaeaiey neaaeoao ia
niaoeeaeueiii o?ainii?oa iiae i?eniio?ii iao/aiiiai ia?niiaea. Aaeeiia
ec-iiae aeeaeeiai oei?a iaiaoiaeeii naiaa?aiaiii aica?auaoue caaiaeo –
iinoaaueeo;

5 – i?e eniieueciaaiee aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey aiaeyiuo neaaaeei aanueia
oneiaeiyaony noaia aiaeii?iaiaeiuo nii?oaeaiee ec-ca iaiaoiaeeiiai
eiioaeoa oei?a n aiaeie.

I?iaeo ?4: Oei?aiiiiecaoeey aiaeu.

Eae oaea auei neacaii, aaaaeaiea a aiaeo oei?a aucuaaao iiyaeaiea a iae
niaoeeoe/aneeo oei?iuo caiaoia e i?eaeonia. Aeey ai?ueau n yoeie
caiaoaie e i?eaeonaie i?eiaiytho aiiiiecaoeeth aiaeu, o.a. aiieae
aaiaeyo a aiaeo ?aiueoa oei?a.

Aiieae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aanoeaaoiue aac n ?aceei caiaoii, ii/oe
aaeaia eaa/a aicaeooa; i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiay eiioeaio?aoeey aai a
aicaeooa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiiauaiey ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 20 ia/i.
Aieaa aunieay aai eiioeaio?aoeey iiania aeey caei?iauey /aeiaaea.

I?e aiiiiecaoeee i?ioeann oei?e?iaaiey i?ioaeaao ianeieueei eia/a. I?e
acaeiiaeaenoaee aiieaea n oei?iiaaoenoie eeneioie, ia?acothuaeny i?e
oei?e?iaaiee aiaeu, iieo/athony oei?aieiu, iai?eia?

eee

Oei?aieiu eciaiytho oa?aeoa? acaeiiaeaenoaey oei?a n oaiieaie e
i?aiyonoaotho ia?aciaaieth oei?oaiieueiuo caiaoia. A oi aea a?aiy iie a
ecaanoiie ia?a ineaaeytho aaeoa?eoeeaeiia aeaenoaea oei?a.

1.4.2 Auai? i?iaeoa.

Aeey auai?a i?iaeoa i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ioeaieoue niioaaonoaea
i?iaeoia oeaeyi oe?iu. Iaiaoiaeeii ?annoaaeoue i?ei?eoaou e
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue cia/aiea eaaeaeie oeaee. Aeey yoiai iaaei ii?aaeaeeoue
cia/eiinoue eaaeaeie oeaee, auaeaeeoue aeaaainoaothuea oae eae eiaiii
yoi ii?aaeaeeo ?ac?aaioeo no?aoaaee ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey. Ii?aaeaeaiea
cia/eiinoe eaaeaeie oeaee aeaao oaaeeoea

Oaaeeoea

Oeaee e eo cia/eiinoue aeey i?aaei?eyoey

? Iaeiaiiaaiea oeaee ?aia cia/eiinoe

1. I?eaueueiinoue 1

2. ?ino eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe 4

3. Iaei e iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee caiyouo 6

4. Cae?aieaiea eieaeaea oe?iu 8

5. Oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee 5

6. ?ino aeaaininoiyiey nio?oaeieeia 16

7. Yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe 3

8. Noaaeeueiinoue oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey 2

9. Oaaee/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey 11

10. ?aaioa n ieaoaaeaniiniaiuie eeeaioaie 9

11. ?ino aeiee iiaiaaaaeaiee 7

12. ?ino yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia 12

13. ?ino yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia 13

14. Oaaee/aiea aeiee eniieueciaaiey iiauo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
14

15. ?ino caeioa?aniaaiiinoe ?aaioieeia a ?acoeueoaoao naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe 15

16. Auoiae ia iiaua ?uiee nauoa 10

I?aaeeiaeaiiay oaaeeoea iieacuaaao iniiaiua oeaee i?aaei?eyoey:

– iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee;

– noaaeeueiinoue oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey;

– yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey;

– ?ino eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee;

– oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa auiieiaiey ?aaio.

Iooae, niinianoaothueo ?aaeecaoeee iinoaaeaiiie oeaee anaaaea
ianeieueei. Iaeiaei, aeaaiay caaea/a oe?iu – aua?aoue iioeiaeueiue
iooue, o.a. ii?aaeaeeoue no?aoaaeth i?aaei?eyoey. No?aoaaey oe?iu –
i?ia?aiia aeaenoaee, ii?aaeaeythuay ?acaeoea oe?iu (niaieoiiinoue e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aiciiaeiuo ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe) e
niioaaonoaothuaa aio oi?aaeaiea. Iia ii?aaeaeyao e?eoa?ee i?ei?eoaoiinoe
auiieiyaiuo i?iaeoia, o/eouaaaony i?e en/eneaiee cao?ao ia i?iaeo.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?iaeaiiuo iano, niiniaiuo nouanoaaiii iiaeeyoue ia
i?iaeo, iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe aiaeec e ioeaieo eiathuaainy iioaioeeaea e
o?aaoaiiai ii aaeueiie oeaea. Iino?iaiiua oaeei ia?acii i?ioeee i?e eo
iaeiaeaiee ae?oa ia ae?oaa yaeythony nouanoaaiiui a?aoiaioii i?e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ii i?iaeoo, ioeaiea iioaioeeaea ia inouanoaeaiea
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa i?aaenoaaeaia a oaaeeoea .

Oaaeeoea

Aiaeec iioaioeeaea IOOe

Iieacaoaee 1 2 3 4 5

Oeiainiaua iieacaoaee

?acia? athaeaeaoa

?ino athaeaeaoa

Naiaiaeiua n?aaenoaa

Oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue

Eaae?u

*eneaiiinoue

Eaaeeoeeaoeey ia?niiaea

Aiciiaeiinoue iao/aiey

Ionoonoaea oaeo/anoe eaae?ia

Iaania/aiiinoue eaae?aie

Iai?oaeiaaiea

Eaai?aoi?iia iai?oaeiaaiea

Aic?anoiie ninoaa iai?oaeiaaiey

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iiuo

Ninoiyiea ?ac?aaioie

Iao/iue caaeae

Auiieiaiea ieaia

Iauai iiaie i?iaeoeoeee ii ?ac?aaioeai

I?e?ino i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eioi?iaoeey

Yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu

Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo

I?eaueue

Au?o/ea

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee ii i?eiaiaieth
iiaie oaoieee

Aini?iecaiaenoai iioaioeeaea

Oaoie/aneay aii?oaeaiiinoue ?aaioieeia

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee caaeae

O?iaaiue oi?aaeaiey

-i?ioeeue eiathuaainy iioaioeeaea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai oeaio?a

– i?ioeeue o?aaoaiiai iioaioeeaea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai oeaio?a

Ec aiaeeca eiathuaainy iioaioeeaea e o?aaoaiiai aeaeii, /oi eiathueeny
iioaioeeae ai iiiaii niioaaonoaoao o?aaoaiiio. Iaeiaei, ?oeiaiaeeoaeth
oe?iu iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ninoiyiea iao/ii – oaoie/aneie
eioi?iaoeee, a /anoiinoe, ia iao/ii – oaoie/aneea ?ac?aaioee, e i?eiyoue
iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ia?aeoe e i?ioeaaeo?a auai?a i?iaeoa iaiaoiaeeii
noi?ie?iaaoue ia?a/aiue e?eoa?eaa oe?iu aeey aiaeeca eiiiaaoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia ( oaae. ).

Oaaeeoea

Ninoaa e?eoa?eaa aeey aiaeeca eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia

A?oiia e?eoa?eaa Iaeiaiiaaiea e?eoa?eaa Ioiineoaeueiay cia/eiinoue
e?eoa?ey

Oeaee, no?aoaaey, Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa oaeouae no?aoaaee ION 1,0

iieeoeea ION Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo iioaioeeaeo i?aaiecaoeee 0,9

Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo a?aiaiiui aniaeoai 0,8

Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa ioiioaieth ION e ?eneo 0,8

Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo I.-O. Iioaioeeaeo i?aaiecaoeee 0,9

Niioaaonoaoao ee i?iaeo o?aaiaaieyi ION e iiaiaaaaeaieyi 0,8

?uii/iua Aa?iyoiinoue eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa i?iaeoa 0,8

Ioaa/aao ee o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea 0,8

Ioeaiea iauae aieinoe e aeiee ?uiea 0,7

Aa?iyoiinoue iauaia nauoa i?iaeoeoeee 0,8

Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa eiathueiny eaiaeai ?ani?aaeaeaiey 0,7

Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa nouanoaothuae nenoaia oeaiiia?aciaaiey 0,6

A?aiaiiua cao?aou ia i?iaeo ?uii/iiai ieaia 0,7

Yeiiiie/aneea Noieiinoue e a?aiy ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoa 0,6

A?aiy ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoa 0,6

Ioeaiea noa?oiauo cao?ao ia i?iaeo 0,5

Ioeaiea i?aaeiieaaaaiuo cao?ao ia i?iaeo 0,6

I?eaueueiinoue io i?iaeoa 0,7

Iaee/ea iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?ac?aaioeo e aiaae?aiea i?iaeoa 0,6

I?iecaiae-

noaaiiua Iaee/ea iaiaoiaeeiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae aeey
auiieiaiey i?iaeoa 0,7

Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiie iiuiinoe aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa 0,5

Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa n o/aoii aiciiaeiuo iaoaea/ i?iaeoa

0,4

Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiii iai?oaeiaaiee aeey ?ac?aaioee e
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa

0,3

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiie ?aai/ae neea aeey i?iaeoa

0,3

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua Niioaaonoaea aeaiiie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey 0,3

Iio?aaiinoe a aeiiieieoaeueiuo neoaeaueo aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa

0,3

Iaee/ea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu aeey ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoa

0,2

Iao/ii- Aa?iyoiinoue oaoie/aneiai oniaoa i?iaeoa 0,7

oaoie/aneea Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?ac?aaio/eeao 0,3

Iaoaioiniiniaiinoue i?iaeoa 0,3

N o/aoii iniaaiiinoae oe?iu aeey aiaeeca ii?ooaey e ioai?a i?iaeoia aeey
?aaeecaoeee auaeaeaiu 9 e?eoa?eaa, iauaaeeiaiiuo a 4 a?oiiu. I?eiyoui
e?eoa?eyi i?eaeaia iaiaeeiaeiaay cia/eiinoue (io 1,0 aei 0,3)

Oaaeeoea

E?eoa?ee ioai?a i?iaeoia

A?oiia e?eoa?eaa Iaeiaiiaaiea e?eoa?ey Cia/eiinoue

1. Oeaee oe?iu, Niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoa n oaeouae no?aoaaeae oe?iu 1,0

no?aoaaey iieeoeea Niioaaonoaea ioiioaieth oe?iu e ?eneo 0,9

2. ?uii/iua e Aa?iyoiinoue eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa i?iaeoa 0,8

eiiia?/aneea Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea 0,8

3. Yeiiiie/aneea A?aiy ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa 0,7

I?eaueueiinoue i?iaeoa 0,7

Noieiinoue i?iaeoa 0,6

4.I?iecaiae-

noaaiiua Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiuiinoyo 0,4

Cao?aou o?oaea 0,3

Ieaea i?eaaaeaiu i?ioeee i?iaeoia ii onoaiiaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi n o/aoii
ioeaiee yenia?oia.

Oaaeeoea

I?ioeeue e yenia?oiay ioeaiea i?iaeoa ? 1

Iaeiaiiaaiea e?eoa?ey Ioeaiea Cia/aiea Eoia

Niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoa n oaeouae no?aoaaeae oe?iu

5

4

3

2

1

1,0

5,0

Niioaaonoaea ioiioaieth oe?iu e ?eneo

5

4

3

2

1

0,9

2,7

Aa?iyoiinoue eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa i?iaeoa

5

4

3

2

1

0,8

3,2

Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea

5

4

3

2

1

0,8

2,4

A?aiy ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 0,7

I?eaueueiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 2,1

Noieiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,6 0,6

Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiuiinoyo

5

4

3

2

1

0,4

0,8

Cao?aou o?oaea 5 4 3 2 1 0,3 0,6

EOIAI

18,1

Oaaeeoea

I?ioeeue e yenia?oiay ioeaiea i?iaeoa ?2

Iaeiaiiaaiea e?eoa?ey Ioeaiea Cia/aiea Eoia

Niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoa n oaeouae no?aoaaeae oe?iu

5

4

3

2

1

1,0

4,0

Niioaaonoaea ioiioaieth oe?iu e ?eneo

5

4

3

2

1

0,9

1,8

Aa?iyoiinoue eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa i?iaeoa

5

4

3

2

1

0,8

3,2

Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea

5

4

3

2

1

0,8

2,4

A?aiy ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 2,1

I?eaueueiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 2,8

Noieiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,6 1,8

Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiuiinoyo

5

4

3

2

1

0,4

1,2

Cao?aou o?oaea 5 4 3 2 1 0,3 1,2

EOIAI

20,5

Oaaeeoea

I?ioeeue e yenia?oiay ioeaiea i?iaeoa ? 3

Iaeiaiiaaiea e?eoa?ey Ioeaiea Cia/aiea Eoia

Niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoa n oaeouae no?aoaaeae oe?iu

5

4

3

2

1

1,0

3,0

Niioaaonoaea ioiioaieth oe?iu e ?eneo

5

4

3

2

1

0,9

3,6

Aa?iyoiinoue eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa i?iaeoa

5

4

3

2

1

0,8

2,4

Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea

5

4

3

2

1

0,8

1,6

A?aiy ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 2,8

I?eaueueiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 2,8

Noieiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,6 1,8

Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiuiinoyo

5

4

3

2

1

0,4

1,6

Cao?aou o?oaea 5 4 3 2 1 0,3 0,9

EOIAI

20,5

Oaaeeoea

I?ioeeue e yenia?oiay ioeaiea i?iaeoa ? 4

Iaeiaiiaaiea e?eoa?ey Ioeaiea Cia/aiea Eoia

Niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoa n oaeouae no?aoaaeae oe?iu

5

4

3

2

1

1,0

4,0

Niioaaonoaea ioiioaieth oe?iu e ?eneo

5

4

3

2

1

0,9

3,6

Aa?iyoiinoue eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa i?iaeoa

5

4

3

2

1

0,8

3,2

Ioaa/aao ee i?iaeo o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea 5 4 3 2 1 0,8 3,2

A?aiy ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 3,5

I?eaueueiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,7 2,8

Noieiinoue i?iaeoa 5 4 3 2 1 0,6 3,0

Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiuiinoyo

5

4

3

2

1

0,4

2,0

Cao?aou o?oaea 5 4 3 2 1 0,3 1,2

EOIAI

26,5

Iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui n oi/ee c?aiey o/aoa anao e?eoa?eaa yaeyaony
4 i?iaeo. Ii auaeyaeeo eo/oa n oi/ee c?aiey ?aaeecaoeee iaia/aiiie
no?aoaaee eiiiaiee, ia aai ?aaeecaoeeth ia iio?aaoaony aeiiieieoaeueiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae. A?aiy, cao?a/eaaaiia ia ?aaeecaoeeth
aeaiiiai i?iaeoa iio?aaoaony ieieiaeueiia, cao?aou ia i?iaeo iaeiaiueoe
ec anao i?aaeeiaeaiiuo i?iaeoia. Oaeei ia?acii /aoaa?oue i?iaeo
oaeiaeaoai?yao iaia/aiiie no?aoaaee oe?iu, aa oeiainiaiio ninoiyieth.

Caaa?oaao ?acaeae oeiainiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey
i?iaeoa, eioi?ua a eiia/iia eoiaa noi?ie?otho aai athaeaeao ( oaae. ).

Oaaeeoea 15

Aiciiaeiua enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey

Noaouee oi?ie?iaaiey athaeaeaoa ?acia? athaeaeaoiie noaouee,
oun.?oa Oaeaeueiue aan noaouee a iauai athaeaeaoa i?iaeoa, %

NIANOAAIIUA N?AAeNOAA

Oeaeaaia oeiaine?iaaiea ia inouanoaeaiea i?iaeoa io “ ?inaiaeieaiae “
200 000 35,9

I?EAEA*AIIUA N?AAeNOAA

E?aoein?i/iue e?aaeeo aaiea 100 000 17,9

Aeieaaia o/anoea a i?iaeoa caeac/eeia 257 000 46,2

EOIAI IAUEE ATHAeAEAO I?IAEOA 557 000 100,0

Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea oe?iu iieacaea, /oi i?aaei?eyoea onoie/eai e
eciaiaieyi aiaoiae n?aaeu, ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey aeinoaoi/ii
auniea.

II Aecian – ieai i?iaeoa.

2.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeoa ( ?acthia ).

E?ecen, iaaethaeaaiue a iaoae no?aia e oaeoi?u, aai ii?aaeaeythuea :
niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, nenoaia iaieaoaaeae, ia iiaee ia io?aceoueny a
?aaioa io?anee aiaeiniaaaeaiey. I?aeoe/anee iianaianoii oooaeoeeinue
ea/anoai ieoueaaie aiaeu, iiaeaaaaiie a aiaeii?iaiaeioth naoue ai?iaeia.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaacca?aaeeaaiea noaei /ooue ee ia aaeeinoaaiiui
iaycaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a iiiainooiai/aoie nenoaia i/enoee aiaeu
ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey.

Iaaeinoaoee, i?enouea anai i?ioeannai iaacca?aaeeaaiey, canoaaeytho
eneaoue aieaa niaa?oaiiua e eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaoiaeu i/enoee aiaeu. E
iiaeiaiui iaoiaeai iaacca?aaeeaaiey ieoueaaie aiaeu ioiineony
oei?aiiiiecaoeey.

Iaee/ea a aiaea inoaoi/iiai oei?a aeaaea a iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao
i?eaeaao ae iai?eyoiue caiao. Aaeaa oeiaeiue a ?a/iie aiaea caiao aieioa
eee nu?ie ?uau i?e oei?e?iaaiee aiaeu ?acei oneeeaaaony e aeaeaao aa
aanueia iai?eyoiie ia aeon. A i?e iaee/ee a oei?e?oaiie aiaea iaeaeoeo
neaaeia oaiiea aicieeaao niaoeeoe/aneee “aioa/iue” caiao. Aeey
ono?aiaiey caiaoia ieoueaaie aiaeu ia ai?iaeneeo aiaeii?iaiaeao a aiaeo
i?aaeeaaaaony aaiaeeoue aiieae.

A i?ioeanna iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu, n i?eiaiaieai aiieaea eniieuecotho
aiiea/ioth aiaeo, a aeaeo oiai, /oi /enoue aiieae neiaeii aeice?iaaoue.
A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oe?iei ecaanoiu aeaa niiniaa iieo/aiey aiiea/iie
aiaeu:

1 – iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?acaaaeaiea aiieaea aiaeie;

2 – i?eiaiaiea aiaeiiai ?anoai?a noeueoaoa aiiiiey;

I?aeiouanoaa iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu n i?eiaiaieai noeueoaoa aiiiiey
caeeth/aaony a aaca?aaeiinoe i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea e o?aiaiee, a ioee/ea
io niiniaa , aaea iaiaoiaeeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?anoai?youe aiieae
aiaeie. Noeueoao aiiiiey i?aeoe/anee yaeyaony iiae?o/iui iaoa?eaeii,
iioiio eae eniieuecoaony a naeueneii oicyenoaa a ea/anoaa oaeia?aiey.

A ianooaaao no?aiu ia aeinoaoi/ii aunieii o?iaia i?aaieciaaia nenoaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, o?ainii?oe?iaee e o?aiaiey noeueoaoa aiiiiey ( auaoay
nenoaia “ Aa?ioeiniaa “).

Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e oei?e?iaaiee n aiiiiecaoeeae
nicaeathony aieaa neeueiua oneiaey aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ?acaeoey
aaeoa?eaeueiie aeecie aioo?e aiaeii?iaiaeiuo o?oa, aiaeii?iaiaeiie naoe,
a /anoiinoe aeaeaciaaeoa?ee, aucuaathueo ca?anoaiea o?oa.

Niioiioaiea aeic oei?a e aiieaea caaeneo io ea/anoaa enoiaeiie aiaeu.
Iau/ii iioeiaeueiay aeica aiieaea, iaania/eaathuay iaiaoiaeeiia
ia?aciaaiea iiiioei?aieiia, a 5 – 6 ?ac iaiueoa aeicu oei?a. Enoiaey ec
oiai, /oi noieiinoue iaeiiai aaeeiia oei?a ?aaia 5 iei. ?oa. ca iaeio
oiiio (aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu a a. Iineaa eniieuecoaony 60 oiii
oei?a a aiae ), iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, ia yeiiiie/iinoe
iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu n eniieueciaaieai aiieaea. Iineieueeo noieiinoue
aeicaoi?a aiieaea eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao io 10 aei 15 iei. ?oa. ( a
caaeneiinoe io iio?aaeaiey aiaeu), a nai aiieae a iieoi?a ?aca aeaoaaea
oei?a, oi ?anoiaeu , naycaiiua n oe?ieei aiaae?aieai iaacca?aaeeaaiey
aiaeu n eniieueciaaieai aiieaea auno?i ieoiyony ( ni. oeiainiaue ieai).

Oei?aiiiiecaoi? ia iiiaei ioee/aaony io oei?aoi?a, eioi?ue iieo/ee
iaeaieueoaa ?anii?ino?aiaiea ia aiaeii/enoiuo nii?oaeaieyo a iaoae
no?aia ( ?en. 2).

?en. 2. I?ioeann oei?aiiiiecaoeee.

aaea: 1 – eiioaeia? oei?a (aac); 2 – oei?ii?iaiae; 3 – eiii?anni?; 4 –
?anoai?iay aieinoue (aae); 5 – ?anoiaeiay aieinoue (aae); 6 – ianin
ia?aea/ee ?anoai?a aiiea/iie aiaeu ec 4 a 5; 7 – ianin aeicaoi?; 8 –
iaii?iue aiaeiaiae a naoue ai?iaea; 9 – o?oaii?iaiae aiiea/iie aiaeu; 10
– o?oaii?iaiae iiaea/e aiaeu a ?anoai?iue e ?anoiaeiue aaee.

Oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee :

1 – iai?yaeaiea ieoaiey – 380 A;

2 – aeeaiacii oaiia?aoo? yenieoaoaoeee – io -50 aei +50

3 – aa?aioeeiue n?ie – 1,5 aiaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oieueei CAI “?inaiaeieaiae” e aai ciiaeueiua
i?aaei?eyoey eiatho eeoeaiceth Ieino?iy e Ainai?oaoiaaeci?a ?O ia
eiiieaeniua ?aaiou ii no?ieoaeuenoao e iaeaaeea iiaeiaiuo
iaacca?aaeeaathueo nenoai aiaeiniaaaeaiey a ?innee.

Oe?ia ?ac?aaioaao iioeiaeueioth noaio oei?aiiiiecaoeee e caueou iauaeoa
io aaa?ee i?eiaieoaeueii e ianoiui oneiaeyi n iaeneiaeueiui
eniieueciaaieai nouanoaothueo nii?oaeaiee e no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee
ia aaca nia?aiaiiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaieye iee?ii?ioeanni?iie
oaoieee. ?ac?aaioee i?ioiaeyo yenia?oeco a oeaio?a “ Oei?aaciianiinoue “
e niaeanothony n ianoiuie i?aaiaie Ainai?oaoiaaeci?a. “ Oaoie/aneea
?aoaiey “, ?ac?aaioaiiua oe?iie, iicaieytho naanoe e ieieioio noaaeeth
?aai/aai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?iaanoe no?ieoaeuenoai nianoaaiiuie neeaie
i?e ieieiaeueiii iauaia no?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio.

N o/aoii anao i?aeiouanoa ie iaeia oe?ia ia iiaeao ninoaaeoue
eiieo?aioeeth ia aeaiiii ?uiea.

Iyoeaeanyoeeaoiee iiuo ?aaiou ia nouea iaoee e i?aeoeee yaeyaony
aa?aioeae aunieiai ea/anoaa i?aaeeaaaaiuo oneoa.

2.2 Ioeaiea eiieo?aioeee e ?uieia nauoa.

CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ yaeyaony o?aaeeoeeiiiie iiiiiieeae e iaeaaeaao
eeoeaiceae ia ana aeaeu i?aaeeaaaaiuo ?aaio, ia eiaay oai naiui
ioa/anoaaiiuo eiieo?aioia.

Na?ueacioth eiieo?aioeeth iiaeao ninoaaeoue aia?eeaineay oe?ia “
Fliht “, i?aaeinoaaeythuay yaeaioe/iua oneoae eae e “ ?inaiaeieaiae “
oaea ia i?ioyaeaiee naie eao a no?aiao naaa?iie Aia?eee. Eiiiaiey “
Fliht ” ia/aea caaiaauaaoue ?inneeneee ?uiie aiae iacaae. Ii ea/anoao
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa oe?iu iaoiaeyony a ?aaiii iieiaeaiee.

Aeey caoaaoa aeiee ?uiea “ Fliht ” eca?aea iaoiae oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee,
a i?iua aiai?y, i?aaeeaaaao iio?aaeoaeyi naie oneoae ia 15% aeaoaaea,
/ai “ ?inaiaeieaiae “.

?oeiaiaenoai “ ?inaiaeieaiaea “ iaoei aeueoa?iaoeaioth no?aoaaeth
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau, a eiaiii, – eiieo?aioeeth ea/anoaa, ii ea/anoaa,
iiieiaaiiai a oe?ieii niunea yoiai neiaa.

O “ ?inaiaeieaiaea ” anoue aeaa i?aeiouanoaa. Ai-ia?auo, oe?ia auno?aa
inouanoaeyao i?iaeoii-ecuneaoaeueiua ?aaiou, no?ieoaeuenoai iauaeoa,
caeoieo iai?oaeiaaiey e aai iaeaaeeo, /ai caii?neea eiieo?aiou, eioi?ua
auioaeaeaiu aeinoaaeyoue ana iaiaoiaeeiia aeey auiieiaiey ?aaio ii?ai e,
ia eiay neeaaeia aoaeoo i?eaycaiu e a?aoeeo i?eoiaea noaeia, /oi
oaaee/eo cao?aou, naycaiiua n ?eneii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa. Ai- aoi?uo, “
?inaiaeieaiae ” inouanoaeyao iaeaaeeo iai?oaeiaaiey, o/eouaay niaoeeoeeo
aiaeioicyenoa, enoi/ieeia aiaeu e ae?.aniaeou, e iaania/eaaao aai
aa?aioeeiia ianeoaeeaaiea, oiaaea eae “ Fliht ” ?ac?aaaouaaao
noaiaea?oiua i?iaeou iaacca?aaeeaathueo nenoai.

?uieii nauoa i?aaeeaaaaiuo “ ?inaiaeieaiaeii ” oneoa yaeyaony any naoue
aiaeii?iaiaeii – eaiaeecaoeeiiiuo oicyenoa ( AEO ) ?innee. Aieinoue
yoiai ?uiea aaeeea e ni?in aoaeao caaenaoue io neaaeothueo oaeoi?ia :

– caeioa?aniaaiiinoe AEO a iiaeuaia ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey;

– eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe i i?aeiouanoaao oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo “
?inaiaeieaiaeii ”, o.a. io oniaoii i?iaaaeaiiie ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee;

A ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?uiea nauoa neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue
aa?iiaeneee ?uiie, a /anoiinoe, ?uiie Eoaeee, n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?ie
i?iaaaeaiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ia?aaiai?u, eioi?ua iieacaee
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue eo a oneoaao oe?iu.

2.3 No?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa.

A nia?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo, eiaaea i?aeoe/anee i?ae?auaii
ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea aiaeieaiaeueiuo oicyenoa, ?oeiaiaenoai
naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyao iiene iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia. Caeanue
noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui neaaia ?acaeoea ?yaea iaiaoiaeeiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa ni anae aai
niaoeeaeecaoeeae.

Iniiaiua oneeey iaiaoiaeeii iai?aaeo ia aiaeec ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee a yoie io?anee, a oaeaea ?aeeaia iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa, a cia/eo e naiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Ionthaea aai ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey iineo oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue oa?aeoa? e
noaaeo iniiaiie naiae oeaeueth aiooaiea aeiaa?ey e oe?ia e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e auiieiyaiui ?aaioai.

?aeeaio naiae oe?iu i?aaeiieaaaaony inouanoaeyoue iooai ee/iuo ano?a/
?oeiaiaeeoaey “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ n aee?aeoi?aie ai?iaeneeo aiaeieaiaeia,
auionea ?aeeaiiuo i?iniaeoia, a oaeaea ia ?acee/iuo eiioa?aioeeyo e
aunoaaeao. I?e yoii noa?aynue iiae/a?eiooue, /oi oe?ia anaaaea enoiaeeo
ec iio?aaiinoae eeeaioa.

I?e aeaiiie ?uii/iie no?aoaaee oe?iu, iniiauaaynue ia iiuoa naiae ?aaiou
e ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
oainu ia oniao ninoaaeytho 70%, a noaiaiue ?enea iacia/eoaeueia.

Iieo/aiea i?eauee i?e yoie no?aoaaee aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao iiauoaiey
ea/anoaa i?aaeeaaaaiuo oneoa, oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa caeac/eeia eae
ioa/anoaaiiuo, oae e eiino?aiiuo oe?i, o.a auoiae ia iiaua ?uiee nauoa.

Oeaia ia oneoae onoaiaaeeaaaony ia iniiaa noaiaea?oia, o/?aaeaeaiiuo
ainoaea?noaii ( Oeaiiee Ainno?iy io 1984 aiaea ), aaea eceiaeaia
iaoiaeeea ia?aciaaiey oeaiu. Iaeiaei, o/eouaathony e neaaeothuea
i?eioeeiu:

1. Oeaia aeieaeia iie?uaaoue ana ecaea?aeee.

2. Oeaia aeieaeia auoue aeinoaoi/ii aunieie a nayce n aaeeie/iinoueth e
iaiiaoi?eiinoueth i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa, ii iiaeao niaea?aeaoue
ii?aaeaeaiioth eueaioo.

Enoiaey ec auoaia?a/eneaiiiai, oe?ia no?ieo naia oeaiiia?aciaaiea,
i?iaiaey iieeoeeo i?anoeaeiuo oeai, o/eouaay no?aieaiea caeac/eeia e
aunieiio ea/anoao oneoa. I?e yoii oe?ia no?aieony e aeinoeaeaieth
iaeaieaa aunieiai o?iaiy i?eauee, no?aiynue iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue
aeey naay oaea/ioth neooaoeeth ia ?uiea (ionoonoaea ioa/anoaaiiuo
eiieo?aioia, ana aic?anoathuee ni?in ia i?aaeinoaaeyaiua oneoae). E
yoiio iiaoaeaeaao oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue auieaou i?ioeaioia ca nnoaeo
aaiea.

Oe?ia “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ ?aaioaao ia caeac e iiyoiio auiieiaiea anao
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo aeaeia oneoa inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n eiathueiny
ii?ooaeai caeacia, caeeth/aiiuie eiio?aeoaie e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuie
niaeaoaieyie. I?e yoii ca?aiaa iaiaa?eaathony n?iee auiieiyaiuo ?aaio,
oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, cao?aou e oeaiu. Niaethaeaiea aeiaiai?iie
aeenoeeieeiu e acaeiiuo niaeaoaiee naiaeeony e oiio, /oi oe?ia iaycoaony
naiaa?aiaiii i?iecaanoe e naeaoue a yenieoaoaoeeth iaacca?aaeeaathuoth
nenoaio ieoueaaie aiaeu, a caeac/ee aeieaeai iieaoeoue i?iecaaaeaiiua
?aaiou a oeacaiiua n?iee.

Ioeaiea cao?ao, eioi?uo iio?aaoao ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoa, aoaeao
i?iecaaaeaia a oeiainiaii ieaia.

2.4 Ieai no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?ia “ ?inaiaeieaiae “ iaoiaeeony ia ia/aeueiii
yoaia naiaai ?acaeoey, eioi?ue naycai n ?aoaieai aii?inia oeiaine?iaaiey
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, naiinoiyoaeueiui iieneii iioaioeeaeueiuo
caeac/eeia e inaiaieai oeaeaaiai ?uii/iiai naaiaioa. Iieiaeaiea e?aeia
ineiaeiyaony ninoiyieai yeiiiieee a no?aia.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai i?iaeoa oe?ia aioiaa acyoue ia naay ooieoeee “
Aaii?iaeoe?iaueea “ e “ Aaiiiae?yae/eea “, a oaeaea caaeaenoaiaaoue ana
aeaeu aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa.

A nayce ni niaoeeoeeie i?aaeeaaaaiuo oneoa oe?ia naia ?ac?aaioaao aeey
ethaiai aiaeioicyenoaa iioeiaeueioth noaio oei?e?iaaiey e caueou iauaeoa
io aaa?ee i?eiaieoaeueii e e ianoiui oneiaeyi n iaeneiaeueiui
eniieueciaaieai nouanoaothueo nii?oaeaiee e no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee
ia aaca nia?aiaiiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e iee?ii?ioeanni?iie
oaoieee.

*oi eanaaony i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa, oi ii aeeth/aao a naay
neaaeothuea yoaiu:

– i?iaeoii – ecuneaoaeueiua ?aaiou;

– i?eayceo eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio
i?ioeanno;

– ?an/ao cao?ao ia no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou;

– ?ac?aaioeo oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee;

– iaania/aiea no?ieoaeuenoaa nu?ueai, iaoa?eaeaie, eiiieaeoothueie e
ae?.;

– caeoieo oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, aai iiioaae e iaeaaeeo;

– iao/aiea ia?niiaea ?aaioa n iiaie nenoaiie iaacca?aaeeaaiey ieoueaaie
aiaeu;

– i?aaiecaoeeth eiio?iey ca oiaeii no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee
iaacca?aaeeaathuae nenoaiu.

Ii ieii/aiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee iai?oaeiaaiey oe?ia i?iecaiaeeo
caione nenoaiu e i?aaeinoaaeyao aa?aioeeiia ianeoaeeaaiea a oa/aiea 1,5
aiaea.

Cao?aou ia i?iaeo i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 16.

Oaaeeoea 16

Cao?aou ia no?ieoaeuenoai e iaeaaeeo nenoaiu iaacca?aaeeaaiey

oe?ia « ?inaiaeieaiae »

Cao?aou ia : 1997a.(iieaa?oaeueii)

oun.?oa 1998a.(iieoaiae.)

oun.?oa

1 2 3 4 I II

I?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth a o./.

yeaeo?iyia?aey 1500 1500 1500 1500 5400 5400

iaoa?eaeu 54855 54855 54855 54855 1112810 1112817

aii?oecaoeey IO 2380 2380 2390 2390 4930 4930

o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu 4480 4480 4490 4490 32450 32450

iieaoa o?oaea 25600 25600 25650 25650 81140 81140

io/eneaiey ia nioe.co?aoiaaiea 10245 10245 10257 10257 36624 36624

cao?aou ia ?aeeaio 1125 1125 1125 1125 750 750

cao?aou ia eiiaiaee?iaee 6000 6000 6000 6000 4270 4270

ieaoa ca a?aiaeo 11837 11837 11837 11837 11837 11837

Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ia yaeythony iinoiyiiie aaee/eiie.
Iaeneiaeueiay aaee/eia ?anoiaeia i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe /aoaa?oiai
eaa?oaea ia?aiai aiaea e ia/aei neaaeothuaai aiaea ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa. Iineieueeo ia/eiaaony yoai no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iinea caionea nenoaiu a yenieoaoaoeeth cao?aou ?acei niecyony, oae eae
aoaeoo eniieueciaaoueny oieueei ia iieoieo ?aaaaioia ( oei? e aiieae ) e
i?ioeeaeoe/aneea ?aaiou.

2.5 I?aaiecaoeeiiii – th?eaee/aneee ieai.

“ ?inaiaeieaiae “ i?aaenoaaeyao niaie cae?uoia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai n
onoaaiui eaieoaeii a ?acia?a 7 640 oun.?oa. e aaaeao naith
aeayoaeueiinoue ia iniiaa A?aaeaeaineiai Eiaeaena ?O. CAI yaeyaony
th?eaee/aneei eeoeii e aeaenoaoao ia iniiaa Onoaaa e O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
aeiaiai?a, eiaao nianoaaiiia eiouanoai, naiinoiyoaeueiue aaeain e
?an/aoiue n/ao.

Ia ana aeaeu i?aaeeaaaaiuo a aeaiiii i?aeoa ?aaio e oneoa eiathony
niioaaonoaothuea eeoeaicee :

– Ainai?oaoiaaeci?a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia i?iaeoiua ?aaiou :
?ac?aaioeo oaoiieiae/aneie e ii?iaoeaii – oaoiieiae/aneie
aeieoiaioaoeee, naycaiiie n iaania/aieai aaciianiie yenieoaoaoeee
i?iecaiaenoa, iauaeoia e iai?oaeiaaiey, oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee, oaoieei –
yeiiiie/aneeo iainiiaaiee, oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aaeaiaioia, oaoie/aneeo e
oaoiieiae/aneeo ii?i aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey ieoueaaie aiaeu e noieia ? 11
I-2000/2947 io 10.06.95 aiaea.

– Ainai?oaoiaaeci?a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia iiioaae e ioneiiaeaaei/iua
?aaiou ? 11 I 2000/2948 io 19.06.95 aiaea.

– Ieino?iy ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia inouanoaeaiea no?ieoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ( auiieiaiea i?iaeoiuo ?aaio, no?ieoaeueii – iiioaaeiuo
?aaio, eiaeeie?eiaiauo oneoa ) OOeE ? 003326 io 27.12.96 aiaea.

– Eeoeaicey ( ienueii ) Ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiieoaoa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu io 23.04 97 aiaea ? 22-3/ 249.
I?iaeoe?iaaiea : io?aia ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey anaai eiiieaena ?aaio, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a i?iaeoa, ec
ninoaaa niaoeeaeenoia auaeaeyaony a?oiia a ?acia?a 14 /aeiaae ni
neaaeothuae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie ( ?en. 3. ).

?en. 3 I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?iaeoiie a?oiiu

?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoa – /aeiaae, iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiio?iee?othuee
inouanoaeaiea aeaiiiai i?iaeoa.

I?iaeoiay a?oiia ?ac?aaaouaaao oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea auiieiaiey
i?iaeoa ( OYI ), a oaeaea oi?ie?oao aeieoiaioaoeeiiiue eiiieaen i?iaeoa.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay a?oiia onoaiaaeeaaao iai?oaeiaaiea, inouanoaeyao
no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiua ?aaiou, iaeaaeeo e ione.

2.6 Yeiiiie/aneee ?ene e no?aoiaaiea.

Eaaeaeue iiaue i?iaeo iaecaaaeii noaeeeaaaony n ii?aaeaeaiiuie
o?oaeiinoyie, oa?iaeathueie aai i?iaaaeaieth e nouanoaiaaieth.
Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue iiiaiou, naycaiiua n ?eneii i?iaeoa, a oaeaea
ooi/ieoue ia?ii?eyoey, iicaieythuea oiaiueoeoue ?ene e iioa?e.

?ene, naycaiiue n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoa, iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia
neaaeothuea a?oiiu:

1. Eiaanoeoeeiiiue ?ene ( naycaiiue n i?ioeannii no?ieoaeuenoaa ):

– oaaee/aiea n?iea no?ieoaeuenoaa i?ioea ?an/aoiiai ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiui
e oaoie/aneei i?e/eiai;

– oaaee/aiea cao?ao i?ioea ieaiiauo;

2. Niaoeeaeueiue ?ene ( naycaiiue n ii?iaeueiui ooieoeeiie?iaaieai
iaacca?aaeeaathuae nenoaiu ):

– ia?aaie a niaaaeaiee yeaeo?iyia?aeae, ?aaaaioii e ae?.;

– naie a ?aaioa ianeoaeeaathuaai na?aena;

3. Iauee ?ene :

– i?e?iaeiua ( iiaea? e o.ae.);

– ia?aaeaiea;

– iieeoe/aneea ( eciaiaiea caeiiicaoaeuenoaa, i?iaeoiuo ii?iaoeaia e
ae?.).

Aeey auoa ia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeia ?enea iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue
?enea, aa?iyoiinoue ( oaae. 17), a oaeaea ia?u ii i?aaeioa?auaieth
?eneia.

Oaaeeoea 17

Aeaeu ?enea Noaiaiue ?enea

oun.?oa Aa?iyoiinoue ?enea

Yeiiiie/aneee?ene

oun.?oa

Eiaanoeoeeiiiue ?ene 270700 0,5 135350

Niaoeeaeueiue ?ene 170610 0,3 51183

Iauee ?ene 45120 0,2 9024

A nayce n ia?a/eneaiiuie aiciiaeiuie ?eneaie ?oeiaiaenoaii CAI “
?inaiaeieaiae “ i?aaei?eiyoi ?yae ia? ii ieieiecaoeee ?eneia:

– i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey, iaiai?aiu oneiaey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoa aaieii “ Noiee/iue “, eioi?ue eiaao onoie/eaia
oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea;

– ana ?an/aoiua n?iee aeaiu n caianii;

– eiaeaia?iua eiiioieeaoeee iiiaie?aoii i?iaeoaee?iaaiu, /oi naiaeao e
ieieioio aa?iyoiinoue ia?aaiaa n yeaeo?iyia?aeae;

– iniiaiie ?aaaaio – noeueoao aiiiiey, eioi?ue yaeyaony i?aeoe/anee
iiae?o/iui iaoa?eaeii, iioiio eae eniieuecoaony a naeueneii oicyenoaa a
ea/anoaa oaeia?aiey, ionthaea aa?iyoiinoue ia?aaiaa iaaieueoay;

– aoaeoo i?eiyou oneeaiiua ia?u ii iiaea?iie aaciianiinoe ( onoaiiaea
neaiaeecaoeee iiiauaiee, i?aaiecaoeey neoaea iaaiiie io?aiu e ae?.);

– iiuoiua th?enou iinoiyiii neaaeyo ca eciaiaieyie a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa;

– aeiaaeueiua iieeoe/aneea eciaiaiey iaeiaa?iyoiu;

– eiouanoai cano?aoiaaii.

2.8 Oeiaine?iaaiea e oeiainiaue iei.

*oiau ii?aaeaeeoue eiee/anoai oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, o?aaoaiuo ia
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoa, iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeoue ianeieueei oaaeeoe, a
eioi?uo iaaeyaeii aoaeao i?aaenoaaeaii eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea .

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaeia i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony i?eaueue oe?iu .
Iiyoiio oeiainiaue ieai iaiaoiaeeii ia/aoue n aaeaina aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia ( oaae. 18 ), eioi?ue aeieaeai ioaaoeoue ia aii?in:
iio?aaothony ee aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 18

Aaeain aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ia no?ieoaeuenoai e iaeaaeeo
iaacca?aaeeaathueo nenoai

1998a. 1999a.(iieoaiae) 2000a.(iieoaiae)

Niaea?aeaiea

I II I II

Au?o/ea – 188561 199761 212546 254545

?anoiaeu a o. /.

Iinoiyiiua

ia?aiaiiua 282858

185475

97383 111692

92737

18955 110872

92737

18135 108414

92737

15677 108414

92737

15677

Aaeain (i?aauoaiea (+), iaoaaoea (-) aeaiaaeiuo n?-a.)

76869

88889

104132

104132

I?iaiaeece?iaaa oaaeeoeo iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, cao?a/aiiua ia i?iaeo a ia?aua aeaa aiaea aai inouanoaeaiey
ia/ioo ieoiaoueny n?aco iinea aaiaea nenoaiu iaacca?aaeeaaiea a
yenieoaoaoeeth, /oi aa?aioe?oao auno?ue ?an/ao ii e?aaeeoai n aaieii.
*oi aea eanaaony /enoie i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai i?iaeoa, oi
?an/aou i?aaenoaaeaiu a neaaeothuae oaaeeoea 19.

Oaaeeoea 19

Aaeain aeioiaeia e cao?ao ia no?ieoaeuenoai e iaeaaeeo
iaacca?aaeeaathueo nenoai

Niaea?aeaiea 1998a. 1999a.(iieoaiae) 2000a.(iieoaiae)

Aeioiae – 188561 199761 212546 212546

Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa 282858 111692 110872 108414 108414

Aaeainiaay i?eaueue – 76869 88889 104132 104132

Iaeiaiaua io/eneaiey 37325 30747 35555 41652 41652

*enoay i?eaueue – 37325 46122 53334 62480 62480

Ec i?aaeeiaeaiiie oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi a i?eaueue i?iaeo aoaeao
i?eiineoue oaea n iiiaioa caionea iiaie nenoaiu a yenieoaoaoeeth. A
iineaaeothuee aiae yenieoaoaoeee ecaea?aeee oiaiueoaoueny, a /enoay
i?eaueue niioaaonoaaiii aic?anoao. A aeaeueiaeoai iia iiaeao oaaee/eony
eeai inoaiaony ia aeaiiii o?iaia, eeai aic?anoao i?e oaaee/aiee
aiaeiiio?aaeaiey a ai?iaeneie naoe.

N?ie ieoiaaiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony iiaen/aoii /enea eao, a oa/aiea eioi?uo
cao?aou aoaeoo iiaaoaiu ca n/ao iieo/aaiiai aeioiaea. Oae eae aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa iinooiatho ia ?aaiiia?ii, oi n?ie ieoiaaiinoe ?aaai ia?eiaeo
a?aiaie, ca eioi?ue noiia?iua /enoua aeaiaaeiua iinooieaiey i?aaunyo
aaee/eio eiaanoeoeee ia i?iaeo. Noiia eiaanoeoeee ia i?iaeo ninoaaeyao
200000 oun.?oa. Yoi aeiaeaiey ia iiioaae e iaeaaeeo iai?oaeiaaiey.

Enoiaey ec ?an/aoia n?ie ieoiaaiinoe i?aaeeiaeaiiiai i?iaeoa ninoaaeo 2
aiaea.

A U A I Ae

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaacca?aaeeaaiea noaei /ooue ee ia aaeeinoaaiiui
iaycaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a iiiainooiai/aoie nenoaia i/enoee aiaeu
ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey.

Iaaeinoaoee, i?enouea anai i?ioeannai iaacca?aaeeaaiey, canoaaeytho
eneaoue aieaa niaa?oaiiua e eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaoiaeu i/enoee aiaeu. E
iiaeiaiui iaoiaeai iaacca?aaeeaaiey ieoueaaie aiaeu ioiineony
oei?aiiiiecaoeey.

A nayce ni niaoeeoeeie i?aaeeaaaaiuo oneoa oe?ia naia ?ac?aaioaao aeey
ethaiai aiaeioicyenoaa iioeiaeueioth noaio oei?e?iaaiey e caueou iauaeoa
io aaa?ee i?eiaieoaeueii e e ianoiui oneiaeyi n iaeneiaeueiui
eniieueciaaieai nouanoaothueo nii?oaeaiee e no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee
ia aaca nia?aiaiiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e iee?ii?ioeanni?iie
oaoieee.

Ianoiyuee i?iaeo ?ann/eoai ia 2aiaea, eanaaony no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee
iaacca?aaeeaathuae nenoaiu ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey ia ai?iaeneii
aiaeieaiaea.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa iaiaoiaeeiu aeaiaaeiua aeiaeaiey a ?acia?a 557
ieeeeiiia ?oaeae. ?an/aou naeaeaiiua a ianoiyuai OYI, iicaieytho
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi CAI “ ?inaiaeieaiae “, inouanoaeythuay
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoa a ia?aua aeaa aiaea yenieoaoaoeee nenoaiu ia
oieueei ieoieo ia?aiia/aeueiua cao?aou, ii e ?ann/eoaaony n aaieii ii
i?ioeaioai nnoaeu.

III Iino?iaiea e ?an/ao naoaaiai a?aoeea ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa

Aeey iino?iaiey naoaaiai a?aoeea, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue ninoaa e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaio e ioeaieoue eo aeeeoaeueiinoue. Naoaaua
a?aoeee no?iyo enoiaey ec aea?aaa oeaeae. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ninoaaa
?aaio i?iaeoa “ No?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee oei?aiiiiiuo
iaacca?aaeeaathueo nenoai “ iaiaoiaeeii ?aaeeciaaoue neaaeothuea ?aaiou
:

A – i?iaeoii – ecuneaoaeueiua ?aaiou;

A – i?eaycaoue eiino?oeoi?neoth aeieoiaioaoeeth e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio
i?ioeanno;

A – ?ann/eoaoue cao?aou ia no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou;

A – ?ac?aaioaoue oaoiieiae/aneoth aeieoiaioaoeeth;

Ae – iaania/eoue no?ieoaeuenoai nu?ueai, iaoa?eaeaie, eiiieaeoothueie e
ae?.;

A – caeoieoue oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea, i?iecaanoe aai iiioaae e
iaeaaeeo;

AE – iao/eoue eaae?u ?aaioa n iiaie nenoaiie iaacca?aaeeaaiey ieoueaaie
aiaeu;

C – i?aaieciaaoue eiio?ieue ca oiaeii no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaeaaeee
iaacca?aaeeaathuae nenoaiu.

?en. 4 Oiiieiaey naoaaiai a?aoa.

Ia iniiaa noi?ie?iaaiiie naoaaie iiaeaee, aeeth/athuae ii?aaeaeaiea
ninoaaa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ?aaio e ciay eo aeeeoaeueiinoue ( tij ),
iiaeii i?iecaanoe ?an/aou neaaeothueo ia?aiao?ia naoaaiai a?aoeea (
oaae. 20) :

– ?aiiaa ia/aei auiieiaiey ?aaiou ( O?i );

– ?aiiaa ieii/aiea auiieiaiey ?aaiou ( O?i );

– iicaeiaa ia/aei auiieiaiey ?aaiou ( Oii );

– iicaeiaa ieii/aiea auiieiaiey ?aaiou ( Oii );

– iieiue ?aca?a ?aaiou ( Rij );

– /anoiue ?aca?a ia?aiai ?iaea ( r1ij );

– /anoiue ?aca?a aoi?iai ?iaea ( r 2ij );

Oaaeeoea 20

tij T?i O?i Oii Oii Rij r 1ij r 2ij

4 0 4 0 4 0 0 0

0 4 4 7 7 3 3 0

4 4 8 4 8 0 0 0

8 4 12 4 12 0 0 0

0 4 4 8 8 4 1 4

5 4 9 7 12 3 0 0

4 8 12 8 12 0 0 0

8 8 16 8 16 0 0 0

4 12 16 12 16 0 0 0

7 16 23 16 23 0 0 0

N I E N I E E E O A ? A O O ? U

1. O?ieiaa I.A., Eyieia N.TH. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii auiieiaieth
eo?niaiai i?iaeoa: “ ?ac?aaioea aecian – ieaia eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa
”.

2. Iaeeo A. Aecian – ieai eee eae i?aaieciaaoue nianoaaiiia aecian.

3. Ao?ia A.I., Ii?ioeei A.A., Iiaeeia I.E. Iaoiaeeea ninoaaeaiey aecian
– ieaia.

4. Aiciay I.O. Oeiey aiaeu e iee?iaeieiaey.

5. Aa?aiia I.I Aiaeiniaaaeaiea.

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