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Шпоры по экологии

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yeinenoaia – iaeaieueoaa iaoe?iia ooieoeeiiaeueiia aaeeinoai.
Niaieoiiinoue anao i?aaieciia, ninoaaeythueo aeii, a oaeaea ?acee/iuo
ioiioaiee, eioi?ua eo naycuaatho ae?oa n ae?oaii, e anao eo
acaeiiaeaenoaee ni n?aaeie – ana yoi ninoaaeyao yeinenoaio.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ooieoeeiiaeueiay nenoaia, aeeth/athuay a naay
niiauanoai aeeauo nouanoa e eo n?aaeo iaeoaiey, iacuaaaony yeieiae/aneie
nenoaiie

3.7ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoee “ieuaaay oeaiue”, “o?ioe/aneee o?iaaiue”,
“eiinoiaiou”. Aioo?e yeinenoaiu niaea?aeauea yia?aeth i?aaie/aneea
aauanoaa nicaeathony aaoio?ioiuie i?aaieciaie e neoaeao ieuae
(enoi/ieeii aauanoaa e yia?aee) aeey aaoa?io?ioia. I?eia?: aeeaioiia
iiaaeaao ?anoaiey, yoi aeeaioiia a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeao auoue nuaaeaii
ae?oaei aeeaioiui, e oaeaea iooai iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ia?aiin yia?aee
/a?ac ?yae i?aaieciia – eaaeaeue iineaaeothuee ieoaaony i?aaeuaeouei,
iinoaaeythuei aio nu?uea e yia?aeth. Oaeay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
iacuaaaony ieuaaie oeaiueth, a eaaeaeia aa caaii – o?ioe/aneei o?iaiai
(a?a/. trophos – ieoaiea). Eiinoiaiou: ia?ae/iua – ieoathony ia?ae/iuie
i?iaeooeaioaie, o.a. yoi o?aaiyaeiua aeeaioiua; aoi?e/iua eiin. –
ieoathony o?aaiyaeiuie, oaeei ia?acii yoi oaea ieioiyaeiua aeeaioiua,
oae aea eae e o?aouee/iua eiin., iiaaeathuea eiin. aoi?iai ii?yaeea.

iyoue iniiaiuo ii/aiia?acothueo oaeoi?ia (ii Aeieo/aaao,1870)
Ae.aeieaca,/oi ii/aa iinoiyiii eciaiyaony e ?acaeaaaony, a a aa aeoeaiie
ciia eaeoo oece/aneea, oeie/. e aeieiae/. i?ioeannu. Ii auyaee 5 aeaaiuo
ii/aiia?ac. Oaeoi?ia, e eioi?ui ioiinyony eeeiao, aaieiae/aneay iniiaa
(iaoa?eineay ii?iaea), oiiia?aoey (?aeueao), aeeaua i?aaieciu e a?aiy

.5.2 ia?a/eneeoa aeaaiua oeeeeu e?oaiai?ioa. E aeaaiui oeeeeai ioiinyony
aeiaaioeie/aneea oeeeeu oaea?iaea, aiaeu, acioa, oinoi?a, na?u,
aeiaaiiuo eaoeiiia.

/oi oaeia niiauanoai. Niiauanoai – yoi niaieoiiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaothueo
iiioeyoeee, caieiathueo ii?aaeaeaiioth oa??eoi?eth, aeeaie eiiiiiaio
yeinenoaiu. Niiauanoai ooieoeeiie?oao eae aeeiaie/aneay aaeeieoea n
?acee/iuie o?ioe/aneeie o?iaiyie, /a?ac iaai i?ioiaeeo iioie yia?aee e
niaa?oaaony e?oaiai?io ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa.

ieiia?iua niiauanoaa: oa?iei, i?eia?. No?oeoo?a niiauanoaa nicaeaaony
iinoaiaiii a oa/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie. I?eia?ii neoaeeo canaeaiea
i?aaieciaie iaiaaeaiiie ai?iie ii?iaeu ia iaaeaaii ia?aciaaaoainy
aoeeaie/aneii ino?iaa. Aea?aauey e eonoa?ieee ia iiaoo ?anoe ia aieie
neaeueiie ii?iaea, oae eae caeanue iao iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ieo ii/au.
Iaeiaei aiaei?inee e eeoaeieee ?aciui niiniaii iiiaaeatho ia oaeea
oa??eoi?ee e canaeytho eo ia?acoy ieiia?iua niiauanoaa.

yeieiae/aneay noeoeanney: ii?aaeaeaiea (ia i?eia?a). No?oeoo?a
niiauanoaa nicaeaaony iinoaiaiii a oa/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie.
I?eia?ii neoaeeo canaeaiea i?aaieciaie iaiaaeaiiie ai?iie ii?iaeu ia
iaaeaaii ia?aciaaaoainy aoeeaie/aneii ino?iaa. Aea?aauey e eonoa?ieee ia
iiaoo ?anoe ia aieie neaeueiie ii?iaea, oae eae caeanue iao iaiaoiaeeiie
aeey ieo ii/au. Iaeiaei aiaei?inee e eeoaeieee ?aciui niiniaii
iiiaaeatho ia oaeea oa??eoi?ee e canaeytho eo ia?acoy ieiia?iua
niiauanoaa. Iinoaiaiiia iaeiieaiea ioia?oeo e ?aceaaathueony i?aaieciia
e y?icey ai?iie ii?iaeu a ?acoeueoaoa auaao?eaaiey i?eaiaeyo e
oi?ie?iaaieth neiy ii/au, aeinoaoi/iiai aeey oiai /oiau caeanue iiaee
iinaeeoueny aieaa e?oiiua ?anoaiey, oaeea eae ioe e iaii?ioieee. A
eiioea eiioeia ca yoeie ?anoaieyie iineaaeotho aua aieaa e?oiiua e
o?aaiaaoaeueiua e ieoaoaeueiui aauanoaai oi?iu – naiaiiua ?anoaiey,
o?aau, eonoa?ieee e aea?aauey. Oaeay niaia iaeieo aeaeia ae?oaeie ca
iaeioi?ue ia?eiae a?aiaie iacuaaaony yeieiae/aneie noeoeanneae.

eeeiaeniia niiauanoai: ii?aaeaeaiea, i?eia?. Caaa?oathuaa niiauanoai –
onoie/eaia, naiiaiciaiiaeythuaany e iaoiaeyuaany a ?aaiiaanee ni n?aaeie
– iac. eeeiaeniui niiauanoaii. i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue eenoiiaaeiue
ean.

iaeneiaeueiay aeoaeia iaia?oaeaiey aeeauo i?aaieciia a caiiie ei?a,
ieaaia. A eeoinoa?a aeeciue ia?aie/eaaao i?aaeaea anaai oaiia?aoo?a
ai?iuo ii?iae e iiaecaiiuo aiae, eioi?ay iinoaiaiii aic?anoaao n
aeoaeiie e ia o?iaia 1,5 – 15 ei. oaea i?aauoaao 100 a?.N. naiay
aieueoay aeoaeia, ia eioi?ie a ii?iaeao caiiie ei?u auee iaia?oaeaiu
aaeoa?ee, ninoaaeyao 4 ei. a ieaaia aeeciue ?ani?ino?aiaia aei aieaa
cia/eoaeueiuco aeoaei e ano?a/aaony aeaaea ia aeia ieaaie/aneeo aiaaeei
a 10 – 11 ei. io iiaa?oiinoe, oae eae oaiia?aoo?a oai ieiei 0 a?.N.

ieiaeiaeoinoue e ?iaeaeaaiinoue iniaaiiinoe oa?ieiia. ?acia?u iiioeyoeee
iiaoo aic?anoe a ?acoeueoaoa eiiea?aoeee ec ninaaeieo iiioeyoeee eee ca
n/ao ?aciiiaeaiey iniaae. Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae ?aciiiaeaiey yaeyaony
ieiaeiaeoinoue, eioi?ay ecia?yaony /eneii iioiieia iaeiie aeaineie
iniae. Ieiaeiaeoinoue iiaeii au?aaeaoue ?acee/iuie niiniaaie, caaenyueie
io oeaeae eco/aiey e io iniaaiiinoae eco/aaiiai i?aaiecia. Aiai?y i
ieaeiieoathueo, iieuecothony oa?ieiii ?iaeaeaaiinoue, eioi?oth
ii?aaeaeytho eae /enei iioiieia, i?iecaiaeeiuo iaeiie naieie ca aiae. O
/aeiaaea ?iaeaeaaiinoue iau/ii au?aaeaaony /eneii ?iaeaeaiee ia 1000
/aeiaae ca aiae.

aa?oiea a?aieoeu aeecie ia Caiea. Aa?oiyy a?aieoea aeecie a aoiinoa?a
ii?aaeaeyaony ia?anoaieai n aunioie oeueo?aoeieaoiaie ?aaeeaoeee. Nii?u
aaeoa?ee e a?eaia iaia?oaeeaatho aei auniou 20-22 ei, ii iniiaiay /anoue
ay?iieaieoiia nin?aaeioi/aia a neia 1 – 1,5 ei. a ai?ao a?aieoea
?ani?ino?aiaiey iacaiiie aeecie ieiei 6 ei iaae o?iaiai ii?y.

eaeay oi?ia iaoa?ee ai Anaeaiiie (niaeanii Aa?iaaeneiio) yaeyaony
iaeaieaa aeoeaiie. A.E. Aa?iaaeneee iiae/a?eeaae, /oi aeeaia aauanoai –
naiay aeoeaiay oi?ia iaoa?ee ai Anaeaiiie. Iii i?iecaiaeeo aeaaioneoth
aaioeie/aneoth ?aaioo a aeinoa?a, iieiinoueth i?aia?aciaaa aa?oiea
iaiei/ee Caiee ca a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey.

8.1 ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua i?eioeeiu anoanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, eioi?ua
ia?ooaiu /aeiaaeii e eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e yeieiae/aneiio e?eceno. 1.
Eniieueciaaiea /aeiaaeii a naiae oic. aeayoaeueiinoe i?aeiouanoaaiii
aioo?aiieo ii ioiioaieth e aeinoa?a enoi/ieeia yia?aee (i?aaie/aneia
oiieeai). Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo yio?iiee aeinoa?u, ia?ooaieth
yeieiae/aneeo oeeeeia aeaoieene oaea?iaea, ieneaeia na?u e acioa,
oaieiaiio caa?yciaieth e o.ae. 2. Oic. oeeeeu a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
?aciieioou, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aieueoiio /eneo iooiaeia, caa?yciythueo
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. Eniieueciaaiea ia?yaeo n anoanoaaiiuie iiiaeanoaa
eneonnoaaiii neioace?iaaiiuo aau-a aucuaaao iiiai/eneaiiua ia?ooaiey
yeieiae/. ?aaiiaaney, i?eaiaeeo e aic?anoaieth oiene/iinoe ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu. 3. I?ienoiaeeo oie/oiaeaiea no?oeoo?iiai iiiaiia?acey aeinoa?u,
aeaaeue iiiaeo aeaeia. Ioia/aaony /?acia?iia oaaee/aiea aeaaeaiey ia
aeinoa?o /aeiaaea, /oi aaaeao e na?ueaciui ia?ooaieyi yeieiae/aneie
noaaeeueiinoe.

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