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Различные оценки степени загрязнения водоемов

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OIINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

Aeieiai-ii/aaiiue oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a eooeieiaee e aeae?iaeieiaee

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

“?acee/iua ioeaiee noaiaie caa?yciaiey aiaeiaiia”

Oiine – 1999

I?aaeeneiaea

Caaeneiinoue /aeiaaea io i?e?iaeu, io anoanoaaiiie n?aaeu iaeoaiey
nouanoaiaaea ia anao yoaiao /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ii
ia?a ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa, ii ia?a oiai eae
acaeiiioiioaiey /aeiaaea n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie ana aieaa
iiin?aaeiaaeenue nicaeaaaaiie ei “aoi?ie i?e?iaeie”, /aeiaae iiauoae
naith caueuaiiinoue io noeoeeiiai aoenoaa i?e?iaeu. Ecia?aoay, iai?eia?,
niiniau iieo/aiey e eniieueciaaiey aeaeaca, iaaee, /aeiaae ?acei
oaaee/eaaao naia iiaouanoai ai acaeiiioiioaieyo n i?e?iaeie. Aianoa n
oai n oa/aieai a?aiaie naii ?acaeoea oeeaeeecaoeee ieacuaaaony caaeneiui
io yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee ia ieaiaoa. Iu aeaeei, /oi ia oieueei
/aeiaae caaeneo io i?e?iaeu, ii e naia ie?oaeathuay /aeiaaea i?e?iaea
caaeneo io iaai, io ianooaaia, oi?i e iai?aaeaiee aai aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aio?iiiaaiiia aeeyiea ia aeinoa?o e iaaeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey
caa?yciaiey auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu eieaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey, i?eia?aoay
?aaeiiaeueiue e aeaaea aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ia?iiiay oa?ica aeey anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa caeeth/aaony a caa?yciaiee aiaeiaiia. Neioaoe/aneea
i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, eiiu oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, aeeoioee?oynue a oeaiyo,
ieacuaatho io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia ?ai?iaeoeoeaiua i?ioeannu
aeae?iaeiioia. Yoi aeeyiea caa?yciaiey iaoiaeeo naia ?aaeueiia
au?aaeaiea a i?ia?anne?othuae yao?ioeeaoeee aiaeiaiia, iaeiieaiee
oeie/aneeo oieneeaioia a ?aciuo n?aaeao, a nieaeaiee yeieiae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aiaeiuo yeinenoai. A.N.Eiinoaioeiia (1986) ioia/aao, /oi
nicaeaaony oa?ica ia?ooaiey yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney a i?e?iaea,
iianiinoue eioi?iai o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue. Iiyoiio ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii
anoaao a?aiaeeiciay caaea/a io?aiu aeae?inoa?u. E /oiau ioeaieoue
ninoiyiea aiaeiaia, iaiaoiaeeiu oi?ioi ?ac?aaioaiiua aeae?iaeieiae/aneea
eeanneoeeaoeee aiaeiuo yeinenoai, ii eioi?ui aiciiaeii onoaiiaeaiea
iniiaiuo eciaiaiee aiaeiuo aeioeaiicia a oneiaeyo caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Aeae?iaeieiae/aneea iieacaoaee yaeythony aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii
nenoaiu eiio?iey caa?yciaiey aiaeiie n?aaeu. Eiio?ieue ie?oaeathuae
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu ii aeae?iaeieiae/aneei iieacaoaeyi yaeyaony auniei
i?ei?aoaoiui oaeaea n oi/ee c?aiey iaania/aiey aiciiaeiinoe i?yiie
ioeaiee ninoiyiey aiaeiuo yeieiae/aneeo nenoai, eniuouaathueo a?aaeiia
aeeyiea aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia (TH.A.Ec?ayeue, I.E.Aaneeeia e ae?.,
1981).

?acee/iua ioeaiee noaiaie caa?yciaiey aiaeiaiia.

Iiae caa?yciaieai aiaeiaiia iiieiaaony oooaeoaiea eo yeiiiie/aneiai
cia/aiey e aeinoa?iuo ooieoeee a ?acoeueoaoa aio?iiiaaiiiai iinooieaiey
a ieo a?aaeiuo aauanoa. Yeieiae/aneia aeaenoaea caa?yciythueo aauanoa
i?iyaeyaony ia i?aaieciaiiii, iiioeyoeeiiiii, aeioeaiioe/aneii e
yeinenoaiiii o?iaiyo. Ia i?aaieciaiiii o?iaia iaaethaeathony ia?ooaiea
ioaeaeueiuo oeceieiae/aneeo ooieoeee, eciaiaiea iiaaaeaiey, nieaeaiea
oaiia ?inoa, oaaee/aiea nia?oiinoe aneaaenoaea i?yiiai io?aaeaiey eee
oiaiueoaiey onoie/eainoe e no?anniaui ninoiyieyi aiaoiae n?aaeu.
Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao iia?aaeaeaiea aaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa e
o?ainoi?iaoeey enoiaeiiai aaiioiiaea iniaae. Ia o?iaia iiioeyoeee
caa?yciaiea iiaeao aucaaoue eciaiaiea eo /eneaiiinoe e aeiiannu,
?iaeaeaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe, iieiaie e ?acia?iie no?oeoo?u. Neaaeoao
aeiaaaeoue oaioecaoeeth aioo?eiiioeyoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee, aucuaaaioth
eciaiaieai iiaaaeaiey iniaae e eneaaeaieai ycuea oeie/aneeo neaiaeia. Ia
aeioeaiioe/aneii o?iaia caa?yciaiea neacuaaaony ia no?oeoo?a e ooieoeeyo
niiauanoaa, iineieueeo iaeie e oa aea caa?yciythuea aauanoaa
iaiaeeiaeiai aeeytho ia ?aciua eiiiiiaiou aeioeaiica. A eiia/iii eoiaa
i?ienoiaeeo aeaa?aaeaoeey yeinenoai – oooaeoaiea eo eae yeaiaioia n?aaeu
/aeiaaea e nieaeaiea iieiaeeoaeueiie ?iee a oi?ie?iaaiee aeinoa?u
(Eiinoaioeiia, 1986).

A nenoaia aeae?iaeieiae/aneie neoaeau iaaethaeaiee e eiio?iey
iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae eniieuecothony eae eiaeeeaoi?u ea/anoaa aiae
aaeoa?ee, i?inoaeoea, aiaei?inee, iae?iaaniicaiii/iua e ?uau. Eaaeaeay
a?oiia yoeo i?aaieciia a ea/anoaa aeieiaeeeaoi?a eiaao naie i?aeiouanoaa
e iaaeinoaoee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho a?aieoeu aa i?eiaiaiey i?e ?aoaiee
oao eee eiuo caaea/ aeieiaeeeaoeee (Aaaeoiia, Ea/aeiaa, 1981).

Oaeaeyaony aieiaiea ?anniio?aieth nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia ioai?a e
aiaeeca aaioiniuo i?aaieciia, a oaeaea ianoaeaeaieth ioeaiie ninoiyiey
aeiiiuo niiauanoa. Aeooaeueiinoue oaeiai iiaeoiaea ii?aaeaeyaony oai,
/oi aeiiiua niiauanoaa yaeythony aaaeiaeoei eiiiiiaioii yeinenoai, e
ea?aao cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a o?ainoi?iaoeee i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa.
Aianoa n oai a ?acoeueoaoa aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey, aaioiniua
niiauanoaa, eae i?aaeei, iaoiaeyony a iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo
aneaaenoaea aeeoioeyoeee caa?yciythueo aauanoa a i?eaeiiiii neia aiaeu e
inaaeeao. A neeo ia?aie/aiiie eaaeeueiinoe aaioina e ioiineoaeueiie
onoie/eainoe aeiiiuo niiauanoa iie io?aaeatho oiiiaua caa?yciaiey
aiaeiuo iann ca ioiineoaeueii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a?aiaie
(Ec?ayeue, Aaaeoiia e ae?., 1981).

Ciiieaieoii oniaoii eniieuecotho a ?acee/iuo iaoiaeao ioeaiee
ea/anoaa aiaeu e, iniaaiii, i?e au?aaioea yeni?ann iaoiaeia. A oiaea
a?aiy nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi ciiieaieoii iaei iieacai aeey ioeaiee
ea/anoaa aiae, oae eae a aiaeioieao ii i?iiineony oa/aieai, ia ia?acoy
aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeueiuo ii ninoaao niiauanoa, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aeaiiiai
o/anoea ?aee (Eaaiiaa, 1976). Ii eniieueciaaiea ciiieaieoiia eae
eiaeeeaoi?a caa?yciaiey a ica?ao aeaao iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou.

A 1908 e 1909 aa. Eieueeaeooeii e Ia?nniiii auee iioaeeeiaaiu
iaoa?eaeu ii ioeaiea noaiaie caa?yciaiey aiae ?aceaaathueieny
i?aaie/aneeie aauanoaaie, eee nai?iaiinoe (ii Iae?ooeio, 1978).

Nai?iaiinoue (io a?a/aneiai sapros – aieeie) –
oeceieiai-aeioeie/aneea naienoaa i?aaiecia (nai?iaeiioa),
iaoneiaeeaathuaai aai niiniaiinoue iaeoaoue a aiaea n oai eee eiui
niaea?aeaieai i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, iinooiathueo a aiaeiai
i?aeiouanoaaiii n oicyenoaaiii-auoiauie noieaie. Eieueeaeooe e Ia?nnii
eco/ay ?acee/iua aiaeiaiu, onoaiiaeee 4 ciiu nai?iaiinoe:

1. Iieenai?iaiay ciia – a aiaea ?aceaaathueany aaeee, oneiaey n?aaeu
aiay?iaiua, oa?aeoa? aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia ainnoaiiaeoaeueiue, a
aiaea iiiai na?iaiaei?iaea.

2. -iacinai?iaiay ciia – i?enoonoaotho aieii- e aieaei- eeneiou, oneiaey
n?aaeu iieoaiay?iaiua, oa?aeoa? aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia
ainoaiiaeoaeueii-ieeneeoaeueiue; i?enoonoaoao na?iaiaei?iae.

3. -iacinai?iaiay ciia – niaaeeiaiey acioa a oi?ia nieae aiiiiey,
ieo?eoia e ieo?aoia, eenei?iaea iau/ii iiiai, ii aiciiaeiu caii?u o aeia
e ii/ueth ec-ca i?ae?auaiey oioineioaca, na?iaiaei?iae eiiaaea a
iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa, oa?aeoa? aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia ieeneeoaeueiue.

4. Ieeainai?iaiay ciia – /enoua aiaeu, niaaeeiaiey acioa a oi?ia
ieo?aoia, aiaea ianuuaia eenei?iaeii; NI2 iaei, na?iaiaei?iaea iao.

Iiieii oiai, /oi Eieueeaeooe e Ia?nnii ii?aaeaeeee ciiu
nai?iaiinoe, iie aeaee nienee aeaeia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey eaaeaeie ec yoeo
cii. A naieo ?aaioao iie i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee i/a?aaeiinoue en/aciiaaiey
e iiaoi?iiai iiyaeaiey i?aaieciia – aiaei?ineae, i?inoaeoeo,
iae?iaaniicaiii/iuo e ?ua – a ?acoeueoaoa aicaeaenoaey caa?yciythueo
aauanoa. Nenoaiu Eieueeaeooea e Ia?nniia iineoaeeea iniiaie iiiaeo
iineaaeothueo nenoai aeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca.

A 1955a. auoiaeeo ?aaioa Iaioea e Aoeea (ii Iae?ooeio, 1978), a
eioi?ie iie oa?aeoa?ecotho noaiaiue caa?yciaiey eiaeaenii nai?iaiinoe
(S). Eiaeeeaoi?ioth cia/eiinoue (s) iie i?eiyee o ieeainai?iaia ca 1,
-iacinai?iaia ca 2, -iacinai?iaia ca 3 e iieenai?iaia ca 4.
Ioiineoaeueiia eiee/anoai iniaae aeaea (h) ioeaieaaaony neaaeothuei
ia?acii: neo/aeiua iaoiaeee – 1, /anoay ano?a/aaiinoue 3 e ianniaia
?acaeoea – 5. Eiaeaen nai?iaiinoe au/eneyaony ii oi?ioea:
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A iieenai?iaiie ciia ii ?aaai – 4.0-3.5, a -iacinai?iaiie –3.5-2.5 a
-iacinai?iaiie ciia – 2.5-1.5 e a ieeainai?iaiie ciia 1.5-1.0.

Iiiaea aeaeu-eiaeeeaoi?u ano?a/athony a aiaeao 2, 3 eee 4-o cii
nai?iaiinoe, /oi yaeyaony i?e/eiie iaoi/iinoe i?e onoaiiaeaiee n?aaeiae
nai?iaiinoe aeioeaiica. Aeey ooi/iaiey Caeeiea e Ia?aai a 1961a aaaee
iiiyoea nai?iaiie aaeaioiinoe. Nai?iaiay aaeaioiinoue iieacuaaao, a
eaeie ia?a aeae oa?aeoa?ai aeey oie eee eiie nooiaie nai?iaiinoe.
Nai?iaiua aaeaioiinoe au?aaeatho iaeiie eee ianeieueeeie oeeo?aie, noiia
eioi?uo aeey aeaea ?aaia 10 (oaae. 1). *oiau i?e ioeaiea caa?yciaiee
iiauneoue ?ieue aeaeia, i?enoonoaea eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ii aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiie nooiaie nai?iaiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n aeaeaie,
ano?a/athueieny a ciiao ?aciie nai?iaiinoe, Caeeiea e Ia?aai aaiaeyo
iiiyoea eiaeeeaoi?iiai aana (J), eioi?ue ioeaieaaaony aeey eaaeaeiai
aeaea a aaeeao io1 aei 5 e eioi?ue iieacuaaao ianeieueei auniei
eiaeeeaoi?iia cia/aiea aeaea.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie nai?iaiinoe anaai aeioeaiica
?ann/eouaatho n?aaeiaacaaoaiiua nai?iaiua aaeaioiinoe aeey
enaiinai?iaiie nooiaie – A, aeey ieeainai?iaiie nooiaie – A e o.ae. ii
oi?ioea:

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00000b0200000000050000000c02c00820011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000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54696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000065040000002d01020004000000f00101000800
0000320aeb03db030100000031000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000
0000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01
010004000000f00102000300000000000000000000000000
;picscalex10001000900000354000000000012000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c02200220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100
00000c0ffffffa6ffffffe0000000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706
5000050000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000003000000000000ffffff00f
fffff000000000000000000000000
picscalex128010009000003ae0100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c028006a0081200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbfffffff600800003f0600000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000000109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
2004da0205000000130220045b0810000000fb02c0fd0000000000009001000000020002
001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a0506790301000000e5000800
0000320acb02f10201000000e50010000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000020002
001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ae1037d03
010000002d0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c
0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a80049c01010000003d001500
0000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e00007a040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a0c064707010000006900
08000000320a0c06ff0501000000690008000000320aec008503010000006e0008000000
320ae1032d0301000000690008000000320ad202d00701000000690008000000320ad202
880601000000690008000000320ad2026b0501000000690015000000fb0280fe00000000
00009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007a040000002d01
010004000000f001020008000000320aac057606010000004a0008000000320aac054705
01000000680008000000320a7202ff06010000004a0008000000320a7202d00501000000
680008000000320a7202b30401000000620008000000320a800446000100000042001500
0000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e00007a040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ae103ec03010000003100
0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02
000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000
000000ffffff00ffffff000000000000000000000000 e o.ae.

aaea:
picscalex139010009000003b20000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02400280011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa6ffffff40010000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000600015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000085040000002d01000008000000320ae001f2000100000069001500
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e000085040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a80013a00010000006800
0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02
000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000
00000000000000ffffff000000000000000000000000– eiee/anoai iniaae i-ai
aeaea;
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– eiaeeeaoi?iue aan i-ai
aeaea;

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0000c0ffffffa6ffffff40010000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000600015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e65
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0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e0000aa040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a80013a00010000006100
0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02
000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000
00000000000000ffffff0000000000ffffff00000000,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,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- nai?iaiua aaeaioiinoe
aeaea i.

Oaaeeoea 1

Ecaea/aiea nienea eiaeeeaoi?ia nai?iaiinoe

A.Neaaea/ea (ii Iae?ooeio, 1978)

AEAe

ABCDEJenaii-ieeai–iaci-iaciiiee-X1-10—5X2-82–4X3271–3X4-451-2X51441
-1I?eia/aiea. Ni. a oaenoa

Aaee/eiu nai?iaiie aaeaioiinoe e eiaeeeaoi?iua aana iaoiaeyo ii
iioaeeeiaaiiui oaaeeoeai (Oieoeoee?iaaiiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey
ea/anoaa aiae, 1966; Iae?ooei, 1974). ?ann/eouaathony i?iecaaaeaiey
a·J·h, b·J·h, c·J·h e o.ae. aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea e eo noiiu. Yoe noiiu
aeaeyony ia noiiu i?iecaaaeaiee J·h. Iieo/aiiua aaee/eiu (A, B, C, D, E)
yaeythony n?aaeiaacaaoaiiuie nai?iaiuie aaeaioiinoyie aeioeaiica, noiia
eioi?uo ?aaia 10. Niioiioaiea cia/aiee A:B:C:D:E neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae
ea?oeio nai?iaiuo oneiaee a aeioeaiica. Iieiaeaiea iaeaunoaai cia/aiey a
yoii ?yaeo ii?aaeaeyao, e eaeie ciia nai?iaiinoe neaaeoao ioianoe
eco/aaiue aeioeaiic. Ninaaeiea aaee/eiu iicaieytho noaeeoue i oii, a
eaeoth noi?iio aiciiaeiu ioeeiiaiey (Iae?ooei, 1974).

Niaa?oainoaoynue a oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie, nenoaia
Eieueeaeooea-Ia?nniia noaea iaeaieaa aeaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiie nenoaiie
aeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca ea/anoaa aiae. Oai ia iaiaa, iiiaea aaoi?u
oeacuaatho ia ?yae i?enoueo ae iaaeinoaoeia. Aieueoia eiee/anoai
enneaaeiaaoaeae ioia/atho a?iiicaeeinoue i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey yoie
nenoaiu. Eniieueciaaiea iaoiaeia Iaioea e Aoeea, Caeeiee e Ia?aaia,
o?aaoao iiiai a?aiaie e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia ii nenoaiaoeea
aiaeiie oaoiu e oei?u (Iae?ooei, 1974; Ii?ic, 1978; Iae?ooei, Eooeeiaa,
1976).

Yoe iaoiaeu aeatho iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou aeey a?yciuo e
caa?yciaiiuo o/anoeia, aaea ano?a/athony i?aaieciu n eiaeaenaie
nai?iaiinoe a iniiaiii ecaanoiuie, e auee iai?eaiaeiu aeey oao, aaea
iiiai aeaeia n ia onoaiiaeaiiie nai?iaiinoueth, iniaaiii aeey naiuo
/enouo o/anoeia. Ia “/enouo” noaioeeyo eiaeaenu nai?iaiinoe ieacaeenue
auoa aeaenoaeoaeueiuo (Ii?ic, 1978; Iae?ooei, Eooeeiaa, 1976;
Oeiiaaiiaa, Aeeiia, 1976; Iae?ooei, 1974). Iai?eaiaeiinoue yoeo iaoiaeia
oaeaea iaoneiaeaia ?acee/eyie oaoiu n?aaeiaaa?iiaeneeo e iaoeo ?ae
(Oeiiaaiiaa, Aeeiia, 1976; Iae?ooei, 1974).

I?iecaieueiay ioeaiea /eneaiiinoe i?aaieciia ia i?aaenoaaeyaony
aeinoaoi/ii ei??aeoiie i?eiaieoaeueii e aeeaioiui iae?iciiaaioina ec-ca
cia/eoaeueiuo ?acee/ee a eo ?acia?ao e auoaeathuae ionthaea
noauaeoeaiinoe e iooaieoea a ii?aaeaeaiee /anoiou ano?a/aaiinoe. Iiiyoey
“iiiai” e “iaei” e o.ae. aeey ?aciuo i?aaieciia aoaeao eiaoue ?aciua
cia/aiey, /oi ia anaaaea iiaeao auoue eaaeeoeoee?iaaiii iniciaiii
(Oeiiaaiiaa, Aeeiia, 1976). Iaoiae Iaioea e Aoeea iicaieyao iaaeyaeii
onoaiiaeoue, /oi noaioeee, ioiinyueany e iaeiiio e oiio aea eeanno aiae,
?aciyony iaaeaeo niaie (Ii?ic, 1978).

Nenoaia nai?iaiinoe Eieueeaeooea e Ia?nniia e aa
iiaeeoeeaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu i?eiaieoaeueii e aiaeiaiai, caa?yciaiiuie
i?aaie/aneeie aauanoaaie aeiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Aeey ioeaiee
noaiaie caa?yciaiey aiae aauanoaaie oeie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey iia ia
i?eaiaeia.

C 1955 aiaea ia/ae ?aaioo iaae aeioe/aneei eiaeaenii O.
Aoaeeaenn. I?e ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu auei ?aoaii, /oi iia aeieaeia
ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:

1. auoue oeeo?iaie;

2. eiaoue aa?oiaa e ieaeiaa i?aaeaeueiua cia/aiey, a ?aieao eioi?uo
iiaee au oeiaeeoueny ana neo/ae ea/anoaa aiaeu, eiathuea ioiioaiea e
eiio?ieth caa?yciaiey;

3. auoue i?inoie a i?eiaiaiee aeaaea a iieaauo oneiaeyo e ia o?aaiaaoue
neiaeiuo au/eneaiee;

4. ia aeieaeia caaenaoue io aeaeia oao a?oii i?aaieciia, ii?aaeaeaiea
eioi?uo neeoeii o?oaeiaiei;

5. auoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeie aeey aiciiaeiiai i?eiaiaiey a aoaeouai ia
iniiaaiee iaeiieaiiiai iiuoa.

I?e auai?a “eeth/aauo” i?aaieciia eee a?oii a ea/anoaa
eiaeeeaoi?ia eciaiaiey aiaeu io i/aiue caa?yciaiiie aei /enoie
O.Aoaeeaenn i?aaeii/ae i?aaieciu, eioi?ua iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu
a aannaeia ?aee O?aio (Aiaeey). Ii enneaaeiaae nauoa 500 i?ia, acyouo ii
anaio aiaeinai?o ?aee e iiaeoaa?aeee aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
ioia/aiiuo ei i?aaieciia eae eiaeeeaoi?ia ea/anoaa aiaeu.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, caa?yciaiea aiae nie?auaao ?aciiia?acea i?aaieciia,
oioy onoie/eaua e caa?yciaieth aiaeu iiaoo i?iaeieaeaoue nouanoaiaaoue a
iaeeee a yoii aea ioieoa (Aoaeeaenn,1977). Yoio oaeo e ?aoee
eniieueciaaoue O.Aoaeeaenn aeey aeioe/aneiai eiaeaena, ii iineieueeo
iaaiciiaeii onoaiiaeoue oaeniiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea anao i?aaieciia a
oa/aiea ia?aie/aiiiai n?iea, Aoaeeaennii aue ninoaaeai nienie
iia?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe, eioi?ua aeey oaeianoaa ii iacaae “a?oiiaie”.
Ianiiiaiiia aeinoieinoai yoiai iaoiaea a oii, /oi a iai iauaaeeiythony
i?eioeeiu eiaeeeaoi?iiai cia/aiey ioaeaeueiuo oaeniiia e i?eioeei
eciaiaiey ?aciiia?acey oaoiu a oneiaeyo caa?yciaiey (Oeiiaaiiaa, Aeeiia,
1976; Ai?aeeeiaa, 1988). A ioee/ee io nenoaiu Eieueeaeooea-Ia?nniia
nenoaia Aoaeeaenna iiaeao n oniaoii eniieueciaaoueny ia?niiaeii n?aaeiae
eaaeeoeeaoeee (Iae?ooei,1974).

Ii anoue oaeaea io?eoeaoaeueiua iiiaiou eniieueciaaiey
aeaiiiai iaoiaea a iaoeo aiaeao. N?aaieaay ?acee/iua iaoiaeu ioeaiee
ea/anoaa aiae, O.A. Ii?ic (1978) onoaiiaee, /oi iaoiae Aoaeeaenna
i?eaieai aeey a?yciuo e neeueii caa?yciaiiuo aiae; aeey aieaa /enouo
aiae aeioe/aneea eiaeaenu caieaeaiu, oae eae ionoonoaiaaee ee/eiee
iiaeaiie, ?o/aeieeia, aaniyiie e i?aiaeaaeaee a?oiiu, eioi?ua a nenoaia
Aoaeeaenna ii/oe ia io?aaeaiu eee aea iauaaeeiaiu a i/aiue e?oiiua
oaeniiu. I.I.Oeiiaaiiaa e A.O.Aeeiia (1976) n/eoatho, /oi iaiaoiaeeiu
niaoeeaeueiua ?aaiou aeey ?ac?aaioee iaoiaea i?eiaieoaeueii e
iniaaiiinoyi oaoiu ?aciuo ?aeiiia a niioaaonoaee n ciiaaia?aoe/aneei
aeaeaieai aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia.

I.I.Ai?aeeeiaa (1988) eniieueciaaea iaoiae Aoaeeaenna aeey
ioeaiee ea/anoaa aiae Aioeeineiai aiaeio?aieeeua. Ii aa ?an/aoai, iaoiae
ia iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny a aiaeio?aieeeuao a oeaeii, oae eae
caa?yciyaiue, ii iaeaieaa i?ioi/iue ?aeii anaaaea eiaao aieaa
?aciiia?acioth oaoio, /ai ieaea- ?aniieiaeaiiua o/anoee n caiaaeeaiiui
aiaeiiaiaiii e iaeiiia?aciuie eeenouie a?oioaie. Ioeaieoue ea/anoai
aiaeu iaoiaeii Aoaeeaenna iiaeii oieueei a i?ioi/iuo o/anoeao
aiaeio?aieeeu.

Eiaeaen aeaao iaiaaeaaeiua ?acoeueoaou eiaaea o/anoie
caa?yciaiey iaoiaeeony ia iaaieueoii ?annoiyiee io ?aniieiaeaiiiai auoa
/enoiai o/anoea ?aee. Aiec ii oa/aieth iea?e?otho i?aaieciu oa?aeoa?iua
aeey cii n aieaa aunieei aeioe/aneei eiaeaenii (Oeueeia, 1981).Oaoia
ca?ineae oaeaea ia aeaao iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Aeaaea ia
o/anoeao n aunieei o?iaiai caa?yciaiey a ca?ineyo i?enoonoaoao
?aciiia?aciue eiiieaen aeae?iaeiioia, aeeth/athueo a?oiiu e aeaeu,
oeacuaathuea ia aunieee aeioe/aneee eiaeaen (Oeueeia, 1981).

A 1961 aiaeo Aoaeiaeo e Oeoeae (ii Oeiiaaiiaie, Aeeiiao,
1976) i?aaeeiaeeee ioeaieaaoue ninoiyiea aiaeiaia ii ioiioaieth
/eneaiiinoe ieeaioao e iauae /eneaiiinoe aeeaioiuo aaioina:

Anee yoi niioiioaiea aieaa 60%, aaoi?u ii?aaeaeytho oi?ioaa ninoiyiea
aiaeiaia, anee 60-80% – ?aea a niiieoaeueiii ninoiyiee e aieaa 80% –
?aea a oyaeaeii ninoiyiee.

Eiaeaen Aoaeiaeoa e Oeoeay aeaeyo ia oanoue a?aaeaoeee (oaae.
2).

Oaaeeoea 2

Ioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe ieeaioao e iauae /eneaiiinoe

aeeaioiuo aaioina.

Nai?iaiinoue0.01-0.160.17-0.330.34-0.500.51-0.670.68-0.840.85-1.00Aiaea/
enoayoneiaii /enoayneaai

caa?yciaiiaycaa?yciaiiaya?yciayi/aiue

a?yciay

Ii iiaieth iiiaeo o/aiuo (Aeiaa?a, Aeeiia, Aaeooeeia,
Ieeoeeia, Oeiiaaiiaa, Oeaeieeoei, 1977; Ii?ic, 1978) eiaeaen Aoaeiaeoa e
Oeoeay yaeyaony iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuei aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa aiae ii
ieeaioaoai, aaaeue ii i?ino e oaeiaai. Ii, eae ioia/aao Oeueeia (1981),
eiaeaen Aoaeiaeoa e Oeoeay caaeneo io iieiiou o/aoa ieeaioao. Eco/aiey
?aee Aa?aceiu iieacaee, /oi ieeaioaou ano?a/athony aei aeoaeiu 15-20 ni,
oiaaea eae i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo a?oii aei 3-6 ni. Eniieueciaaiea
aeii/a?iaoaeae, ia iaania/eaathueo ioai? i?ia ia aeinoaoi/ioth aeoaeio
i?eaiaeeo e iaaeio/aoo ieeaioao e, niioaaonoaaiii, nieaeaieth aaee/eiu
eiaeaena.

I.A.Ai?aeeeiaa (1988), enneaaeoy ciiaaioin Aioeeineiai
aiaeio?aieeeua e i?iaa?yy ?acee/iua eiaeaenu aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa
aiaeu, i?aaeeiaeeea eniieueciaaoue a eiaeaena Aoaeiaeoa e Oeoeay ia
ieeaioao a oeaeii, a /eneaiiinoue ooaeoeoeeae, /oi aieaa oi/ii
ioia?aaeaei neooaoeeth ea/anoaa aiae.

Oeaia? a 1964 aiaeo (ii Iae?ooeio, 1974) i?aaeeiaeee
ioeaieaaoue ea/anoai aiae ioiioaieai /eneaiiinoe Tubifex tubifex e
/eneaiiinoe aeaeia ?iaea Limnodrillus. I?e /ai niioiioaiea oai auoa, /ai
neeueiaa caa?yciaiea. Oeaia? a 1965 aiaeo aeaao oaaeeoeo (oaae. 3), a
eioi?ie iieacaia caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ea/anoaii aiaeu e /eneaiiinoueth
ooaeoeoeeae.

Oaaeeoea 3

Ieioiinoue ieeaioao, oa?aeoa?ecothuay ?aciua noaiaie

caa?yciaiey (ii Iae?ooeio, 1974).

Eeann /enoiou aiaeuTubifex tubifex

(oun. ye/i**2)?.Limnodrillus

(oun. ye/i**2)1 – 20.1 – 10.1 – 22 – 31 – 22 – 1032 – 1010 – 503 – 410 –
50 50 – 100450 – 100 e aieaaaieaa 100

Ia?aue eeann /enoiou aiaeu niioaaonoaoao ieeainai?iaiie nooiaie, 2
– -iacinai?iaiie, 3 – -iacinai?iaiie e 4 – iieenai?iaiie.

A eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey
ioiineoaeueii eiaeaena Oeaia?a ii /eneaiiinoe T. Tubifex e aeaeia ?iaea
Limnodrillus.

Oeiiaaiiaa e Aeeiia (1976) n/eoatho, /oi eiaeaen iaieioi
io?aaeaao noaiaiue caa?yciaiey, oae eae a iai o/oaia naciiiay aeeiaieea
/eneaiiinoe ieeaioao: a?aieoee eaaeaeiai eeanna aeinoaoi/ii oe?iee,
/oiau aianoeoue naciiiua eieaaaiey.

Iai?eiaieiui a iaoeo oneiaeyo n/eoaao yoio eiaeaen O.A.Ii?ic
(1978). Iineieueeo /eneaiiinoue ieeaioao auaaao iaaeeeea, io/aai ioeaiea
/enoiou aiae ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A 1964 a. Eeia e Aiee (ii Oeiiaaiiaie, Aeeiiao, 1976)
i?aaeeiaeeee eiaeaen, o/eouaathuee ioiioaiea aeiiannu (A) ianaeiiuo e
ieeaioao:

I?e oyaeaeii caa?yciaiee eiaeaen niioaaonoaaiii aoaeao 0/1, a a /enoie
aiaea 612/1. Ii yoio eiaeaen ia o/eouaaao naciiiie aeeiaieee /eneaiiinoe
aeeaioiuo e iniaaiii ee/eiie ianaeiiuo. Iiyoiio iaeii?aciaua nai?u iiaoo
niaianoue n ia?eiaeii ieieiaeueiie /eneaiiinoe, iaoneiaeaiiie aueaoii
ianaeiiuo, a ioithaeue ia n caa?yciaieai, e i?eaanoe e iaaa?iie ioeaiea
(Oeiiaaiiaa, Aeeiia, 1976).

Ea?? e Oeeoiiai a 1965 a. (ii Iae?ooeio, 1974) i?aaeeiaeeee
ioeaieaaoue noaiaiue caa?yciaiey ii aaee/eia aaniethoiie /eneaiiinoe
ieeaioao:

100 – 999 yec/i2 – neaaia caa?yciaiea;

1000 – 5000 yec/i2 – n?aaeiaa caa?yciaiea;

aieaa 5000 yec/i2 – oyaeaaeia caa?yciaiea.

Iiiaea o/aiua n/eoatho yoio eiaeaen iai?eaieaiui aeey iaoeo aiae (Ii?ic,
1978; Oeiiaaiiaa, Aeeiia, 1976; Ai?aeeeiaa, 1988).

I.I.Ai?aeeeiaa (1988) i?aaeeaaaao naith iiaeeoeeaoeeth
aeaiiiai eiaeaena. Aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa aiae aiaeio?aieeeu iia
eniieuecoao /eneaiiinoue ooaeoeoeeae, a ia ieeaioao a oeaeii. “N?aaeiaa”
caa?yciaiea aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue /eneaiiinoe ooaeoeoeeae 5000
–10000 yec/i2, “oyaeaeia” – aieaa 10000 yec/i2.

A?eioano a 1966 a. i?aaeeiaeee eiaeaen ioiioaiey /eneaiiinoe
Limnodrillus hoffmesteri (ii Oeiiaaiiaie, Aeeiiao, 1976) e noiia?iie
/eneaiiinoe ieeaioao – /ai auoa aai aaee/eia, oai aieueoa caa?yciaiea.
I.I.Oeiiaaiiaa e A.O.Aeeiia (1976) n/eoatho, /oi eiaeaen i?eaiaeai aeey
aiaeiaiia, ia eioi?uo ii aue ?ac?aaioai, a eiaiii aeey aia?eeaineeo
Aaeeeeo ica?.

A 1975 a. nio?oaeieeaie AI Eaoa. NN? Y.A.Ia?aea e I.C.Ea/aeiaie
niaoeeaeueii aeey ieeaioao auea i?aaeeiaeaia iiaay iaoiaeeea ioeaiee
ea/anoaa aiae iiae iacaaieai “Tubifex” (Ia?aea, 1975). Auee iieo/aiu
noaiaea?oiua eiyooeoeeaiou nai?iaiinoe D1 e D2 aeey aiaeiaiia Eaoaee.

D1 – aaioin ninoieo ec ?aciuo a?oii aeeaioiuo;

D2 – aaioin ninoieo ii/oe iieiinoueth ec ieeaioao.

B – ana i?aaieciu aaioina, aeeth/ay ieeaioao;

I – ana ieeaioaou, aeeth/ay ooaeoeoeeae;

O – ana ooaeoeoeeaeu.

Cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioia D1 e D2 ii/oe niaiaaeatho e iiyoiio Y.A.Ia?aea
i?aaeeaaaao eniieueciaaoue eiyooeoeeaio D2:

D2 = 0.80 – 1.00 (neeueiia caa?yciaiea);

D2 = 0.55 – 0.79 (caa?yciaiiay);

D2 = 0.30 – 0.54 (neaai caa?yciaiiay);

D2 = < 0.30 (ioiineoaeueii /enoay).Eniieueciaaiea aeaiiiai eiaeaena ia aiaeao Ieaeiaai Aeiai?a ia aeaei iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia (Ii?ic, 1978). A i?iaao ieeaioaou auee i?aaenoaaeaiu a iniiaiii ooaeoeoeeaeaie. A nayce n yoei eiaeaen ioiioaiey eo /eneaiiinoe e noia?iie /eneaiiinoe ieeaioao aue i/aiue aunieei – ii aai iieacaieyi, ana noaioeee neaaeiaaei ioianoe e neeueii caa?yciaiiie ciia, /oi ia ioaa/aei ?aaeueiinoe. Oeiiaaiiaa e Aeeiia (1976), Ai?aeeeiaa (1988), n/eoatho, /oi iaoiaeeea ioeaiee aiaeu “Tubifex” i?eiaieia aeey oao ?ae, ia eioi?uo auea au?aaioaia, o.a. aeey aiaeioieia Eaoaee.A.A.Aaeooeeia (1976) i?aaeeiaeeea eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa eiaeeeaoi?ia noaiaie caa?yciaiey oe?iiiieae. Aa enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi iiae aeeyieai caa?yciaiey i?ienoiaeeo caeiiiia?iia eciaiaiea niioiioaiey /eneaiiinoe ee/eiie oe?iiiieae ioiinyueony e iiaenaiaenoaai Chironomidae, Ortocladiinae, Tanypodinae. A iaeaieaa /enouo aiaeao aeiieie?otho ee/eiee i?oieeaaeeei, a a caa?yciaiiuo oaieiiaeei. Aeey eiaeeeaoeee caa?yciaiee A.A.Aaeooeeiie (1976) aue i?aaeeiaeai eiaeaen E, eioi?ue io?aaeaao niioiioaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoeo 3-o iiaenaiaenoa:t, ch, or – niioaaonoaaiii eiaeeeaoi?iua cia/aiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae eaaeaeiai ec iiaenaiaenoa. =N+10, i?e yoii N – ioiineoaeueiay /eneaiiinoue iniaae eaaeaeiai ec iiaenaiaenoa a i?ioeaioao io iauae /eneaiiinoe ee/eiie oe?iiiieae. *enei 10 aaaaeaii aeey ia?aie/aiey i?aaeaeia cia/aiee eiaeaena E . Ii?aaeaeaiea aaee/eiu eiaeaena E a eco/aaiuo ?aeao iieacaee aai caeiiiia?iia aic?anoaiea ii ia?a caa?yciaiey aiaeu (Aeiaa?a, Aeeiia e ae?., 1977; ?en. 1).0.136 1.080 6.500 9.000 11.500/enouaoia?aiii caa?yciaiiua caa?yciaiiuaa?yciua?en. 1. Cia/aiea eiaeaena E a aiaeao ?aciie noaiaie caa?yciaiey.Aieoaaaa (1981) iiaeoaa?aeaeaao caaeneiinoue niioiioaiee iiaenaiaenoa oe?iiiieae io noaiaie caa?yciaiey aiaeiaia. Iaeiaei aieueoia eiee/anoai enneaaeiaaoaeae ioia/aao, /oi eiaeaen Aaeooeeiie ia aeaao iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia (Oeueeia, 1981; Ii?ic, 1976; Ai?aeeeiaa, 1988).Niiniaiinoue iaeiuaoeieiauo /a?aae iaeoaoue ia ?aciiia?aciuo noano?aoao, ?aaae?iaaoue ia aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u e /eneaiiinoe naieo iiioeyoeee enneaaeiaae a naiai eiaeaena A.E.Iii/aiei (1988). N o/aoii yeieiae/aneiai e ciiaaia?aoe/aneiai iaeeea ieeaioao aeey ioeaiee ninoiyiey /enoiou aioo?aiieo aiae aa?iiaeneiai Naaa?a A.E.Iii/aiei i?aaeeiaeee eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiaeaen nai?iaiinoe, io?aaeathuee ioiioaiea ianniauo aeaeia, onoie/eauo a ?aciie noaiaie e caa?yciaieth, e iauaio ninoaao oaoiu ieeaioao:Is – eiaeaen nai?iaiinoe ieeaioao;Nt – n?aaeiyy /eneaiiinoue T.tubifex;Nh – Limnodrillus hoffmeisteri;Nf – Spirosperma ferox;No – /eneaiiinoue anao ieeaioao a aeioiia.Ii cia/aieyi iieacaoaey Is aeey ?aciuo oneiaee aiaeiuo yeinenoai naaa?iie Aa?iiu, eae n/eoaao Iii/aiei (1988), oeaeaniia?aciu 4 a?oiiu eiee/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae a i?aaeaeao:Is = 0.90 - 1.00 - neeueii caa?yciaiiua aiaeu;Is = 0.50 – 0.89 –caa?yciaiiua aiaeu;Is = 0.30 – 0.49 – neaai caa?yciaiiua aiaeu;Is < 0.30 – /enoua e ioiineoaeueii /enoua aiaeu.Aeieiae/aneee eiaeaen caaeneo i?aeiouanoaaiii io noaiaie caa?yciaiey, ii ia io oa?aeoa?a a?oioa e aeoaei. Iieacaii, /oi iaeeiaeiaue oei a?oioa a ianoao n ?aciie noaiaiueth caa?yciaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?acee/iuie ii aaee/eia aeioe/aneeie eiaeaenaie (Iii/aiei, 1988).

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