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Радиационное загрязнение

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Yeiiiae/aneay eaoano?ioa… Aeaiiia neiaini/aoaiea no?aoiia
aeaaea (eee iniaaiii) aeey iauaaoaeueneiai niciaiey. E anaaea
niaoeeaeenou ieacuaathony eee iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiuie, eee iaeaieaa
oienoieiaeeie, iia?e?othueie oeeo?aie i eaoano?ioao e
eaoaeeeciao n oaeei niieienoaeai a ycueiauo n?aaenoaao, /oi
ia/eiaaoue e eo iiaeic?aaaoue a aioeyeieiae/aneii niciaiee. Ecaanoii,
/oi yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aicieeatho ec-ca aioeyeieiae/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a iauanoaa,a a eiia/iii

n/aoa – anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Aniiiiei O.Ieoeoa: “Aacoiea aaeeieoe –
eneeth/aiea, a aacoiea a?oii, ia?oee, ia?iaeia, a?aiai – i?aaeea”.E y
i/aiue neaai aa?th a ecea/aiea a?aiai e ia?iaeia eiaiii a yoii ieaia
yeieiae/aneiai niciaiey. Eae aua neaaaa – a niaanoue e ii?aeueiua
oi?iica. Inoaaony iaeii – caeii. E caeanue y, aiciiaeii,auneaaeo
e?aiieueioth iuneue: ioaeai caeii, i?iaicaeaoathuee
i?e?iaeo,ie?oaeath-

uoth n?aaeo, aunoei ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo noauaioii i?aaa.
Oieueei i?e oaeie iinoaiiaea aii?ina iiaeii aiai?eoue i nianaiea
/aeiaa/anoaa nianay i?e?iaeo. Oieueei i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea e
?aoaieth yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai iiaeii iaaeayoueny, /oi aacoiea a?aiai
e ia?iaeia noaiao eneeth- /aieai.

*oi oaeia Oe?aeia naaiaeiy? Ia/iai n aeaaiiai – n aeuoaiey: n
enoi/ieea aeecie. 11 ouny/ i?aaei?eyoee aaeaaiaeii aua?anuaatho a
aoiinoa?o 10,8 ieeeeiia oiii oeie/aneeo aauanoa, 6,5 ieeeeiia oiii –
aaoio?ainii?o: aiiaa 300 eeeia?aiiia io?aau ia eaaeaeiai aeeoaey ! A
43 ec 190 eiio?iee?oaiuo e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeia iianiua aeey caei?iauey
oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey a aicaeooa a aeanyoee! – ?ac i?aauoatho
i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua o?iaie (i?aaei?eyoey oeie/aneie,
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaoaeeo?aee, no?ieiaoa?eaeia).
Aeieoi? iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe,aee?aeoi? ?anioaeeeaineiai iao/iiai
aeaeaie/aneiai oeaio?a Aiae?ae Na?aethe i?eaiaeeo oaeie oaeo:
“Oeie/aneia caa?yciaiea aicaeooiie n?aaeu a Caii?iaeuea i?aeoe/anee
aeinoeaei, a a Ia?eoiiia cia/eoaeueii i?aauneei a?aieoeo, eioi?ay i?e
nio?aiaiee iuiaoiaai o?iaiy caa?yiey ca 150 eao i?eaaaeao e oece/aneiio
e eioaeeaeooaeueiiio au?iaeaeaieth caeaoiaai ianaeaiey.

Ii aeaaea anie e iaiaaeeaiii i/enoeoue aicaeooiue aannaei yoeo
ai?iaeia aaiaoe/aneea iineaaenoaey caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
iiiaiaeanyoeeaoee aoaeoo neacuaaoueny ia caei?iauea
ianaeaiey.Iai?eia?,eco/ea aeeyiea caeaoiaai aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa ia
aaiaoe/aneea no?oeoo?u

iieiauo eeaoie /aeiaaea,o/aiua i?eoee e auaiaeo: iineaaenoaey yoiai
oeie/aneiai (TM)’i?anneiaa”, au?aaeaiiua a aeieiae/aneeo yeaeaaeaioao
?aioaaia (ay?ao), ca 30 eao a Caii?iaeuea ioeaieaathony 80,a
Ia?eoiiea – 180 ay?aie” .

Noieueiue a?aae Eeaa eiae ?aiooaoeeth iaeiiai ec naiuo
caeaiuo,a,cia/eo, e aeaaiiieo/iuo ai?iaeia ieaiaou – ii iineaaeiei
aeaiiui,aaeaaiaeii a aicaeoo aua?anuaaaony aieaa 310 oiii ieeneia
acioa,na?ioaea?iaea, oaeaaiaeia e iiiaeo ae?oaeo a?aaeiuo aauanoa.

Ieicae?aa Oe?aeiu i?eaiaeee e oaeea oaeou: a Naaa?iaeiiaoeea
*a?eannao (oeie/aneea oeaio?u) iauee o?iaaiue caaieaaaaiinoe auoa
(/ai a n?aaeiai ii Oe?aeia) ia 25 – 40 i?ioeaioia (aieacie
i?aaiia aeuoaiey,ninoaeenoua e aeea?ae/aneea caaieaaaiey); eie-ai
caaieaaaiee aeaoae ceiea/anoaaiiuie aiia?aciaaieyie i?aauoaao
n?aaeia?anioaeeeaineia a 6 – 8 ?ac.

Enneaaeiaaiey niaoeeaeenoia Oe?aeineiai
iao/iienneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa aiaeioicyenoaaiii-yeieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho,/oi a ?aee aaeaaiaeii aueeaaaony 21
ieeeea?ae eoaiiao?ia i?iiuoeaiiuo noieia, ec ieo 3 ieeeea?aea –
‘ niaa?oaiii ia i/euathony,oieueei ec 2 i?ioeaioia enneaaeiaaiiuo
eie iaeuo ?ae iiaeii oiio?aaeyoue aiaeo aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
i/enoee. Aeaaiua caa?ycieoaee – Opaaie/aneea e aeiaaiiua aauanoaa,
oaiieu, niee oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, iaooai?iaeoeou,ianoeoeeaeu.
Aicueiai ia?eiae aei *a?iiaueueneie eaoano?iou: n 1975 ii

1985 aiaeu a ai?iaeneeo noi/iuo aiaeao a 10,8 ?aca aic?inei
eie-ai naeioea, a 5,2 ?aca – iaaee, a 4,8 – ieeaey, a 4,1 – ieiaa,a
3,7 ?aca – oeeiea, a 2,4 – o?iia. A eaoano?ioe/aneii ninoiyiee
aiaeu *a?iiai e

Acianeiai ii?ae.

Oaeay aea o?aae/aneay neooaoeey e n caieae. A ethaie
oeeaeeeciaaiiie no?aia niioiioaiea ?aniaoaIIIe e iao?iiooie caiee
1:3,ii a Oe?aeia n oi/iinoueth iaiai?io, /oi naii ii naaa oaea
iicaieyao ooaa?aeaoue ianaei-

?iauea i?e?iaeu. Aeiaaaueoa e yoiio aaeaaiaeiua 5 ieeeeiiia
oiii ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee e 17,5 ouny/e oiii oeie/aneeo
n?aaenoa caueou ?anoaiee niioaaonoaaiii ii 100 e 3,5 eeeia?aiia
ia eaaeaeiai ec 52 iie

aeeoaeae ?anioaeeee. I?e yoii ec 170 eniieuecoaiuo a naeueneii
oicyenoaa ianoeoeeaeia o?aoue – aunieioiene/iua, oi anoue
i?aaeaeueii iianiua. Oaaee/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee ianoeoeeaeia. a
ii/aao i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth eo

a iaiuae e o?oeoao, iaeiia?aiaiii oiaiueoay ieiaei?iaeea caiee. Oaeay
neooaoeey n ieuaauie i?iaeoeoaie ia iiaea ia i?eaanoe e ?inoo
caaieaaaaiinoe aeeoaeae naeueneeo ?aeiiia: iniaaiii no?aaeatho
i?aaiu aeuoaiey, ieuaaa?aiey, e?iaioai?aiey e ia?aiay nenoaia.

A ?acoeueoaoa eaoano?iou ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN auei
yaaeoe?iaaii ieiei 96 ouny/ /aeiaae ec I?eiyoe, *a?iiauiy,
aieaa 70 ianaeaiiuo ioieoia o?eaeoeaoeeeeiiao?iaie ciiu, a oaeaea
ca aa i?aaeaeaie:a iieanneii ?aeiia Eeaaneie iaeanoe. A 1 990 e
1991 aiaeao i?eieiaeenue ia?u ii aeaeueiaeoaio ionaeaieth ethaeae
n caa?yciaiiuo oa??eoi?ee Eeaaneie e AEeoiie?neie iaeanoae,
naiae n aeaoueie e aa?aiaiiuie aeaiueiaie

i?aaeaea anaai, iniaaiii ec oaea iacaaiiiai Iieanneiai e
Ia?iaee/ae AEeoiie?neie iaeanoe. Anaai ca yoe aiaeu yaaeoe?iaaii
ieiei 130 ouny/ /aeiaae, ii ia ?aaeeaoeeiiii caa?yciaiiuo
oa??eoi?eyo,ia n/eoay Eeaaa (oioy ii ioiineony e ciiai
caa?yciaiey), aeeaao ieiei 1.8 ieeeeiia /aeiaae, oaeaeueiue aan
caei?iauo a aeaiiuo ?aeiiao oiaiueoeeny ca yoe aiaeu n 50 aei 20
i?ioeaioia. E oioy iaaeaaii?eyoiua oaiaeaioeee ia?inoatho,
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?ia?aiiu ionaeaiey i?aeoe/anee naa?iooue. Iauay
ieiuaaeue Oe?aeeu, caa?yciaiiay oeaceai-137 (ii no?iioeeth e
ieooiieth ?acoeueoaoia eae ia auei, oae e iao) aieaa 1
Ee/eiea,ninoaaeytho 36 ieeeeiiia aaeoa?ia, aieaa 5 Ee/ei. ea. –
470 ouny/ aaeoa?ia,aieaa

15 Ee/ei.ea. – 75 ouny/ aaeoa?ia.

?aaeeiioeeeaeu, anoanoaaii?, iiiaee a ii?y e ?aee,i?ini/eeenue a
a?oioiaua aiaeu… Iaaiciiaeii aiai?eoue aeaaea ia ioiineoaeueiie
/enoioa Aeaniu e Aeiai?a. Iaaiciiaeii aiai?eoue i aaciianiinoe.
?anoao iauay nia?oiinoue ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu – eaeaaiaeii ia
7-8-9

i?ioeaioia. Aei oanoeaeanyoeiyoeeaoiaai aic?anoa ia aeiaeeaatho
aieaa 38 i?ioeaioia ioae/ei e ii/oe 19 i?ioeaioia aeaiuei (a
n?aaeiai a Oe?aeia ioae/eiu aeeaoo ia 10 eao iaiueoa, /ai
aeaiueiu).Aeaoneay nia?oiinoue, eiay ana aea oaiaeaioeeth e
nieaeaieth,inoaaony i/aiue aunieie: aieaa 12 ia ouny/o
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo a 1990 aiaeo a NOA (

9, a Oaaoeee – 6). A ca iineaaeiea aeanyoue eao – aei 1990 aiaea –
a aic?anoa aei iaeiiai aiaea oia?ei 116433 ?aaaiea. E naaiaeiy
nia?oiinoue a Oe?aeia auoa, /ai ?iaeaeaaiinoue. I?e/ei iiiai, ii n?aaee
ieo e *a?iiaueue. Aieacie aeaoae e aioeia i?ia?aiie?othony ia
aaiaoe/aneii o?iaia a

i?aaieciao iooeia. Aaiaoe/aneia caa?yciaiea ie?oaeaauae n?aaeu
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi i?ia?aiio aeaaee e oie/oiaeaiey inaaeaaao
i?e?iaea- oie/oiaeaiey /aeiaaea, eioi?ue oie/oiaeee caei?iauea
i?e?iaeu a ca?iaeu

oa. Aio ii/aio ioaeai caeii, i?iaicaeaoathuee i?e?iaeo
aunoei ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo noauaeoii i?aaa. Caeii, eioi?ue
ia nianao,ii aeano iaaeaaeaeo ia nianaiea oioy au a aoaeouai.
Caeii,aaeeiue aeey anao

a?aiai e ia?iaeia. Caeii i?aa i?e?iaeu. iiaeiaiue Aeaeea?aoeey
i i?aaao /aeiaaea, aa?iiiece?othuee e aoiaiece?othuee ioiioaiey e
acaeiicaaeneiinoe /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ii iaycaoaeueii
i?iaicaea-

oathuee i?e?iaeo aunoei ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo noauaeoii i?aaa.
*aeiaae yoi caneoaeee…

Anoanoaaiiua enoi/ieee ?aaeeaoeee

Iniiaioth /anoue iaeo/aiey ianaeaiea caiiiai oa?a iieo/aao io
anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo oaeiau, /oi
ecaaaeaoue iaeo/aiey io ieo niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii. Ia i?ioyaeaiee anae
enoi?ee nouanoaiaaiey Caiee ?aciua aeaeu eceo/aiey iaaeatho ia
iiaa?oiinoue Caiee ec einiina e iinooiatho io ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa,
iaoiaeyueonyacaiiieei?a. *aeiaae iiaeaa?aaaony iaeo/aiethaeaoiy
niiniaaie. ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaaiiaoo iaoiaeeoueny aia i?aaiecia e
iaeo/aoueaai nia?oaee; a yoii neo/aa aiai?yo i aiaoiai iaeo/aiee. Eee
aea iie iiaoo ieacaoueny a aicaeooa, eioi?ui aeuoeo /aeiaae, a ieua eee
a aiaea e iiianoue aioo?ue i?aaiecia. Oaeie niinia iaeo/aiey iacuaatho
aioo?aiiei. Iaeo/aieth ioanoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee
iiaeaa?aaaony ethaie aeeoaeue Caiee, iaeiaei iaeie ec ieo iieo/atho
aieueoea aeicu, /ai ae?oaea. Yoi caaeneo, a /anoiinoe, io oiai, aaea iie
aeeaoo. O?iaaiue ?aaeeaoeee a iaeioi?uo ianoao caiiiai oa?a, oai, aaea
caeaaatho iniaai ii?aaeeiaeoeaiuaii?iaeu, ieacuaaaony cia/eoaeueii auoa
n?aaeiaai, a a ae?oaeo ianoao -. niioaaonoaaiii ieaea. Aeica iaeo/aiey
caaeneo oaeaea io ia?aca aeecie ethaeae. I?eiaiaiea iaeioi?uo
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, eniieueciaaiea aaca aeeyi?eaioiaeaiey
ieue,ioe?uouo oaieueiuo aea?iaaiue, aa?iaoecaoeey iiiauaiee e aeaaea
iieaou ia naiieaoao ana yoi oaaee/eaaao o?iaaiue iaeo/aiey ca n/ao
anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee. Caiiua enoi/ieee ?aaeeaoeee a noiia
ioaaonoaaiiu ca aieueooth /anoue iaeo/aiey, eioi?iio iiaeaa?aaaony
/aeiaae ca n/ao anoanoaaiiie ?aaeeaoeee. A n?aaeiai iie iaania/eaatho
aieaa 5/6 aiaeiaie yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeicu, iieo/aaiie
ianaeaieai, a iniiaiii aneaaenoaea aioo?aiiaai iaeo/aiey. Inoaeueioth
/anoue aiinyo einie/aneea eo/e, aeaaiui ia?acii iooai aiaoiaai
iaeo/aiey. A yoie aeaaa iu ?anniio?ei aia/aea aeaiiua i aiaoiai
iaeo/aiee io enoi/ieeia einie/aneiai e caiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiee. Caoai
inoaiiaeiny ia aioo?aiiai iaeo/aiee, i?e/ai iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeei
?aaeiio ?aaeeiaeoeaiiio aaco, eioi?ue aiineo naiue aieueoie aeeaae a
n?aaeithth aeico iaeo/aiey ianaeaiey ec anao enoi/ieeia anoanoaaiiie
?aaeeaoeee. Iaeiiaoe, a iae aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu iaeioi?ua noi?iiu
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, a oii /enea eniieueciaaiea oaey e oaeia?aiee,
eioi?uaniinianoaotho ecaea/aieth ?aaeeiaeoiaiuo aauanoa ec caiiie ei?u e
oaaee/eaatho o?iaaiue iaeo/aiey ethaeae io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia
?aaeeaoeee. Einie/aneea eo/e ?aaeeaoeeiiiue oii, nicaeaaaaiue
einie/aneeie eo/aie, aeaao /ooue iaiueoa iieiaeiu aiaoiaai iaeo/aiey,
iieo/aaiiai ianaeaieai io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee .
Einie/aneea eo/e a iniiaiii i?eoiaeyo e iai ec aeoaei Anaeaiiie, ii
iaeioi?ay eo /anoue ?iaeaeaaony ia Nieioea ai a?aiy nieia/iuo aniuoae.
Einie/aneea eo/e iiaoo aeinoeaaoue iiaa?oiinoe Caiee eee
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n aa aoiinoa?ie, ii?iaeaeay aoi?e/iia eceo/aiea e
i?eaiaeye ia?aciaaieth ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia. Iao oaeiai ianoa ia
Caiea, eoaea au ia iaaeae yoio iaaeaeeiue einie/aneee aeoo. Ii iaeie
o/anoee caiiie iiaa?oiinoe aieaa iiaeaa?aeaiu aai aeaenoaeth, /ai
ae?oaea. Naaa?iue e THaeiue iiethnu iieo/atho aieueoa ?aaeeaoeee, /ai
yeaaoi?eaeueiua iaeanoe, ec-ca iaee/ey o Caiee iaaieoiiai iiey,
ioeeiiythuaai ca?yaeaiiua /anoeoeu (ec eioi?uo a iniiaiii e ninoiyo
einie/aneea eo/e). Nouanoaaiiaa, iaeiaei, oi, /oi o?iaaiue iaeo/aiey
?anoao n aunioie, iineieueeo i?e yoii iaae iaie inoaaony ana iaiueoa
aicaeooa, ea?athuaai ?ieue caueoiiai ye?aia. Ethaee, aeeaouea ia o?iaia
ii?y, iieo/atho a n?aaeiai ec-ca einie/aneeo eo/ae yooaeoeaioth
yeaeaaeaioioth aeico ieiei 300 iee?iceaa?oia (ieeeeiiiuo aeieae ceaa?oa)
a aiae; aeey ethaeae aea, aeeaoueo auoa 2000 i iaae o?iaiai ii?y yoi
aaee/eia a ianeieueei ?ac aieueoa.Aua aieaa eioaineaiiio, oioy e
ioiineoaeueii iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiiio iaeo/aieth, iiaeaa?aathony yeeiaaee
e iannaaee?u naiiea oia. I?e iiaeuaia n auniou 4000 i (iaeneiaeueiay
aunioa, ia eioi?ie ?anii eiaeaiu /aeiaa/aneea iinaeaiey: aea?aaie oa?iia
ia neeiiao Yaa?anoa)aei 12000 a (iaeneiaeueiay aunioaiieaoa
o?aineiioeiaioaeueiuo aaeaeaeia?ia) o?iaaiue iaeo/aiey ca n/ao
einie/aneeo eo/ae aic?anoaao i?eia?ii a 25 ?ac e i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe i?e
aeaeueiaeoai oaaee/aiee auniou aei 20000 i (iaeneiaeueiay aunioa iieaoa
naa?ocaoeiauo ?aaeoeaiuo naiieaoia) e auoa. I?e ia?aeaoa ec IuethEi?ea a
Ia?eae iannaaee? iau/iiai oo?ai?aaeoeaiiai naiieaoa iieo/aao aeico ieiei
50 ieCa, a iannaaee? naa?ocaoeiaiai naiieaoa ia 20% iaiueoa, oioy
iiaeaa?aaaony aieaa eioaineaiiio iaeo/aieth. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi ai
aoi?ii neo/aa ia?aeao caieiaao ai?acaei iaiueoa a?aiaie . Anaai ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey aicaeooiiai o?ainii?oa /aeiaa/anoai iieo/aao a aiae
eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth yeaeaaeaioioth aeico ieiei 2000 /ae-Ca.Caiiay
?aaeeaoeey Iniiaiua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu, ano?a/athueany a ai?iuo
ii?iaeao Caiee,yoi eaeee-40,?oaeaeee-87 e /eaiu aeaoo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
naiaenoa, aa?oueo ia/aei niioaaonoaaiii io o?aia-238 e
oi?ey-232aeieaiaeeaoueo ecioiiia, aeeth/eaoeony a ninoaa Caiee n naiiai
aa ?iaeaeaiey. ?acoiaaony, o?iaie caiiie ?aaeeaoeee iaiaeeiaeiau aeey
?aciuo iano caiiiai oa?a e caaenyo io eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a
oii eee eiii o/anoea caiiie ei?u. A ianoao i?iaeeaaiey iniiaiie iannu
ianaeaiey iiei?eia?ii iaeiiai i?yaeea. Oae, niaeanii enneaaeiaaieyi,
i?iaaaeaiiui ai O?aioeee, O?A, Eoaeee, ssiiiee e NOA, i?eia?ii 95%
ianaeaiey yoeo no?ai aeeaao a ianoao, aaea iiuiinoue aeicu iaeo/aiey a
n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao io 0,3 aei I,a ieeeeceaa?oa (ouny/iuo ceaa?oa) a
aiae. Ii iaeioi?ua a?oiiu ianaeaiey iieo/atho cia/eoaeueii aieueoea
aeicu iaeo/aiey: ieiei 3% iieo/aao a n?aaeiai 1 ieeeeceaa?o a aiae, a
ieiei 1,5% aieaa 1,4 ieeeeceaa?oa a aiae. Anoue, iaeiaei, oaeea ianoa,
aaeao?iaie caiiie ?aaeeaoeee iaiiiai auoa. Iaiiaeaeaeoio
ai?iaeaIinon-aee-Eaea A?aceeee, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a 200 ei e naaa?o io
Nai-Iaoeo, anoue iaaieueoay aicauoaiiinoue. Eae ieacaeinue, caeanue
o?iaaiue ?aaeeaoeee a 800 ?ac i?aainoiaeeo n?aaeiee e aeinoeaaao 250
ieeeeceaa?oia a aiae. Ii eaeei-oi i?e/eiai aicauoaiiinoue
ieacaeanueiaiaeoaaiie. Iaeiaei eeoue/ooue iaiueoeao?iaie ?aaeeaoeee
aueeca?aaeno?e?iaaiu iaii?neii eo?i?oa, ?aniieiaeaiiii a 600ei e ainoieo
io yoie aicauoaiiinoe. Aoa?aia?e iaaieueoie ai?iae n ianaeaieai 12000
/aeiaae eaaeaeiaeaoi noaiiaeony ianoiiioaeuoa i?eia?ii30000
eo?i?oieeia.Iaioaeaeueiuoo/anoeaoaai ieyaeae ca?aaeno?e?iaai o?iaaiue
?aaeeaoeee 175 ieeeeceaa?oia a aiae. ?aaeeaoeey ia
oeeoeaoai?iaeaieacaeanue iaiiiai ieaea io 8 aei 15 ieeeeceaa?oia a
aiae,ii ana aea cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaea n?aaeieeo?iaaiue. Noiaeiay
neooaoeey iaaethaeaaony a ?uaaoeeie aea?aaooea Iaaeia, ?aniieiaeaiiie a
50 ei e thao io Aoa?aia?e. Iaa ianaeaiiuo ioieoa noiyo ia ianeao,
aiaaouo oi?eai. A ae?oaie /anoe naaoa, ia thai-caiaaea Eiaeee, 70000
/aeiaae aeeaoo ia oceie i?ea?aaeiie iieina aeeeiie 55 ei, aaeieue
eioi?ie oaeaea oyioony ianee, aiaaoua oi?eai. Enneaaeiaaiey, ioaaoeaoea
8513 /aeiaae ec /enea i?iaeeaathueo ia yoie oa??eoi?ee, iieacaee, /oi
aeaiiay a?oiia eeoe iieo/aao a n?aaeiai 3,8 ieeeeceaa?oa a aiae ia
/aeiaaea. Ec ieo aieaa 500 /aeiaae iieo/atho nauoa 8,7 ieeeeceaa?oa a
aiae. Ieiei oanoeaeanyoi iieo/atho aiaeiaoth aeico, i?aauoathuoth 17
ieeeeceaa?oia, /oi a 50 ?ac aieueoa n?aaeiae aiaeiaie aeicu aiaoiaai
iaeo/aiey io caiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee. Yoe oa??eoi?ee a A?aceeee e
Eiaeee yaeythony iaeaieaaoi?ioi eco/aiiuie > iaoae
ieaiaou. Ii a E?aia, iai?eia? a ?aeiia ai?iaeea ?aina?, aaea auetho
eeth/e, aiaaoua ?aaeeai, auee ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu o?iaie ?aaeeaoeee aei 400
ieeeeceaa?oia a aiae. Ecaanoiu e ae?oaea ianoa ia caiiii oa?a n aunieei
o?iaiai ?aaeeaoeee, iai?eia? ai O?aioeee, Ieaa?ee, ia Iaaeaaanea?a. Ii
iiaen/aoai IEAeA? III n?aaeiyy yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica aiaoiaai
iaeo/aiey, eioi?oth /aeiaae iieo/aao ca aiae io caiiuo enoi/ieeia
anoanoaaiiie ?aaeeaoeee, ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 350 iee?iceaa?oia, o. a.
/ooue aieueoa n?aaeiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeicu iaeo/aiey ec-ca
?aaeeaoeeiiiiai oiia, nicaeaaaaiiai einie/aneeie eo/aie ia o?iaia ii?y.
Aioo?aiiaa iaeo/aiea A n?aaeiai i?eia?ii 2/3 yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie
aeicu iaeo/aiey, eioi?oth /aeiaae iieo/aao io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia
?aaeeaoeee, iinooiaao io ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, iiiaaoeo a i?aaieci n
ieuae, aiaeie e aicaeooii. Nianai iaaieueoay /anoue yoie aeicu
i?eoiaeeony ia ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu oeia oaea?iaea-14 e o?eoey,
eioi?ua ia?acothony iiae aicaeaenoaeai einie/aneie ?aaeeaoeee. Ana
inoaeueiia iinooiaao io enoi/ieeia caiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. A n?aaeiai
/aeiaae iieo/aao ieiei 180 iee?iceaa?oia a aiae ca n/ao eaeey-40,
eioi?ue onaaeaaaony i?aaieciii a ianoa n ia?aaeeiaeoeaiuie ecioiiaie
eaeey, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecia. Iaeiaei
cia/eoaeueii aieueooth aeico aioo?aiiaai iaeo/aiey /aeiaae iieo/aao io
ioeeeaeia ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ?yaea o?aia-238 e a iaiueoae noaiaie io
?aaeeiioeeeaeia ?yaea oi?ey-232.Iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iai?eia? ioeeeaeu
naeioea-210 e iieiiey-210, iinooiatho a i?aaieci n ieuae. Iie
eiioeaio?e?othony a ?uaa e iieethneao, iiyoiio ethaee,
iio?aaeythueaiiiai ?uaue ae?oaeo aea?ia ii?y, iiaoo iieo/eoue
ioiineoaeueii aunieea aeicu iaeo/aiey. Aeanyoee ouny/ ethaeae ia E?aeiai
Naaa?a ieoathony a iniiaiii iynii naaa?iiai ieaiy (ea?eao), a eioi?ii
iaa oiiiyioouo auoa ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo ecioiia i?enoonoaotho a aeiaieueii
aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee. Iniaaiii aaeeei niaea?aeaiea iieiiey-210. Yoe
ecioiiu iiiaaeatho a i?aaieci ieaiae ceiie, eiaaea iie ieoathony
eeoaeieeaie, a eioi?uo iaeaieeaathony iaa ecioiia. Aeicu aioo?aiiaai
iaeo/aiey /aeiaaea io iieiiey-210 a yoeo neo/ayo iiaoo a 35 ?ac
i?aauoaoue n?aaeiee o?iaaiue. A a ae?oaii iieooa?ee ethaee, aeeaouea a
Caiaaeiie Aano?aeee a ianoao n iiauoaiiie eiioeaio?aoeeae o?aia,
iieo/atho aeicu iaeo/aiey, a 75 ?ac i?aainoiaeyuea n?aaeieeo?iaaiue,
iineieueeo aaeyo iyni e o?aaooo iaaoe e eaiao?o. I?aaeaea /ai iiianoue a
i?aaieci /aeiaaea, ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa, eae e a ?anniio?aiiuo auoa
neo/ayo, i?ioiaeyo ii neiaeiui ia?o?ooai a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, e yoi
i?eoiaeeony o/eouaaoue i?e ioeaiea aeic iaeo/aiey, iieo/aiiuo io
eaeiai-eeai enoi/ieea.

Ae?oaea enoi/ieee ?aaeeaoeee.

Oaieue, iiaeiaii aieueoeinoao ae?oaeo i?e?iaeiuo iaoa?eaeia, niaea?aeeo
ie/oiaeiua eiee/anoaa ia?ae/iuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia. Iineaaeiea, ecaea/aiiua
aianoa n oaeai ec iaae? caiee, iinea naeeaaiey oaey iiiaaeatho
aie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, aaea iiaoo neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey
ethaeae. Oioy eiioeaio?aoeey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a ?aciuo oaieueiuo ieanoao
?acee/aaony a nioie ?ac, a iniiaiii oaieue niaea?aeeo iaiueoa
?aaeeiioeeeaeia, /ai caiiay ei?a a n?aaeiai. Ii i?e naeeaaiee oaey
aieueoay /anoue aai ieia?aeueiuo eiiiiiaioia niaeaaony a oeae eee cieo,
eoaea a iniiaiii e iiiaaeatho ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa. Aieueoay /anoue
cieu e oeaee inoathony ia aeia oiiee yeaeo?ineeiaie noaioeee. Iaeiaei
aieaa eaaeay cieueiay iueue oiineony oyaie a o?oao yeaeo?inoaioeee.
Eiee/anoai yoie iuee caaeneo io ioiioaiey e i?iaeaiai caa?yciaiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e io n?aaenoa, aeeaaeuaaaiuo a nii?oaeaiea i/enoiuo
ono?ienoa. Iaeaea, ecaa?aaaiua o?oaaie oaieiauo
yeaeo?inoaioeee,i?eaiaeyo e aeiiieieoaeueiiio iaeo/aieth ethaeae, a
inaaeay ia caieth, /anoe/ee iiaoo aiiaue aa?iooueny a aicaeoo a ninoaaa
iuee. Niaeanii oaeouei ioeaieai, i?iecaiaenoai eaaeaeiai aeaaaaoo-aiaea
yeaeo?iyia?aee iaoiaeeony /aeiaa/anoao a 2 /ae-Ca iaeeaeaaiie
eieeaeoeaiie yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeicu iaeo/aiey, o.a. a 1979
aiaeo, iai?eia?, iaeeaeaaiay eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay
aeica io anao ?aaioathueo ia oaea yeaeo?inoaioeee ai anai ie?a ninoaaeea
ieiei 2000 /ae-Ca. Ia i?eaioiaeaiea ieue e ioiieaiea aeeeuo aeiiia
?anoiaeoaony iaiueoa oaey, ii caoi aieueoa cieueiie iuee eaoeo a aicaeoo
a ia?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo oiieeaa. Oaeei ia?acii, ec ia/ae e eaieiia
anaai ie?a aueaoaao a aoiinoa?o cieueiie iuee, aiciiaeii, ia iaiueoa,
/ai ec o?oa yeaeo?inoaioeee. E?iia oiai, a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa
yeaeo?inoaioeee aeeeua aeiia eiatho ioiineoaeueii iaaunieea o?oau e
?aniieiaeaiu iau/ii a oeaio?a ianaeaiiuo ioieoia, iiyoiio ai?acaei
aieueoay /anoue caa?yciaiee iiiaaeaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ethaeae. Aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaieia yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ii/oe ia ia?auaee aieiaiey, ii
ii aanueia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ioeaiea ec-ca naeeaaiey oaey a aeiiaoieo
oneiaeyo aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ieue e iaia?aaaiey aeeeeu ai anai ie?a a
1979 aiaeo iaeeaeaaiay eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica
iaeo/aiey ianaeaiey Caiee aic?inea ia 100000 /ae-Ca. Ia iiiai ecaanoii
oaeaea i aeeaaea a iaeo/aiea ianaeaiey io cieueiie iuee, niae?aaiie
i/enoiuie ono?ienoaaie. A iaeioi?uo no?aiao aieaa o?aoe aa eniieuecoaony
a oicyenoaa, a iniiaiii a ea/anoaa aeiaaaee e oeaiaioai e aaoiiai.
Eiiaaea aaoii ia 4/5 ninoieo ec cieueiie iuee. Iia eniieuecoaony oaeaea
i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa aei?ia e aeey oeo/oaiey no?oeoo?u ii/a a naeueneii
oicyenoaa. Ana yoe i?eiaiaiey iiaoo i?eaanoe e oaaee/aieth
?aaeeaoeeiiiiai iaeo/aiey, ii naaaeaiee ii yoei aii?inai ioaeeeoaony
e?aeia iaei. Aua iaeei enoi/iee iaeo/aiey ianaeaiey oa?iaeueiua
aiaeiaiu. Iaeioi?ua no?aiu yenieoaoe?otho iiaecaiiua ?aca?aoa?u ia?a e
ai?y/ae aiaeu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee e ioiieaiey aeiiia;
iaeei oaeie enoi/iee a?auaao oo?aeiu yeaeo?inoaioeee a Ea?aea?aeei a
Eoaeee n ia/aea iaoaai aaea. Ecia?aiey yiennee ?aaeiia ia yoie e aua ia
aeaoo, cia/eoaeueii aieaa iaeeeo, yeaeo?inoaioeeyo a Eoaeee iieacaee,
/oi ia eaaeaeue aeaaaaoo-aiae au?aaaouaaaiie eie yeaeo?iyia?aee
i?eoiaeeony iaeeaeaaiay eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiayaeica 6
/ae-Ca, o. a. a o?e ?aca aieueoa aiaeiae/iie aeicu iaeo/aiey io
yeaeo?inoaioeee, ?aaioathueo ia oaea. Iaeiaei, iineieueeo a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy noiia?iay iiuiinoue yia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie, ?aaioathueo ia
aaioa?iaeueiuo enoi/ieeao, ninoaaeyao anaai 0,1% ie?iaie iiuiinoe,
aaioa?iaeueiay yia?aaoeea aiineo ie/oiaeiue aeeaae a ?aaeeaoeeiiiia
iaeo/aiea ianaeaiey. Ii yoio aeeaae iiaeao noaoue aanueia aaniiui,
iineieueeo ?yae aeaiiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi caianu yoiai aeaea
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia i/aiue aaeeee. Aeiau/a oinoaoia aaaeaony ai
iiiaeo ianoao caiiiai oa?a; iie eniieuecothony aeaaiui ia?acii aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa oaeia?aiee, eioi?uo a 1977 aiaeo ai anai ie?a auei
iieo/aii ieiei 30 iei. o. Aieue- oeinoai ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oinoaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee niaea?aeeo o?ai, i?enoonoaothuee oai a
aeiaieueii aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee. A i?ioeanna aeiau/e e ia?a?aaioee
?oaeu auaeaeyaony ?aaeii, aea e naie oaeia?aiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiu, e
niaea?aeaueany a ieo ?aaeeiecioiiu i?iieeatho ec ii/au a ieuaaua
eoeueoo?u. ?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea a yoii neo/aa auaaao iaueiiaaiii
iacia/eoaeueiui, ii aic?anoaao, anee oaeia?aiey aiinyo a caieth a
aeeaeeii aeaea eee anee niaea?aeauea oinoaou aauanoaa nea?ieeaatho
neioo. Oaeea aauanoaa aeaenoaeoaeueii oe?iei eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa
ei?iiauo aeiaaaie, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e cia/eoaeueiiio iiauoaieth
niaea?aeaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe a iieiea. Ana yoe aniaeou i?eiaiaiey
oinoaoia aeatho ca aiae iaeeaeaaioth eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth
yeaeaaeaioioth aeico, ?aaioth i?eia?ii 6000 /ae-Ca, a oi a?aiy eae
niioaaonoaothuay aeica ec-ca i?eiaiaiey oinoiaeina, iieo/aiiiai oieueei
a 1977 aiaeo, ninoaaeyao ieiei 300000 /ae-Ca. Ca iineaaeiea ianeieueei
aeanyoeeaoee /aeiaae nicaeae ianeieueei nioai eneonnoaaiiuo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia e iao/eeny eniieueciaaoue yia?aeth aoiia a naiuo ?aciuo
oeaeyo: a iaaeeoeeia e aeey nicaeaiey aoiiiiai i?oaeey, aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee e iaia?oaeaiey iiaea?ia, aeey ecaioiaeaiey
naaoyueony oeeoa?aeaoia /ania e iienea iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Ana yoi
i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth aeicu iaeo/aiey eae ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, oae e
ianaeaiey Caiee a oeaeii. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeicu, iieo/aaiua ?aciuie
ethaeueie io eneonnoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee, neeueii ?acee/athony.
A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoe aeicu aanueia iaaaeeee, ii eiiaaea iaeo/aiea
ca n/ao oaoiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ieacuaaaony ai iiiai ouny/ ?ac
eioaineaiaa, /ai ca n/ao anoanoaaiiuo. Eae i?aaeei, aeey oaoiiaauiuo
inoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee oiiiyiooay aa?eaaaeueiinoue au?aaeaia ai?acaei
neeueiaa, /ai aeey anoanoaaiiuo. E?iia oiai, ii?iaeaeaaiia eie eceo/aiea
iau/ii eaa/a eiio?iee?iaaoue,oioy iaeo/aiea, naycaiiia n ?aaeeiaeoeaiui
e inaaeeaie io yaea?iuo ac?uaia, ii/oe oae aea iaaiciiaeii
eiio?iee?iaaoue, eae e iaeo/aiea, iaoneiaeaiiia einie/aneeie eo/aie eee
caiiuie enoi/ieeaie.

Enoi/ieee, eniieuecothueany a iaaeeoeeia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiie aeeaae a aeico, iieo/aaioth /aeiaaeii io
oaoiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee, aiinyo iaaeeoeeineea i?ioeaaeo?u e
iaoiaeu ea/aiey, naycaiiua n i?eiaiaieai ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe. Ai iiiaeo
no?aiao yoio enoi/iee ioaaonoaai i?aeoe/anee ca anth aeico, iieo/aaioth
io oaoiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee. ?aaeeaoeey eniieuecoaony a
iaaeeoeeia eae a aeeaaiinoe/aneeo oeaeyo, oae e aeey ea/aiey. Iaeiei ec
naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iaaeeoeeineeo i?eai?ia yaeyaony ?aioaaiianeee
aiia?ao. Iieo/atho ana aieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e iiaua neiaeiua
aeeaaiinoe/aneea iaoiaeu, iie?athueany ia eniieueciaaiea ?aaeeiecioiiia.
Eae ie ia?aaeienaeueii, ii iaeiei ec iniiaiuo niiniaia ai?ueau n ?aeii
yaeyaony eo/aaay oa?aiey. Iiiyoii, /oi eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeicu,
iieo/aaiua ?aciuie ethaeueie, neeueii aa?uee?otho io ioey (o oao, eoi ie
?aco ia i?ioiaeee aeaaea ?aioaaiieiae/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey) aei iiiaeo
ouny/ n?aaeiaaiaeiauo aeic (o iaoeeaioia, eioi?ua
ea/aony io ?aea). Iaeiaei iaaeaaeiie eioi?iaoeee, ia iniiaaiee eioi?ie
IEAeA? III iia au ioeaieoue aeicu, iieo/aaiua ianaeaieai Caiee, neeoeii
iaei. Haecaanoii,neieueei /aeiaae aaeaaiaeii iiaeaa?aaaony iaeo/aieth a
iaaeeoeeineeo oeaeyo, eaeea aeicu iie iieo/atho e eaeea i?aaiu e oeaie
i?e yoii iaeo/athony. A i?eioeeia iaeo/aiea a iaaeeoeeia iai?aaeaii ia
enoeaeaiea aieueiiai. Iaeiaei ia?aaeei aeicu ieacuaathony iaii?aaaeaiii
aunieeie: eo iiaeii auei au nouanoaaiii oiaiueoeoue aacnieaeaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe, i?e/ai iieueca io oaeiai oiaiueoaiey auea au aanueia
nouanoaaiia, iineieueeo aeicu, iieo/aaiua io iaeo/aiey a iaaeeoeeineeo
oeaeyo, ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue noiia?iie aeicu iaeo/aiey io
oaoiiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeaeii eceo/aiey,
i?eiaiythueiny a aeeaaiinoe/aneeo oeaeyo, yaeythony ?aioaaiianeea eo/e.
Niaeanii aeaiiui ii ?acaeoui no?aiai, ia eaaeaeoth 1000 aeeoaeae
i?eoiaeeony io 300 aei 900 ianeaaeiaaiee a aiae yoi ia n/eoay
?aioaaiieiae/aneeo ianeaaeiaaiee coaia e ianniaie oethi?ia?aoe. Iaiaa
iieiua aeaiiua ii ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai iieacuaatho, /oi caeanue /enei
i?iaiaeeiuo ianeaaeiaaiee ia i?aauoaao 100-200 ia 1000 aeeoaeae. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ieiei 2/3 ianaeaiey Caiee i?iaeeaaao a no?aiao, aaea
n?aaeiaa /enei ?aioaaiieiae/aneeo ianeaaeiaaiee ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 10%
io /enea ianeaaeiaaiee a i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo nopaiao. A aieueoeinoaa
nopai ieiei iieiaeiu ?aioaaiieiae/aneeo ianeaaeiaaiee i?eoiaeeony ia
aeietha?oaeiie eeaoee. Iaeiaei ii ia?a oiaiueoaiey /anoiou caaieaaaiee
ooaa?eoeacii oeaeaniia?aciinoue ianniauo ianeaaeiaaiee nieaeaaony. Aieaa
oiai, i?aeoeea iieacaea, /oi ?aiiaa iaia?oaeaiea ?aea eaaeeo ii/oe ia
oaaee/eaaao oainia ia auaeeaaiea iaoeeaioa. Nae/an ai iiiaeo i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeouo no?aiao, aeeth/ay Oaaoeeth, Aaeeeia?eoaieth e Niaaeeiaiiua
Ooaou, /anoioa oaeeo ianeaaeiaaiee nouanoaaiii nieceeanue, iaeiaei a
iaeioi?uo no?aiao ieiei 1/3 ianaeaiey ii-i?aaeiaio aaeaaiaeii
iiaeaa?aaaony iiaeiaiiio ianeaaeiaaieth. Iaaeaaii iiyaeeny oeaeue ?yae
oaoie/aneeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee, eioi?ua i?e oneiaee eo i?aaeeueiiai
i?eiaiaiey iiaee au i?eaanoe e oiaiueoaieth aeicu, iieo/aaiie ipe
paioaaiianeii iaeaaeiaaiee. Oai ia iaiaa ii aeaiiui aeey Oaaoeee e NOA
yoi oiaiueoaiea ieacaeinue aanueia iacia/eoaeueiui eee ionoonoaiaaei
aiiaua. Aeaaea a i?aaeaeao iaeiie no?aiu aeicu i/aiue neeueii
aa?uee?otho io eeeieee e eeeieea. Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a O?A,
Aaeeeia?eoaiee e NOA, iieacuaatho, /oi aeicu, iieo/aaiua iaoeeaioaie,
iiaoo ?acee/aoueny a noi ?ac. Ecaanoii oaeaea, /oi eiiaaea iaeo/aieth
iiaeaa?aaaony aaeaia aieueoay ieiuaaeue iiaa?oiinoe oaea, /ai yoi
iaiaoiaeeii. Iaeiiaoe, onoaiiaeaii, /oi eceeoiaa ?aaeeaoeeiiiia
iaeo/aiea /anoi auaaao iaoneiaeaii iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui ninoiyieai eee
yenieoaoaoeeae iai?oaeiaaiey. Oai ia iaiaa ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea aeicu
iaeo/aiey aeaenoaeoaeueii auee nieaeaiu aeaaiaea?y oniaa?oainoaiaaieth
iai?oaeiaaiey e iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee ia?niiaea. Eiiaaea aeey
nouanoaaiiiai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeeaaiinoeee ioaeii eeoue neaaea
oaaee/eoue aeico. Eae au oi ie auei, iaoeeaio aeieaeai iieo/aoue
ieieiaeueioth aeico i?e ianeaaeiaaiee, e, ii iiaieth IE AeA?, caeanue
eiathony ?aca?au cia/eoaeueiiai oiaiueoaiey iaeo/aiey. Aeaaiaea?y
oaoie/aneei oniaa?oainoaiaaieyi, ii-aeaeeiiio, iiaeii oiaiueoeoue e
aeicu, iieo/aaiua iaoeeaioaie i?e ?aioaaiia?aoee coaia. Yoi i/aiue
aaaeii oioy au iioiio, /

oi ai iiiaeo ?acaeouo no?aiao aeaiiia ?aioaaiieiae/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea
i?iaiaeeony iaeaieaa /anoi. Iaeneiaeueiia oiaiueoaiea ieiuaaee
?aioaaiianeiai io/ea, aai oeeueo?aoeey, oae?athuay eeoiaa eceo/aiea,
eniieueciaaiea aieaa /oanoaeoaeueiuo ieaiie e i?aaeeueiay ye?aie?iaea
ana yoi oiaiueoaao aeico. Iaiueoea aeicu aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoueny e i?e
ianeaaeiaaiee iiei/iie aeaeacu. Aaaaeaiiua ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 70-o
aiaeia iiaua iaoiaeu ?aioaaiia?aoee yoiai i?aaia oaea i?eaaee e
nouanoaaiiiio nieaeaieth o?iaiy iaeo/aiey ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeiei ,
iaeiaei ii iiaeao auoue oiaiueoai e aeaeaa aac oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa
?aioaaiia?aii. Oiaiueoaiea aeicu iicaieeei oaaee/eoue /enei
ianeaaeiaaiee iiei/iie aeaeacu: a Oaaoeee e Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao ca
ia?eiae n 1977 ii 1979 a. yoa oeeo?a aic?inea aieaa /ai aaeaia. Ni
a?aiaie ioe?uoey ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae naiui cia/eoaeueiui aeinoeaeaieai a
?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia ?aioaaiiaeeaaiinoeee noaea eiiiuethoa?iay
oiiia?aoey. Yoio iaoiae iaoiaeeo ana aieaa oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea. A Oaaoeee
ca ia?eiae n 1973 ii 1979 a. /enei ianeaaeiaaiee n iiiiuueth yoiai
iaoiaea aic?inei anioie ?ac. Aai i?eiaiaiea i?e ianeaaeiaaieyo ii/ae
iicaieeei oiaiueoeoue aeicu iaeo/aiey eiaee a 5 ?ac, ye/ieeia a 25 ?ac,
naiaiieeia a 50 ?ac ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iuie iaoiaeaie. ?ac?aaioaoue
iaoiaeeeo ioeaiee n?aaeiae aeicu aeey aieueoeo a?oii ianaeaiey e?aeia
o?oaeii, a /anoiinoe ec-ca iaaeinoaoea aeaiiuo i /anoioa
?aioaaiieiae/aneeo ianeaaeiaaiee, iniaaiii a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao.
Caaea/a aua aieaa oneiaeiyaony aieueoeie aa?eaoeeyie aeic io eeeieee e
eeeieea; yoi icia/aao, /oi aeaiiua aeey iaeiie ec eeeiee iaeuecy
n/eoaoue ioeaieie n?aaeiaai cia/aiey aeicu. Iiiuoee ioeaieoue n?aaeithth
aeico, iieo/aaioth ianaeaieai i?e ?aioaaiieiae/aneeo ianeaaeiaaieyo, aei
iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie ia?aie/eaaeenue no?aieaieai ii?aaeaeeoue oio o?iaaiue
iaeo/aiey, eioi?ue iiaeao i?eaanoe e aaiaoe/aneei iineaaenoaeyi. Aai
iacuaatho aaiaoe/anee cia/eiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeicie eee ACAe. Aaee/eia
ACAe ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy oaeoi?aie: 1) aa?iyoiinoueth oiai, /oi
iaoeeaio aiineaaenoaee aoaeao eiaoue aeaoae (yoi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ii?aaeaeyaony aai aic?anoii); 2) aeicie iaeo/aiey iieiauo aeaeac. ACAe
caaeneo io oeia ianeaaeiaaiey; a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 1977 aiaeo naiue
aieueoie a ACAe aianee ianeaaeiaaiey oaca e ieaeiae /anoe
nieiu, aaaea?, ii/aaiai iocu?y e ii/aauaiaeyueo iooae, a oaeaea aa?eaaua
eeeciu. Ii ioeaieai, ACAe a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 1977 aiaeo ninoaaeea
i?eia?ii 120 ieCa, a Aano?aeee a 1970 aiaeo 150 ieCa, noieueei aea a
ssiiiee a 1974 e 1979 aiaeao e ieiei 230 ieCa a NNN? a eiioea 70-o
aiaeia. A aeieeaaea ca 1982 aiae IEAeA? iiiuoaeny iieoe aeaeueoa e
?ac?aaioaoue iiiyoea yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeic aeey ioeaiee
iioaioeeaeueiiai oua?aa, eioi?ue iaiineo iaeo/aiea ae?oaei oeaiyi, ia
oieueei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiui i?aaiai. Yoi o?oaeii naeaeaoue aeaaea a
i?eioeeia, iineieueeo iau/iua niiniau ioeaiie ia aiieia i?eaiaeiu,
eiaaea aeaei eanaaony iaeo/aiey

a iaaeeoeeineeo oeaeyo. E?iia oiai, nouanoaotho e oaoie/aneea
o?oaeiinoe. Aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeic ioaeiu oi/iua
aeaiiua i oii, neieueei eceo/aiey iiaeiuaaony ?acee/iuie i?a, iaie eee
oeaiyie ai a?aiy eaaeaeiai ianeaaeiaaiey. Oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeic
iiaeao ?acee/aoueny a 1000 e aieaa ?ac u iaeiiai e oiai aea oeia
ianeaaeiaaiey, ianiio?y ia oaoie/aneea oniaa?oainoai aaiey, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auee au oiaiue oeoue yoe ?acee/ey. ?aaeueii oieueei aeaa no?aiu
ssiiiey Iieueoa niiaee i?aaenoaaeoue a eiieoao aeinoaoi/ii iieioth
eioi?iaoeeth, ii eioi?ie oaeaeinue ?ann/eoaoue yooaeoeaiu aeicu:
i?eia?ii 600 /ae-Ca ia 1 iei. aeeoaeae Iieueoe a 1976 aiaeo e 1800
/ae-Ca ia 1 iei. ianaeaiey ssiiiee a 197~ aiaeo. Ec-ca ionoonoaey eaeeo
au oi ie auei ae?oaeo aeaiiuo IEAeA? i?eiye a ea/anoaa ioeaiee aiaeiaie
eieeaeoeaiie yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeicu io ?aioaaiieiae/aneeo
ianeaaeiaaiee a ?acaeouo no?aiao cia/aiea 1000 /ae-Ca ia 1 iei.
aeeoaeae. Eiia/ii, a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao yoa aaee/eia, aa?iyoii,
ieaaeaony ieaea, oioy eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeicuiiaoo auoue e auoa.
?aaeeiecioiiu eniieuecothony aeey enneaaeiaaiey ?acee/iuo i?ioeannia,
i?ioaeathueo a i?aaiecia, e aeey eieaeecaoeee iiooieae. Ca iineaaeiea 30
eao eo i?eiaiaiea neeueii aic?inei, e ana aea iie e nae/an i?eiaiythony
?aaea, /ai ?aioaaiieiae/aneea ianeaaeiaaiey. Eioi?iaoeey ia
eniieueciaaiee ?aaeeiecioiiia aeiaieueii ia?aie/aiia, ii eiathueany
aeaiiua iicaieytho i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao
ia 1000 aeeoaeae i?eoiaeeony eeoue 10 40 ianeaaeiaaiee. Oae aea o?oaeii
ioeaieoue eaeicu; ?acoeueoaou iaeiiai enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiiai a
ssiiiee, iieacuaatho, /oi aiaeiaay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica
ninoaaeyao ~ 20 ieCa ia /aeiaaea. Eieeaeoeaiua yooaeoeaiua yeaeaaeaioiua
aeicu eaaeao a aeeaiaciia io 20 /ae-Ca ia 1 iei. aeeoaeae a Aano?aeee
aei 150 /ae-Ca a NOA. Ai anai ie?a eiaaony oaeaea ieiei 4000
?aaeeioa?aiaaoe/aneeo onoaiiaie, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey ea/aiey
?aea. Caeanue, eae e a iienaiiuo auoa neo/ayo, iu ?aniieaaaai eeoue
ia?aie/aiiie eioi?iaoeeae i oii, eae /anoi yoe onoaiiaee eniieuecothony
e eaeea aeicu iieo/atho i?e yoii iaoeeaiou. Noiia?iua aeicu aeey
eaaeaeiai iaoeeaioa i/aiue aaeeee, iaeiaei yoi, eae i?aaeei, oaea
oyaeaeiaieueiua ethaee e a?yae ee o ieo aoaeoo aeaoe. E?iiaoiai, oaeea
aeicu iieo/aao n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoia /enei ethaeae, iiyoiio aeeaae a
eieeaeoeaioth aeico ieacuaaaony aanueia iacia/eoaeueiui. Noiia?iay
aeica, iieo/aaiay ianaea- ieai Caiee aaeaaiaeii ai a?aiy nioai
ieeeeiiia ?aioaaiieiae/aneeo ianeaaeiaaiee n i?eiaiaieai iaeuo aeic,
cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao aeico, iieo/aaioth a noiia n?aaieoaeueii iaeui
/eneii aieueiuo ?aeii. N?aaeiyy yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica,
iieo/aaiay io anao enoi/ieeia iaeo/aiey a iaaeeoeeia, a i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeouo no?aiao ninoaa- eyao, ii-aeaeeiiio, 1 iCa ia eaaeaeiai aeeoaey,
o.a. i?eia?ii iieiaeio n?aaeiae aeicu io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia.
Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, iaeiaei, /oi n?aaeiea aeicu a ?aciuo no?aiao
iaiaeeiaeiau e iiaoo ?acee/aoueny a 3 ?aca. Iineieueeo a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao iaeo/aiea a iaaeeoeeineeo oeaeyo eniieuecoaony nouanoaaiii
?aaea, n?aaeiyy eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aeica ca n/aoyoiai enoi/ieea ai anai
ie?a ninoaaeyao 400 ieCa ia /aeiaaea a aiae. Oaeei ia?acii, eieeaeoeaiay
yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica aeey anaai ianaeaiey Caiee ?aaia
i?eia?ii 1 600 000 /ae-Ca a aiae. ssaea?iua ac?uau Ca iineaaeiea 40 eao
eaaeaeue ec ian iiaeaa?aaeny iaeo/aieth io ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeia,
eioi?ua ia?aciaaeenue a ?acoeueoaoa yaea?iuo ac?uaia. ?a/ue eaeao ia i
oao ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeao, eioi?ua auiaee iinea aiiaa?aee?iaee
Oe?ineiu e Ia- aanaee a 1945 aiaeo, a ia inaaeeao, naycaiiuo n
eniuoaieai yaea?iiai i?oaeey a aoiinoa?a. Iaeneioi yoeo eniuoaiee
i?eoiaeeony ia aeaa ia?eiaea: ia?aue ia 1954 1958 aiaeu, eiaaea ac?uau
i?iaiaeeee Aaeeeia?eoaiey, NOA e NNN?, e aoi?ie, aieaa cia/eoaeueiue,ia
1961 1962 aiaeu, eiaaea eo i?iaiaeeee a iniiaiii Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou e
Niaaoneee Nithc. Ai a?aiy ia?aiai ia?eiaea aieueooth /anoue eniuoaiee
i?iaaee NOA, ai a?aiy aoi?iai NNN?. Yoe no?aiu a 1963 aiaeo iiaeienaee
Aeiaiai? ia ia?aie/aiee eniuoaiee yaea?iiai i?oaeey, iaycuaathuee ia
eniuouaaoue aai a aoiinoa?a, iiae aiaeie e a einiina. N oao ii? eeoue
O?aioeey e Eeoae i?iaaee na?eth yaea?iuo ac?uaia a aoiinoa?a, i?e/ai
iiuiinoue ac?uaia auea nouanoaaiii iaiueoa, a naie eniuoaiey
i?iaiaeeeenue ?aaea (iineaaeiaa ec ieo a 1980 aiaeo). Iiaecaiiua
eniuoaiey i?iaiaeyony aei neo ii?, ii iie iau/ii ia nii?iaiaeaeathony
ia?aciaaieai ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeia. *anoue ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai iaoa?eaea
auiaaeaao iaiiaeaeaeo io ianoa eniuoaiey, eaeay-oi /anoue
caaea?aeeaaaony a o?iiinoa?a (naiii ieaeiai neia aoiinoa?u),
iiaeoaaouaaaony aao?ii e ia?aiauaaony ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey, inoaaaynue
i?eia?ii ia iaeiie e oie aea oe?ioa. Iaoiaeynue a aicaeooa a n?aaeiai
ieiei ianyoea , ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa ai a?aiy yoeo ia?aiauaiee
iinoaiaiii auiaaeatho ia caieth. Iaeiaei aieueoay /anoue ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
iaoa?eaea aua?a- nuaaaony a no?aoinoa?o (neaaeothuee neie aoiinoa?u,
eaaeauee ia aunioa 10 50 ei), aaea ii inoaaony iiiaea ianyoeu, iaaeeaiii
iioneaynue e ?annaeaaynue ii anae iiaa?oiinoe caiiiai oa?a.
?aaeeiaeoeaiua inaaeee niaea?aeao ianeieueei nioai ?acee/iuo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia, iaeiaei aieueoeinoai ec ieo eiaao ie/oiaeioth
eiioeaio?aoeeth eee auno?i ?aniaaeaaony; iniiaiie aeeaae a iaeo/aiea
?aaeeiaeoeaiua inaaeee niaea?aeao ianeieueei nioai ?acee/iuo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia, iaeiaei aieueoeinoai ec ieo eiaao ie/oiaeioth
eiioeaio?aoeeth eee auno?i paniaaeaaony; iniiaiie aeeaae a iaeo/aiea
/aeiaaea aeaao eeoue iaaieueoia /enei ?aaeeiioeeeaeia. Aeeaae a
iaeeaeaaioth eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth yeaeaaeai ioth aeico iaeo/aiey
ianaeaiey io yaea?iuo ac?uaia, i?aauoathuee 1%, aeatho oieue /aou?a
?aaeeiioeeeaea. Yoi oaea?iae-14, oeacee-137, oee?eiiee-95 e
no?iioeee-90. Aeicu iaeo/aiey ca n/ao yoeo e ae?oaeo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia
?acee/athony a ?aciua ia?eiaeu a?aiaie iinea ac?uaa, iineieueeo iie
?aniaaeathony n ?acee/iie nei?inoueth. Oae, oee?eiiee-95, ia?eiae
iieo?aniaaea eioi?iai ninoaaeyao 64 nooie, oaea ia yaeyaony enoi/ieeii
iaeo/aiey. Oeacee-137 e no?iioeee-90 eiatho ia?eiaeuiieo?aniaaea 30
eao,iiyoiio iie aoaeoo aeaaaoue aeeaae a iaeo/aiea i?eaeeceoaeueii aei
eiioea yoiai aaea. E oieueei oaea?iae-14, o eioi?iai ia?eiae
iieo?aniaaea ?aaai 5730 aiaeai, aoaeao inoaaaoueny enoi/ieeii
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey (oioy e n ieceie iiuiinoueth aeicu) aeaaea a
ioaeaeaiiii aoaeouai: e 2000 aiaeo ii iioa?yao eeoue 7% naiae
aeoeaiinoe. Aiaeiaua aeicu iaeo/aiey /aoei ei??aee?otho n eniuoaieyie
yaea?iiai i?oaeey a aoiinoa?a: eo iaeneioi i?eoiaeeony ia oa aea
ia?eiaeu . A 196C aiaeo eieeaeoeaiay n?aaeiaaiaeiaay aeica, naycaiiay n
yaea?iuie eniuoaieyie,ninoaaeea ieiei 7% aeicu iaeo/aiey io anoanoaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia; a 1966 aiaeo iia oiaiueoeeanue aei 2%, a a ia/aea 80-o aei
1%. Anee eniuoaiey a aoiinoa?a aieueoa i?iaiaeeoueny ia aoaeoo, oi
aiaeiaua aeicu iaeo/aiey aoaeoo noaiiaeoueny ana iaiueoa e iaiueoa. Ana
i?eaaaeaiiua oeeo?u, eiia/ii, yaeythony n?aaeieie. Ia Naaa?iia
iieooa?ea, aaea i?iaiaeeeinue aieueoeinoai eniuoaiee, auiaea e aieueoay
/anoue ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeia. Ianoooe ia E?aeiai Naaa?a iieo/atho
aeicu iaeo/aiey io oeacey-137, a 100 1000 ?ac i?aauoathuea n?aaeithth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiothaeico aeey inoaeueiie /anoe ianaeaiey (ai?i/ai, iie
iieo/atho aieueoea aeicu e io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia oeacee
iaeaieeaaaony a yaaea e ii oeaie ieoaiey iiiaaeaao a i?aaieci /aeiaaea).
E ian/anoueth, oa ethaee, eioi?ua iaoiaeeeenue iaaeaeaei io
eniuoaoaeueiuo iieeaiiia, iieo/eee a ?acoeueoaoa cia/eoaeueiua aeicu;
?a/ue eaeao i /anoe ianaeaiey Ia?oaeeiauo ino?iaia e eiiaiaea yiiineiai
?uaieiaiiai noaeia, neo/aeii i?ioiaeeaoaai iaiiaeaeaeo io ianoa ac?uaa.
Noiia?iay iaeeaeaaiay eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica io
anao yaea?iuo ac?uaia a aoiinoa?a, i?iecaaaeaiiuo e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie,
ninoaaeyao 30000000 /ae-Ca. E 1980 aiaeo /aeiaa/anoai iieo/eei eeoue 12%
yoie aeicu, inoaiueuoth /anoue iii aoaeao iieo/aoue aua ieeeeiiu eao.
Aoiiiay yia?aaoeea Enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey, aie?oa eioi?iai aaaeoony
iaeaieaa eioaineaiua nii?u, e yaeythony aoiiiua yeaeo?inoaioeee, oioy a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iie aiinyo aanueia iacia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a noiia?iia
iaeo/aiea ianaeaiey. I?e ii?iaeueiie ?aaioa yaea?iuo onoaiiaie aua?inu
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo i/aiue iaaaeeee. E
eiioeo 1984 aiaea a 26 no?aiao ?aaioaei 345 yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia,
au?aaaouaathueo yeaeo?iyia?aeth. Eo iiuiinoue ninoaaeyea 13% noiia?iie
iiuiinoe anao enoi/ieeia yeaeo?iyia?aee e auea ?aaia 220 AAo. Aei neo
ii? eaaeaeua 5 eao yoa iiuiinoue oaeaaeaaeanue, iaeiaei, nio?aieony ee
oaeie oaii ?inoa a aoaeouai, iaynii, Ioeaiee i?aaeiieaaaaiie noiia?iie
iiuiinoe aoii- iuo yeaeo?inoaioeee ia eiiaoe aaea eiatho iinoiyiioth
oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth. I?e/eiu oiio yeiiiie/aneee niaae, ?aaeecaoeey
ia? ii yeiiiiee yeaeo?iyia?aee, a oaeaea i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu
iauanoaaiiinoe. Niaeanii iineaaeiae ioeaiea IAAAOY (1983 a.), a 2000
aiaeo iiuiinoue aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee aoaeao ninoaaeyoue 720-950 AAo.
Aoiiiua yeaeo?inoaioeee yaeythony eeoue /anoueth yaea?iiai oiieeaiiai
oeeeea, eioi?ue ia/eiaaony n aeiau/e e iaiaauaiey o?aiiaie ?oaeu.
Neaaeothuee yoai i?iecaiaenoai yaea?iiai oiieeaa. Io?aaioaiiia a AYN
yaea?iia oiieeai eiiaaea iiaeaa?aatho aoi?e/iie ia?aaioea, /oiau
ecaea/ue ec iaai o?ai e ieooiiee. Caeai/eaaaony oeeee,eae i?aaeei,
caoi?iiaieai ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia. Ia eaaeaeie noaaeee yaea?iiai
oiieeaiiai oeeeea a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo iiiaaeatho ?aaeeiaeoeaiua
aauanoaa. IEAeA? ioeaiee aeicu, eioi?ua iieo/aao ianaeaiea ia ?acee/iuo
noaaeeyo oeeeea ca ei?ioeea i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie e ca iiiaea nioie eao.
Caiaoei, /oi i?iaaaeaiea oaeeo ioeaiie i/aiue neiaeiia e o?oaeiaieia
aeaei. Ia/iai n oiai, /oi ooa/ea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai iaoa?eaea aeaaea o
iaeiioeiiuo onoaiiaie iaeeiaeiaie eiino?oeoeee i/aiue neeueii
aa?uee?oao. Iai?eia?, o ei?ioniuo eeiyueo ?aaeoi?ia n aiaeie a ea/anoaa
oaieiiineoaey e caiaaeeeoaey (Boiling Water Reactor, BWR) o?iaaiue
ooa/ee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aacia aeey aeaoo ?aciuo onoaiiaie (eee aeey iaeiie
e oie aea onoaiiaee, ii a ?aciua aiaeu) iiaeao ?acee/aoueny a ieeeeiiu
?ac. Aeica iaeo/aiey io yaea?iiai ?aaeoi?a caaeneo io apaiaie e
pannoiyiey. *ai aeaeueoa /aeiaae aeeaao ioaoiiiie yeaeo?inoaioeee, oai
iaiueooth aeico ii iieo/aao. Ianiio?y ia yoi, ia?yaeo n AYN,
?aniieiaeaiiuie a ioaeaeaiiuo ?aeiiao, eiathony e oaeea, eioi?ua
iaoiaeyony iaaeaeaei io e?oiiuo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia. Eaaeaeue ?aaeoi?
aua?anuaaao a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo oeaeue ?yae ?aaeeiioeeeaeia n ?aciuie
ia?eiaeaie iieo?aniaaea. Aieueoeinoai ?aaeeiioeeeaeia ?aniaaeaaony
auno?i e iiyoiio eiaao eeoue ianoiia cia/aiea. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua ec ieo
aeeaoo aeinoaoi/ii aeieai e iiaoo ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ii anaio caiiiio
oa?o, a ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue ecioiiia inoaaony a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea
i?aeoe/anee aaneiia/ii. I?e yoii ?acee/iua ?aaeeiioeeeaeu oa eaea aaaeoo
naay ii-?aciiio: iaeie ?ani?ino?aiythony a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea auno?i,
ae?oaea /?acau/aeii iaaeeaiii. *oiau ?acia?aoueny a yoie neooaoeee,
IEAeA? ?ac?aaioae aeey eaaeaeiai yoaia yaea?iiai oiieeaiiai oeeeea
ia?aiao?u aeiioa oe/aneie iiaeaeueiie onoaiiaee, eiathuae oeie/iua
eiino?oeoeaiua yeaiaiou e ?aniieiaeaiiie a oeie/iii aaia?aoe/aneii
?aeiia n oeie/iie ieioiinoueth ianaeaiey. IEAeA? eco/ee oaeaea aeaiiua
ia ooa/eao ia anao yaea?iuo onoaiiaeao a ie?a e i i?aaeaeee n?aaeithth
aaee/eio ooa/ae, i?eoiaeyuothny ia aeaaaaoo-aiae au?aaaouaaaiie
yeaeo?iyia?aee. Oaeie iiaeoiae aeaao iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea ia o?iaia
caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu i?e ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiu ii aoiiiie yi
a?aaoeea. Iaeiaei iieo/aiiua ioeaiee, eiia/ii aea, iaeuecy aaciaiai?i/ii
i?eiaiyoue e eaeie-eeai eiie?aoiie onoaiiaea. Eie neaaeoao
iieueciaaoueny e?aeia inoi?iaeii, iineieueeo iie caaenyo io iiiaeo
niaoeeaeueii iaiai?aiiuo a aeieeaaea IEAeA? aeiiouaiee. I?eia?ii
iieiaeia anae o?aiiaie ?oaeu aeiauaaaony ioe?uoui niiniaii, a iieiaeia
oaooiui. Aeiauooth ?oaeo aacoo ia iaiaaoeoaeueioth oaa?eeo, iau/ii
?aniieiaeaiioth iaiiaeaeaeo. E ?oaeieee, e iaiaaoeoaeueiua oaa?eee
neoaeao enoi/ieeii caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie
aauanoaaie. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue eeoue iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiua ia?eiaeu
a?aiaie, oi iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi ii/oe ana caa?yciaiea naycaii n ianoaie
aeiau/e o?aiiaie ?oaeu. Iaiaaoeoaeueiua aea oaa? eee nicaeatho i?iaeaio
aeieaia?aiaiiiai caa?yciaiey: a i?ioeanna ia?a?aaioee ?oaeu ia?acoaony
ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iooiaeia . Aaeece aeaenoaothueo
iaiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?ee (a iniiaiii a Naaa?iie Aia?eea) oaea neiieeinue
120 i ei. o iooiaeia, e anee iieiaeaiea ia eciaieony, e eiioeo aaea yoa
aaee/eia aic?anoao aei 500 iei. o. Yoe iooiaeu aoaeoo inoaaaoueny
?aaeeiaeoeaiuie a oa/aiea ieeeeiiia eao, eiaaea oaa?eea aeaaii
ia?anoaiao nouanoaiaaoue. Oaeei ia?a cii, iooiaeu yaeythony aeaaiui
aeieaiaeeaouei enoi/ieeii ia eo/aiey ianaeaiey, naycaiiui n aoiiiie
yia?aaoeeie. Iaeiaei eo aeeaae a iaeo/aie iiaeii cia/eoaeueii
oiaiueoeoue, anee ioaaeu caanoaeueoe?iaaoue eee iie?uoue e. iieea
eieeoei?eaeii. Eiia/ii, iie?uoea iaiaoiaeeii aoaeao ?aaoey?ii iaiyoue.
O?aiiaue eiioeaio?ao, iinooiathuee iaiaaoeoaeueiie oaa?eee,
iiaeaa?aaaony aeaeueiaeoae ia?a?aaioea e i/enoea e ia niaoeeaeueiuo
caaiaeao i?aa?auaaony a yaea?iia oiieeai. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeie
ia?a?aaioee ia?acothony aaciia?aciua e aeeaeeea ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu,
iaeiaei aeicu iaeo/aiey io ieo iaiiiai iaiueoa /ai ia ae?oaeo noaaeeyo
yaea?iiai oiieeaiiai oeeeea. Oaia?ue yaea?i ia oiieeai aioiai e
eniieueciaaieth a yaea?iii ?aaeoi?a. Nouanoaoao iyoue iniiaiuo oeiia
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?aaeoi?ia: aiaei-aiaeyiua ?aaeoi?u n aiaeie iiae
aeaaeaieai (Pressurised Water Reactor, PWR), aiaei-aiaeyiua eeiyuea ?
aaeoi?u (Boiling Water Reactor, BWR), ?ac?aaioaiiua a NOA e iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy; ?aaeoi?u n aaciaui ioeaaeaeaieai,
?ac?aaioaiiua e i?eiaiythueany a Aaeeeia?eoaiee e O?aioeee; ?aaeoi?u n
oyaeaeie aiaei e, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a Eaiaaea; aiaei-a?aoeoiaua
eaiaeueiua ?aaeoi?u, eioi?ua yenieoaoe?othony oieueei a NNN?. E?iia
?aaeoi?ia yoeo iyoe oeiia a Aa?iia e NNN? eiathony oaeaea /aou?a
?aaeoi?a-?aciiiaeeoaey ia auno?uo iaeo?iiao, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie yaea?iua ?aaeoi?u neaaeothuaai iieieaiey. Aaee/eia ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
aua?inia o ?aciuo ?aaeoi?ia eieaaeaony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao: ia oieueei
io iaeiiai oeia ?aaeoi?a e ae?oaiio e ia oieueei aeey ?aciuo
eiino?oeoeee ?aaeoi?a iaeiiai e oiai aea oeia, ii oaeaea e aeey aeaoo
?aciuo ?aaeoi?ia iaeiie eiino?oeoeee. Aua?inu iiaoo nouanoaaiii
?acee/aoueny aeaaea aeey iaeiiai e oiai aea ?aaeoi?a a ?aciua aiaeu,
iioiio /oi ?acee/athony iauaiu oaeoueo ?aiiioiuo ?aaio, ai a?aiy eioi?uo
e i?ienoiaeeo aieueoay /anoue aua?inia. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony
oaiaeaioeey e oiaiueoaieth eiee/anoaa aua?inia ec yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia,
ianiio?y ia oaaee /aiea iiuiinoe AYN. *anoe/ii yoi naycaii n
oaoie/aneeie oniaa?oainoaiaaieyie, /anoe/ii n aaaaeaieai aieaa no?iaeo
ia? ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiie caueoa. A ie?iaii ianooaaa i?eia?ii 10%
eniieueciaaiiiai ia AYN yaea?iia i oiieeaa iai?aaeyaony ia ia?a?aaioeo
aeey ecaea/aiey o?aia e ieooiiey n oeaeueth iiaoi?iiai eo
eniieueciaaiey. Nae/an eiathony eeoue o?e caaiaea, aaea caieiathony
oaeie ia?a?aaioeie a i?iiuoeaiiii ianooaaa: a Ia?eoea e Ea-Are
(O?aioeey) e a Oeiaeneaeea (Aaeeeia?eoaiey). Naiui yaeyaony caaiae a Ia?eoea, ia eioi?ii inouanoaeyaony iniaaiii
no?iaee eiio?ieue, iineieueeo aai noiee iiiaaeatho a ?aeo ?iio. Iooiaeu
aeaoo ae?oae o caaiaeia iiiaaeatho a ii?a, i?e/ai caaiae a Oeiaeneaeea
yaeyaony ai?acaei aieueoei enoi/ieeii caa?yciaiey, oioy i

niiaiay /anoue ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia iiiaaeaao a ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo ia i?e ia?a?aaioea, a a ?acoeueoaoa ei??icee aieinoae, a eioi?uo
yaea?iia oiieeai o?aieony aei ia?a?aaioee. Ca ia?eiae n 1975 ii 1979
aiae ia eaaeaeue aeaaaaoo -aiae au?aaioaiiie yia?aee o?iaaiue

caa?yciaiee io caaiaea a Oeiaeneaeea ii ?-aeoeaiinoe i?eia?ii a 3,5
?aca, a ii a-aeoeaiinoe a 75 ?ac i?aauoae o?iaaiue caa?yciaiee io
caaiaea a Ea-Are. N oao ii? neooaoeey ia caaiaea a Oeiaeneaeea
cia/eoaeueii oeo/oeeanue, iaeiaei a ia?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo ia?a?aaio

aiiiai yaea?iiai ai?th/aai yoi i?aaei?eyoea ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony aieaa
, /ai caaiae a Ea-Are. Iiaeii iaaeayoueny, /oi a aoaeouai
ooa/ee ia ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoeyo aoaeoo ieaea, /ai nae/an.
Nouanoaotho i?iaeou onoaiiaie n i/aiue ieceei o?iaiai ooa/ee

a aiaeo, e IEAeA? acye a ea/anoaa iiaeaeueiie onoaiiaeo, no?ieoaeuenoai
eioi?ie ieaie?oaony a Oeiaeneaeea. Aei neo ii? iu nianai ia eanaeenue
i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n iineaaeiae noaaeeae yaea?iiai oiieeaiiai oeeeea
caoi?iiaieai aunieiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia AYN. Yoe i?iaeaiu

iaoiaeyony a aaaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoa niioaaonoaothueo no?ai. A iaeioi?uo
no?aiao aaaeoony enneaaeiaaiey ii ioaa?aeaeaieth iooiaeia n oeaeueth
iineaaeoth- uaai eo caoi?iiaiey a aaieiae/anee noaaeeueiuo ?aeiiao ia
nooa, ia aeia ieaaia eee a ?aniieiaeaiiuo iiae ieie ieanoao.

I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi caoi?iiaiiua oaeei ia?acii ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu i
a aoaeoo enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey ianaeaiey a iaic?eiii aoaeouai. IEAeA? ia
ioeaieaae iaeeaeaaiuo aeic iaeo/aiey io oaeeo iooiaeia, iaeiaei a
iaoa?eaeao ii i?ia?aiia ca 1979 aiae naeaeaia iiiuoea i?aaeneacaoue noaeueao
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia, caoi?iiaiiuo iiae caieae. Ioeaiee iieacaee,
/oi caiaoiia eiee/anoai ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa aein-aeaiao aeinoa?u
eeoue nion oy 10’ 10 eao. Ii aeaiiui IEAeA?, aanue yaea?iue o

iieeaiue oeeee aeaao iaeeaeaaioth eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth
yeaeaaeaioioth aeico iaeo/aiey ca n/ao ei?ioeiaeeaoueo ecioiiia ieiei
5,5 /ae-Ca ia e aaeaeue aeaaaaoo-aiae au?aaaouaaaiie ia AYN
yeaeo?iyia?aee. Ec ieo i?ioeann aeiau/e ?oaeu aeaao aeeaae 0,5 /ae-Ca,
aa iaiaauai

ea 0,04 /ae-Ca, i?iecaiaenoai yaea?iiai oiieeaa 0,002 /ae-Ca, yenieo-
aoaoeey yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia ieiei 4 /ae-Ca (iaeaieueoee aeeaae) e,
iaeiiaoe, i?ioeannu,naycaiiua n ?aaaia?aoeeae oiieeaa /ae-Ca. Eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, aeaiiua ii ?aaaia?aoeee iieo/aiu ec ioea iie iae

eaeaaiuo ooa/ae ia caaiaeao, eioi?ua i?aaeiieaaaaony iino?ieoue
aoaeouai. Ia naiii aea aeaea aeey nia?aiaiiuo onoaiiaie yoe oeeo?u a 10
20 ?ac auoa, ii yoe onoaiiaee ia?a?aaaouaatho eeoue 10% io?aaioaiiiai
yae a?iiai oiieeaa, oaeei ia?acii, i?eaaaeaiiay auoa ioeaiea in

oaaony ni?aaaaeeeaie. 90% a nae aeicu iaeo/aiey, iaoneiaeaiiie
ei?ioeiaeeaoueie ecioiiaie, ianaeaiea iieo/aao a oa/aiea aiaea ii nea
aua?ina, 98% a oa/aiea 5 eao. Ii/oe any aeica i?eoiaeeony ia ethaeae,
aeeaoueo ia aeaeaa ianeieueeeo ouny/ eeeiiao?ia io AYN. ssaea?iue

oiieeaiue oeeee nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaeaea ia?aciaaieai aieueoiai e
iee/anoaa aeieaiaeeaoueo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiythony ii
anaio caiiiio oa?o. IEAeA? ioeaieaaao eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth
iaeeaeaaioth yeaeaaeaioioth aeico iaeo/aiey oaeeie ecioiiaie a 670 /ae-C

a ia eaaeaeue a eaaaaoo-aiae au?aaaouaaaiie yeaeo?iyia?aee, ec eioi?uo
ia ia?aua 500 eao iinea aua?ina i?eoiaeeony iaiaa 3%. Oaeei ia?acii, io
aeieaiaeeaoueo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia ana ianaeaiea Caiee iieo/aao i?eia?ii
oaeoth aea n?aaeia- aiaeiaoth aeico iaeo/aiey, eae e ian

aeaiea, aeeaouaa aaeece AYN, io ei?ioeiaeeaoueo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, i?e
yoii aeieaiaeeaouea ecioiiu ieacuaatho naia aicaeaenoaea a oa/aiea
ai?acaei aieaa aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie 9 0% anae aeicu ianaeaiea iieo/eo
ca a?aiy io ouny/e aei nioai ieeeeiiia eao iinea aua?ina. Nea

aeiaaoaeueii, ethaee, aeeaouea aaeece AYN, aeaaea i?e ii?iaeueiie ?aaioa
?aaeoi?a iieo/atho anth aeico niieia io ei?ioei- aeeaoueo ecioiiia e
iaeoth /anoue aeicu io aeieaiaeeaoueo. Yoe oeeo?u ia o/eouaatho aeeaae a
iaeo/aiea io ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia, ia?acothueony a ?acoeueo

aoa ia?a?aaioee e io io?aaioaiiiai oiieeaa. Anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue,
/oi a aeeaeaeoe a ianeieueei ouny/ eao aeeaae ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo caoi?iiaiee
a iauoth aeico iaeo/aiey aoaeao inoaaaoueny i?aiaa?aaeeii iaeui, 0,1 1%
io iaeeaeaaiie eieeaeoeaiie aeicu aeey anaai ianaeaiey

. Iaeiaei ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ioaaeu iaiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?ee, anee eo ia
eciee?iaaoue niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii, aac niiiaiey, nicaeaaeoo
na?ueaciua i?iaeaiu. Anee o/anoue yoe aeaa aeiiieieoaeueiuo enoi/ieea
iaeo/aiey, oi aeey ianaeaiey Caiee iaeeaeaaiay eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoea

iay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica iaeo/aiey ca n/ao aeie aiaeeaoueo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia ninoaaeo ieiei 4000 /aeCa ia eaaeaeue aeaaaaoo-aiae
au?aaaouaaai ie yia?aee. Ana iiaeiaiua ioeaiee, iaeiaei, iaecaaaeii
ieacuaathony i?eaioe?iai/iuie, iineieueeo o?oaeii noaeeoue ia oieueei i
aoaeouae

oaoiieiaee ia?a?aaioee iooiaeia, /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey e ianoao aai
i?iaeeaaiey, ii e i aeica, eioi?ay aoaeao eiaoue ianoi /a?ac 10000 eao.
Iiyoiio IEAeA? niaaooao ia neeoeii iieaaaoueny ia yoe ioeaiee i?e
i?eiyoee eaeeo-eeai ?aoaiee. Aiaeiaay eieeaeoeaiay yooae

oe aiay aeica iaeo/aiey io anaai yaea?iiai oeeeea a 1980 aiaeo
ninoaaeyea ieiei 500 /ae-Ca. Iaeeaeaaony, /oi e 2000 aiaeo iia aic?anoao
aei 10000 /ae-Ca, a e 2100 aiaeo aei 200000 /ae-Ca. Yoe ioeaiee iniiaaiu
ia ianneienoe/aneii i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi iuiaoiee o?iaaiue

aua?inia nio?aieony e ia aoaeoo aaaaeaiu nouanoaaiiua oaoie/aneea
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey. Ii aeaaea e a yoii neo/aa n?aaeiea aeicu aoaeoo iaeu
ii n?aaiaieth n aeicaie, iieo/aaiuie io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia,a 2100
aiaeo iie ninoa ayo eeoue 1% io anoanoaaiiiai oiia. Ethaee

, i?iaeeaathuea aaeece yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia, aac niiiaiey, iieo/atho
ai?acaei aieueoea aeicu, /ai ianaeaiea a n?aaeiai. Oai ia iaiaa a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoe aeicu iau/ii ia i?aauoatho ianeieueeeo i?ioeaioia
anoanoaaiiiai ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai oiia. Aieaa oiai, aeaaea aeica, iieo/

aiiay ethaeueie, aeeaoueie ieiei caaiaea a Oeiaeneaeea, a ?acoeueoaoa
aua?ina oeacey-137 a 1979 aiaeo auea, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaiueoa ‘/~ aeicu,
iieo/ aiiie eie io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ca oio aea aiae. Ana
i?eaaaeaiiua auoa oeeo?u, eiia/ii, iieo/aiu a i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi y

aea?iua ?aaeoi?u ?aaioatho ii?iaeueii. Iaeiaei eiee/anoai ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
aau anoa, iinooieaoeo a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo i?e aaa?eyo, iiaeao
ieacaoueny ai?acaei aieueoa. A iaeiii ec iineaaeieo aeieeaaeia IEAeA?
auea naeaeaia iiiuoea ioeaieoue aeicu, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee

a O?eiaee-Aeeaiae a a 1979 aiaeo e a Oeiaeneaeea a 1957 aiaeo.
Ieacaeinue, /oi aua?inu i?e aaa?ee ia AYN a O?eiaeeAeeaiaea auee
iacia/eoaeueiuie, iaeiaei, niaeanii ioeaieai, a ?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee a
Oeiaeneaeea iaeeaeaaiay ei eeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica n

inoaaeea 1300 /ae-Ca. Eiieoao, iaeiaei, n/eoaao, /oi iaeuecy
i?iaiice?iaaoue o?iaaiue aaa?eeiuo aua?inia ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
iineaaenoaee yoeo aeaoo aaa?ee.

I?ioanneiiaeueiia iaeo/aiea.

Naiua aieueoea aeicu iaeo/aiey, enoi/ieeii eioi?iai yaeythony iauaeou
aoiiii

e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iieo/atho ethaee, eioi?ua ia ieo ?aaioatho.
I?ioanneiiaeueiu a aeicu ii/oe iianaianoii yaeythony naiuie aieueoeie ec
anao aeaeia aeic. Iiiuoee ioeaieoue i?ioanneiiaeueiua aeicu
ineiaeiythony aeaoiy ianoiyoaeuenoaaie: cia/eoaeueiui ?aciiia?aceai
oneiaee ?aa

iou e io noonoaeai iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee. Aeicu, eioi?ua iieo/aao
ia?niiae, ianeoaeeaathuee yaea?iua ?aaeoi?u, ?aaii eae e aeaeu
eceo/aiey, neeueii aa?uee?otho, a aeiceiao?e/aneea i?eai?u ?aaeei aeatho
oi/ ioth eioi?iaoeeth i cia/aieyo aeic; iie i?aaeiacia/aiu eeoue aeey e

iio?iey ca oai, /oiau iaeo/aiea ia?niiaea ia i?aauoaei aeiionoeiiai
o?iaiy. Ioeaiee iieacuaatho, /oi aeica, eioi?oth iieo/atho ?aai/ea o?ai
iauo ?oaeieeia e i aiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?ee, ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 1 /ae-Ca
ia eaaeaeue aeaaaaoo-aiae yeaeo?iyia?aee. I?eia?ii 90%

yoie aeicu i?eoiaeeony ia aeieth ?oaeieeia, i?e/ai ia?niiae, ?aaioathuee
a oaooao, iiaeaa?aaaony aieueoaio iaeo/aieth. Eieeaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay
aeica io caaiaeia, ia eioi?uo iieo/atho yaea?iia oiieeai, oaeaea
ninoaaeyao 1 /ae-Ca ia aeaaaaoo-aiae. Ia naiii aeaea yoe oee

o?u i?aaenoaa- eytho niaie n?aaeiea aeaiiua. Aeey yaea?iuo ?aaeoi?ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ?acee/ey aua aieueoa. Iai?eia?, ecia?aiey,
i?iaaaeaiiua a 1979 aiaeo, iieacuaatho, /oi aeey aiaei-aiaeyiuo
?aaeoi?ia n aiaeie iiae aeaaeaieai eiee aeoeaiua aeicu ia aeaaaaoo-aiae
au?aaaou

aaaiie yeaeo?iyia?aee ?acee/aeenue a nioie ?ac. Aeey iiauo
yeaeo?inoaioeee a oeaeii oa?aeoa?iu iaiueoea aeicu, /ai aeey noa?uo.
Iaeaieaa oeie/iia cia/aiea n?aaeiaaiaei aie eieeaeoeaiie yooaeoeaiie
yeaeaaeaioiie aeicu aeey ?aaeoi?ia ninoaaeyao 10 /ae-Ca ia aeaaaaoo-a

iae yeaeo?iyia?aee. ?aai/ea, auiieiythuea ?aciua aeaeu ?aaio, iieo/atho
iaiaeeiaeiaua aeicu Iaeaie aa aaeeee aeicu iaeo/aiey i?e ?aiiioiuo
?aaioao oaeoueo eee iacaieaie?iaaiiuo, ia eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony 70%
eieeaeoeaiie aeicu aeey ?aaeoi?ia a NOA, i?e/ai eiiaaea ?aai/

ea iaycaiu auiieiyoue yoo iniai ii anioth ?aaioo ii eiio?aeoo. A NOA
oaeea ?aai/ea iieo/atho iieiaeio anae eieeaeoeaiie AeICU. Aieueoea aeicu
iieo/atho ?aai/ea iaiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?ee a Oeiaeneaeea e Ea-Aaa , i?e/ai
iieacaoaee aeey yoeo aeaoo caaiaeia ?acee/athony. C

a 70-a aiaeu n?aaeiaaiaeiaay eieeaeoeaiay aeica ia aeaaaaooaiae aeey
oaa?eee a Oeiaeneaeea auea ?aaia 18 /ae-Ca, o. a. a o?e ?aca auoa, /ai
aeey caaiaea a E a-Are . Iaeiaei aeey iiauo iaiaaoeoaeueiuo oaa?ee
oa?aeoa?iu nouanoaaiii iaiueoea aeicu. Ii ioeaieai IEAeA? a aeeae

aeoai aoaeouai niioaaonoaothuea aaee/eiu ninoaayo, ii-aeaeeiiio, 10 /ae
-Ca ia aeaaaaoo-aiae. Aeicu, eioi?ua iieo/atho ethaee, caiyoua
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaioie a iaeanoe yaea?iie oeceee e
yia?aaoeee, i/aiue neeueii ?acee/athony aeey ?aciuo i?aaei?eyoee e ?ac
iu

o no?ai. Eieeaeoeaiay aeica ia aaeeieoeo iieo/aiiie yeaeo?iyia?aee aeey
?aciuo no?ai iiaeao ?acee/aoueny a 10 ?ac. A ssiiiee e Oaaeoea?ee,
iai?eia?, iia iaea, a a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ioiineoaeueii auniea. ?a coiiay
ioeaiea a n?aaeiai ii anai no?aiai ninoaaeyao 5 /ae-Ca i

a aeaaaaoo-aiae. Ana yoe aaee/eiu aeiaaaeytho e n?aaeiaaiaeiaie
eieeaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeica iaiueoa 30 /ae-Ca ia eaaeaeue a
eaaaaoo-aiae yeaeo?iyia?aee, /oi ca 1979 aiae aeaao 2000 /ae-Ca. Yoi
ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 0,03% aeicu, iieo/aaiie io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

. Yoa ioeaiea, ?ani?ino?aiythuay eieeaeoeaioth i?ioanneiiaeueioth aeico
ia ana ianaeaiea, ia io?aaeaao oiai oaeoa, /oi ethaee, ?aaioathuea ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo aoiiiie yia?aaoeee, iieo/atho ii ?iaeo naiae aea
yoaeueiinoe aieueooth aeico, /ai io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia. I?e yoi

i naiua aunieea n?aaeiea aeicu a oanoue ?ac auoa anoanoaaiiiai oiia
anaaaea iieo/aee ?aai/ea iiaecaiiuo o?aii- auo ?oaeieeia, ii nae/an
oaeea aea aeicu oa?aeoa?iu e aeey ?aai/eo caaiaea a Oeiaeneaeea. I?e
?ac?aaioeao ioe?uouo ianoi?iaeaeaiee, ia caaiaea a Ea-Are, a o

aeaea ia AYN n PWR, BWR e HWR ia?niiae iieo/aao i?ioanneiiaeueioth
n?aaeithth aeico, aaeaia aieueooth, /ai io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia. E
oieueei ia?niiae AYN, a eioi?uo i?eiaiythony ?aaeoi?u n aaciaui i
oeaaeaeaieai, e ?aaioieee caaiaeia iieo/atho aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaeiea

aeicu, i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaiua aeicai io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia.
Iiiyoii, /oi n?aaeiea ioeaiee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aeic ia ia?aaeatho
aieueoiai ?aca ?ina eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeic. Eiia/ii, i?ioanneiiaeueiua
aeicu iieo/atho ia oieueei ?aai/ea i?aaei?eyoee aoiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe

. Iaeo/aieth iiaeaa?aathony e ?aaioieee iau/iuo i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, a oae aea iaaeeoeeineee ia?niiae. Iineaaeiea ninoaaeytho
iiiai/eneaiioth a?oiio (ii e?aeiae ia?a 100000 /aeiaae a NOA, aua
aieueoa a ssiiiee e O?A), iieo/ay a n?aaeiai ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea
aei

cu. Aeey noiiaoieiaia n?aaeiaaiaeiaua aeicu iaeo/aiey aua iaiueoa. A
oeaeii n/eoaaony, /oi aeeaae aeicu, iieo/aaiie iaaeeoeeineei ia?niiaeii,
caieiathueiny ?aaeeieiae/aneeie ianeaaeiaaieyie, a eieeaeoeaioth
yeaeaaeaioioth aeico iana- eaiey a no?aiao n aunieei o?iaiai i

aaeeoeeineiai ianeoaeeaaiey ninoaaeyao ieiei 1 /ae-Ca ia ieeeeii
aeeoaeae. A i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao iaeo/aiea ia?niiaea iau/iuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ae aao aeeaae a aiaeiaoth eieeaeoeaioth aeico
aeiiieieoaeueii 0,5 /ae-Ca ia ieeeeii aeeoaeae. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ia

eo/aieth iiaeaa?aathony iiiae ouny/e ?aai/eo, ii ia yoii eiaaony iae
naaaeaiee. Ai?i/ai, /enei ethaeae, iieo/ath ueo aeiaieueii aunieea
n?aaeiaaiaeiaua aeicu (oao, iai?eia?, eoi o/anoaoao a i?iecaiaenoaa
ethieiioi?ia n eniieueciaa ieai ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia), n?aai

eoaeueii iaaaeeei. A aeiaieueii i?eieoeaiuo oneiaeyo (iai?eia?,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia no?ieoaeueiuo ieiuaaeeao) /anoi ?aaioatho e
onoaiiaee i?iiuoeaiiie aeaoaeoineiiee N/eoaaony, /oi ?aai/ea,
ianeoaeeaathuea yoe onoaiiaee, iiaeaa?aathony iaeaieueoa io iaeo/aieth,
oioy

aeieacaoue yoi ia oae i? inoi. Ai anyeii neo/aa, ianiiiaiii, /oi iie
iiaoo iieo/eoue ecauoi/iua aeicu i?e ?aaioa ia iaeni?aaiuo onoaiiaeao.
Iaeioi?ua ?aaioieee iiaeaa?aathony aicaeaenoaeth aieaa aunieeo aeic
anoanoaaii ie ?aaeeaoeee. Naioth aieueooth a?oiio oaeeo ?aaio

ieeia ninoaaeytho yeeiaaee naiieaoia. Iieaou niaa?oathony ia aieueoie
aunioa, e yoi i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth aeicu ec-ca aicaeaenoaey
einie/aneeo eo/ae. I?eia?ii 70000 /eaiia yeeiaaeae a NOA e 20 000 a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee iieo/atho aeiiieieoaeueii 1 2 iCa a aiae. Aieco, iiae

caieae, iiauoaiiua aeicu iieo/atho oaooa?u, aeiauaathuea eaiaiiue
oaieue, aeaea cioth ?oaeo e o. ae. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeicu neeueii
?acee/athony, a i?e iaeioi?uo aeaeao iiaecaiiuo ?aaio (eneeth/ay ?aaiou
a eaiaiiioaieueiuo oaooao) yoe aeicu iiaoo auoue aeaaea auoa, /ai a o?ai

iauo ?oaeieeao. I/aiue aunieea aeicu aieaa 300 iCa a aiae, /oi a 6 ?ac
auoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai noaiaea?oa, i?eiyoiai aeey ?aaioieeia aoiiiie
i?iiuo eaiiinoe,-iieo/aao ia?niiae eo?i?oia, aaea i?ei aiythony
?aaeiiiaua aaiiu e eoaea ethaee aaeoo, /oiau iii?aaeoue naia caei?ia

uea.

Ae?oaea enoi/ieee iaeo/aiey.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey yaeythony
e iiii iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiua i?aaeiaou, niaea?aeauea ?aaeeiaeoeaiua
aauanoaa. Aaeaa ee ia naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiuei enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey
yaeythony /anu n naaoyueiny oe

eoa?aeaoii. Iie aeath o aiaeiaoth aeico, a 4 ?aca i?aauoathuoth o /oi
iaoneiaeaia ooa/eaie ia AYN. Oaeoth aea eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth
yeaeaaeaioioth aeico iieo/atho ?aaioiee i?aaei?eyoee aoiiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe yeeiaaee aaeaeaeia?ia . Iau/ii i?e ecaioiaeaiee oaeeo
/a

ni eniieuecotho ?aaeee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iaeo/aieth anaai i?aaiecia, oioy
ia ?annoiy iee 1 i io oeeoa?aeaoa e ceo/aiea a 100I ?ac neaaaa, /ai ia
?anoiyiee 1 ni. Nae/a iuoathony caiaieoue ?aaeee o?eoeai eee
i?iiaoeai-147, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e noua noaaiii iaiueoaio iae

o/aieth. E eiioeo 70-o aiaeia o ianaeaiey Aaeeeia?eoaiee ana aua
iaoiaeeeenue a iieueciaaiee 80000 /ania n oeeoa?aeaoii, niaea?aeauei
?aaeee A 1967 aiaeo auee iioaeeeiaaiu niioaao noaothuea iaaeaeoia?iaei
ua noaiaea?ou, e oai ia iaiaa /anu, auiouaiiua ?aiaa, ana aua ia

oiaeyony a oiio?aaeaiee. ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ecioiiu eniieuecothony oaeaea a
naaoyueony oeacaoaeyo aoiaea-auoiaea, a eii ianao, oaeaoiiiuo aeeneao,
i?eoeaeao e o. i. A NOA i?iaeathony aioenoaoe/aneea uaoee aeey oaeaeaiey
iuee n ieanoeiie e oioii?eiaaeeaaeiinoae, aeaenoaea eio

i?uo iniiaaii ia enion eaiee a-/anoeoe. A 1975 aiaeo Iaoeeiiaeueiue
niaao Aaeeeia?eoaiee ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiie caueoa niiauee, /oi i?e iaeioi?uo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao iie iiaoo ieacaoueny iaaaca?aaeiuie. I?eioeei
aeaenoaey iiiaeo aeaoaeoi?ia aeuia oaeaea iniiaai ia eniieueciaa

iee a-eceo/aiey. E eiioeo 1980 aiaea a NOA auei onoaiiaeaii aieaa 26
iei. oaeeo aeaoaeoi?ia, niaea?aeaueo aia?eoeee-241, iaeiaei i?e
i?aaeeueiie yenieo aoaoeee iie aeieaeiu aeaaaoue ie/oiaeioth aeico
iaeo/aiey. ?aaeeiioeeeaeu i?eiaiytho a ae?innaeyo oeoi?anoeaioiuo
naaoeeueiee

ia e a ae?oaeo yeaeo?ii?eai?ao e ono?ienoaao. A na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia a
iaeiie oie ueei Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee a yenieoaoaoeee iaoiaeeeinue ii/oe
100 iei. oaeeo i?eai?ia, eioi?ua, ai?i/ai, ia i?eaiaeyo e caiaoiiio
iaeo/aieth, ii e?aeiae ia?a anee iie eni?aaiu. I?e ecaio

iae aiee iniai oiieeo iioe/aneeo eeic i?eiaiyaony oi?ee, eioi?ue iiaeao
i?eaanoe e nouanoaaiiiio iaeo/aieth o?onoaeeea aeaca. Aeey i?eaeaiey
aeanea eneonnoaaiiui coaai oe?iei eniieuecotho o?ai, eioi?ue iiaeao
neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey oeaiae iieinoe ?oa. Iaoe

eiiaeueiue niaao Aaeeeia?eoaiee ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiie caueoa ?aeiiaiaeiaae
i?ae?aoeoue eniieueciaaiea o?aia aeey yoie oeaee, a a NOA e O?A, aaea
i?iecaiaeeony aieueoay /anoue coaiiai oa?oi?a, auea onoaiiaeaia aai
i?aaeaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey. ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa a yoeo n

eo/ayo i?eiaiytho n /enoi ynoaoe/aneie oeaeueth, iiyoiio iaeo/aiea
caeanue niaa?oaiii iaii?aaaeaiii. Enoi/ieeaie ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey
yaeythony oeaaoiua oaeaaeci?u, iaeiaei i?e i?aaeeueiie iano?ieea e
yenieoaoaoeee aeicu iaeo/aiey io nia?aiaiiuo eo iiaeaeae ie/oiae

iu. ?aioaaiianeea ania?aou aeey i?iaa?ee aaaaaea iannaaee?ia a
ay?iii?oao oaeaea i?aeoe/anee ia aucuaatho iaeo/aiey aaeaiannaaee?ia.
Ouaoaeueiua ianeaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia, iieacaee,
/oi aI iiiaeo oeieao NOA e Eaiaaeu eniieueciaaeenue ?aioaaiiane

ea o?oaee, eioi?ua iiaee neoaeeoue aeiaieueii iiuiui enoi/ieeii
?aaeeaoeee,i?e/ai aieueoeinoai o/eoaeae eiaee neaaia i?aaenoaa- eaiea
i ?aaeeaoeeiiiie caueoa. ?aaeeaoeey ii naiie naiae i?e?iaea a?aaeia aeey
aeecie. Iaeua aeicu iaeo/aiey iiaoo ia aei eiioea aua

onoaiiaeaiioth oeaiue niauoee, i?eaiaeyuoth e ?aeo eee e aaiaoe/aneei
iia?aaeaeaieyi. I?e aieueoeo aeicao ?aaeeaoeey iiaeao ?ac?ooaoue eeaoee,
iia?aaeaeaoue oeaie i?aaiia e yaeoueny i?e/eiie nei?ie aeaaee i?aaiecia.
Iia?aaeaeaiey, aucuaaaiua aieueoeie aeicaie iaeo/aiey, iau

eiiaaiii i?iyaeythony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania eee aeiae. ?aeiaua
caaieaaaiey, iaeiaei, i?iyaeythony nionoy iiiai eaoiinea iaeo/aiey eae
i?aaeei, ia ?aiaa /ai /a?ac iaeii-aeaa aeanyoeeaoey. A a?iaeaeaiiua
ii?iee ?acaeoey e ae?oaea ianeaaenoaaiiua aieacie, aucuaaa

iua iia?aaeaeaieai aaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa, ii ii?aaeaeaieth i?iyaeythony
eeoue a neaaeothuai eee iineaaeothueo iieieaieyo: yoi aeaoe, aioee e
aieaa ioaeaeaiiua iioiiee eiaeeaeaeooia, iiaeaa?aoaa iny iaeo/aieth. A
oi a?aiy eae eaeaioeoeeaoeey auno?i i?iyaeythueony (

) iineaaenoaee io aeaenoaey aieueoeo aeic iaeo/aiey ia ninoaaeyao
o?oaea, iaia?oaeeoue ioaeaeai” ‘ iua iineaaenoaey io iaeuo aeic
iaeo/aiey ii/oe anaaaea ieacuaaaony i/aiue o?oaeii. *anoe/ii yoi
iauyniyaony oai, /oi aeey eo i?iyaeaiey aeieaeii i?ieoe i/aiue iiiai
a?aiaie

. Ii aeaaea e iaia?oaeea eaeea-oi yooaeou, o?aaoaony aua aeieacaoue, /oi
iie iaueyniythony aeaenoaeai ?aaeeaoeee, iineieueeo e ?ae, e
iia?aaeaeaiey aaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa iiaoo auoue aucaaiu ia Oieueei
?aaeeaoeeae, ii e iiiaeanoaii ,” ae?oaeo i?e/ei. *oiau aucaaoue ino?ia i

i?aaeaiea i?aaiecia,aeicu iaeo/aiey aeieaeiu i?aauoaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue, ii iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee n/eoaoue, /oi yoi i?aaeei aeaenoaoao
a neo/aa oaeeo iineaaenoaee, eae ?ae eee iia?aaeaeaiea aaiaoe/aneiai
aiia?aoa. Ii e?aeiae ia?a oai?aoe/anee aeey yoiai aeinoa

oi/ii naiie iaeie aeicu. Iaeiaei a oi aea naiia a?aiy ieeaeay aeica
iaeo/aiey ia i?eaiaeeo e yoei iineaaenoaeyi ai anao neo/ayo. Aeaaea i?e
ioiineoaeueii aieueoeo aeicao iaeo/aiee aeaeaei ia ana ethaee ia?a/aiu
ia yoe aieacie: aeaenoaothuea a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea ?aia?aoe

eiiiua iaoaieciu iau/ii eeeaeaee?otho ana iia?aaeaeaiey. Oi/ii oae aea
ethaie /aeiaae, iiaeaa?aoeeny aeae- noaeth ?aaeeaoeee, nianai ia
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai caaieaoue ?aeii eee noaoue iineoaeai
ianeaaenoaaiiuo aieaciae; iaeiaei aa?iyoiinoue, eee ?ene, ianooieaiey
oaeeo i

ineaaenoaee o iaai aieueoa, /ai o /aeiaaea, eioi?ue ia aue iaeo/ai. E
?ene yoio oai aieueoa, /ai aieueoa aeica iaeo/aiey. IEAeA? III iuoaaony
onoaiiaeoue ni anae aiciiaeiie aeinoiaa?iinoueth, eaeiio
aeiiieieoaeueiiio ?eneo iiaeaa?aathony ethaee i?e ?acee/iuo aeicao iaeo

/aiey. Aa?iyoii, a iaeanoe eco/aiey aeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee ia /aeiaaea e
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo auei i?iaaaeaii aieueoia eie-ai enneaaeiaaiee, /ai
i?e eco/aiee ethaiai ae?oaiai enoi/ieea iiauoaiiie iianiinoe. Iaeiaei
/ai ioaeaeaiiaa yooaeo e iaiueoa aeica, oai iaiueoa iieac

iuo naaaeaiee, eioi?uie iu ?aniieaaaai ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue.

Ino?ia ii?aaeaiea.

A naiai iineaaeiai aeieeaaea IEAeA? III aia?aua ca 20 eao iioaeeeiaae
iiae?iaiue iaci? naaaeaiee, ioiinyueony e ino?iio ii?aaeaieth i?aaiecia
/aeiaaea, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo i?e aieueoeo ae

icao iaeo/aiey. Aiiaua aiai?y, ?aaeeaoeey ieacuaaao iiaeiaiia aeaenoaea,
eeoue ia/eiay n iaeioi?ie ieieiaeueiie, eee , aeicu
iaeo/aiey. Aieueoia eiee/anoai naaaeaiee auei iieo/aii i?e aiaeeca
?acoeueoaoia i?eiaiaiey eo/aaie oa?aieeaeey ea/aiey ?aea. Iii

aieaoiee iiuo iicaieee iaaeeeai iieo/eoue iaoe?ioth eioi?iaoeeth i
?aaeoeee oeaiae /aeiaaea ia iaeo/aiea. Yoa ?aaeoeey aeey ?aciuo i?aaiia
e oeaiae ieacaeanue iaiaeeiaeiaie, i?e/ai ?acee/ea i/aiue aaeeee.
Aaee/eia aea aeicu, ii?aaeaeythuay oyaeanoue ii?aaeaiey opraiecia,

caaeneo io oiai, iieo/aao ee aa i?aaieci n?aco eee a ianeieueei i?eaiia.
Aieueoeinoai i?aaiia oniaaaao a oie eee eiie noaiaie caea/eoue
?aaeeaoeeiiiua iia?aaeaeaiey e iiyoiio eo/oa ia?aiinyo na?eth iaeeeo
aeic, iaaeaee oo aea noiia?ioth aeico iaeo/aiey, iieo/aiioth

ca iaeei i?eai. ?acoiaaony, anee aeica iaeo/aiey aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea,
iaeo/aiiue /aeiaae iiaeaiao. Ai anyeii neo/aa, i/aiue aieueoea aeicu
iaeo/aiey ii?yaeea 100 A? aucuaatho ianoieueei na?ueaciia ii?aaeaiey
oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu, /oi nia?oue, eae i?aaeei, iano

oiaao a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania eee aeiae . I?e aeicao iaeo/aiey io10
aei 50 A? i?e iaeo/aiee anaai oaea ii?aaeaiea OeIN iiaeao ieacaoueny ia
ianoieueei na?ueaciui, /oiau i?eaanoe e eaoaeueiiio enoiaeo, iaeiaei
iaeo/aiiue /aeiaae nei?aa anaai ana ?aaii oi?ao /a?ac

iaeio-aeaa iaaeaee io e?iaieceeyiee a aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iii o?aeoa. I?e
aua iaiueoeo aeicao iiaeao ia i?iecieoe na?ueaciuo iia?aaeaeaiee
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa eee i?aaieci n ieie ni?aaeony, e oai ia
iaiaa nia?oue iiaeao ianooieoue /a?ac iaeei-aeaa ianyoea n iiiaioa

iaeo/aiey aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca ?ac?ooaiey eeaoie e?aniiai einoiiai
iicaa aeaaiiai eiiiiiaioa e?iaaoai?iie nenoaiu i?aaiecia: io aeicu a 3 –
5 A? i?e iaeo/aiee anaai oaea oie?aao i?eia?ii iieiaeia anao iaeo/aiiuo.
Oaeei ia?acii, a yoii aeeaiaciia aeic iaeo

/aiey aieueoea aeicu ioee/athony io iaiueoeo eeoue oai, /oi nia?oue a
ia?aii neo/aa ianooiaao ?aiueoa, a ai aoi?ii iicaea. ?acoiaaony, /aua
anaai /aeiaae oie?aao a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiia?aiaiiiai aeaenoaey anao
oeacaiiuo iineaaenoaee iaeo/aiey. Enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iae

anoe iaiaoiaeeiu, iineieueeo iieo/aiiua aeaiiua ioaeiu aeey ioeaiee
iineaaenoaee yaea?iie aieiu e aeaenoaey aieueoeo aeic iaeo/aiey i?e
aaa?eyo yaea?iuo onoaiiaie e ono?ienoa. E?aniue einoiue iica e ae?oaea
yeaiaiou e?iaaoai?iie nenoaiu iaeaieaa oycaeiu i?e iaeo/aiee

e oa?y~o niiniaiinoue ii?iaeueii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue oaea i?e aeicao
iaeo/aiey 0,5 1 A?. E n/anoueth, iie iaeaaeatho oaeaea caia/aoaeueiie
niiniaiinoueth e ?aaaia?aoeee, e anee aeica iaeo/aiey ia ianoieueei
aaeeea, /oiau aucaaoue iia?aaeaeaiey anao eeaoie, e?iaaoai?iay ne

noaia iiaeao iieiinoueth ainnoaiiaeoue naie ooieoeee. Anee aea
iaeo/aieth iiaeaa?aeinue ia ana oaei, a eaeay-oi aai /anoue, oi
ooeaeaaoeo eeaoie iicaa auaaao aeinoaoi/ii aeey iieiiai aiciauaiey
iia?aaeaeaiiuo eeaoie. ?ai?iaeoeoeaiua i?aaiu e aeaca oaeaea ioee/athony
iiau

oaiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e iaeo/aieth. Iaeiie?aoiia iaeo/aiea
naiaiieeia i?e aeica anaai eeoue a 0,1 A? i?eaiaeeo e a?aiaiiie
noa?eeueiinoe ioae/ei, a aeicu nauoa aeaoo a?yaa iiaoo i?eaanoe e
iinoiyiiie noa?eeueiinoe: eeoue /a?ac iiiai eao naiaiieee niiaoo aiiaue
i?

iaeooee?iaaoue iieiioeaiioth nia?- io. Ii-aeaeeiiio, naiaiieee
yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiui eneeth/aieai ec iauaai i?aaeea: noiia?iay aeica
iaeo/aiey, iieo/aiiay a ianeieueei i?eaiia, aeey ieo aieaa, a ia iaiaa
iiania, /ai oa aea aeica, iieo/aiiay ca iaeei i?eai. sse/ieee

ai?acaei iaiaa /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee, ii e?aeiae ia?a o
ac?ineuo aeaiuei. Ii iaeiie?aoiay aeica > 3 A? ana aea i?eaiaeeo e eo
noa?eeueiinoe, oioy aua aieueoea aeicu i?e ae?iaiii iaeo/aiee ieeae ia
neacuaathony ia niiniaiinoe e aeaoi?iaeaeaieth. Iaeaieaa

oycaeiie aeey ?aaeeaoeee /anoueth aeaca yaeyaony o?onoaeee. Iiaeaoea
eeaoee noaiiayony iai?ic?a/iuie, a ?ac?anoaiea iiiooiaaoeo o/anoeia
i?eaiaeeo nia/aea e eaoa?aeoa, a caoai e e iieiie neaiioa. *ai aieueoa
aeica, oai aieueoa iioa?y c?aiey. Iiiooiaaoea o/anoee

iiaoo ia?aciaaoueny i?e aeicao iaeo/aiey 2 A? e iaiaa. Aieaa oyaeaeay
oi?ia ii?aaeaiey aeaca i?ia?anne?othuay eaoa?aeoa iaaethaeaaony i?e
aeicao ieiei 5 A?. Iieacaii, /oi aeaaea naycaiiia n ?yaeii ?aaio
i?ioanneiiaeueiia iaeo/aiea a?aaeii aeey aeac: aeicu io 0,5 aei 2 A

?, iieo/aiiua a oa/aiea 10 20 eao, i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth ieioiinoe e
iiiooiaieth o?onoaeeea. Aeaoe oaeaea e?aeia /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth
?aaeeaoeee. Ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea aeicu i?e iaeo/aiee o?yuaaie oeaie
iiaoo caiaaeeeoue eee aiana inoaiiaeoue o ieo ?ino eino

ae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aiiiaeeyi ?acaeoey neaeaoa. *ai iaiueoa aic?ano
?aaaiea, oai neeueiaa iiaeaaeyaony ?ino einoae. Noiia?iie aeicu ii?yaeea
10 A?, iieo/aiiiea oa/aiea ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue i?e aaeaaeiaaiii
iaeo/aiee, auaaao aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau aucaaoue iaeioi?ua aiiia

eee ?acaeoey neaeaoa. Ii-aeaeeiiio, aeey oaeiai aeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee ia
nouanoaoao ieeaeiai ii?iaiaiai yooaeoa. Ieacaeinue oaeaea, /oi iaeo/aiea
iicaa ?aaaiea i?e eo/aaie oa?aiee iiaeao aucaaoue eciaiaiey a aai
oa?aeoa?a, i?eaanoe e iioa?a iaiyoe, a o /aeiaaea ni

iniaiu auaea?aeeaaoue ai?acaei aieueoea aeicu. E?aeia /oanoaeoaeai e
aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee e iica ieiaea, iniaaiii anee iaoue iiaeaa?aaaony
iaeo/aieth iaaeaeo ainueiie e iyoiaaeoeaoie iaaeaeyie aa?aiaiiinoe. A
yoio ia?eiae o ieiaea oi?ie?oaony ei?a aieiaiiai iicaa, e nouanoao

ao aieueoie ?ene oiai, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa iaeo/aiey iaoa?e (iai?eia?,
?aioaaiianeeie eo/aie) ?iaeeony oinoaaiii ionoaeue ?aaaiie. Eiaiii oaeei
ia?acii iino?aaeaee i?eia?ii 30 aeaoae, iaeo/aiiuo a ia?eiae
aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey ai a?aiy aoiiiuo aiiaa?aee?iaie O

e?ineiu e Iaaanaee. Oioy eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue ?ene i?e yoii aieueoie, a
iineaaenoaey aeinoaaeytho iniaaiii iiiai no?aaeaiee, /enei aeaiuei,
iaoiaeyueony ia yoie noaaeee aa?aiaiiinoe, a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie
ninoaaeyao eeoue iaaieueooth /anoue anaai ianaeaiey. Yoi, iaeiaei

, iaeaieaa na?ueaciue ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi yooaeo ec anao ecaanoiuo
yooaeoia iaeo/aiey ieiaea /aeiaaea, oioy iinea iaeo/aiey ieiaeia e
yia?eiiia aeeaioiuo a ia?eiae eo aioo?eoo?iaiiai?acaeoey auei
iaia?oaeaii iaiaei ae?oaeo na?ueaciuo iineaaenoaee, aeeth/ay ii?ie

e ?acaeoey, iaaei?acaeoinoue e eaoaeueiue enoiae. Aieueoeinoai oeaiae
ac?ineiai /aeiaaea ioiineoaeueii iaei /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth
?aaeeaoeee. Ii/ee auaea?aeeaatho noiia?ioth aeico ieiei 23 A?,
iieo/aiioth a oa/aiea iyoe iaaeaeue, aac iniaiai aeey naay a?aaea,
ia/aiue i

i iaiueoae ia?a 40 A? ca ianyoe, ii/aaie iocu?ue ii iaiueoae ia?a 55 A?
ca /aou?a iaaeaee, a c?aeay o?yuaaay oeaiue aei 70 A?. Eaaeea
/?acau/aeii neiaeiue i?aai ai?acaei aieaa oycaeiu, a a e?iaaiiniuo
ninoaeao iacia/eoaeueiua, ii, aiciiaeii, nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i

iaoo i?ienoiaeeoue oaea i?e ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo aeicao. Eiia/ii,
iaeo/aiea a oa?aiaaoe/aneeo aeicao, eae e anyeia ae?oaia iaeo/aiea,
iiaeao aucaaoue caaieaaaiea ?aeii a aoaeouai eee i?eaanoe e
iaaeaaii?eyoiui aaiaoe/aneei iineaaenoaeyi. Iaeo/aiea a oa?aiaaoe/a

neeo aeicao, iaeiaei, i?eiaiytho iaueiiaaiii aeey ea/aiey ?aea, eiaaea
/aeiaae nia?oaeueii aieai, a iineieueeo iaoeeaiou a n?aaeiai aeiaieueii
iiaeeeua ethaee, aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iie aoaeoo eiaoue aeaoae, oaeaea
ioiineoaeueii iaea. Iaeiaei aeaeaei ia oae i?inoi ioeaieoue,

ianeieueei aaeee yoio ?ene i?e ai?acaei iaiueoeo aeicao iaeo/aiey,
eioi?ua ethaee iieo/atho a naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeecie e ia ?aaioa, e ia
yoio n/ao nouanoaotho naiua ?aciua iiaiey n?aaee iauanoaaiiinoe.

?ae

?ae iaeaieaa na?ueaciia ec anao iineaaenoaee iaeo/aiey / aeiaaea i?e
iaeuo aeicao, ii e?aeiae ia?a iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey oao ethaeae, eioi?ua
iiaeaa?aeenue iaeo/aieth. A naiii aeaea, iaoe?iua ianeaaeiaaiey,
ioaaoeaoea ieiei 100 000 /aeiaae, ia?aaeeaoeo aoiiiua aiiaa?aee?iaee
Oe?ineiu e Iaaanaee a 1945 aiaeo, iieacaee, /oi

iiea ?ae yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiie i?e/eiie iiauoaiiie nia?oiinoe a yoie
a?oiia ianaeaiey. Ioeaiee IEAeA? III ?enea caaieaaaiey ?aeii a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iie?athony ia ?acoe ueoaou ianeaaeiaaiey ethaeae,
ia?aaeeaoeo aoiiioth aiiaa?aee?iaeo. Eiieoao eniieuecoao e ae?oae

a iaoa?eaeu, a oii /enea naaaeaiey i /anoioa caaieaaaiey ?aeii n?aaee
aeeoaeae ino?iaia a Oeoii ieaaia, ia eioi?uo i?iecioei auiaaeaiea
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo inaaeeia iinea yaea?iuo eniuoaiee a 1954 aiaeo, n?aaee
?aai/eo o?aiiauo ?oaeieeia e n?aaee eeoe, i?ioaaeoeo eo?n eo

/aaie oa?aiee. Ii iaoa?eaeu ii Oe?ineia e Iaaanaee yoi aaeeinoaaiiue
enoi/iee naaaeaiee, io?aaeathuee ?acoeueoaou ouaoaeueiiai ianeaaeiaaiey
a oa/aiea aieaa 30 eao iiiai/eneaiiie a?oiiu ethaeae anao aic?anoia,
eioi?ua iiaeaa?aeenue aieaa eee iaiaa ?aaiiia?iiio iaeo

/aieth anaai oaea. Ianiio?y ia ana yoe enneaaeiaaiey, ioeaiea
aa?iyoiinoe caaieaaaiey ethaeae ?aeii a ?acoeueoaoa iaeo/aiey ia aiieia
iaaeaaeia. Eiaaony ianna iieaciuo naaaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo i?e
yenia?eiaioao ia aeeaioiuo, iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia eo i/aaeaeioth iieueco,
i

ie ia iiaoo a iieiie ia?a caiaieoue naaaeaiee i aeaenoaee ?aaeeaoeee ia
/aeiaaea. Aeey oiai /oiau ioeaiea ?enea caaieaaaiey ?aeii aeey /aeiaaea
auea aeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaeia, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa ianeaaeiaaiey
ethaeae naaaeaiey aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe oeaeiio ?yaeo oneiaee.

Aeieaeia auoue ecaanoia aaee/eia iiaeiuaiiie aeicu. Eceo/aiea aeieaeii
?aaiiia?ii iiiaaeaoue ia ana oaei eeai ii e?aeiae ia?a ia oo aai /anoue,
eioi?ay eco/aaony a ianoiyuee iiiaio. Iaeo/aiiia ianaeaiea aeieaeii
i?ioiaeeoue ianeaaeiaaiey ?aaoey?ii a oa/aiea aeanyoeea

oee, /oiau oniaee i?iyaeoueny ana aeaeu ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee Aeeaaiinoeea
aeieaeia auoue aeinoaoiIHO ea/anoaaiiie, iicaieythuae auyaeoue ana
neo/ae ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee. I/aiue aaaeii oaeaea eiaoue oi?iooth
a?oiio ethaeae, niiinoaaeioth ai anao ioiioaieyo (e?

iia naiiai oaeoa iaeo/aiey) n a?oiiie eeoe, ca eioi?ie aaaeaony
iaaethaeaiea, /oiau auynieoue /anoioo caaieaaaiey ?aeii a ionoonoaea
iaeo/aiey. E iaa yoe iiioeyoeee aeieaeiu auoue aeinoaoi/ii
iiiai/eneaiiu, /oiau iieo/aiiua aeaiiua auee noaoenoe/anee aeinoiaa?iu.
Ie

iaeei ec eiathueony iaoa?eaeia ia oaeiaeaoai?yao iieiinoueth anai yoei
o?aaiaaieyi. Aua aieaa i?eioeeieaeueiay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ninoieo a
oii, /oi ii/oe ana aeaiiua i /anoioa caaieaaaiey ?aeii a ?acoeueoaoa
iaeo/aiey iieo/aiu i?e ianeaaeiaaiee ethaeae, iieo/eaoeo

ioiineoaeueii aieueoea aeicu iaeo/aiey 1 A? e aieaa. Eiaaony aanueia
iaiiiai naaaeaiee i iineaaenoaeyo iaeo/aiey i?e aeicao, naycaiiuo n
iaeioi?uie i?ioanneyie, e nianai ionoonoaotho i?yiua aeaiiua i aeaenoaee
aeic iaeo/aiey, iieo/aaiuo ianaeaieai Caiee a iianaaeiaa

iie aeecie. Iiyoiio iao ieeaeie aeueoa?iaoeau oaeiio niiniao ioeaiee
?enea ianaeaiey i?e iaeuo aeicao iaeo/aiey, eae yeno?aiieyoeey ioeaiie
?enea i?e aieueoeo aeicao (oaea ia aiieia iaaeaaeiuo) a iaeanoue iaeuo
aeic iaeo/aiey. IEAeA? III, ?aaii eae e ae?oaea o/?aaeaeaiey

, caieiathueany enneaaeiaaieyie a yoie iaeanoe, a naieo ioeaieao
iie?aaony ia aeaa iniiaiuo aeiiouaiey, eioi?ua iiea /oi aiieia
niaeanothony ni anaie eiathueieny aeaiiuie. Niaeanii ia?aiio
aeiiouaieth, ia nouanoaoao ieeaeie ii?iaiaie aeicu, ca eioi?ie
ionoonoaoao

?ene caaieaaaiey ?aeii. Ethaay neieue oaiaeii iaeay aeica oaaee/eaaao
aa?iyoiinoue caaieaaaiey ?aeii aeey /aeiaaea, iieo/eaoaai yoo aeico, e
anyeay aeiiieieoaeueiay aeica iaeo/aiey aua aieaa oaaee/eaaao yoo
aa?iyoiinoue. Aoi?ia aeiiouaiea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aa?i

yoiinoue, eee ?ene, caaieaaaiey aic?anoaao i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aeica
iaeo/aiey: i?e oaeaiaiee aeicu ?ene oaeaaeaaaony, i?e iieo/aiee
o?aoe?aoiie aeicu oo?aeaaaony e o. ae. IEAeA? iieaaaao, /oi i?e oaeii
aeiiouaiee aiciiaeia ia?aioeaiea ?enea a iaeanoe iaeuo aeic,

ii a?yae ee aiciiaeia aai iaaei ioeaiea. Ia oaeie caaaaeiii
ianiaa?oaiiie, ii oaeiaiie iniiaa e no?iyony ana i?eaeeceoaeueiua
ioeaiee ?enea caaieaaaiey ?acee/iuie aeaeaie ?aea i?e iaeo/aiee.
Niaeanii eiathueiny aeaiiui, ia?au- ie a a?oiia ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee,
ii?

aaeathueo ianaeaiea a ?acoeueoaoa iaeo/aiee, noiyo eaeeicu . Iie
aucuaatho aeaaeue ethaeae a n?aaeiai /a?ac 10 eao n iiiaioa iaeo/aiey
ai?acaei ?aiueoa, /ai ae?oaea aeaeu?aeiauo caaieaaaiee. Nia?oiinoue io
eaeeicia n?aaee oao, eoi ia?aaeee aoiiiua aiiaa?aee?iaee Oe?inei

u e Iaaanaee, noaea ?acei nieaeaoueny iinea 1970 aiaea; ii-aeaeeiiio,
aeaiue eaeeicai a yoii neo/aa oiea/aia ii/oe iieiinoueth. Oaeei ia?acii,
ioeaiea aa?iyoiinoe oia?aoue io eaeeica a ?acoeueoaoa iaeo/aiey aieaa
iaaeaaeia, /ai aiaeiae/iua ioeaiee aeey ae?oaeo aeaeia ?ae

iauo caaieaaaiee. Niaeanii ioeaieai IEAeA? III, io eaaeaeie aeicu
iaeo/aiey a 1 A? a n?aaeiai aeaa /aeiaaea ec ouny/e oi?oo io eaeeicia.
Eia/a aiai?y, anee eoi-eeai iieo/eo aeico 1 A? i?e iaeo/aiee anaai oaea,
i?e eioi?ii no?aaeatho eeaoee e?aniiai einoiiai iica

a, oi nouanoaoao iaeei oain ec 500, /oi yoio /aeiaae oi?ao a
aeaeueiaeoai io eaeeica. Naiuie ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie aeaeaie ?aea,
aucaaiiuie aeaenoaeai ?aaeeaoeee, ieacaeenue ?ae iiei/iie aeaeacu e ?ae
ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu. Ii ioeaieai IEAeA?, i?eia?ii o aeanyoe /aeiaae ec

ouny/e iaeo/aiiuo ioia/aaony ?ae ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu, a o aeanyoe
aeaiuei ec ouny/e ?ae iiei/iie aeaeacu (a ?an/aoa ia eaaeaeue a?ye
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iiaeiuaiiie aeicu). Iaeiaei iaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe ?aea a
i?eioeeia ecea/eiu, a nia?oiinoue io ?aea ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu ini

aaiii iecea. Iiyoiio eeoue iyoue aeaiuei ec ouny/e, ii-aeaeeiiio,oi?oo
io ?aea iiei/iie aeaeacu ia eaaeaeue a?ye iaeo/aiey e eeoue iaeei
/aeiaae ec ouny/e iaeo/aiiuo, ii-aeaeeiiio, oi?ao io ?aea ueoiaeaeiie
aeaeacu. ?ae eaaeeo, iai?ioea,aaniiuaaeiue oaeeoea. Ii oiaea

i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ?ani?ino?aiaiiui ?aciiaeaeiinoyi ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee
n?aaee iaeo/aiiuo a?oii ianaeaiey. A aeiiieiaiea e aeaiiui ianeaaeiaaiey
eeoe, ia?aaeeaoeo aoiiiua aiiaa?aee?iaee Oe?ineiu e Iaaanaee, auee
iieo/aiu naaaeaiey i /anoioa caaieaaaiey ?aeii eaaeeo n?

aaee oaooa?ia o?aiiauo ?oaeieeia a Eaiaaea, *aoineiaaeee e NOA.
Ethaiiuoii, iaeiaei, /oi ioeaiee, iieo/aiiua a iaieo neo/ayo,
cia/eoaeueii ?anoi aeyony: aeaaea i?eieiay ai aieiaiea ?aciue oa?aeoa?
iaeo/aiey, aa?iyoiinoue caaieaoue ?aeii eaaeeo ia eaaeaeoth aaeeieoeo
aeicu

iaeo/aiey aeey oaooa?ia o?aiiauo ?oaeieeia ieacaeanue a 4 7 ?ac auoa,
/ai aeey ethaeae, ia?aaeeaoeo aoiiioth aiiaa?aee?iaeo. IEAeA?
?anniio?ae ianeieueei aiciiaeiuo i?e/ei oaeiai ?anoiaeaeaiey, n?aaee
eioi?uo ia iineaaeithth ?ieue ea?aao oio oaeo, /oi oaooa?u a n?aaeiai n

oa?oa, /ai ianaeaiea yiiineeo ai?iaeia a iiiaio iaeo/aiey. Niaeanii
oaeouei ioeaieai eiieoaoa, ec a?oiiu ethaeae a ouny/o /aeiaae, aic?ano
eioi?uo a iiiaio iaeo/aiey i?aauoaao 35 eao, ii-aeaeeiiio, iyoue /aeiaae
oi?oo io ?aea eaaeeo a ?an/aoa ia eaaeaeue a?ye n?

aaeiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeicu iaeo/aiey, ii eeoue iieiaeiayoiai
eiee/anoaa a a?oiia, ninoiyuae ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao aic?anoia. Oeeo?a
~ yoi ieaeiyy ioeaiea nia?oiinoe io ?aea eaaeeo n?aaee oaooa?ia
o?aiiauo ?oaeieeia. ?ae ae?oaeo i?aaiia e oeaiae, eae ieaca

einue, ano?a/aaony n?aaee iaeo/aiiuo a?oii ianaeaiey ?aaea. Niaeanii
ioeaieai IEAeA?, aa?iyoiinoue oia?aoue io ?aea aeaeoaeea, ia/aie eee
oienoie eeoee ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii anaai eeoue 1/1000 ia eaaeaeue a?ye
n?aaeiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeicu iaeo/aiey, a ?ene aicieeiiaaie

y ?aea einoiuo oeaiae, ieuaaiaea, oiieie eeoee, ii/aaiai iocu?y,
iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu, i?yiie eeoee e eeioaoe/aneeo oeaiae aua
iaiueoa e ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii io 0,2 aei 0,5 ia eaaeaeoth ouny/o e ia
eaaeaeue a?ye n?aaeiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeicu iaeo/aiey. Aeaoe aieaa

/oanoaeoaeueiu e iaeo/aieth, /ai ac?ineua, a i?e iaeo/aiee ieiaea ?ene
caaieaaaiey ?aeii, ii-aeaeeiiio, aua aieueoa. A iaeioi?uo ?aaioao
aeaenoaeoaeueii niiauaeinue, /oi aeaoneay nia?oiinoue io ?aea aieueoa
n?aaee oao aeaoae, iaoa?e eioi?uo a ia?eiae aa?aiaiiinoe iiae

aa?aeenue aicaeaenoaeth ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae, iaeiaei IEAeA? iiea ia
oaaaeaeai, /oi i?e/eia onoaiiaeaia aa?ii. N?aaee aeaoae, iaeoieaiiuo a
ia?eiae aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey a Oe?ineia e Iaaanaee, oaeaea iiea ia
iaia?oaeaii iiauoaiiie neeiiiinoe e caaieaaaieth ?aeii. A

iiaua aiai?y, eiaaony aua ?yae ?anoiaeaeaiee iaaeaeo aeaiiuie ii ssiiiee
e ae?oaeie enoi/ieeaie. E?iia oeacai- iuo auoa i?ioeai?a/ee a ioeaiea
?enea caaieaaaiey ?aeii eaaeeo eiathony cia/eoaeueiua ?anoiaeaeaiey eae
ii ?aeo iiei/iie aeaeacu, oae e ii ?aeo ueoiaeaeiie ae

aeacu. E a oii e a ae?oaii neo/aa aeaiiua ii ssiiiee aeatho cia/eoaeueii
aieaa ieceoth /anoioo caaieaaaiey ?aeii, /ai ae?oaea enoi/ieee; a iaieo
neo/ayo IEAeA? i?eiye a ea/anoaa ioeaiie aieueoea cia/aiey. Oeacaiiua
i?ioeai?a/ey eeoiee ?ac iiae/a?eeaatho o?oaeiinoe ii

eo/aiey ioeaiie a iaeanoe iaeuo aeic ia iniiaaiee naaaeaiee, ioiinyueony
e aieueoei aeicai e iieo/aiiuo ec aanueia ia?aie/aiiiai /enea
enoi/ieeia. O?oae- iinoue iieo/aiey aieaa eee iaiaa iaaeaaeiuo ioeaiie
?enea aua aieaa aic?anoaao ec-ca iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a ioeaiea

aeic, eioi?ua auee iieo/aiu ethaeueie, ia?aaeeaoeie aoiiioth
aiiaa?aee?iaeo.Iiaua naaaeaiey ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia oaeoe/anee
iinoaaeee iiae niiiaiea i?aaeeueiinoue i?aaeieo ?an/aoia iiaeiuaiiuo
aeic a ssiiiee, e ana iie a ianoiyuee iiiaio i?iaa?ythony caiiai.
Iineieue

eo iieo/aiea ioeaiie naycaii n oaeeie o?oaeiinoyie, oi iaoaeeaeoaeueii,
/oi iao aaeeiiai iiaiey ii aii?ino i oii, ianeieueei aaeee ?ene
caaieaaaiey ?aeii i?e iaeuo aeicao iaeo/aiey. A yoie iaeanoe
iaiaoiaeeiu aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey. Iniaaiii iieacii .auei au i

?iaanoe ianeaaeiaaiea ethaeae, iieo/athueo aeicu, oa?aeoa?iua aeey ?yaea
i?ioannee e oneiaee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. E niaeaeaieth, /ai iaiueoa
aeica, oai o?oaeiaa iieo/eoue noaoenoe/anee aeinoiaa?iue ?acoeueoao.
Iiaen/eoaii, iai?eia?, /oi anee ioeaiee IEAeA? aieaa eee iaiaa aa

?iu, oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiee /anoio caaieaaaiey ii anai aeaeai ?aea n?aaee
ia?niiaea i?aaei?eyoee yaea?iiai oiieeaiiai oeeeea, iieo/athueo
n?aaeithth eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth aeico ieiei 0,01 A? a aiae, aeey iieo/aiey
cia/eiiai ?acoeueoaoa iio?aaoaony ianeieueei ieeeeiiia /aeiaaei-

eao. A iieo/eoue cia/eiue ?acoeueoao i?e ianeaaeiaaiee ethaeae, ia
eioi?uo aeaenoaoao eeoue ?aaeeaoeeiiiue oii io ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, auei
au ai?acaei o?oaeiaa. Anoue ?yae aii?inia aua aieaa neiaeiuo,
o?aaothueo eco/aiey. ?aaeeaoeey, iai?eia?, iiaeao a i?eioeeia ieacuaaoue
ae

aenoaea ia ?aciua oeie/aneea e aeieiae/aneea aaaiou, /oi iiaeao
i?eaiaeeoue a eaeeo-oi neo/ayo e aeiiieieoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth /anoiou
caaieaaaiey ?aeii. i/aaeaeii, /oi yoio aii?in /?acau/aeii aaaeai, iioiio
/oi ?aaeeaoeey i?enoonoaoao anthaeo, a a nia?aiaiiie aeeci

e iiiai ?aciiia?aciuo aaaioia, eioi?ua iiaoo n iae acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue.
IEAeA? III i?iaae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aiaeec aeaiiuo, ioaaouaathuee
aieueoia /enei oaeeo aaaioia. Ioiineoaeueii iaeioi?uo ec ieo aicieeee
eia-eaeea iiaeic?aiey, ii na?ueaciua aeieacaoaeuenoaa auee

iieo/aiu oieueei aeey iaeiiai ec ieo: oaaa/iiai aeuia. Ieacaeinue, /oi
oaooa?u o?aiiauo ?oaeieeia ec /enea eo?yueo caaieaaatho ?aeii ai?acaei
?aiueoa (?en. 5.6). A inoaeueiuo neo/ayo aeaiiuo yaii iaaeinoa- oi/ii,
e iaiaoiaeeiu aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey. Aeaaii aunea

cuaaeenue i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi iaeo/aiea, aiciiaeii, onei?yao i?ioeann
noa?aiey e oaeei ia?acii oiaiueoaao i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie. IEAeA?
III ?anniio?ae iaaeaaii ana aeaiiua a iieueco oaeie aeiioacu, ii ia
iaia?oaeee aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeeoaeueiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa, iiae- o

aa?aeaeathueo aa, eae aeey /aeiaaea, oae e aeey aeeaioiuo, ii e?aeiae
ia?a i?e oia?aiiuo e iaeuo aeicao, iieo/aaiuo i?e o?iie/aneii iaeo/aiee.
Iaeo/aiiua a?oiiu ethaeae aeaenoaeoaeueii eiatho iaiueooth
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie, ii ai anao ecaanoiuo neo/ayo yoi oeaeeeii
iauyniyaony aieueoae /anoioie ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee.

Aaiaoe/aneea iineaaenoaey iaeo/aiey

Eco/aiea aaiaoe/aneeo iineaaenoaee iaeo/aiey naycaii n aua aieueoeie
o?oaeiinoyie, /ai a neo/aa ?aea. Ai-ia?auo, i/aiue iaei ecaanoii i oii,
eaeea iia?aaeaeaiey aicieeatho a

aaiaoe/aneii aiia?aoa /aeiaaea i?e iaeo/aiee; aiaoi?uo, iieiia auyaeaiea
anao ianeaaenoaaiiuo aeaoaeoia i?ienoiaeeo eeoue ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo
iieieaiee; e, a-o?aoueeo, eae e a neo/aa ?aea, yoe aeaoaeou iaaiciiaeii
ioee/eoue io oao, eioi?ua aicieeee nianai ii

ae?oaei i?e/eiai. Ieiei 10% anao aeeauo iiai?iaeaeaiiuo eiatho oa eee
eiua aaiaoe/aneea aeaoaeou , ia/eiay io iaia?aiaieoaeueiuo oece/aneeo
iaaeinoaoeia oeia aeaeueoiiecia e eii/ay oaeeie oyaeaeuie ninoiyieyie,
eae neiae?ii Aeaoia, oi?ay Aaioeiaoiia e ?acee/iua ii?i

ee ?acaeoey. Iiiaea ec yia?eiiia e ieiaeia n oyaeaeuie ianeaaenoaaiiuie
ia?ooaieyie ia aeiaeeaatho aei ?iaeaeaiey; niaeanii eiathueiny aeaiiui,
ieiei iieiaeiu anao neo/aaa niiioaiiiai aai?oa naycaiu n aiiiaeeyie a
aaiaoe/aneii iaoa?eaea. Ii aeaaea anee aeaoe n ianeaae

noaaiiuie aeaoaeoaie ?iaeaeathony aeeauie, aa?iyoiinoue aeey ieo
aeiaeeoue aei naiaai ia?aiai aeiy ?iaeaeaiey a iyoue ?ac iaiueoa, /ai
aeey ii?iaeueiuo aeaoae. Aaiaoe/aneea ia?ooaiey iiaeii ioianoe e aeaoi
iniiaiui oeiai: o?iiiniiiua aaa??aoeee, aeeth/athuea eciaiaiey /enea e

ee no?oeoo?u o?iiinii, e iooaoeee a naieo aaiao. Aaiiua iooaoeee
iiae?acaeaeythony aeaeaa ia aeiieiaioiua (eioi?ua i?iyaeythony n?aco a
ia?aii iieieaiee) e ?aoeanneaiua (eioi?ua iiaoo i?iyaeoueny eeoue a oii
neo/aa, anee o iaieo ?iaeeoaeae iooaioiui yaeyaony iaeei e

oio aea aai; oaeea iooaoeee iiaoo ia i?iyaeoueny ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo
iieieaiee eee ia iaia?oaeeoueny aiiaua). Iaa oeia aiiiaeee iiaoo
i?eaanoe e ianeaaenoaniiui caaieaaaieyi a iineaaeothueo iieieaieyo, a
iiaoo e ia i?iyaeoueny aiiaua. Ioeaiee IEAeA? III eanathon

y eeoue neo/aaa oyaeaeie ianeaaenoaaiiie iaoieiaee. N?aaee aieaa /ai 27
000 aeaoae, ?iaeeoaee eioi?uo iieo/eee ioiineoaeueii aieueoea aeicu ai
a?aiy aoiiiuo aiiaa?aee?iaie Oe?ineiu e Iaaanaee, auee iaia?oaeaiu eeoue
aeaa aa?iyoiua iooaoeee, a n?aaee i?eia?ii oaeiai aea

/enea aeaoae, ?iaeeoaee eioi?uo iieo/eee iaiueoea aeicu, ia ioia/aii ie
iaeiiai oaeiai neo/ay. N?aaee aeaoae, ?iaeeoaee eioi?uo auee iaeo/aiu a
?acoeueoaoa ac?uaa aoiiiie aiiau, ia auei oaeaea iaia?oaeaii
noaoenoe/anee aeinoiaa?iiai i?e?inoa /anoiou o?iiiniiiuo aiii

aeee. E oioy a iaoa?eaeao iaeioi?uo ianeaaeiaaiee niaea?aeeony auaiae i
oii, /oi o iaeo/ai- iuo ?iaeeoaeae aieueoa oainia ?iaeeoue ?aaaiea n
neiae?iiii Aeaoia, ae?oaea enneaaeiaaiey yoiai ia iiaeoaa?aeaeatho.
Ianeieueei ianoi?aaeeaaao niiauaiea i oii, /oi o ethaeae, iieo/a

thueo iaeua aeicu iaeo/aiey aeaenoaeoaeueii iaaethaeaaony iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea eeaoie e?iae n o?iiiniiiuie ia?ooaieyie.Yoio oaiiiai i?e
/?acau/aeii ieceii o?iaia iaeo/aiey aue ioia/ai o aeeoaeae eo?i?oiiai
ianoa/ea Aaaeaanoaei a Aano?ee e oai aea n?aaee iaaeeoeei

neiai ia?niiaea, ianeoaeeaathoaai ?aaeiiiaua enoi/ieee n oeaeaaiuie, eae
iieaaatho, naienoaaie. N?aaee ia?niiaea AYN a O?A, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e NOA,
eioi?ue iieo/aao aeicu, ia i?aauoathuea i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiiai,
niaeanii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai, o?iaiy, oaeaea iai

a?oaeaiu o?iiiniiiua aiiiaeee. Ii aeieiae/aneia cia/aiea oaeeo
iia?aaeaeaeee e eo aeeyiea ia caei?iauea /aeiaaea iiea ia auyniaiu.
Iineieueeo iao ieeaeeo ae?oaeo naaaeaiee, i?eoiaeeony ioeaieaaoue ?ene
iiyaeaiey ianeaaenoaaiiuo aeaoaeoia o /aeiaaea iniiauaaynue ia ?ac

oeueoaoao, iieo/aiiuo a iiiai/eneaiiuo yenia?eiaioao ia aeeaioiuo. I?e
ioeaiea ?enea iiyaeaiey ianeaaenoaaiiuo aeaoaeoia o /aeiaaea IEAeA?
eniieuecoao aeaa iiaeoiaea. I?e iaeiii iiaeoiaea iuoathony ii?aaeaeeoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue yooaeo aeaiiie aeicu iaeo/aiey, i?e ae?oaii

noa?athony ii?aaeaeeoue aeico, i?e eioi?ie oaeaaeaaaony /anoioa
iiyaeaiey iioiieia n oie eee eiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth ianeaaenoaaiiuo
aeaoaeoia ii n?aaiaieth n ii?iaeueiuie ?aaeeaoeeiiiuie oneiaeyie.
Niaeanii ioeaieai, iieo/aiiui i?e ia?aii iiaeoiaea, aeica a 1 A?,
iieo/aii

ay i?e ieceii o?iaia ?aaeeaoeee oieueei iniayie ioaeneiai iiea,
eiaeooee?oao iiyaeaiea io 1000 aei 2000 iooaoeee, i?eaiaeyueo e
na?ueaciui iineaaenoaeyi, e io 30 aei 1000 o?iiiniiiuo aaa??aoeee ia
eaaeaeue ieeeeii aeeauo iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Ioeaiee, iieo/aiiua aeey iniaae
aea

ineiai iiea, ai?acaei iaiaa ii?aaeaeaiiu, ii yaii ieaea; yoi iauyniyaony
oai, /oi aeaineea iieiaua eeaoee iaiaa /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth
?aaeeaoeee. Niaeanii i?eaioe?iai/iui ioeaieai, /anoioa iooaoeee
ninoaaeyao io 0 aei 900, a /anoioa o?iiiniiiuo aaa??aoeee io 0

aei 300 neo/aaa ia ieeeeii aeeauo iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Niaeanii ioeaieai,
iieo/aiiui aoi?ui iaoiaeii, o?iie/aneia iaeo/aiea i?e iiuiinoe aeicu a 1
A? ia iieieaiea (aeey /aeiaaea-30 eao) i?eaaaeao e iiyaeaieth ieiei
2000 na?ueaciuo neo/aaa aaiaoe/aneeo caaieaaaiee ia e

aaeaeue ieeeeii aeeauo iiai?iaeaeaiiuo n?aaee aeaoae oao, eoi iiaeaa?any
oaeiio iaeo/aieth. Yoei iaoiaeii iieuecothony oaeaea aeey ioeaiee
noiia?iie /anoiou iiyaeaiey na?ueaciuo ianeaaenoaaiiuo aeaoaeoia a
eaaeaeii iieieaiee i?e oneiaee, /oi oio aea o?iaaiue ?aaeeaoeee aoaeao
aea

enoaiaaoue ana a?aiy. Niaeanii yoei ioeaieai, i?eia?ii 15 000 aeeauo
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo ec eaaeaeiai ieeeeiia aoaeoo ?iaeaeaoueny n na?ueaciuie
ianeaaenoaaiiuie aeaoaeoaie ec-ca oaeiai ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai oiia. Yoio
iaoiae iuoaaony o/anoue aeeyiea ?aoeanneaiuo iooaoeee. I ieo ecaa

noii iaiiiai, e ii yoiio aii?ino aua iao aaeeiiai iiaiey, ii n/eoaaony,
/oi eo aeeaaea noiia?ioth /anoioo iiyaeaiey ianeaaenoaaiiuo caaieaaaiee
iacia/eoaeai, iineieueeo iaea aa?iyoiinoue a?a/iiai nithca iaaeaeo
ia?oia?aie n iooaoeeae a iaeiii e oii aea aaia. Iaiiiai

ecaanoii oaeaea i aeeyiee iaeo/aiey ia oaeea i?eciaee, eae ?ino e
ieiaeiaeoinoue, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony ia iaeiei, a iiiaeie aaiaie,
ooieoeeiie?othueie a oaniii acaeiiaeaenoaee ae?oa n ae?oaii. Ioeaiee
IEAeA? III ioiinyony i?aeiouanoaaiii e aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee ia aae

eie/iua aaiu, iineieueeo ioeaieoue aeeaae oaeeo iieeaaiiuo oaeoi?ia
/?acau/aeii o?oaeii. Aua aieueoei iaaeinoaoeii ioeaiie yaeyaony oio
oaeo, /oi iaa iaoiaea niiniaiu ?aaeno?e?iaaoue eeoue na?ueaciua
oaiaoe/aneea iineaaenoaey iao/aiey. Anoue aaneea iniiaaiey n/eoaoue,

/oi /enei ia i/aiue nouanoaaiiuo aeaoaeoia cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao /enei
na?ueaciuo aiiiaeee, oae /oi iaiineiue eie oua?a a noiia iiaeao auoue
aeaaea aieueoa, /ai io na?ueaciuo aeaoaeoia. A iineaaeiai aeieeaaea
IEAeA? aia?aua auea naeaeaia iiiuoea ioeaieoue oua?a, iaiine

iue iauanoao na?ueaciuie aaiaoe/aneeie aeaoaeoaie, anaie aianoa e
eaaeaeui a ioaeaeueiinoe. Iai?eia?, e neiae?ii Aeaoia, e oi?ay
Aaioeiaoiia yoi na?ueaciua aaiaoe/aneea caaieaaaiey, ii nioeeaeueiue
oua?a or ieo iaiaeeiaeia. Oi?ay Aaioeiaoiia ii?aaeaao i?aaieci /aeiaa

ea iaaeaeo 30 e 50 aiaeaie e aucuaaao i/aiue oyaeaeoth, ii iinoaiaiioth
aeaaaia?aoeeth oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu; neiae?ii Aeaoia
i?iyaeyaony ai/aiue oyaeaeii ii?aaeaiee i?aaiecia n naiiai ?iaeaeaiey.
Anee iuoaoueny eae-oi aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue yoe aieacie, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi

neiae?ii Aeaoia neaaeoao ?anoeaieaaoue eae aieaciue, i?e/eiythuoth
iauanoao aieueoa oua?aa, /ai oi?ay Aaioeiaoiia. Oaeei ia?acii IEAeA? III
iiiuoaeny au?aceoue aaiaoe/aneea iineaaenoaey iaeo/aiey /a?ac oaeea
ia?aiao?u, eae nie?auaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie e ia?eiae

a o?oaeiniiniaiinoe. Yoe ia?aiao ?u, eiia/ii, ia iiaoo aeaoue
aaeaeaaoiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i no?aaeaieyo aea?oa ianeaaenoaaiiuo
iaaeoaia eee oaeeo aauao, eae io/ayiea ?iaeeoaeae aieueiiai ?aaaiea, ii
e iei e iaaiciiaeii iiaeoiaeeoue n eiee/anoaaiiuie ia?eaie. Aiieia io

aeaaay naaa io/ao a oii, /oi yoe ioeaiee ia aieaa /ai ia?aay a?oaay
i?eeeaeea, IEAeA? i?eaiaeeo a naiai iineaaeiai aeieeaaea neaaeothuea
oeeo?u: o?iie/aneia iaeo/aiea ianaeaiey n iiuiinoueth aeicu 1 A? ia
iieieaiea nie?auaao ia?eiae o?oaeiniiniaiinoe ia 50000 eao, a i?i

aeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie oaeaea ia 50000 eao ia eaaeaeue ieeeeii aeeauo
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo n?aaee aeaoae ia?aiai iaeo/aiiiai iieieaiey; oa aea
ia?aiao?u i?e iinoiyi- iii iaeo/aiee iiiaeo iieieaiee auoiaeyo ia
noaoeeiia?iue o?iaaiue: nie?auaiea ia?eiaea o?oaeiniiniaiinoe nin

oaaeo 340000 eao, a nie?auaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie 286 000 eao
ia eaaeaeue ieeeeii aeeauo iiai?iaeaeaiiuo. Ianiio?y ia naith
i?eaeeceoaeueiinoue, yoe ioeaiee ana aea iaiaoiaeeiu, iineieueeo iie
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiiuoeo i?eiyoue a ?an/ao nioeeaeueii cia/eiua
oeaiii

noe i?e ioeaiea ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai ?enea. A yoi oaeea oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua
ana a aieueoae noaiaie aeeytho ia ?aoaiea aii?ina i oii, i?eaieai ?ene a
oii eee eiii neo/aa eee iao. E yoi iiaeii oieueei i?eaaonoaiaaoue.

?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea aeaaoi?ee Aeiai?a.

26 ai?aey 1986 a. ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN i?iecioea aani?aoeaaeaioiay

yaea?iay eaoano?ioa, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie a i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo auei

aua?ioaii aieueoia eiee/anoai ?aaeeiioeeeaeia.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ieiuaaeae aiaeinai?a Aeiai? I?eiyoe iiaeaa?aeenue

eioaineaiiio ?aaeeiaeoeaiiio caa?yciaieth. Ieaeiea o/anoee

I?eiyoe, Aeiai?a e aa?oiyy /anoue Eeaaneiai aiaeio?aieeeua aioee
a C0-eeeiiao?iaoth ciio ionaeaiey.

I?ioeann aua?ina ?aaeeiioeeeaeia ec ?ac?ooaiiiai ?aaeoi?a aue

?anoyioo ai a?aiaie e ninoiye ec ianeieueeeo noaaeee. Ia 1 noaaeee auei
aua?ioaii aeenia?ae?iaaiiia oiieeai, a eioi?ii ninoaa
?aaeeiioeeeaeia niioaaonoaiaae oaeiaiio a iaeo/aiiii oiieeaa, ii aue
iaiaauai eaoo/eie ecioiiaie eiaea oaeeo?a, oeacey e aeaai?iaeiuo aacia.

Ia 11 noaaeee aeaaiaea?y i?aaei?eieiaaiui ia?ai ii
i?ae?auaieth ai?aiey a?aoeoa e oeeu?aoeee aua?ina iiuiinoue
aua?ina oiaiueueeanue. Iioieaie ai?y/aai aicaeooa e i?iaeoeoaie ai?aiey
a?aoeoa ec ?aaeoi?a auiineeinue ?aaeeiaeoeaiia iaeeiaeenia?ae?iaaiiia
oiieeai.

Aeey III noaaeee oa?aeoa?iui auei auno?ia ia?anoaiea iiuiinoe

auoiaea i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey ca i?aaeaeu ?aaeoi?iiai aeiea. Ca
n/ao

inoaoi/iiai oaieiauaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?a oiieeaa a aeoeaiie ciia

i?aauoaea 1700 N, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue iaoneiaeeaaei oaiia?aoo?ii

caaeneioth iea?aoeeth i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey e oeie/aneea
i?aa?auaiey ceneaea o?aia eioi?ua ec oiieeaiie iao?eoeu auiineeenue
a ay?icieueiie oi?ia ia i?iaeoeoao nai?aiey a?aoeoa.

N iineaaeiae IV noaaeeae ooa/ea i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey auno?i
ia/aea

oiaiueoaouen~ /oi yaeeinue neaaenoaeai niaoeeaeueiuo ia?. E yoiio
a?aiaie noiia?iuee aua?in i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey (aac ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
aeaai?iaeiuo aacia) ninoaaee ieiei 1,9 YAe (50 IEe), /oi
niioaaonoaiaaei i?eia?ii 3,5 % iauaai eiee/anoaa ?aaeeiioeeeaeia A
?aaeoi?a e iiiaioo aaa?ee [1]. Aeoeaiinoue iaeaieaa aeieiae/anee
iianiuo ?aaeeiioe-

Nc – 13 5- ~~ Nc – ~ eeaeia a aua?ina ninoaaeyea ‘ ‘! – 270,1; Cs -,;
c –

N – 88,8; Sr – 7,4; Sr – 8,1; ?e – 3,0 10; Pu – 2,6 1~

?a – 3,7 10 “‘ ?e – 5,2; ” ?i – 7,4 10 IAe.

A niioaaonoaee n iaoai?ieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie ia?aiina aic-

aeooiuo iann auoaaeoea ca i?aaeaeu ?aaeoi?a ?aaeeiioeeeaeu ?ani?i-

ia ieiuaaee aiaeinai?a e aeaaoi?ee Aeiai?a, aai aiaeio?aieeeu i?eoi-

eia e Aeiai?ianei-Aoaneiai eeiaia.

Oaea a ia?aua aeie iinea aaa?ee ?aaeeiaeoeaiua ay?iciee iinooieee

a aiaeiaiueoe a caoai aeiaeaeai niuaaeenue n caa?yciaiiuo
aiaeinai?ia

O?iaie ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiey i?e?iaeiuo aiae ii?aaeaeyeenue
?annoiyieai io *AYN e eioaineaiinoueth auiaaeaiey ay?icieae, niuaii n
oa??eoi?ee aiaeinai?~ a a aeiai?ianeeo aiaeio?aieeeuao – a?aiaiai
“aeiaaaaiey” caa?yciaiiuo iann aiaeu. Iinooieaoea a aiaeiaiu
?aaeeiioeeeaeu aeeth/eeenue a aaeioe/aneea (aiae~ acaane, aeiiiua
ioeiaeaiey) e aeioe/aneea eiiiiiaiou (aeae?iaeiiou ?acee/iuo
o?ioe/aneeo o?iaiae). I?e ?aniaaea ei?ioeiaeeaoueo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia
ii?aaeaeeeanue aeae?iyeieiae/aneay cia/eiinoue iaeaieaa aeieiae/anee
iianiuo aeieiaiaeeaoueo no?iioeey-90 e oeacey-137.

?aaeeiaeoeaiia caa?yciaiea aeiiiuo ioeiaeaiee Eeaaneiai
aiaeio?aieeeua aeinoeaei iaeneioia e na?aaeeia eaoa 1986 a., eiaaea
xapaeoa?iua eiioeaio?aoeee oeacey-137 ia ?acee/iuo o/anoeao
iaoiaeeeenue a i?aaeaeao 185-29 600 Ae/ea anoanoaaiiie aeaaeiinoue
Iaeneiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea oeacey-137 a i?aaenoaaeoaeyo eooeioaoiu
iaaethaeaeinue a ceiiee ia?eiae 1987 – 1988 aa. – (3,70 – ~29) 10~
Ae/ea nu?ie iannu.

E ia/aeo 1990 a. eiioeaio?aoeey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a aiaea e aeiiiuo io

eiaeaieyo Eeaaneiai aiaeio?aieeeua n?aaieoaeueii noaaeeece?iaaeinue

iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e nieaeaieth eo niaea?aeaiey a
?uaao,i?iaeieaeaeny auiin yoeo aauanoa n aiaeiuie iannaie e acaanyie a
ieaeaeaaeauea aiaeio?aieeeua.

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